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Oil palm–community conflict mapping in Indonesia: A case for better community liaison in planning for development initiatives

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... Deforestation also had negative consequences for biodiversity, ecosystem services, and climate change (Savilaakso et al., 2014). 3 Simultaneously, social impacts such as displacement and land conflicts (Abram et al., 2017) and elite capture (Obidzinski et al., 2012) are frequently associated with oil palm in Southeast Asia and elsewhere (Hervas, 2017;Maher, 2015). Photo credit: Will Rose/Greenpeace (2008) 3 Oil palm expansion into peatlands has also been a major issue in Indonesia given their important role as carbon sinks and suppliers of ecosystem services. ...
... Issues such as deforestation, forest degradation, land conflicts, and biodiversity loss are among the major criticisms of oil palm expansion (Colchester, 2011;Brad et al., 2015;Carlson et al., 2013). In Indonesia, for example, there are reports of 187 oil palm related conflicts (Abram et al., 2017), while between 1990 and 2010, 60% of new plantations were developed within biodiversity and carbon-rich tropical landscapes, including forests and peatlands (Gunarso et al., 2013). ...
... Oil palm grows best in tropical lowlands that have an average precipitation of 1780-2280 mm and temperatures of 24-30° C. Water deficits and cold temperatures are thus natural biophysical barriers to growing oil palm away from the humid tropics (Barcelos et al., 2015). Moreover, given that many of these territories are occupied by traditional and other forest-dependent groups, struggles and negotiations over access to land, in particular related to business-as-usual large-scale plantation models, often lead to increasing social tensions and conflict (Abram et al., 2017). But if oil palm has such a bad reputation, why does palm oil continue to be the most globally traded oil seed in the world, and why do many countries such as Brazil continue to stimulate its production? ...
Book
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The recent Amazon fire crises and the emerging anti-environmental governmental rhetoric across some important countries have again brought to the fore discussions on tropical forests, climate change, and sustainable development. It is more crucial than ever to find viable models that both protect forests and stimulate socioeconomic development as intertwined goals in tropical landscapes. Among the proposals to address that aim—for example, payments for ecosystem services, forest and landscape restoration, and sustainable forest management—sustainable agricultural production has assumed a vital relevance. This dissertation focuses on that relevance. More precisely, it discusses the extent to which sustainable oil palm expansion can be a viable option to reconcile conservation and development in the Amazon. The book’s eight chapters analyze in great detail an expansion process shaped by a unique governance context characterized by robust measures to prevent the deforestation of primary forests and to use degraded lands, and to support the inclusion of smallholder farmers in the business through contract farming schemes. It does so grounded in extensive fieldwork activities carried out between 2014 and 2015 in the Amazonian state of Pará, where the bulk of Brazil’s agricultural investments are located. Brazil has achieved remarkable outcomes in terms of preventing deforestation and stimulating a fairer and more equitable distribution of benefits. This shows that oil palm expansion is not necessarily associated with devastating consequences, such as those observed in Southeast Asia. Yet, the Brazilian model does have some important limitations in terms of inclusivity and viability, which questions its socio-environmental orientation in the long run. By discussing the observed merits and failures, the case study presented here provides an interesting example of the existing challenges and dilemmas encountered when attempting to align agricultural development, poverty alleviation, and forest conservation. As such, this dissertation contributes to global debates on agricultural sustainability governance, smallholder farming, and rural development in general.
... The emergence of conflicts between local communities and palm oil plantation companies is highly positively related to the possibility of the reduction amount of forest. A number of conflicts are relatively small in a location with a low possibility of reducing the number of forests (Abram et al., 2017). Characteristics understanding of communities that have conflict experience and conflict locations will facilitate better comprehension of reason and location of conflicts that have to happen (Abram et al., 2017). ...
... A number of conflicts are relatively small in a location with a low possibility of reducing the number of forests (Abram et al., 2017). Characteristics understanding of communities that have conflict experience and conflict locations will facilitate better comprehension of reason and location of conflicts that have to happen (Abram et al., 2017). ...
... In resolving a conflict, it requires the involvement of relevant parties in finding resolution efforts from the government, companies, and the community. The participation of each person involved will affect each decision process and ensure the local communities' rights and livelihoods (Abram et al., 2017). Institutions under government control have an important role in controlling forest and non-forest land and are tasked with resolving forest and land conflicts. ...
Article
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The increase of oil palm plantation and manufacturing in Jambi offers any environmental and social problems, leading to conflict between companies and the local community. In addition, some conflict in there not yet resolved, and for achieving conflict resolution need to understand each element that affects the conflict and offer proper conflict resolution. This research identified and analyzed each element that offers the effect to conflict resolution based on mass media information, literature review, and depth interview with the head of village and section head of conflict management in Jambi. However, this article identified through mediation is the best way to resolve the conflict. Each actor and condition of the place will give effect to the success rate for that conflict to be resolve through mediation. Nevertheless, farmers can be used as a driver to encourage mediation process through joint action in the local community.
... Although the Basic Agrarian Law of 1960 recognizes customary ownership rights, it makes them subordinate to national interests as interpreted by the state (see Bastos Lima et al. 2013). As such, many conflicts have either emerged or been exacerbated by oil palm expansion and biofuel promotion (Marti 2008;McCarthy and Zen 2010;Colbran 2011, Colchester 2011Abram et al. 2017). Throughout the 2010s, the Indonesian NGO Sawit Watch annually registered over 500 land conflicts involving local communities and palm oil companies in Indonesia (see Drost et al. 2019). ...
... In terms of access to food, there have been mixed impacts. On the one hand, forest conversion has negatively impacted forest-dependent peoples losing traditional food sources (Colbran 2011;Colchester 2011;Abram et al. 2017). Fishing communities, too, have suffered disproportionately from water contamination (Nooteboom and De Jong 2010). ...
Chapter
Biofuels give but a prelude of broader bioeconomy development in the Southeast Asian nation. Although many biofuel production chains were initially envisaged in Indonesia, palm oil reigns supreme as the only feedstock commercially used on a large scale. Its production occurs primarily in industry-owned plantations or through farming contracts between private companies and rural households. These arrangements have provided rural workers or smallholders with a much-needed income that alleviates their poverty; however, the allocation of rights, roles, benefits and burdens is highly inequitable. Moreover, the environmental degradation from oil palm plantations further makes their expansion unsustainable, despite attempts to frame them as climate-friendly due to their role as carbon sinks. Foreign investments play a significant role, but domestic promotion policies arguably remain the only sine qua non cause for biofuel expansion in Indonesia. State and private-sector advocates of agribusiness have firmly pushed for plantations as a form of land use and development. Meanwhile, adversaries advocating for conservation have not yet offered a clear alternative development path. Most criticize the mainstream agenda without saying much about how to address Indonesia’s development needs sustainably. Credible alternatives may be imperative for the country’s land use and to develop its bioeconomy on a more sustainable footing.
... As some of the oil palm plantations were established on land previously covered with tropical rainforest, the crop's expansion is associated with deforestation, biodiversity loss, and climate change (Drescher et al., 2016;Obidzinski et al., 2012). Spatial overlaps of land concessions for palm oil companies and local community lands have also contributed to social conflicts in some situations (Abram et al., 2017). However, more than 40% of the total oil palm land in Indonesia is not cultivated by large palm oil companies but by small-and medium-sized family farms (Euler et al., 2016). ...
... Plantation establishment requires capital, so poorer households without access to credit are less able to adopt oil palm and benefit from this profitable crop (Euler et al., 2016;McCarthy et al., 2012;McCarthy & Zen, 2016). While oil palm has helped to lift many households in rural Jambi out of poverty, it also has the potential to contribute to rising inequality under the given institutional conditions (Abram et al., 2017;Bou Dib et al., 2018a, 2018bObidzinski et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Structural transformation of agriculture typically involves a gradual increase of mean farm sizes and a reallocation of labor from agriculture to other sectors. Such structural transformation is often fostered through innovations in agriculture and newly emerging opportunities in manufacturing and services. Here, we use panel data from farm households in Indonesia to test and support the hypothesis that the recent oil palm boom contributes to structural transformation. Oil palm is capital-intensive but requires much less labor per hectare than traditional crops. Farmers who adopted oil palm increase their cropping area, meaning that some of the labor saved per hectare is used for expanding the farm. Average farm sizes increased in recent years. In addition, we observe a positive association between oil palm adoption and off-farm income, suggesting that some of the labor saved per hectare is also reallocated to non-agricultural activities. Oil palm adoption significantly increases the likelihood of households pursuing own non-farm businesses. However, oil palm adoption does not increase the likelihood of being employed in manufacturing or services, which is probably due to the limited non-farm labor demand in the local setting. Equitable and sustainable agricultural transformation requires new lucrative non-agricultural employment opportunities in rural areas.
... Governance Paoli et al., 2010;Manik et al., 2013;Selfa et al., 2015;Brandi, 2017;DeFries et al., 2017;Jelsma et al., 2017;Shukla and Tiwari, 2017;Hidayat et al., 2018;Larsen et al., 2018;Bose, 2019;Gardner et al., 2019;Estrada et al., 2020;Lee et al., 2020Economics Paoli et al., 2010, 2013Martin et al., 2015;Azhar et al., 2017;Jelsma et al., 2017;Pramudya et al., 2017;Shukla and Tiwari, 2017;Hidayat et al., 2018;Lim and Biswas, 2019;Koussihouèdé et al., 2020;Pasaribu et al., 2020;Ayompe et al., 2021 Necessity, infrastructure, and facility Manik et al., 2013;Bose, 2019;Lim and Biswas, 2019;Estrada et al., 2020;Lee et al., 2020;Pasaribu et al., 2020;Ayompe et al., 2021;Santika et al., 2021 Health and safety Fernández-Coppel et al., 2018;Estrada et al., 2020;Lee et al., 2020;Pasaribu et al., 2020;Tang and Al Qahtani, 2020;González-Delgado et al., 2021;Vanclay, 2021 Environment Martin et al., 2015;Azhar et al., 2017;Fernández-Coppel et al., 2018;Hidayat et al., 2018;Bose, 2019;Capecchi et al., 2019;Lim and Biswas, 2019 Education and training Radyi et al., 2019;Lee et al., 2020;Pasaribu et al., 2020;Tang and Al Qahtani, 2020;Pasaribu and Vanclay, 2021;Santika et al., 2021 Interpersonal relationship Martin et al., 2015;Abram et al., 2017;Jelsma et al., 2017;Lim and Biswas, 2019;Radyi et al., 2019;Koussihouèdé et al., 2020;Pasaribu et al., 2020 Despite the classification of social impacts that could remain the same regardless of the nation's development status, prioritization of the indicators needs to be performed to better allocate the limited resources to promote social sustainability. It is worth noting that the main players in the palm oil industry currently are revolving around developing countries (i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Colombia), producing up to 90% of the worldwide palm oil (USDA, 2021). ...
... Undoubtedly, different stakeholders have different agendas and roles in the overall development of the industry. Constant communication between researchers, authorities, and industry players complemented with the reporting materials can minimize the gaps in stakeholders' expectations, reduce conflicts and avoid disruption of information across the industry chain (Abram et al., 2017). Through the evaluation, the trust level, interpersonal relationship of different stakeholders can be understood to propose an effective measure to enhance the overall social sustainability of the palm oil industry in developing regions (Martin et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Climate change, resource scarcity, and an aging population are the most concerning global issues in recent decades. One of the best methods to manage and mitigate these problems while continuing to boost the economies and offer opportunities for the growing world population is sustainable development. As Malaysia is one of the major oil consumers in the world, the sustainability of palm oil has been controversial. Several sustainability standards are introduced to ensure the balance performance in terms of economic, environmental, and social performance of the industry. Nonetheless, the social aspect of the sustainability of palm oil has received relatively less emphasis as compared with the economic and environmental aspects. Literature, experts, and anecdotal evidence often claim that it is due to the complication in assessing and evaluating social factors and impacts. Thus, this work aims to fill the gap in the literature on social sustainability for the palm oil industry both in terms of methods and facets. Suggested facets and their implication can enrich the theoretical contribution of this field while providing a comprehensive profile of the social sustainability of the palm oil industry. The outcomes can also be adopted by policymakers and industry stakeholders to assess, manage, and enhance the social sustainability of the industry.
... Further pressure is put in remaining forests and land conflicts disrupt plantations and conservation efforts (Meijaard et al., 2018). In certain cases conflicts arise during oil palm plantation establishment; Abram et al. (2017) quoted that forest land-use related conflicts had affected 12.3-19.6 million people in the period 1990-2000. However, palm oil affects positively the employment in rural areas. ...
... Also conflicts arise when transmigrant programs turn over to plasma developers without taking into consideration customary rights (Obidzinski et al., 2012). Forest dependent communities are likely to oppose the establishment of oil palm plantations, they are seen negatively for having a bad impact over the environment and their own livelihoods (Abram et al., 2017 T8. Wealth Redistribution (Winners and Losers): the main reason for biodiversity loss is that there is a disparity between the private and social benefits and the benefits of biodiversity loss and conservation. ...
... Although the Basic Agrarian Law of 1960 recognizes customary ownership rights, it makes them subordinate to national interests as interpreted by the state (see ). As such, many conflicts have either emerged or been exacerbated by oil palm expansion and biofuel promotion Colbran 2011, Colchester 2011Abram et al. 2017). Throughout the 2010s, the Indonesian NGO Sawit Watch annually registered over 500 land conflicts involving local communities and palm oil companies in Indonesia (see Drost et al. 2019). ...
... In terms of access to food, there have been mixed impacts. On the one hand, forest conversion has negatively impacted forest-dependent peoples losing traditional food sources (Colbran 2011;Colchester 2011;Abram et al. 2017). Fishing communities, too, have suffered disproportionately from water contamination (Nooteboom and De Jong 2010). ...
Book
This book addresses the underexposed political dimensions of bioeconomy promotion. Who wins and who loses? How are institutions being shaped, and by whom? Drawing from experiences since the earlier days of biofuels promotion, it explores in unprecedented detail the global drive away from fossil fuels and towards a biomass-based economy. Multipurpose agriculture gains ever more traction as countries create new bio-based value chains – or, rather, value webs. Governance, in this regard, proves to be key for steering developments towards inclusive agri-food-biomass systems instead of fueling just a handful of “flex crops” ridden with social equity and other environmental issues. Based on a rich global-level analysis of bioeconomy promotion and three in-depth case studies of key emerging economies (Brazil, India and Indonesia), the book also innovatively examines sustainability politics in Global South democracies. Ultimately, this book is about finding the politics for a fairer bioeconomy in the years and decades to come.
... On the other hand, the development of oil palm plantations in Indonesia also has various negative impacts, both socially and environmentally. Socially, at the on-farm level, the expansion of oil palm plantations often triggers conflicts, especially between local communities and oil palm plantation companies and the government (Abram et al., 2017;Afrizal, 2015). Agrarian conflicts have become a social risk that has attracted the attention of external parties in the last decade (Li, 2017;McCarthy, 2010). ...
Article
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This study aimed to analyze the level of social, economic, and ecological progress of the Oil Palm Village communities and compare the level of social, economic, and ecological progress between the Oil Palm Village and Non-Oil Palm Village communities. Indonesia is one of the major palm oil-producing countries in the world. Palm oil has brought economic benefits nationally and also to local communities. However, in its development, there has been a controversy surrounding the palm oil commodity, namely in the case of Indonesian palm oil which is related to the issues of deforestation and territorialization due to the economic interests of palm oil versus the existence of forest areas. This study used a Quantitative Approach with Secondary Data Methods from primary sources (Ministry of Village, Development of Disadvantage Region, and Transmigration, BPS, and Directorate General of Plantation) with the village communities as the unit of analysis. As many as 524 village communities were selected from the population of Oil Palm Villages and Non-Oil Palm Villages in eight provinces of Indonesia’s oil palm centers with a combination of Purposive Multistage Sampling and Propensity Score Matching methods. Descriptive analysis, comparative analysis, analysis of the difference in progress using the Difference in Difference (DID) model, and the binary logistic regression method were carried out in this study. The results of the study revealed the facts that there has been an increase in social, economic, and ecological progress in various Oil Palm Village communities. The level of social, economic, and ecological progress of Oil Palm Village communities is higher than that of Non-Oil Palm Village communities. These facts indicate that the community sustainability level of the Oil Palm Village communities is superior to that of the Non-Oil Palm Village communities.
... Although the main motives for the social activities of the mining companies ISSN: 00333077 5926 www.psychologyandeducation.net include a desire to project a good image to the authorities at all levels (local, regional, and federal) and to the local people, a desire to create a good reputation in the international and domestic market arenas, and a desire to help the city which is home to the employees of the company (Kokko et al., 2015). But there are several disputes between mining companies and Indonesian local people (Abram et al., 2017). ...
Article
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This article examines the circumstances of local people around the mining area in Indonesia, Canada, China, Namibia, Ghana, and Australia. This study is intended to inform the Indonesian governments to more care for the local people in the mining area by observing the local people's circumstances around the mining area in other countries. From the explanation of the local people's conditions around the mining areas in these five countries, Indonesia government can take action to be more concerned about the education of the local people around the mining areas by taking their experiences. Experiences from Canada and Namibia the Indonesian government can adopt their way by providing scholarships to local people around the mining area. The Indonesian government can also establish Regional Trades and Technology Training Centers such as in Canada or Namibia to train local people around mining areas to increase business opportunities. Experiences from China, the Indonesian government can adopt their way with government action that encourages CSR in mining companies to build a harmonious community landscape. In addition, like in China, local governments should provide education to local people about environmental issues, especially air quality due to mining activities. The Indonesian government can do similar actions by partnering with mining companies to improve the quality of education for local people around mining areas like in Namibia. Finally, From the experience of Namibia, and Ghana the Indonesian government needs to provide education about the law, especially Mining Act to local people around the mining area so that they can get their rights.
... Land Use Policy xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx who articulate environmental narratives to protect their resource access (Abram et al., 2017;Bennett et al., 2018). This article posits, instead, the need to question the underlying epistemological assumptions driving palm oil governance, without losing sight of the power-laden character of specific forms of knowing and telling environmental change. ...
Article
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New governance strategies, mostly based on certification, emerged as a response to the severe environmental impacts oil palm has had across the globe. Following a political ecology approach, this article argues that dominant understandings of nature–society relations informing palm oil governance limit efforts to prevent and mitigate such impacts. This study analyses oil palm dispersal into protected coastal wetlands in Chiapas (Mexico), the governance strategies it triggered and its causes. Based on ethnographic methods, complemented with archival work and land use and cover change analysis, this article examines the environmental narratives underlying governance efforts and the material entanglements leading to oil palm dispersal from a more-than-human perspective. Dominant environmental narratives, which relied on popular dichotomous conceptions of human–environment relations, blamed smallholders while overlooking the role played by corporations, the state, and oil palm itself. Such narratives have not only political (the disempowerment of smallholders) but also ecological consequences (oil palm dispersal into water chestnut and mangrove forests continues). This article highlights the need to question the knowledge frames driving palm oil governance, to consider the power-laden character of specific forms of knowing and telling environmental change, and to conceive oil palm as necessarily entangled in a complex web of socio-ecological relations.
... According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA 2019a(USDA , 2019b, the worldwide production of palm oil increased from 15 million tons to 70 million tons from 1995-2017, and Indonesia has been the largest supplier since 2007. Although oil palm cultivation has been questioned in relation to the invasion of villagers' rights to resources (Inoue et al 2013), intensifying conflicts with local people (Abram et al 2017), and exacerbating social disparities and environmental inequity (Sheil et al 2009), its positive impacts on economic growth and employment are notable. For example, the oil palm sector of Indonesia in 2017 employed 3.8 million people, and produced about 39 million tons of palm oil from around 14 million ha of plantation areas across different regions of the country (Directorate General of Plantation 2018, USDA 2019a, 2019b). ...
Article
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Indonesia has been the largest supplier of palm oil since 2007, and now supplies around 56% of the global market. While the existing literature has paid serious attention to the diverse impacts of oil palm plantation on socioeconomic factors and the environment, less is known about the joint role of biophysical and socioeconomic factors in shaping the temporal and spatial dynamics of oil palm expansion. This research investigates how the benefits and costs of converting other land use/ land cover (LULC) types to oil palm plantation affects these expansion patterns. We employ a spatial panel modeling approach to assess the contributions of biophysical and socioeconomic driving factors. Our modeling focuses on Sumatra and Kalimantan, two islands which have accounted for more than 90% of oil palm expansion in Indonesia since 1990, with Sumatra holding the majority of the country's plantations, and Kalimantan having the highest growth rate since 2000. The results show that the expansion in Kalimantan, which has been strongly stimulated by the export value of palm oil products, has occurred in areas with better biophysical suitability and infrastructure accessibility, following the 'pecking order' sequence, whereby more productive areas are already occupied by existing agriculture and plantations, and avoiding areas with high environmental values or socioeconomic costs. As demand for palm oil continues to grow, and land resources become more limited, the expansion in Kalimantan will tend towards the dynamics observed in Sumatra, with plantation expanding into remote and fertile areas with high conversion costs or legal barriers. Bare ground seems to have served as a clearing-up tactic to meet the procedural requirements of oil palm plantation for sustainable development. This research facilitates the improved projection of potential areas liable to future expansion, and the development of strategies to manage the leading drivers of LULC in Indonesia.
... Forestdependent communities in Southeast Asia have benefited less from oil palm, particularly when lacking infrastructure (Santika et al., 2019), or when compared to better-off migrant smallholders . Some communities have even lost their land and forests to oil palm plantations with this leading conflict (Abram et al., 2017). Critical studies have also pointed to how this crop might lead to precarious livelihoods for rural workers (Li, 2018;Pye et al., 2012), intra-household gender inequalities (de Vos and Delabre, 2018;Toumbourou and Dressler, 2020), and cases of food insecurity (Balde et al., 2019;Oosterveer et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Does oil palm boost agricultural growth and reduce rural poverty, or is it a threat to rural livelihoods and tropical forest landscapes? This paper introduces a Special Issue on this question, focusing on Latin America. It reviews available literature and data for countries where oil palm either covers large areas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Honduras) or has recently expanded (Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru), and presents evidence from nine case studies (including Nicaragua). Combining political economy with a livelihood approach, this article discusses how dissimilar policies supporting oil palm combined with contrasting agrarian change dynamics, market structures, and institutional arrangements driving rural inclusion (and exclusion) in oil palm production have resulted in a variety of expansion trajectories (ranging from smallholder-to plantation-based, plus mixed forms in between) and outcomes across the region. Main findings show that rural livelihoods and landscapes are most threatened where industrial plantations predominate, particularly in weakly governed forest frontiers, while oil palm is beneficial where policies guarantee land access and support smallholders. However, policies that are beneficial to smallholders do not preclude conflicts between oil palm smallholders (often migrant settlers) and forest-dependent (indigenous and Afro-descendant) communities opposing this industry.
... While both regions showed high growth rates in oil palm extents, the rate of expansion in recent times (2006-2010) was significantly higher in Kalimantan than Sumatra (67). Due to these Page 6 of 29 AUTHOR SUBMITTED MANUSCRIPT -ERL-108503.R2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 A c c e p t e d M a n u s c r i p t differences in oil palm expansion, more recent deforestation and community conflict happen in Kalimantan, and communities in Kalimantan have less experience with oil palm cultivation (66,68,69). ...
Article
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Environmental and social problems triggered by rapid palm oil expansion in the tropics have spurred the proliferation of sustainability certification systems such as the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). While the RSPO aims to improve the impact of oil palm production on people and environments, its effect on local development, environmental quality, and, especially, potential trade-offs between these outcomes remain unclear. Here, we evaluate whether RSPO certification of large-scale industrial concessions has promoted village development and supported environmental quality in Indonesia, the top global palm oil producer. Using a panel dataset with observations from 11,000 villages in Kalimantan and Sumatra from 2003-2014, we apply rigorous quasi-experimental methods to quantify the RSPO's impacts on village development and environmental outcomes. In the short-run, RSPO contributed to environmental conservation, but had limited development outcomes. On average, relative to villages with non-certified concessions, RSPO certification reduced deforestation and protected primary forests in Sumatra and lowered the incidence of village-reported land pollution in Kalimantan. RSPO certification also increased the number of private educational facilities in Kalimantan, but had no statistically significant impacts on other development indicators. However, the trade-offs and complementarities between conservation and development vary by slope, a proxy for ecosystem fragility and oil palm profitability. On gentler slopes, we generally find complementarities between conservation and development outcomes. In Kalimantan, certification increased the number of private educational facilities and reduced deforestation and the incidence of land pollution on slopes <2°. In Sumatra, certification increased primary forests, decreased deforestation and the incidence of water pollution on slopes <1°, along with a decrease in population density. Higher slopes in both locations were associated with environment and development trade-offs. We highlight the need to better understand the mechanisms behind the impacts of RSPO and emphasized how the outcomes of certification depend on the communities' bargaining power and the profitability of the land for oil palm production. Thus, we provide insights into understanding these mechanisms behind the impacts of RSPO, which is a prerequisite for improving the design of certification systems and their impacts on the ground.
... Thus, BRTs can be used to determine the most important variables that influence smallholders to develop adaptation strategies and the importance level of these variables. The BRT model was chosen because it imposes few assumptions about the data distribution or the relationships between variables, and is applicable in the case of complex nonlinearities and interactions between explanatory variables and responses (Abram et al., 2017). In addition, it is highly resistant to the presence of a large number of independent predictor variables in the study. ...
Article
The increasing severity of climate change has posed a great challenge to smallholders' livelihoods. In addition to smallholders' autonomous adaptations, policy-makers need to consider how to make sound government interventions to help smallholders effectively adapt to climate change. This study aims to explore how smallholders adapt to climate change under government interventions, and in turn provide recommendations for the government to better promote smallholder adaptation. To achieve this purpose, 1552 household survey data were collected in four agro-pastoral regions of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). A machine learning approach (boosted regression tree, BRT) was used to explore the factors influencing the adaption strategies of smallholders to climate change, especially the role of government interventions in this process. The results show that the smallholders mainly adopted four adaptation strategies (off-home activities, nature reclaiming farmland, raising more livestock, and crop management), while local governments helped them by providing subsidies, training, credit, insurance, and improved varieties; building roads and irrigation facilities; and organizing cooperatives. The results of the BRT model show that the natural capital indicators (elevation, farmland area) were still important factors influencing the smallholders' adoption of adaptation strategies, because natural capital reflects the livelihood basis of smallholders to some extent. The results also suggest that government interventions such as subsidies, cooperatives, and training played an important role in this process. Based on these results, we propose targeted policy recommendations to help local governments improve existing government interventions and to provide lessons for governments in other regions or countries to plan government interventions to promote smallholder adaptation.
... We continue to find this trend in our study where 25% of negative impacts were studies carried out in 2019. It is likely that conflicts between agro-industrial companies and communities in Indonesia will increase over the coming years due to the increasing cultivation of oil palms (Abram et al., 2017). About a third of Indonesia's reported land conflicts concern large-scale oil palm plantations, and many of these conflicts are decades old (Li, 2018). ...
Article
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Palm oil is an important commodity contributing to livelihoods of many communities, GDP of governments and the achievement of several sustainable development goals (SDG) including no poverty, zero hunger and decent work and economic growth. However, its cultivation and continuous expansion due to high and increasing demand has led to many negative effects and subsequent calls to make production sustainable. To this end, information is needed to understand the negative and positive impacts on both the environment and human wellbeing to respond appropriately. Sustainability in palm oil trade entails having a global supply chain based on environmentally friendly and socially acceptable production and sourcing. Much has been done in understanding and responding to impacts on the environment but not so much on social impacts partly due to a lack of information. The direct (socio-economic) and indirect (through ecosystem services) impacts of palm oil trade were reviewed using peer-reviewed literature and the environmental Justice Atlas (EJA). Our results show that most of the 57 case studies were conducted in Indonesia and Malaysia where 85% of global production of palm oil occurs. The results show both negative (109) and positive (99) direct impacts on humans. Indirect impacts through ecosystems services were predominantly negative (116) as were the direct negative impacts. The most frequently studied direct negative impacts were conflicts (25%), housing conditions (18%) and land grabbing (16%) while the most frequently studied direct positive impacts were income generation (33%) and employment (19%). Ongoing initiatives to make the palm oil sector sustainable such as the RSPO are focused on the environment but need to pay more attention to (related) social impacts. To make palm oil production sustainable and to meet SDGs such as ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being as well as responsible consumption and production, negative social impacts of palm oil trade need to be addressed.
... In late 2015, Buntoi village was affected by forest and peatland fires that destroyed large areas of farmers' productive land, including approximately 461 ha of rubber plantation. The burned land has since been abandoned, and the farmers are now looking for alternative land uses to meet their livelihood needs. 1 As an example, oil palm has been the main source of bioenergy in Indonesia, however, expansion of oil palm production has raised concerns about compromising food production and destroying forests and consequent biodiversity [18][19][20]. The experiment was carried out between March 2016 and February 2017 on two hectares of degraded peatland. ...
Preprint
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Large areas of deforested and degraded land, particularly degraded peatlands, need a viable long-term solution for restoration, ideally one that ensures energy security without compromising food security or biodiversity conversation. To address a knowledge gap on the most adaptive bioenergy crop(s) for degraded lands, this research project assessed the survival and growth performance of potential bioenergy crops to restore burned and degraded peatlands. Our methodology compared the bioenergy species with the potential to survive in extreme environments, i.e., gamal [Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp.], kaliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus Meissner), kemiri sunan [Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw], and nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L.). Observed parameters are plant survival rates, tree height, and circular stem growth. The experiment was conducted between March 2016 to February 2017 in a two-hectare demonstration plot on burned and degraded peatland in Buntoi village, Pulang Pisau, Central Kalimantan province. Using a split plot design, two treatments were given to each species, i.e., monoculture plantation and agroforestry (intercropped with Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.); with each treatment, the species were replicated on two separate plots. Results indicate that nyamplung is the most adoptable species followed by kemiri sunan, however both species performed very well under agroforestry treatment when compared with monoculture. Further study is needed to assess the productivity and associate biofuel yield.
... Currently, bioenergy in Indonesia is produced primarily from oil palm, which has been criticized as being a reason for deforestation, biodiversity loss, peat land drainage, and other socio-environmental issues (Abram et al. 2017;Gaveau et al. 2016;Obidzinski et al. 2012;Sharma et al. 2018). Poorly planned bioenergy production will degrade natural forests, which are converted into monoculture plantations (Finco and Doppler 2010), by destroying biodiversity and, at the same time, increasing greenhouse gas emissions (Baral and Lee 2016). ...
Article
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Renewable energy development is growing rapidly due to vast population growth and the limited availability of fossil fuels in Southeast Asia. Located in a tropical climate and within the Ring of Fire, this region has great potential for a transition toward renewable energy utilization. However, numerous studies have found that renewable energy development has a negative impact on the environment and nature conservation. This article presents a systematic literature review of the impact of renewable energy development on the environmental and nature conservation in Southeast Asia. Based on a review of 132 papers and reports, this article finds that the most reported negative impact of renewable energy development comes from hydropower, biofuel production, and geothermal power plants. Solar and wind power might also have a negative impact, albeit one less reported on than that of the other types of renewable energy. The impact was manifested in environmental pollution, biodiversity loss, habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. Thus, renewable energy as a sustainable development priority faces some challenges. Government action in integrated policymaking will help minimize the impact of renewable energy development.
... The impact of the development of oil palm plantations is causing more deforestation and horizontal conflict with the community. Several studies have been carried out by scholars on the development of oil palm plantations in Indonesia in various perspectives and problem topics, namely deforestation and oil palm development (Austin et al., 2017;Prabowo et al., 2017;Setiawan et al., 2016;and Susanti & Maryudi, 2016), oil palm plantation development in conflict perspective (Abraham et al., 2017;Dhiaulhaq et al., 2017), and also discussion on gender and oil palm development (Elmhirst, 2017;Morgan, 2017;Julia & White, 2012). Furthermore, there are also studies on land grabs due to oil palm development (Li, 2017;Goldstein, 2017), and social, economic and community life impacts on oil palm plantations (Manik, Leahy, & Halog, 2013;Obidzinski et al., 2012;and Rist, Feintrenie, & Levang, 2010). ...
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This study discusses why the impacts of oil palm plantation development policies by corporations such as Darmex Group and several other corporations are perceived to be unfair and uneven by the community. This study uses a qualitative approach and meta-analysis with data sources from books, scientific journals, and mass media. Data were analyzed by interactive methods and supported by relevant theories from Gramsci, Marques and Utting. The results of this study indicate that neoliberalism has influenced oil palm plantation development policies in Riau Province. The practice of neoliberalism can be seen from the policy of oil palm plantation development in Riau which is more pro-favoured and profitable for the corporation or capital owner than the community around the plantation area. This can occur because of the dominance of companies and corporations in relation to local governments. Bribery is the method they use if lobbies committed against political and government officials have not succeeded in achieving their goals. The state became subordinate in its relations with corporations, thus the corporate became the hegemon in the development of oil palm plantations in Riau Province.
... While both regions showed high growth rates in oil palm extents, the rate of expansion in recent times (2006-2010) was significantly higher in Kalimantan than Sumatra [67]. Due to these differences in oil palm expansion, more recent deforestation and community conflict happen in Kalimantan, and communities in Kalimantan have less experience with oil palm cultivation [66,68,69]. ...
Preprint
Environmental and social problems triggered by the rapid palm oil expansion in the tropics have spurred the proliferation of sustainability certification standards, which are market-based initiatives intended to ensure commodity production is carried out in an environmentally and socially responsible manner. One such certification scheme, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), aims to mitigate the impact of oil palm production on local communities and ecosystems. While previous work has focused on the environmental impact of RSPO, little is known about its impact on village development and potential trade-offs with environmental goals. To address this gap, we evaluate the impact of RSPO on promoting village development and protecting ecosystems in Kalimantan and Sumatra in Indonesia, the top global oil palm producer. Using observations from 11,000 villages over a period of 11 years, we apply rigorous quasi-experimental methods to quantify impacts along environmental and village development outcomes. We find that relative to noncertified concessions, RSPO resulted in small, often heterogeneous and geographically limited environmental and village infrastructure impacts relative to traditional oil palm concessions. Between environmental and development goals, we identify trade-offs on both islands. While in Kalimantan the impact on population was statistically insignificant, in Sumatra the trade-offs are correlated with a statistically significant decrease in the number of people in the treated villages. By illustrating the heterogeneity of the RSPO impacts, our results have important implications for understanding the mechanisms behind RSPO’s impacts and improving its design.
... The continuing expansion of oil palm agriculture across tropical countries has prompted fierce national and international debate (Sayer et al. 2012;Susanti & Maryudi 2016). While regional economic development and rural poverty alleviation have been used heavily by government ministries, industry lobbies, and companies to justify expansion of the oil palm sector (McCarthy & Cramb 2009;Susanti & Maryudi 2016;Pye 2019), numerous social and environmental costs of the industry have also been reported, including land conflicts (Colchester 2011;Abram et al. 2017), loss of forest (Gaveau et al. 2019) and traditional livelihoods and culture (Colchester 2011;McCarthy & Zen 2016), water scarcity and pollution (Obidzinski et al. 2012;Merten et al. 2016), increased flooding (Wells et al. 2016), and heightened risk of fire and concomitant emissions of smoke and pollution due to expansion of plantations on peatland (Carlson et al. 2013;Marlier et al. 2015). In response to sustainability concerns associated with the rapid growth of the industry, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) was formed in 2004 as a voluntary certification body to promote more sustainable production (RSPO 2018). ...
Preprint
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The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) has emerged as the world’s largest sustainability standard to tackle social and environmental issues associated with the oil palm industry. To date, however, the effectiveness of RSPO certification remains uncertain, especially for socio-economic objectives. Here we evaluate the impact of certification on village well-being across Indonesia, the world’s largest producer of palm oil, utilizing multi-dimensional poverty data from government village-censuses, and applying a statistical matching approach. We found certification to be associated with improvements in poverty levels in villages where livelihoods were primarily market-based, but this was not the case in villages where subsistence livelihoods were previously dominant. As most certified plantations in Sumatra and Papua had been developed in market-orientated villages, the overall impact of certification on these islands was positive overall. In Kalimantan, however, certification was much less effective, as large proportions of certified plantations were developed near subsistence-based villages. We highlight the importance of baseline village livelihood conditions in driving local impacts of agriculture and sustainability standards, and suggest key criteria for oil palm certification in different village contexts.
... A number of researches revealed that the existence of oil palm plantation leads to environmental damage such as, deforestation, the decrease of wild animals and nature conservation (Cahyandito & Ramadhan, 2015;Lee et al., 2014;Nantha & Tisdell, 2009). Besides environmental issues, oil palm manufacturing also creates human rights conflicts and violation (Abram et al., 2017;Colchester & Chao, 2013;Humaedi, 2014;Kurniawan & Syani, 2012). Furthermore, according to the study conducted by Barreiro et al., (2016), conflicts in oil palm plantations are related to land compensation, disputes in partnership execution, work opportunities for local people, environmental damage, and the undone Corporate Social Responsibility programs. ...
Article
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This research aims to describe the process and reveal the origin of social conflict in the incoming oil palm investment. Twelve Subjects are involved in this research, located in Laman Satong Village, Ketapang District, Kalimantan Barat Province, Indonesia in February-May 2019. The results showed that a threat to society's identity meaning which depends on the forest was an origin of social conflict. The incoming of oil palm investment was considered as a threat because of the limited formal communication channel, through socialization meetings This limitation indicated to slow down their stock of knowledge renewal, that related to their future fate. Thus, it creates worries that caused resistance and internal community conflict itself. Academically this research contributes to establishing the social conflict theory and stock of knowledge concept in terms of conflict in the incoming of oil palm investment.
... The motivation of land claim i.e.: the limitation of the plantation areas which used to the local community livelihoods, job unavailability and damaged environment condition [8] . The claim of land on the forest area in the context of the community perception has been usually constructed from a sense of injustice because there is no contribution from the company about the utilization of production forests [9,10] . ...
Thesis
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Land claims caused the utilization of conflicts because of community occupation to the concession area permits. Community perception about the claims has been caused by different interests and using the actor's power. This research is using the Convergent Parallel Mixed Method (CPMM) which is a combination of quantitative and qualitative data to give a comprehensive analysis. The results explained that the claims of community in FMU were estimated at 94,016 ha or 38.53% of the total area. There are three forms of the claims from the community, i.e.: full ownership of the land, environmental care, and economic improvement. The perception of the community was affected by the different points of view to utilize the land and different interests. The power of actors can influence other actors in the struggle for utilizing the land in forest areas. Positions of the key player are actors which have strongly related interest and hard power to influence the communities, i.e., owners of the industrial plantation forest, ecosystem restoration, government, and village head's. Recommendations are the institutionalization of the village head's role in governing forest utilization, determining the users, determining the property rights of withdrawal and management, and determining a contribution of the forest product provision.
... Kebakaran hutan yang terjadi juga dituduhkan kepada industri kelapa sawit seperti studi yang dilakukan Greenpeace Indonesia [8]. Khusus sengketa lahan sebuah studi pada tahun 2016 menunjukkan adanya 265 laporan di Kalimantan [9]. Sementara untuk gas rumah kaca pada tahun 2015 yang dihasilkan dari aktivitas industri kelapa sawit mencapai setara 5.5 ton karbondioksida untuk setiap ton CPO yang dihasilkan untuk keseluruhan Indonesia [10]. ...
Article
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The palm oil industry as an important industry in Indonesia is demanded to conduct business in a sustainable way, including the implementation of green supply chain management (GSCM). However, in order to implement GSCM in the oil palm industry there are many barriers, but not yet comprehensively formulated what the barriers are and how to eliminate it. This study aims to identify barriers GSCM in the palm oil industry in Indonesia, to model the relationship between GSCM barriers and to classify any of it to the palm oil industry in Indonesia using the MICMAC approach. The interpretive structural modeling method was used in this study, where the stages began with a literature study to obtain GSCM indicators of the palm oil industry in Indonesia, then breakdown to get the barriers. The structural self-interaction matrix (SSIM) is then structured based on contextual relationships between obstacles by experts who have worked in the palm oil industry. Furthermore, SSIM is converted into a binary matrix. To get the level of each barrier, the level partitions stage is used to developing a chart and a model between the GSCM barriers in the palm oil industry in Indonesia. This research resulted in 15 GSCM barriers in the palm oil industry, then arranged into a 6-level model of GSCM barriers and divided into four clusters. The implication of this research is the addition of knowledge about GSCM especially the palm oil industry. While managerially giving direction on the strategy to eliminate GSCM barriers in the palm oil industry.
... Within Indonesian spatial planning, issues related to landuse planning and land allocation are given as follows: unclear land or coastal tenure and zoning with overlapping responsibilities among core stakeholders (Maryudi et al. 2015;Sahide and Giessen 2015); business and political interests that influence policy making and regulations (Anderson et al. 2016); unbalanced game of power (Sahide et al. 2020); limited effectiveness due to inaccurate data or inappropriate working scales for law enforcement (Tacconi and Muttaqin 2019); and a lack of participatory processes, with inequity and conflicts as a result (Yusran et al. 2017;Abram et al. 2017). ...
Article
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In the midst of global change uncertainties, Indonesian spatial planning authorities are developing 20-year strategies. However, the lack of collaborative engagement of stakeholders and unclear methodology around using futures studies in addressing land management undermine such plans and affect environmental governance. A crucial question is how to link a future-oriented process with governance transformation processes, particularly related to land-use planning and management. To address this issue, we used a co-elaborative scenario-building approach, referred to as participatory prospective analysis (PPA), to facilitate the creation of local multistakeholder platforms considering future-oriented perspectives. The PPA design combines equally the knowledge of local communities, technical experts and decision-makers, and was applied in a series of sequential multistakeholder workshops in two regencies in Indonesia, followed by public consultations on the main results. In both regencies, participants agreed on a common topic related to spatial planning in their jurisdiction to be explored with a 20-year time horizon. They reached consensus on relevant variables, analyzed their dependence/influence, and developed several plausible yet contrasting scenarios for land management and road maps with guidelines for the implementation of desired outcomes. The PPA approach stimulated stakeholder engagement and ensured that more local voices were not only heard but also duly included in the process. It allowed participants to consider strategies that would otherwise have been less readily accepted by their respective organizations. It showed that it is possible to improve existing spatial planning processes in Indonesia by integrating tools for a more inclusive and long-term future-oriented collaborative approach.
... In Latin America approximately twothirds of deforestation is driven by commercial agriculture (Kissinger et al. 2012). In particular, production of the four forest risk commodities (section 3 above) has caused extensive tropical deforestation and been the source of widespread conflict between agriculture companies and local people (Abram et al. 2017). ...
Chapter
Sustainable Development Goals: Their Impacts on Forests and People - edited by Pia Katila December 2019
... The conflicts occur mostly related to natural resources, including loss of livelihoods, access to natural resources, ownership of resources, environmental degradation, environmental impacts, violations of human rights [15], lack of consultation, displacement of people location, restrictions on access, and disruption to community sources of livelihoods [16,17], and lack of consultation, broken promises, and lack of compensation are also causes of conflict [18]. Conflict may also occur due to intimidation and violations or restrictions on activities and access to natural resources [19]. ...
Article
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Many impacts occur due to oil palm cultivation. One of them is a conflict that occurred in some regions, especially in Jambi Province in Indonesia. Most of the conflicts that occurred are related to natural resources. Disputes can be more complicated when there is any part of the land belongs to the government. Commonly, 30% of the plantations is owned by plasma land, while the remaining 70% is owned by nucleus land. Conflicts occurred due to the smallholders’ position, which is a weak party in land tenure. The smallholders’ low income was partly due to the high price of fertilizers, the toke’s (middleman) low price, and related transportation problems. Differences in individual perceptions are also one of the conflicts that occur. The purpose of this study was to understand more deeply the conflict between smallholders, especially independent smallholders, and the company oil palm that occurred. By using soft system method-based action research, real-world primary data were collected through in-depth interviews with stakeholders (local government, smallholders, companies, and NGO activists) in Jambi. This article found that this system is also implemented in oil palm plantations in Indonesia. Independent smallholder oil palms also consider that community engagement should be involved as a learning effort. Therefore, social interaction and community involvement, through approaches with the government, companies, and oil palm planters in forms of social interaction and training, need to be applied to minimize oil palm conflicts. It is suggested that further research can provide a study, explanation, and implementation of existing policies so that the obligations and rights of smallholder oil palms and plantation companies do not cause oil palm conflicts.
... For example, quantitative methods, such as surveys, are difficult to develop into specific planning because they are associated with the mapping process (Birol et al. 2006;Veisi et al. 2020). Some studies have found points that are likely to have severe conflicts using physical data, but conflict patterns could not be identified in terms of microscopic ecological resources that were not revealed or actualized, and only the interests set up by the researcher in advance could be determined, making it difficult to reveal minority opinions (Abram et al. 2017;Kim and Arnhold 2018). Accordingly, preferences over space were surveyed using the PPGIS technique that maps the participatory technique as an alternative, but this technique also merely identified the hotspots of the population overall, while failing to show interests or conflicts (Rall et al. 2019). ...
Article
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Since there are various stakeholders related to water in Blue-Green Infrastructure that perform various ecological functions in a given city, there is a need for a plan to manage their interests and conflicts. Previous studies have verified the spatial preferences of many local residents using techniques, such as the public participation geographic information system, but have failed to show how stakeholders vary in regard to their dependence on water and their different spatial preferences. Therefore, this study intended to discuss the direction of collaborative planning by analyzing the Blue-Green Infrastructure of Siheung Hojobul wetland using spatial Q methodology, finding various stakeholders, and identifying the areas they prefer. The analysis results showed that local residents and environmental NGOs want to conserve middle and upper streams, but ecotourism guides and officials want to develop them for ecotourism, demonstrating a great difference in perspectives. However, they all agreed to develop a lower stream for ecotourism. Although this study has limitations as a single case study, the spatial Q methodology used in this study is significant in demonstrating that the use of the Blue-Green Infrastructure planning method for resident participation can reduce conflicts and encourage cooperation among competing parties.
... These rapid socio-ecological changes, described by Hall (p. 838) as ''frontier' conditions', continue to be highly conflictual and antagonistic processes, involving a myriad of different actors such as transnational corporations, state actors, peasants and indigenous groups (Wicke et al. 2011, Abram et al. 2017, De Vos et al. 2018. Literature on land tenure conflict and socio-ecological change in the context of large-scale agro-business developments in Indonesia is widely available (Beckert et al. 2014). ...
Article
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The article explores the spatial dimension of the contested renegotiation of society-nature relations in the context of the oil palm boom in Indonesia. Drawing on qualitative research as well as on concepts of political ecology, materialist state theory and literature on the transnationalization and internationalisation of the state, it argues that conflicts in the context of the oil palm boom cannot merely be conceptualised as local negotiation processes for access to land, but are increasingly transnational in character. Particularly, transnational actors such as oil palm companies and environmental protection organisations as well as transnational regulatory systems such as private sustainability and carbon standards are increasingly relevant in structuring local conflicts. To illustrate how these transnational mechanisms of contestation and conflict resolution operate, the article's empirical focus lies on conflicts over land in the Indonesian province of Jambi on the island of Sumatra.
... In late 2015, Buntoi village was affected by forest and peatland fires that destroyed large areas of farmers' productive land, including approximately 461 ha of rubber plantation. The burned land has since been abandoned, and the farmers are now looking for alternative land uses to meet their livelihood needs. 1 As an example, oil palm has been the main source of bioenergy in Indonesia, however, expansion of oil palm production has raised concerns about compromising food production and destroying forests and consequent biodiversity [18][19][20]. The experiment was carried out between March 2016 and February 2017 on two hectares of degraded peatland. ...
Article
Primary energy demand in Indonesia has rapidly increased, i.e., 43.33% between 2005 and 2016, while domestic energy supply failed to fulfill these needs leading to the reliance on the energy import. Meanwhile, a vast area of degraded land in Indonesia also created an opportunity for biofuel production, fulfilling energy demand, as well as restoring the land with environmental and socio-economic benefits. This paper provides an overview of identified potential and challenges associated with biofuel production from degraded land in Indonesia. Our preliminary findings highlighted that some biofuel species in Indonesia are suitable to grow in degraded land and potentially restore the land that may not be suitable for current agricultural production and/or reforestation. The initial finding also shows that culturally familiar species and stable markets are favorable terms of biofuel-species selection for the landowners. Supportive agricultural-extension services such as knowledge and technology for honey production can provide an added value in this concept, in addition to social (e.g., strengthening social solidarity and employment opportunities) and environmental (e.g., carbon storage, soil moisture, erosion control, and biodiversity) benefits. Meanwhile, to create this overall initiative to be successful, a supportive measure from the policymakers is needed. Further research on the capacity of biofuel species to restore degraded lands in different biophysical profiles. Analysis of biofuel production feedstocks and potential co-benefits viable business models, and the stable market is necessary to maximize benefit from biofuel production and to restore the degraded lands in Indonesia. Keywords: biofuel production, renewable energy, restoring
... the two largest palm oil producing countries globally [1]. Interlinked social conflicts, including corruption, contested land tenure, and labour exploitation, are persistent issues in the palm oil supply chains [2][3][4]. In contrast, governments and companies engaged in palm oil businesses have argued that the productivity and efficiency of palm oil per hectare of land is higher than that of other vegetable oils, which may contribute to lower pressure on land and biodiversity than other vegetable oil productions [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Smallholding plantations represent approximately 40% of the total palm oil plantation area globally. For any certifications, standards, and other instruments to achieve more ethical and sustainable palm oil supply chains, it is essential to improve smallholder engagement in the schemes. A large body of research has built up our understanding of the challenges of engaging smallholders in sustainability initiatives in various sites and countries. A broad systematic understanding of how different types of sustainability initiatives can support or restrict smallholders from access to market and different resources and under which economic and social conditions are not yet developed. This systematic map aims to identify, map, and describe the body of evidence that exists on the positive and negative impacts of sustainability initiatives on smallholder engagement in palm oil practices in Southeast Asia. The findings are expected to inform policies and practices on smallholder engagement in sustainable palm oil supply chains and identify evidence gaps where future primary studies and evidence syntheses can contribute. Methods We will develop a guiding framework of interventions through other works on supply chain instruments. We will then construct a test library of 39 items through field expert consultations and snowballing using literature search algorithms. The search will cover four publication databases, five bibliographic databases, and 13 topical and organizational websites. We will search for existing evidence syntheses and primary research studies in Southeast Asia countries published between 2008 and 2021. This systematic map will only include English language articles due to our limited capacity. We will screen the search results at the title/abstract and the full-text levels. Numbers of included/excluded items and reasons for exclusion will be noted and visualized via a ROSES flow diagram. We will develop a data extraction form for assessing data useful for reporting current trends of smallholder engagement in sustainable palm oil initiatives. A random sample of 20% of the included articles will be assessed for validity using Joanne Briggs Institute’s critical appraisal checklist. We will then organize and summarize the data according to the defined PICO.
... Numerous studies had indicated that oil palm plantations have adverse impact on the environment and agriculture in the surrounding villages, such as biodiversity loss [7], deforestation [8], water and air pollution [9], increased carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions [9], greenhouse gases [10], pest and disease occurrence [11], and increased flood risk [1]. Conflicts between communities and plantation companies over the plantation's adverse impact on the environment have also been reported [12]. However, coverage and severity of the impact may differ from one place to another. ...
Article
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Increased demand for vegetable oil and energy has led the global production of palm oil to increase substantially. However, the expansion of oil palm is often criticized because of its impact on the environment and natural resources. The present study aimed to assess the villagers’ perception of the impact of oil palm plantation on agriculture and the environment. Data collection was done in Tanggetada sub-district in Southeast Sulawesi. Ninety-one residents from three villages in the plantation zone were selected as respondents. Data were collected through the questionnaire-based interview and Key Informant Interview (KII) methods and were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistics. Research results showed that villagers had perceived some impact of the plantation on the agriculture, namely, improved skills in oil palm cultivation, decreased farm size, increased pest and disease occurrence on cocoa plants, and increased market demand for farmproduce. The plantation was perceived to have led to increased soil erosion, increased frequency and severity of flooding, and decreased surface water quality. Plantation was perceived to have led toincreased temperature but only when n the oil palm trees were still young. Strict implementation of government regulation in the establishment and in the operational activities of the plantation can its adverse impact on the environment and community livelihood.
... [3][4][5] However, various sources have reported that land grabbing from corporations to enable large-scale biofuel production can lead to social conflict between locals and companies. [6][7][8] Such environmental and social drawbacks of biofuel production are often overlooked as countries gain various economic benefits. Implementing higher blending mandates can help to enhance national energy security and reduce dependence on imported oil, leading to a healthier trade balance. ...
Article
The trend towards increasing biofuel blending mandates in several countries has raised a sustainability trilemma, especially for biofuels derived from palm oil. This study aims to find the most sustainable hydrogen production technology for the production of hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) and biofuel blending. It assesses the sustainability of palm‐oil‐derived biofuel blending of biodiesel (FAME), HVO, and petroleum diesel. There are three hydrogen production options for HVO: steam methane reforming (SMR), biomass gasification (BG), and electrolysis from solar energy (PVELC). The use of any production option depends on a combination of fuel quality standards and the prioritized sustainability considerations. The fuel quality aspects consist of constraints on the quality of the blend based on EURO‐2, EURO‐4, and EURO‐5 fuel standards, while sustainability priorities lead to varying policy preferences involving economic, environmental, and social sustainability considerations. There are two approaches to determine the most sustainable blend: using the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method and using the sustainability index. The results show that scenarios that favor the economic dimension tend to produce a higher FAME blend, whereas those that prioritize the environment emphasize higher HVO blending with PVELC as the hydrogen production technology. Finally, any scenario that prefers the social aspects tends to produce higher biofuel blending. Overall, to achieve higher sustainability, higher biofuel blending is needed. The policy analysis section concludes that the biofuel policy direction should focus more on combining HVO and FAME so that each can offset the disadvantages of the other. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... These conflicting interests gave rise to land-tenure conflicts between private companies and local communities, but also within and between the latter (Abram et al., 2017;Obidzinski et al., 2012;Robins, 2021;Vijay et al., 2016). The lack of a strong legal framework to govern the land resources and little effective environmental and social regulation frequently meant that the interests of the strongest actors-often private companies supported by different levels of government-prevailed, resulting in breaches of contracts, the violation of community rights, and illegal land clearances (Levang et al., 2016). ...
Article
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By successfully including smallholders, the oil palm boom in Southeast Asia has contributed significantly to rural economic development and poverty alleviation, notwithstanding its huge environmental costs. Oil palm pro- duction in other world regions is currently picking up, including in Africa. Yet it is uncertain whether the positive socioeconomic impacts from Southeast Asia can be replicated elsewhere. Little development gain may thus accompany severe environmental harm if oil palm expansion leads to deforestation. To shed light on the (pro- spective) role of oil palm for rural development we perform a systematic comparison of Ghana’s and Indonesia’s oil palm sectors at the macro and micro level, focusing on smallholder inclusion and using a mixed-methods approach. We identify substantial differences in structural conditions and policy foci that have led to two very different oil palm sectors. While the Indonesian experience clearly highlights the development opportunities coming with smallholder inclusion in agro-industrial production, our analysis shows that transferability to the West African context is limited due to regional specificities.
... In North Sumatra, a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis showed that mangrove ecotourism is a sustainable form of land-use and local people's perceptions are important for successful mangrove conservation (Basyuni et al. 2018). In Borneo, communities' perceptions of the negative impacts of palm-oil land-use conversion on the environment and their own livelihoods were essential to mobilizing opposition (Abram et al. 2017). Based on our extensive review, the use of public perceptions to identify land-use changes, particularly in coastal ecosystems in Indonesia, is not yet well-established. ...
Article
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Understanding land-use change is imperative in the management of Indonesian coastal ecosystems with numerous environmental impacts generated from land-use conversion. To assess these impacts in holistic perspective, we use three sources of data, land cover change, policy maps, and interviews, to triangulate the main issues. Combining these sources, we analyze land-use changes in the past based on perception interviews and secondary data from the government spatial plan policy map and observable land-cover. In Tanjung Batu and Derawan Island we found that local populations were more aware of the changes related to infrastructure development, but that there are discrepancies between assigned and actual land-use, illustrating the value of a triangulated framework.
... The global cash crop market has expanded rapidly in recent decades (Delpeuch and Leblois, 2014;Su et al., 2017). This has led to landscape changes in many areas, as large amounts of natural or semi-natural land have been transformed into cash crop plantations (Ahrends et al., 2015;Vongvisouk et al., 2016), including tea, coffee, rubber, and palm oil (Abram et al., 2017;Castiblanco et al., 2013;Gatto et al., 2015;Zhang et al., 2015a). As an example, the area of tea cultivation has expanded dramatically in China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and other countries in recent years (Phalan et al., 2009;Su et al., 2017). ...
Article
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The expansion of land being used for cash crop cultivation has threatened wildlife in recent decades. Tea has become the dominant cash crop in southwestern China. Unfortunately, tea plantations may threaten Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) populations via habitat loss and fragmentation. Identifying areas of suitable habitat for tea plant cultivation, and where this habitat overlaps with Asian elephant distribution, is vital for planning land use, managing nature reserves, shaping policy, and maintaining local economies. Here, we assess the potential impact of tea plantations on Asian elephants in southwestern Yunnan province, China. We used MaxEnt modeling with bioclimatic and environmental variables to identify suitable habitat for tea plant cultivation under the current climate scenario, and then overlapped this habitat with 9 known Asian elephant distribution areas (G1–G9) to determine “threatened areas.” Our results showed that (1) annual precipitation (48.1% contribution), temperature constancy (29 % contribution), and slope (8.7 % contribution) were key in determining suitable habitat for tea plants; (2) the cumulative area of suitable habitat for tea plants was 13,784.88 km2, mainly distributed in Menghai (3934.53 km2), Lancang (3198.67 km2), and Jinghong (2657.74 km2); (3) the distribution area of elephants was 943.75 km2, and these areas overlapped with suitable tea plant habitat primarily located in G4 (379.40 km2), G3 (251.18), and G7 (168.03 km2); and (4) threatened areas in G1 and G7 were predominately located along the periphery of current nature reserves. Win-win solutions that work for elephant conservation and economic development include rescoping nature reserve boundaries, strengthening management on the periphery of nature reserves, establishing ecological corridors and new nature reserves within regions where elephants are currently distributed, planting alternative cash crops, and financial subsidies to farmers. This study improves understanding of human-elephant coexistence, and will assist in guiding land use policy for the future conservation outcomes seeking to promote responsible and profitable cash crop farming and elephant conservation.
... However, there is widespread concern about its environmental and social impacts Carrasco et al., 2014). Most of the social impacts pertain to conflicts and land disputes between agro-industrial companies and the local communities (Obidzinski et al., 2012;Abram et al., 2017). Similarly, not all producers benefit from oil palm expansion, especially in remote forested areas (Santika et al., 2019). ...
Article
Regardless of the environmental and socio-ecological implications of oil palm cultivation, oil palm is considered one of the most important oil crops in the world because of its high production efficiency which has seen a marked increase in the area under cultivation. While previous studies have analyzed the implications of this increase in cultivation on various socio-economic and environmental indicators, less is known about the drivers and constraints of production, especially concerning economic and profitability motives. In this study, we used a survey of non-industrial producers in the humid rainforest zone of Cameroon to assess the drivers of oil palm production. We employ a double hurdle model in a two-step regression framework to characterize oil palm production by smallholder farmers, and the extent of oil palm production. For comparison purposes, a Tobit model is also estimated. We find that different socio-economic and institutional factors have a differential relationship with both the likelihood of cultivating oil palm and the area under oil palm cultivation. Key among these are expected profitability measures such as market orientation and access to market information, land tenure security, and access to improved farm inputs. Some aspects of transaction cost and labour availability also come into play in determining oil palm production. Across a range of different farm classifications related to the scale of production, we find that oil palm cultivation is prevalent among all farm groups, although highly predominant in large farms. We also show that our results are robust over several linear specifications such as the linear probability model and the lasso linear model. Our study thus provides evidence of several entry points for improving the oil palm sector for non-industrial producers while safeguarding the environment.
... Furthermore, large-scale producers have often expanded their plantations without carrying out the required prior consultations with the local populations (Sheil et al 2009, Rist et al 2010, Nkongho et al 2014, generating conflict with indigenous communities (Cramb and Curry 2012, Hoyle and Levang 2012, Oosterveer 2014, Abram et al 2017, Pacheco et al 2017. In Malaysia and Indonesia, the expansion of oil palm plantations into more remote areas has also led to indigenous peoples being displaced from their native lands (Alam et al 2015, Hidayat et al 2018. ...
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The principle of sustainability on commodity certification such as RSPO and ISPO include acknowledgement and protection of indigenous people's right. Membership in these schemes however didn't prevent some members companies from grabbing indigenous people's land. This study then try to understand the limitation of RSPO and ISPO to prevent its members involvement in land grabbing act. The paper use the method of literature review. Due to time restriction and research focus, the review is being limited on literature that can explain how far those certif ication could prevented land grabbing. The result of the study divided to three section: institutional, the provision implementation in RSPO depend on voluntary act of its members companies and provision in ISPO limited on the issues of conflict resolution and compensation but not the involvement of indigenous people, agency, RSPO faced with the domination of multinational companies that made indigenous people, NGO who represented their interest, and local producers as minority while ISPO faced with the problems of sectoral ego and overlap between government agencies; and political economy, where consideration must be given to the power and interest of actors such as state, elites, companies, and even auditor on certification process and plantation expansion.
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As agricultural investors have acquired large tracts of land in the Global South recently, many affected communities and civil society groups have contested what they perceive as land grabbing. These communities have struggled to retain their land, protect their livelihoods, or benefit from the investment. There has been much academic interest in these conflicts. Studying the emerging literature, this review identifies the main theoretical perspectives and synthesizes the case study evidence. The goal is to better understand how communities contest large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) and to explain their tactics. For this purpose, a sample was collected that consists of 46 studies and 28 LSLA cases from the Global South. Since most of these studies adopt single theoretical perspectives from resistance research, the present study links multiple theoretical strands, most importantly everyday resistance, contentious politics, and legal mobilization. Based on the cases reviewed, the analysis shows that the tactics of contention are diverse but can also be grouped into three repertoires. It is found that affected communities use everyday resistance mostly when they face particularly unfavorable circumstances. In contrast, certain political opportunities and involvement of local leaders enable organized protests through either collective action or rights-based contention. Overall, this study contributes to the literature not only by bringing together case observations to see the big picture, but also by identifying the main repertoires, tentative frequencies of tactics, and less relevant circumstances and mechanisms. In practical terms, the findings suggest that development and civil society actors can play important roles for assisting rural populations and local leaders in fending off land grabs.
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Kompilasi tulisan yang berisi naskah dari Komnas HAM RI, Laporan Pelapor Khusus (Special Rapporteur) Hak Atas Pangan di Indonesia (Hilal Elver) dan Respon FIAN Indonesia.
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Abstract Rapid growth in the international demand for palm oil has triggered considerable global concern because oil palm plantations deteriorate the environment where they are developed, resulting in complex environmental impacts in the producer nations. Here, we illustrate the historical trends in the structure of Indonesian palm oil supply chains and how these have been affected by the final demand of other nations since 2000 by using the most recent dataset of global material flows of palm oil and a global input–output database. In addition, the combination of spatial land-use change with palm oil consumption along the supply chains illustrates the linkages between ultimate consumption and land-use changes due to the palm oil plantations. As a result, the major contributors to palm oil production in Indonesia were mostly stable, being India, China, Western Europe, the United States, and Japan. However, the contribution of Indonesia declined by 6% during 2000–2013, illustrating a possible shift towards palm oil being used for non-food demands, such as apparel and medicines. Building on consumption-based accounting schemes as demonstrated by this study are considered necessary to protect local ecosystems and society.
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Palm oil is one of the major plantation commodities and contributes significantly to the GDP of Indonesia. One of the areas known for palm oil production is Jambi, where smallholder plantation dominates. The literature shows that the plantation sector is often characterized by conflicts, including small-scale farmers and big companies. Therefore, appropriate conflict management strategies should be put to mitigate these conflicts’ potential adverse impacts. This paper aims to review the existing literature on conflict management strategies and examine these strategies’ factors. It highlights the different conflict management styles: integrating, obliging, dominating, avoiding, and compromising. For example, the literature shows the relevance of Big Five personality, where positive relationships are documented between integrating style with conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness, and extraversion Therefore, this paper argues the importance of incorporating psychological factors in determining appropriate conflict resolution management due to this possibility of strategy implementation among actors with different psychological factors.
Purpose The study aims to enhance our understanding of strategizing sustainable palm oil at company level and to bridge the gap between strategy formulation and implementation. In this case-based study, the way a food company is tackling the challenges faced during the promotion and incorporation of sustainable palm oil into core business strategy is explored. By taking a strategy-as-practice approach, this research sheds light on the microlevel activities and the role of formulated plans, implemented actions and engagement in activities. Design/methodology/approach An ethnographic case study was carried out using participant observation, semi-structured interviews, informal interviews and documentary review. Findings The findings demonstrate the complexity of implementing a sustainability strategy for a controversial commodity such as palm oil in supply chains. External pressure was one of the most important drivers for taking action regarding environmental and social sustainability issues. Moreover, formulating and implementing supply chain strategies for sustainable palm oil required effective communication and collaboration between different departments within the organization. Research limitations/implications Although important insights were obtained through this six-month long ethnographic case study, additional valuable information could have been obtained if the research had been carried out for longer. Practical implications The paper includes implications for strategizing sustainability at company level from a strategy-as-practice perspective. Originality/value Through this study, a better understanding of the challenges faced from the downstream perspective in sustaining food supply chains can be obtained.
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Lowland tropical forests are increasingly threatened with conversion to oil palm as global demand and high profit drives crop expansion throughout the world's tropical regions. Yet, landscapes are not homogeneous and regional constraints dictate land suitability for this crop. We conducted a regional study to investigate spatial and economic components of forest conversion to oil palm within a tropical floodplain in the Lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The Kinabatangan ecosystem harbours significant biodiversity with globally threatened species but has suffered forest loss and fragmentation. We mapped the oil palm and forested landscapes (using object-based-image analysis, classification and regression tree analysis and on-screen digitising of high-resolution imagery) and undertook economic modelling. Within the study region (520,269 ha), 250,617 ha is cultivated with oil palm with 77% having high Net-Present-Value (NPV) estimates ($413/ha-yr-$637/ha-yr); but 20.5% is under-producing. In fact 6.3% (15,810 ha) of oil palm is commercially redundant (with negative NPV of $-299/ha-yr-$-65/ha-yr) due to palm mortality from flood inundation. These areas would have been important riparian or flooded forest types. Moreover, 30,173 ha of unprotected forest remain and despite its value for connectivity and biodiversity 64% is allocated for future oil palm. However, we estimate that at minimum 54% of these forests are unsuitable for this crop due to inundation events. If conversion to oil palm occurs, we predict a further 16,207 ha will become commercially redundant. This means that over 32,000 ha of forest within the floodplain would have been converted for little or no financial gain yet with significant cost to the ecosystem. Our findings have globally relevant implications for similar floodplain landscapes undergoing forest transformation to agriculture such as oil palm. Understanding landscape level constraints to this crop, and transferring these into policy and practice, may provide conservation and economic opportunities within these seemingly high opportunity cost landscapes.
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We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents' active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed.
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We ascertained villagers' perceptions about the importance of forests for their livelihoods and health through 1,837 reliably answered interviews of mostly male respondents from 185 villages in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo. Variation in these perceptions related to several environmental and social variables, as shown in classification and regression analyses. Overall patterns indicated that forest use and cultural values are highest among people on Borneo who live close to remaining forest, and especially among older Christian residents. Support for forest clearing depended strongly on the scale at which deforestation occurs. Deforestation for small-scale agriculture was generally considered to be positive because it directly benefits people's welfare. Large-scale deforestation (e.g., for industrial oil palm or acacia plantations), on the other hand, appeared to be more context-dependent, with most respondents considering it to have overall negative impacts on them, but with people in some areas considering the benefits to outweigh the costs. The interviews indicated high awareness of negative environmental impacts of deforestation, with high levels of concern over higher temperatures, air pollution and loss of clean water sources. Our study is unique in its geographic and trans-national scale. Our findings enable the development of maps of forest use and perceptions that could inform land use planning at a range of scales. Incorporating perspectives such as these could significantly reduce conflict over forest resources and ultimately result in more equitable development processes.
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