ArticlePDF Available

The Role of the Vernacular in the First Two Editions of Manuel Álvares’ ars minor (Lisbon, 1573 and 1578)

Authors:
„Philologica Jassyensia”, an XII, nr. 1 (23), 2016, p. 5767
The Role of the Vernacular in the First Two Editions of
Manuel Álvares’ ars minor (Lisbon, 1573 and 1578)
Rolf KEMMLER*
Key-words: historiography of linguistics, Latin, Portuguese, Spanish, Manuel
Álvares
1. Introduction
In September 1572, the Portuguese grammarian Manuel Álvares (1526–1583)
published the first edition of his Latin grammar Emmanvelis Alvari è Societate Iesv
de institvtione grammatica libri tres. While the printing process of his ars maior had
not yet finished, the grammarian was already dedicating himself to preparing a
compendious version without the author’s grammatical, critical, or explanatory
commentaries, commonly designed as scholia
1
(cf. Kemmler 2015: 9: 10). Having
been licensed for publication by the inquisition on January 1, 1573, the first edition
of Álvares’ ars minor was published that year. As it is indeed devoid of most of the
scholia that are so typical for the ars maior’s editions, the grammarian was able to
considerably reduce the grammar’s volume, thus offering a textbook to the grammar
students of the Society of Jesus.
After this first edition, the ars minor was reprinted three times during the
author’s lifetime. The second edition of the grammar was printed five years after its
first edition (Álvares 1578), substituting the Portuguese equivalents in the chapter on
verb conjugation with Spanish ones (repeated in the 1579 Zaragoza edition).
As Rogelio Ponce de León Romeo (in press: 1) rightly points out, Manuel
Álvares was not the first Latin-Portuguese grammarian to include vernacular
equivalents in his paradigms of Latin verb conjugations. Similarly, as can be seen
*Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), researcher of the Centro de Estudos em
Letras (CEL/UTAD) and the Centro de Linguística da Universidade do Porto (CLUP), Portugal.
1
The term, scholion (plural scholia), and its use in literary and linguistic tradition are of Greek
origin. Dickey (2008: 11) explains the term’s origins as follows: “The original meaning of σχόλια is
‘notes’, regardless of location [...], but while the ancients referred to their self-standing commentaries
as ύμομνήματα, the Byzantines called commentaries, σχόλια, irrespective of location or character. This
usage is continued into modern Greek, where σχόλια is still the regular word for ‘commentary’”. As
Nünlist (2009: 8) explains, such commentaries“ [...] can consist of up to five basic elements: (i) the
lemma (i.e., the verbatim quotation of the passage under discussion [...]); (ii) a translation of (part of)
the passage; (iii) a paraphrase of (part of) the passage; (iv) quotation(s) (e.g., of parallel passages); (v)
the commentator’s own words (e.g., explanations)”. Álvares clearly sees himself as following this
classical tradition, as he quite frequently uses the Latin term, scholium, (plural scholia), along his 1572
ars maior.
Rolf KEMMLER
58
throughout the commentaries on the four Latin conjugations in the commented
version of Nebrija’s Introductiones latinae (1495), the occurrence of vernacular
forms in Latin-Portuguese grammar has been a recurring feature since the second
16th century grammar by Máximo de Sousa (1535: fol. [xxxvj]).
In my paper, I offer a brief comparative analysis of the respective parts of the
first two editions of the ars minor where the grammarian offers a number of
considerations to the two vernacular languages.
2. The role of Portuguese and Spanish in Álvares Latin grammars
With the exception of the paper by Barbara Schäfer (1993) considerably
augmented in the recent Portuguese version (Schäfer-Prieß 2010) – and despite the
important papers presented by Rogelio Ponce de León Romeo (2000, 2003, 2007, in
press), modern research seems to almost have ignored the vernacular equivalents
that are so typical for Álvares’ chapter “De Verborvm Conivgatione” (and which the
rest of the grammar is devoid of). This seems curious, given that those vernacular
elements are indeed one of the crucial aspects that permit the identification of
different national traditions of Álvares’ grammar, at least during the first centuries
of its existence, that is, during a time when the grammar’s metalanguage was mostly
Latin.
Ever since the separate publication of the first two editions of the second
book, De constrvctione octo partivm orationis (11571),
2
in Venice, Álvares’
grammar had at least some of the international impact that had been desired by his
Jesuit superiors when they commissioned its elaboration. While the true dimension
of this impact is not yet known due to the lack of a reliable bibliographic survey,
there seems to be no doubt that, during the 1570s, the grammar’s primitive versions
(Álvares 1571, 1572) were the object of partial or complete editions printed in
Dillingen (Germany); Roma and Venezia (Italy); Poznań (Poland); Burgos, Córdoba
and Sevilla (Spain) and even in Ciudad de México (México).
It seems evident that since the ars maior’s 1572 edition, Manuel Álvares
refrained from continuing work on his teacher’s manual. Instead, not only did he
publish the ars minor’s first edition in 1573 but also contributed actively to its
diffusion by elaborating a version for the Spanish speaking market (Álvares 1578),
which shortly thereafter was reprinted in the Aragonese city of Zaragoza (Álvares
1579). Finally, a new, revised, and slightly expanded edition was published in 1583,
the year of the grammarian’s death. Considering that the author might have been
involved in at least four of these editions, I will take a look at some aspects of the
role of the vernacular in the first two grammars.
2
As the Spanish scholar Juan María Gómez Gómez has recently pointed out in the paper
“Aproximación a la Sintaxis de Álvarez publicada en Nueva España en 1579” he presented on 4
September 2015 during the X Congreso Internacional de la Sociedad Española de Historiografía
Lingüística in Cáceres, the two Venetian editions of the ‘libellus’ without scholia (Álvares 11571) and
the ‘liber’ with scholia (Álvares 21571) should in their own right be viewed as editions belonging to the
ars minor vs. the ars maior tradition.
The Role of the Vernacular in the First Two Editions of Manuel Álvares’ ars minor
59
2.1. Portuguese in the first ars minor (Álvares 1573)
The first occurrence of the Portuguese vernacular in Álvares’ ars minor can
be found right at the beginning of the verb paradigms of the verbum substantiuum.
For each conjugated form of the Latin irregular verb sum, esse, Álvares offers
not only the Portuguese verb forms corresponding to the Portuguese infinitive ‘ser’
(‘to be’, in the permanent sense) but also ‘estar’ (‘to be’, in the transitory sense).
Apart from the (quite irrelevant) occasional difference in 16th century spelling of
some forms in relation to modern spelling (‘he’ for ‘é’, ‘sam’ for ‘são’, ‘estaua’ for
‘estava’, ‘eramos’ for ‘éramos’ but also ‘Elle, Elles’ for ‘ele, eles’), the forms
presented by Álvares are identical with those of modern Portuguese. It is, however,
quite noteworthy that Álvares offers the complete set of personal pronouns that one
would expect to find in a grammar of modern Portuguese
3
.
Whereas Álvares generally tends to reduce the scholia that can be found in the
ars maior’s editions, in the beginning of the chapter on the Latin subjunctive of the
verbum substantiuum we find a small number of new scholia that are exclusive to
the editions of the ars minor
4
:
In has voces exempli causa conuerterunt Præsens & Imperfectum verbi
substantiui, accedentibus particulis Vt, Ne, & nonnullis alijs, interdum etiam
Aduersatiuis coniunctionubus, vt Quanuis sim, posto q[ue] seja. Quanuis essem, ainda
que fosse. Quod si particula, Cum, antecedat, non solùm Præteritum Perfectum, &
plusquam perfectũ, sed etiam Præsens & Imperfectum necessariò ex Indicatiuo, aut
Participijs ei supplenda sunt, qui Lusitanè velit loqui. [...]
Qua de re cogor paulo copiosius agere, quòd sciam multos primu aspectu
interpretationis nouitate perculsum iri: deinde, vbi rem diligentius expederint,
nobiscum esse facturos speramus. Cum sis vir bonus, neminem existimas esse
improbum: Como sois bom, pareceuos que ninguem he mao. Cum sis fur, omnes tui
similes esse suspicaris. Como es ladram, sospeitas q[ue] todos o sam. Cum esses fur,
omnes tui similes esse suspicabaris. Como eras ladram, sospeitavas que todos o eram.
[...] (Álvares 1573: fols. 10 v11 r).
After explaining the Latin subjunctive, Álvares proceeds to describe how he
prefers Latin subjunctive sentences to be translated into Portuguese, offering a
considerable number of examples. Even if he is not quite as explicit as in the ars
maior
5
, he considers constructions of cum (with its equivalent ‘como’, which
3
Compare also Ponce de León Romeo (2002: 230).
4
While the first edition of the ars minor quite obviously tries to cut back on these kinds of texts in
the beginning of the subchapters containing the other conjugations, the two subchapters dedicated to
the moods of the verbum substantiuum begin with mostly quite elaborate scholia: De modo
Coniunctivo” (Álvares 1573: fols. 10 v12 r); De modo Potẽtiali & Permissiuo, siue Concessiuo”
(Álvares 1573: fols. 10 v12 r) the latter scholion does not consider the Portuguese language.
Additionally, the paradigm of the different Latin infinitives is followed by an entire folio of the
author’s considerations upon what should have been the translation of these forms.
5
Compare the beginning of the ars maior’s scholion dedicated to the subchapter Modus
Coniunctiuuswhere Álvares (1974: fol. 13 r) could not be any clearer: “SI Coniunctiuo præponatur
particula Cum, eum Lusitani indicatiuo explicãt, exempli causa, Cum sim pauper, nemo amicitiam meã
expetit, Como sou pobre, ninguem deseja minha amizade. Cum essem pauper, nemo amicitiam meam
expetebat, Como era pobre, &c. [...]. Locutiones illæ, Como seja, como fosse, & aliæ eiusdem generis
ijs, qui Lusitanè sciunt, minime probantur”.
Rolf KEMMLER
60
requires no subjunctive but indicative in Portuguese). To make his point, he offers
versions of his sample phrases in the Portuguese subjunctive, considering that
anyone knowing this language would regard these constructions as anything else but
what he considers a laughing stock. Further on, in the respective subchapter
dedicated to the first conjugation, Álvares returns to the question of a vernacular
equivalent of Latin sentences with cum (cf., Section 3.3).
Like its 1572 predecessor, the first ars minor consistently offers the
Portuguese equivalent of all the verb forms in the paradigms of the verbum
substantivum and the first conjugation (amo, amare). In the second (doceo, docere),
third (lego, legere) and fourth conjugations (audio, audire) there are only short
paradigms with an equivalent of the first person singular
6
:
Indicatiui præsens,
DOceo, eu ensino, Doces, docet. Pl. Docemus, docetis, docent (Álvares 1573:
fol. 21 v).
Last but not least, both the irregular verbs (“De verbis anomalis”), namely,
possum (posse), fero (ferre), volo (velle), nolo (nolle), malo (malle), edo (edere),
comedo (comedere), fio (fieri) and dic, duc, fac as well as eo (ire) and the defective
verbs (coepi, memini, novi, inquam, aio) are not accompanied by any vernacular
form.
2.2. Spanish in the second ars minor (Álvares 1578)
Having been published in Lisbon to be used by the Colleges of the Society of
Jesus in Spain (cf., Ponce de León Romeo 2003, 2007: 2979–2981; Kemmler 2012),
the 1578 ars minor must be regarded simultaneously as the second ars minor (in the
sense that it continues the evolution of the author’s primitive text) as well as the first
manifestation of a separate Spanish tradition. As has been shown by Ponce de León
Romeo (2003), the importation of the copies of the 1578 edition from Portugal to the
Kingdom of Castile was forbidden due to an existing copyright that established a
monopoly in favor of Nebrija’s Introductiones latinae. As a result, the Spanish
Jesuits opted for an edition printed in Zaragoza (Kemmler 2012), in the Kingdom of
Aragón (which, while being a part of the Spanish Monarchy, continued existing until
1707). Considering that the 1579 print closely follows the earlier edition, while
offering a different typeset, I will be concentrating on the text of the latter edition
whose publication undoubtedly had been organized by the grammarian himself. The
chapter on verb conjugation in the Spanish ars minor begins with the following
scholion:
COnuertimus Præteritum perfectum, Fui, in Hispanum duabus tantùm vocibus
Yo fui, o he sido, propterea quòd præteritum Vue, vuiste, vuo, vuimos, vuistes,
vuieron, non videtur vsitatum hîc cùm Esse significat, excerpta tertia persona numeri
singularis, qua Hispani etiam cùm de pluribus est sermo, vtuntur: No vuo en Grecia
hombre mas eloquente que Demosthenes. No vuo en Europa hombres mas eloquentes
6
During the first conjugation, Álvares (1974: fols. 15 r–21 v) offers marginal notes meant to
exemplify the formation of the other tenses, as one can see in the case of the imperfect: “Amas, s,
mutata in bam, fit amabam: sic Docebam” (Álvares 1974: fol. 15 r).
The Role of the Vernacular in the First Two Editions of Manuel Álvares’ ars minor
61
que Ciceron y Demosthenes. Cum verò Impetrare significat, integrum est, Yo vue, tu
vuiste, &c. del Rey vna rica libreria, Vsurrpantur etiam personæ omnes, cùm Debere,
significat, Finalmente vue yo de hazer por mi, lo que no he podido por mis amigos,
Præterea Participium Sido, quo Hispana lingua alioqui non parum & ornatur, &
augetur, cum nulla harum significationum videtur locum habere aut certe raro: amat
enim potius, cum iungitur huic verbo, tempus præsens, & imperfectum He, has, &c.
præsens Indicatiui Aya, ayas, &c. præsens Coniuntiui: Auer, Infiniti: Auia, auias, &c.
imperf. Indicatiui: Vuiesse, o vuiera, imperfectum Coniunctiui: item futurum
Indicatiui, Aure: & Coniunctiui, Como yo vuiere sido (Álvares 1578: fol. 13 v)
7
.
Since the reality of the Spanish language knows not only one perfect tense in
the indicative but two, namely, the perfect and the preterite (known in modern
Spanish grammar as ‘pretérito perfecto compuesto’ and ‘pretérito perfecto simple’,
cf., RAE / AALE 2010: 51), Álvares offers a quite elaborate explanation of what
would be the equivalent of the Latin Praeteritum perfectum. In addition to the
explanation of the use of ‘haber’ in conjugated or composite verb forms, Álvares
considers the use of the third person singular with the existential meaning ‘there
was’ (vuo, ‘hubo’), a possessive meaning of the full verb, as well as its use in the
periphrastic construction denoting obligation or necessity (‘haber de’ + infinitive).
As a consequence of these considerations, Álvares (1578: fol. 14 r) regularly lists
both Spanish tenses, as can be seen in Yo fui, o he sidoas the equivalent of the
Latin perfect tense form ‘fvi’.
Without taking into account the understandable orthographic divergence
between the 16th century grammar and modern Spanish orthography, the only
observation of significance is the use of the demonstrative pronouns Aquel, Aquellos
for the third person singular and plural instead of the forms ‘él / ella / ello’ and ‘ellos
/ ellas’ used by modern Spanish grammar.
Similar to what we have seen before, the subchapter on the subjunctive mood
in the Spanish ars minor also has a preface meant to explain the Spanish
subjunctive. This scholion occupies about three folios (Álvares 1578: fols. 16r17
v). Next to some text that can be regarded as a reproduction of the earlier edition,
most of this scholion’s text is new and entirely dedicated to the Spanish linguistic
reality. While this text is quite important but cannot be reproduced in this paper for
reasons of space, the introduction of the following, wholly new subchapter is
particularly noteworthy, as the grammarian dedicates himself to explaining the
Spanish solution of the Latin subjunctive in subordinate clauses following the
conjunctions ut, ne, quod, quamvis, licet, si, nisi (and others):
De Coniunctivi propriis vocibus Hispanis,
Habent etiam tempora Coniunctiui voces suas Hispanas, vt paulò antè
diximus, antecedentibus particulis Vt, Ne, Quòd, Quanuìs, Licèt, Si, & aliis nonnullis.
Nunc te togo, vt sis liberalis: olim ne esses prodigus, rogabam: Agora te ruego que no
seas liberal, los años passados te rogaua que no fuesses prodigo. Haud equidem miror,
7
In a normalized version, part of this prefatory commentary to the Álvares’ chapter on verb
conjugation is reproduced by Ponce de León Romeo (2000: 247). Quite obviously, the verb forms
printed with an initial <vu-> in the Spanish artes minores are graphic variants of the auxiliar ‘haber’
(‘hube, hubiste, hubo, hubimos, hubisteis, hubieron’).
Rolf KEMMLER
62
quòd tandiu fueris agrotus, qui medicamenta respueris: No me marauillo que ayas
estado tanto tiempo enfermo, pues del todo diste de mano a las medicinas. Quas de
me sumpsisset pœnas pædagogus, nisi illi anteà fuissem adeo familiaris! Que castigo
vuiera hecho en mi el ayo, sino vuiera sido antes tan su amigo. Si fueris modestus, &
summis & infimis eris gratissimus: Si fueres modesto, contentarás mucho assi a
grandes, como pequeños. Quid respondeas patri, si hoc etiam tempore cessator, vt
anteà fueris? Que tienes de responder a tu padre, si tambien en este tiempo vuieres
sido descuidado, como en el passado. Selegimus Quanuìs coniunctionem præ cæteris,
quòd omnia tempora recipiat, vno futuro excepto, in cuius locum Si substituimus.
Illud tandem te admonitum velim, coniunctionem Hispanam Aun, etiam Indicatiuum
postulare, idq[ue] ferè orationis initio. Qnanuis [sic!] sim pauper, nihil tamen, Deo
gratia, mihi deest: Aunque soy pobre, nada, a Dios gracias, me falta. Quanuis essem
pauper, nihil tamen, Deo gratia, mihi deerat: Aunque era pobre, &c. In medio verò
orationis potiùs Subiunctiuum sibi uendicat.
A nadie perdona, aunque sea su hermano.
A nadie perdonaua, aunque fuesse su hermano.
A nadie perdonara, aunque fuera su hermano (Álvares 1578: fols. 18 v19 r).
With a considerable number of example sentences, Álvares shows the
equivalent vernacular subjunctive for some Latin subordinate clauses, namely,
purpose clauses (ut, ne), concessive clauses (licet, quamvis), causal clauses (quod)
and conditional clauses (si, nisi). In this context, Álvares chooses to mention the
term subiunctiuum as a synonym of the more frequent term coniunctiuum. Since he
normally uses the latter term, one cannot help but notice that the Spanish term
‘subiunctiuo’ is already mentioned by Nebrija (1495: fol. 13 r) and later on as
‘Subiunctiuo modo’ in the Spanish Anonymous (1555: [XLVIII]) grammar, that is,
similar to the way modern Spanish grammar prefers the term ‘subjuntivo’ to
represent one of the three moods (RAE / AALE 2010: 7 et passim). Considering the
sample equivalent Aunque yo aya sido” for ‘qvanuis fuerim’ that can be found
under the title “Coniunctiui propriæ voces Hispanæ”, one cannot help but state that,
again, it comes close to what one would expect in a modern Spanish grammar.
The 1578 edition offers a considerable number of smaller additions in relation
to the primitive version of Álvares (1573). However, one of the most noteworthy
changes is the treatment of the supines (Álvares 1578: fols. 50 v–51 r) and the
deponent verbs to which he adds new content that might be regarded as new
subchapters. In the subchapters “Declinatio verbi deponentis” (uti) and “Declinatio
verbi communis” (dimetior, dimetiri), Álvares (1578: fols. 51 r-55 v) offers at least
one Spanish equivalent of the respective first forms. Finally, among the irregular
verbs, Álvares (1578: fols. 55 v-58 v) changes the sequence, beginning with sum
(esse), followed by comedo (comedere), eo (ire) and the defective verbs with
Spanish equivalents (memini, novi, odi, coepi). Under the subtitle “De verbis
anomalis”, he offers the equally irregular verbs, possum (posse), fero (ferre), volo
(velle), nolo (nolle), malo (malle), dic, duc, fac and fio (fieri) as well as the defective
verbs, inquam and aio. Like the earlier edition, the chapter on verb conjugation ends
with the subchapter “De verborum Impersonalium declinatione”. Here, the sole
divergence taking place between the two editions is the substitution of the references
to the Portuguese language by references to Spanish; consequently, the Portuguese
examples are replaced by Spanish ones.
The Role of the Vernacular in the First Two Editions of Manuel Álvares’ ars minor
63
2.3. Portuguese and Spanish compared in the two editions
Without considering this practical didactic question in the ars maior,
Álvares first offers somewhat elaborate considerations upon the vernacular
equivalent of the Latin cum clauses from the ars minor’s first edition and
beyond. The changes occurring in the latter edition can be safely attributed to
the author's desire to target a different public. To illustrate this point, I have
opted to reproduce the initial paragraphs of the commentary, which serve to
preface the list of occurrences and examples, while reproducing only one
example in each category:
Álvares (1573: fols. 16 v–17 r)
Álvares (1578: fols. 25 v–26 v)
Suprà dictum est, quo pacto Cõniunctiuus,
accedẽnte particula Cum, in Lusitanum
conuerteretur: vbi præcipuè substãtiui verbi
exemplis vsi sumus: nunc etiam aliorum
verborum exẽpla ponenda sunt, vt voces
Lusitanas, quæ è regione respondent, maximè
Latinis temporibus conuenire ostendamus.
Coniunctiuus aliorum verborum, accedẽte
particula, Cum, in Lusitanum conuertitur, vel
per indicatiuum, vel per Gerundium tantûm,
vel per Gerundium & Verbum, vel per
Gerũdium simul & Participium, vel per
Indicatiuum & Participium, vel per solum
Participium
SVpra dictum est, quo pacto Coniunctiuus,
accedente particula Cum, in Hispanam
conuerteretur: vbi præcipuè Substantiui verbi
exemplis vsi sumus. Nunc etiam aliorum
verborum exempla ponenda sunt: vt voces
Hispanas, quæ è regione respondent, maxime
Latinis temporibus couuenire [sic!]
ostendamus.
Coniunctiuus aliorum verborum, accedente
particula Cum, in Hispanum conuertitur, vel
per Indicatiuum, vel per Gerundium vnum
tantùm, vel per duplex, vel per Gerundium
simul & Participium, vel per Indicatiuum &
Participium, vel per solum Participium
Per Indicatiuum,
Per Indicatiuum,
Cum te pater tuus vehementer amet,
absentiam tui fert acerbissime: Como vosso
pay vos quer tanto, sente muyto vossa
absencia.
Cum te pater tuus vehementer amet,
absentiam tui fert acerbissimè: Como
vuestro padre os queria tanto, sentia mucho
vuestra ausencia.
Per Gerundium,
Per Gerundium vnum tantùm,
Patrẽ tuum fugis: cũ te vnice amet? Fugijs
de vosso pai, querendouos elle tanto como
se não teuera outro.
Patrem tuum fugis: cùm te vnice amet?
Huys de vuestro padre, queriendo os el
tanto, como si otro no tuuiera?
Per Gerundium duplex;
Cùm has ad te literas exararem, redditæ
mihi sunt tuæ: Estando escriuiendo esta
carta, recebi la tuya.
Mortuus est repentinò, cùm de morte
disputaret: Murio de repente, estando
disputando de la muerte.
With the exception of insignificant changes in accentuation and punctuation,
it seems evident that the only real change in the prefatory text is the substitution of
the three words referring to the Portuguese language (Lusitanum, etc.) by those
referring to Spanish (Hispanam, etc.).
Rolf KEMMLER
64
With these examples and without entering into the theory of their formation
the grammarian makes an effort to describe the equivalents of the Latin cum clauses in
Portuguese and Spanish. It is more noteworthy than in other loci that here his point of
view is not merely that of a Latin grammarian, but that of a Latin teacher who is
determined that his students gain an understanding of these clauses and how to
translate them. By dividing the examples into ‘solution classes’, Álvares also separates
the four types of cum clauses. Thus, he proposes the following translations:
1) ‘cum temporal’ ― “Per Gerundium & Participium”;
2) cum circumstancial’ ― “Per Gerundium & Verbum”, “Per Indicatiuum &
Participium”, “Per Indicatiuum & Participium” and “Per solum Participium”;
3) ‘cum causal’ ― “Per Indicatiuum”;
4) ‘cum concessive’ or ‘cum adversative’ ― “Per Gerundium”;
Belonging to the second of the above mentioned groups, the category “Per
Gerundium duplex” is newly introduced by Álvares (1578). This is not at all
surprising as sentences with a double gerund do occur in Spanish (and might have
been even more frequent in the author’s time). While in Portuguese such a
construction may not be impossible (having even been suggested by the 18th century
grammarian Jerónimo Soares Barbosa, cf., Coelho 2013: 458), the gerund is quite
less often used in European Portuguese (whereas the Brazilian variant of the
Portuguese language tends toward a regular use of the gerund).
3. Conclusion
Similar to what may be observed in previous Latin-Portuguese grammars, the
Portuguese Renaissance grammarian Manuel Álvares consistently used Latin as the
metalanguage of his grammars. Quite obviously, the use of Portuguese equivalents
in Álvares’ chapter De Verborvm Conivgationeever since the publication of the
first ars maior in 1572, cannot be regarded as an achievement of the Madeiran
grammarian but, instead, should be understood as a reflex of a tradition which (in
Portugal) goes back to Máximo de Sousa’s Institutiones (1535).
The brief study of Portuguese in the first edition of the ars minor permits me
to state that Álvares (1573) not only offers vernacular equivalents in some parts of
the verb paradigms but also in some of his scholia. The Portuguese paradigms
themselves offer purely 16th century Portuguese forms, which remains true, even if
other constructions today might seem archaic. Contrary to previous Latin-
Portuguese grammarians, Álvares spent considerable effort on the completion of the
paradigms and the elaboration of new scholia for the ars minor. While some of these
commentaries simply offer explanations of Latin linguistic questions, most of these
scholia were elaborated explicitly for the ars minor.
Having been printed in Lisbon, the second ars minor (Álvares 1578) might
seem like a paradox, as its vernacular equivalents and commentaries refer to Spanish
and not Portuguese. Due to the research of Rogelio Ponce de León Romeo, it has
become a well-known fact that this edition was produced for an exportation to
Spain; this characteristic, after all, is not too surprising. With a considerable number
The Role of the Vernacular in the First Two Editions of Manuel Álvares’ ars minor
65
of new commentaries and even new subchapters, this edition was, indeed,
considerably revised by Manuel Álvares himself, who also oversaw its printing.
8
The texts I have showed in the present paper clearly show Álvares’ concerns
about enabling the Portuguese and the Spanish students that were to use the
respective grammars to understand some of the more peculiar topics of Latin
grammar. The quite frequent use of the verb form conuerterunt one finds along these
scholia indicates that especially his commentaries on the vernacular equivalents of
Latin forms or constructions are linked to the scholarly practice of translating Latin
text into the vernacular (which today still constitutes the classic approach to
understanding and reading Latin texts).
While the nature of Álvares’ Latin scholia (or commentaries) with or without
Portuguese or Spanish example words or sentences is quite evident, the same cannot
be said about the paradigms themselves. While Ponce León Romeo (in press)
consistently prefers talking about ‘translations’ when referring to the paradigms of
the early Latin-Portuguese grammarians, both the quality and the regularity of the
paradigms in Álvares’ artes minores (together with the aforementioned
commentaries on vernacular solutions for Latin constructions) lead me to view
Álvares’ ‘bilingual paradigms’ and commentaries as an immediate precursor of the
17th century innovative tradition that firmly introduced Portuguese as a
metalanguage of Latin-Portuguese grammars (cf. Sanches 2008).
Bibliography
Anonymous 1555: Vtil, y breve Institution, para aprender los principios y fundamentos de la
lengua Hespañola. Institution tresbrieue & tresutile [sic!], pour aprendre les
premiers fondemens, de la langue Espagnole. Institutio breuissima & vtilissima, ad
discenda / prima rudimenta linguæ Hispanicæ. Lovanii, Ex officina Bartholomæi Grauii.
Álvares 11571: Manuel Álvares, De constrvctione octo partivm orationis, Emanuelis Alvaris
Lusitani e Societate Iesv libellus: Nunc primum in lucem editus. Venetiis, Apud
Michaelem Tramezinum.
Álvares 21571: Manuel Álvares, De constrvctione octo partivm orationis liber, Emanuelis
Alvaris Lusitani e Societate Iesv: Cum explicationibus auctoris eiusdem. Venetiis,
Apud Michaelem Tramezinum.
Álvares 11572: Manuel Álvares, Emmanvelis Alvari è Societate Iesv de institvtione
grammatica libri tres. Olyssippone, Excudebat Ioannes Barrerius Typographus
Regius. [= ars maior]
Álvares 11573: Manuel Álvares, Emmanvelis Alvari è Societate Iesv de institvtione
grammatica libri tres. Olyssippone, Excudebat Ioannes Barrerius Typographus
Regius. [= ars minor]
Álvares 1578: Manuel Álvares, Emmanvelis Alvari è Societate Iesv de institvtione
grammatica libri tres. Olysippone, Excudebat Ioannes Riberius, expensis Ioannis
Hispani Bibliopolæ.
Álvares 1579: Manuel Álvares, Emmanvelis Alvari è Societate Iesv de institvtione
grammatica libri tres. Caesaravgvstae, Excudebat Ioannes Alteraque.
8
As a matter of fact, the copy of Álvares (1578) I have been using happens to be his personal copy
with autograph manuscript annotations (Biblioteca Pública de Évora, call number ‘Século XVI 552’).
Rolf KEMMLER
66
Álvares 1583: Manuel Álvares, Emmanvelis Alvari è Societate Iesv, de institvtione
grammatica libri tres. Olysippone, Excudebat Antonius Riberius, expensis Ioannis
Hispani Bibliopolæ.
Álvares 1974: Manuel Álvares, Gramática Latina: Fac-símile da edição de 1572. Com
introdução do Dr. J[osé] Pereira da Costa. Funchal, Junta Geral do Distrito Autónomo do
Funchal.
Coelho 2013: Sónia Catarina Gomes Coelho, A Grammatica Philosophica da Lingua
Portugueza de Jerónimo Soares Barbosa: Edição crítica, estudo e notas. Vila Real,
Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro; Centro de Estudos em Letras (Coleção
Linguística; 10).
Dickey 2008: Eleanor Dickey, Ancient Greek Scholarship: A Guide to Finding, Reading, and
Understanding Scholia, Commentaries, Lexica, and Grammatical Treatises: From
their beginnings to the Byzantine period. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press
(American Philological Association Classical Resources Series).
Kemmler 2012: Rolf Kemmler, “La participación personal del gramático Manuel Álvares en
la difusión de los De institutione grammatica libri tres en España”, in Historiografía
lingüística: líneas actuales de investigación. Ed. por Elena Battaner Moro, Vicente
Calvo Fernández & Peña Palma. 2 vols., Münster, Nodus Publikationen: 512524.
Kemmler 2013: Rolf Kemmler, “Para uma melhor compreensão da história da gramática em
Portugal: a gramaticografia portuguesa à luz da gramaticografia impressa latino-
portuguesa nos séculos XV a XIX, in Veredas: Revista da Associação Internacional
de Lusitanistas, 19: 145176.
Kemmler 2015: Rolf Kemmler, The first edition of the ars minor of Manuel Álvares’ De
institvtione grammatica libri tres (Lisbon, 1573)”, in Historiographia Linguistica,
42/1: 119.
Morwood 1999: James Morwood, A Latin Grammar. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press.
Nebrija 1495: Elio Antonio de Nebrija, Introductiones Latinae. Impressum Salmãnticæ anno
M.cccc. xcv. absolutum pridie calendas octobres [sic!].
Nünlist 2009: René Nünlist, The Ancient Critic at Work: Terms and concepts of literary
criticism in Greek scholia. Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town,
Singapore, São Paulo, Cambridge University Press.
Ponce de León Romeo 2000: Rogelio Ponce de León Romeo, “Las propuestas metodológicas
para la enseñanza del latín en las escuelas portuguesas de la Compañía de Jesús a
mediados del siglo XVI”, in Cuadernos de Filología Clásica: Estudios latinos, 19:
233257.
Ponce de León Romeo 2002: Rogelio Ponce de León Romeo, “Textos gramaticales jesuíticos
para la enseñanza del latín en Portugal: el De constructione octo partium orationis
(Coimbra 1555)”, in Cuadernos de Filología Clásica: Estudios latinos, 22: 211253.
Ponce de León Romeo 2003: Rogelio Ponce de León Romeo, “La difusión de las artes
gramaticales latino-portuguesas en España (siglos XVI–XVII)», in Península: Revista
de Estudos Ibéricos, 0: 119-145
Ponce de León Romeo 2007: Rogelio Ponce de León Romeo, El Álvarez trasladado: el
romance en las ediciones quinientistas portuguesas, castellanas y catalanas de los De
institutione grammatica libri tres (Lisboa 1572) de Manuel Álvares S. I., in Actas
del VI Congreso de Lingüística General (Santiago de Compostela, 37 de mayo de
2004), ed. por Milagros Fernández Pérez, Madrid, Arco Libros. 29752985.
Ponce de León Romeo 2015: Rogelio Ponce de León Romeo. Os verbos impessoais na
gramaticografia latino-portuguesa (1497–1552)”, in Lusofone SprachWissenschafts-
Geschichte II. Hrsg. von Rolf Kemmler, Barbara Schöntag Schäfer-Prieß & Roger
Schoentag. Tübingen, Calepinus Verlag: 212232.
The Role of the Vernacular in the First Two Editions of Manuel Álvares’ ars minor
67
Ponce de León Romeo in press: Rogelio Ponce de León Romeo, Tempos castelhanos?
Notas sobre a tradução para português dos tempos verbais do passado em gramáticas
latino-portuguesas (1535–1615)”. Paper presented: Colóquio Internacional: Tempo,
Espaço e Identidade na Cultura Portuguesa, 40 anos de estudos lusófonos na
Roménia, desafios e perspetivas, 1112 de abril de 2014. Bucharest, Universitatea din
Bucureşti.
RAE / AALE 2010: Real Academia Española / Asociación de Academias de la Lengua
Española, Nueva gramática de la lengua española: Manual. Madrid, Espasa Calpe.
Sánchez 2008: Pedro Sánchez, Arte de Grammatica pera em breve saber Latim. Edição
Facsimilada, com prefácio de Amadeu Torres e estudo introdutório de Rogelio Ponce
de León, Carlos Assunção e Gonçalo Fernandes. Vila Real, Universidade de Trás-Os-
Montes e Alto Douro; Centro de Estudos em Letras (Colecção Linguística; 3).
Schäfer 1993: Barbara Schäfer, “Die Verbalmodi in den Grammatiken von Manuel Alvares
(1572) und Bento Pereira (1672)”. Historiographia Linguistica 20/23: 283308.
Schäfer-Prieß 2010: Barbara Schäfer-Prieß, “Os modos verbais nas gramáticas latino-
portuguesas de Manuel Álvares (1572) e Bento Pereira (1672)”. Tradução por Rolf
Kemmler, in Revista de Letras 9: 121153.
Sousa 1535: Máximo de Sousa, Institutiones tum lucide tum compendiose latinarum
literarum tradite dialogo candidis ac vere pijs cenobitis sancte crucis: Quas pro
futuras reipublice literarie speramus. Colimbrie, Apud coenobium diue crucis.
Abstract
Dedicated to the first two editions of the Jesuit pupil’s Latin textbooks, titled
Emmanvelis Alvari è Societate Iesv de institvtione grammatica libri tres (Lisbon, 1573) that
were published by its author, the Portuguese grammarian Manuel Álvares (15261583), this
paper focuses on the role of the vernacular in the chapter De Verborvm Conivgatione”.
Whereas vernacular equivalents in Latin verb paradigms have been recurring in the Latin-
Portuguese grammar tradition since Máximo de Sousa’s Institutiones (1535), Álvares
maintains Latin as the metalanguage of his grammar, while continuing and improving the
presence of the Portuguese and Spanish vernacular in the paradigms of the grammar’s
respective editions. Additionally, the ars minor editions offer some new scholia with
contrastive observations destined to allow Portuguese and Spanish students a better
understanding of some of the more peculiar topics of Latin grammar.
Thesis
Ce travail de recherche porte sur la grammatisation du vietnamien. Nous avons étudié les ouvrages grammaticaux, composés en latin puis en français, par des missionnaires de diverses congrégations, des administrateurs coloniaux et des grammairiens vietnamiens et français entre 1651 et 1919. L’objectif était de montrer dans un premier temps comment le modèle de la grammaire latine opère dans cette grammatographie, en mettant l’accent sur les spécificités de la langue vietnamienne, telles que les auteurs les ont dégagées. Nous avons mis en évidence, dans un deuxième temps, les conditions, les formes et les effets de la transition du modèle latin vers le modèle français dans la description de la langue et en particulier l’évolution de la conception des parties du discours pendant toute la période considérée.Cette thèse porte aussi sur la création de l’écriture romanisée du vietnamien (quốc ngữ) et sur l’histoire des conceptions linguistiques qui la sous-tendent. Nous avons cherché à comprendre selon quelle logique les missionnaires jésuites des premières générations ont transcrit le vietnamien en ayant recours à l’alphabet du latin et à celui des langues romanes. Nous avons retracé l’évolution de cette écriture. L’étude des manuscrits écrits en vietnamien romanisé nous a aussi permis de faire l’histoire des changements du système consonantique vietnamien depuis le 17e jusqu’au début du 20e siècle. Nous avons montré également quels facteurs religieux, culturels et politiques ont pesé sur cette histoire. L’étude des rapports adressés à leurs supérieurs par les jésuites (à partir de 1615) et par les pères des Missions Étrangères de Paris (à partir de 1663) nous a permis de mettre en lumière le rôle de cette écriture, d’abord comme moyen d’apprentissage destiné aux prêtres étrangers, puis comme moyen de communication entre les missionnaires et les prêtres autochtones. Enfin, nous avons étudié les débats relatifs aux systèmes d’écriture et les choix qu’ils ont entraînés, s’agissant de la politique linguistique menée par l’administration coloniale française en Cochinchine et au Tonkin. Le quốc ngữ est introduit dans l’enseignement en 1861 ; il est ensuite promu écriture officielle et remplace les sinogrammes chez les lettrés et dans les actes administratifs ou juridiques après l’abolition des concours de recrutement des mandarins en 1919.
Article
Full-text available
This paper studies the reception of De institutione grammatica libri tres (Lisbon, 1572), written by the Portuguese humanist Manuel Álvares, SJ (1526-1538), particularly in the kingdom of Castille, from the late 16th century to the end of the 17th century. In this study, we analyse (right through 1698), the reaction to this grammatical art, the modifications the author had to introduce in his grammar, so that it was accepted by the Spanish schools, the problems raised by its Castilian preface, as well as the probable influence it had on the reform of Nebrija¿s art, by Juan Luís de la Cerda, SJ, entitled Institutione grammatica (Madrid, 1598) and in other Spanish Latin grammarians.
Article
The large but underrated corpus of Greek scholia, the marginal and interlinear notes found in manuscripts, is a very important source for ancient literary criticism. The evidence of the scholia significantly adds to and enhances the picture that can be gained from studying the relevant treatises (such as Aristotle's Poetics): scholia also contain concepts that are not found in the treatises, and they are indicative of how the concepts are actually put to use in the progressive interpretation of texts. The book also demonstrates that it is vital to study both ancient terminology and the cases where a particular phenomenon is simply paraphrased. Nineteen thematic chapters provide a repertoire of the various terms and concepts of ancient literary criticism. The relevant witnesses are extensively quoted in Greek and English translation. A glossary of Greek terms (with translation) and several indices enable the book also to be used for reference.
Article
Zusammenfassung Der Artikel beschäftigt sich mit zwei Grammatiken portugiesischer Autoren, der Lateingrammatik De institutione grammatica libri tres von Manuel Alvares (1526–1583), die erstmals 1572 erschien, und der genau 100 Jahre später veröffentlichten lateinisch verfaßten Portugiesischgrammatik Ars grammaticae pro lingua lusitana addiscenda von Bento Pereira. Obwohl die Institutio , die als Lehrwerk der Jesuiten in ganz Europa Verbreitung fand, eine einsprachige Grammatik ist und als solche in Portugal schon seit dem 17. Jahrhundert kritisiert wurde, enthält zumindest die erste, in Lissabon erschienene Auflage zahlreiche Kommentare zum Portugiesischen, und zwar besonders im Kapitel über die Verbalmorphologie, wo Alvares sieben Modi ansetzt, denen er die lateinischen Verbformen und ihre portugiesischen Entsprechungen zuordnet. Bento Pereira (1605–1681), dessen Arte in erster Linie als Portugiesischlehrbuch für ausländische Missionare und Kaufleute, in zweiter als normative Grammatik für Portugiesen gedacht war, übernimmt weitgehend die Darstellung Alvares’, wobei nun die lateinischen Formen zur Übersetzung der portugiesischen dienen. Untersucht werden die Herkunft der Alvares’schen Moduskategorien und ihre Definitionen sowie die Zuordnung der lateinischen und besonders der portugiesischen Formen. Weiteres Interesse gilt den objektsprachlichen Informationen zum Portugiesischen des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts.
Ancient Greek Scholarship: A Guide to Finding, Reading, and Understanding Scholia, Commentaries, Lexica, and Grammatical Treatises: From their beginnings to the Byzantine period
  • Dickey
Dickey 2008: Eleanor Dickey, Ancient Greek Scholarship: A Guide to Finding, Reading, and Understanding Scholia, Commentaries, Lexica, and Grammatical Treatises: From their beginnings to the Byzantine period. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press (American Philological Association Classical Resources Series).
Os modos verbais nas gramáticas latinoportuguesas de Manuel Álvares (1572) e Bento Pereira (1672)". Tradução por Rolf Kemmler
  • Schäfer-Prieß
Schäfer-Prieß 2010: Barbara Schäfer-Prieß, "Os modos verbais nas gramáticas latinoportuguesas de Manuel Álvares (1572) e Bento Pereira (1672)". Tradução por Rolf Kemmler, in Revista de Letras 9: 121-153.
Os verbos impessoais na gramaticografia latino-portuguesa (1497-1552)
  • Ponce De
  • León Romeo
Ponce de León Romeo 2015: Rogelio Ponce de León Romeo. "Os verbos impessoais na gramaticografia latino-portuguesa (1497-1552)", in Lusofone SprachWissenschafts-Geschichte II. Hrsg. von Rolf Kemmler, Barbara Schöntag Schäfer-Prieß & Roger Schoentag. Tübingen, Calepinus Verlag: 212-232.
El Álvarez trasladado: el romance en las ediciones quinientistas portuguesas, castellanas y catalanas de los De institutione grammatica libri tres (Lisboa 1572) de Manuel Álvares S. I
  • León Ponce De
  • Romeo
Ponce de León Romeo 2007: Rogelio Ponce de León Romeo, " El Álvarez trasladado: el romance en las ediciones quinientistas portuguesas, castellanas y catalanas de los De institutione grammatica libri tres (Lisboa 1572) de Manuel Álvares S. I. ", in Actas del VI Congreso de Lingüística General (Santiago de Compostela, 3–7 de mayo de 2004), ed. por Milagros Fernández Pérez, Madrid, Arco Libros. 2975–2985.