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Exploring the Relationship between Organizational Culture, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

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Abstract

p> This study examined the interaction between organizational culture, organizational citizenship behaviours and job satisfaction. While organizational culture plays an important role in affecting performance indirectly, other variables mediate and moderate the relationship. This study was based on a sample of 127 Egyptian participants undertaking an MBA course. Results showed positive significant correlations between four types of organizational culture, job satisfaction and citizenship behaviour individually. Job satisfaction mediated the relationship between culture and citizenship behaviour. However, the mediation effect was weak. Further discussion, implications and research limitations are discussed. </p

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... Elég kevés olyan forrás áll rendelkezésre, amely kultúratipológiák szerint vizsgálta az OCB-t. Badawy et al. (2016) (2019) vizsgálatai is megerősítették, a dél-koreai sportágazatban 606 fő bevonásával végzett kutatásuk tanulsága szerint az OCBvel az összes kultúratípus összefüggésben van, a legerősebb kapcsolatot szintén a klánkultúránál tapasztalták. A mérőeszköz összeállításához ugyancsak a Quinn-féle versengő modellből (4-4 kérdés vonatkozott az egyes kultúratípusokra) és az Organ-féle OCB-dimenziókból indultak ki -utóbbihoz Padsakoff et al. (1990) itemeit használták. ...
... Az észlelt szervezeti kultúra típusaira vonatkozó kérdésekre adott átlagértékek a köz-és versenyszférában dolgozó megkérdezettek körében *p<0,05 **p<0,01 Forrás: saját ábra saját szerkesztéssel Az észlelt szervezeti kultúra típusai és a szervezeti polgár magatartás dimenziói közötti kapcsolatot két táblázat mutatja be, a 4. táblázat a versenyszféra, az 5. táblázat pedig a közszféra megkérdezetteinek válaszai alapján készült. Az általunk kapott eredmények megerősítették a témában korábban végzett korábbi kutatások tapasztalatait (Badawy et al., 2016;Jeong et al., 2019). A versenyszférában dolgozó válaszadók körében mind a négy észlelt kultúratípus (klán, adhokrácia, hierarchia, piac) összefüggésben van a szervezeti polgár magatartással, a legerősebb kapcsolatot azonban nem a klán, hanem a piac szervezeti kultúra esetében mértük. ...
... és Jeong et al. (2019) a versenyszférában,Kim (2014) pedig a közszférában végeztek ilyen jellegű vizsgálatokat.Badawy et al. (2016) 127 versenyszférában dolgozó MBA-hallgató kérdőíves megkérdezésének eredménye szerint mind a négy kultúratípus (klán, adhokrácia, hierarchia, piac) összefüggésben van a szervezeti polgár magatartással -a legerősebb összefüggést a klán szervezeti kultúrával (r=0,414) mérték, azt követi a piac (r=0,358), a hierarchia (r=0,316) és az adhok ...
Article
A tanulmány célja feltárni, hogy a közszférában és a versenyszférában dolgozó munkavállalók által észlelt szervezeti kultúra, valamint az általuk tanúsított szervezeti polgár magatartás között van-e statisztikailag kimutatható kapcsolat. Ennek érdekében a szerzők kérdőíves megkérdezést alkalmaztak, kényelmi mintán történt a tesztelés. Az összesen 410 értékelhető válaszív beérkezését követően nem-paraméteres statisztikai próbák segítségével elemezték az adatokat. Az eredmények alapján megállítható, hogy a magánszférában dolgozó válaszadók körében mind a négy észlelt kultúratípus jellegzetességei, az állami szektorban foglalkoztatott megkérdezettek esetében pedig csupán az észlelt klán- és hierarchiakultúra jegyei vannak összefüggésben a szervezeti polgár magatartással. A kutatás emellett arra is rávilágított, hogy a szervezeti polgár magatartás minden dimenziója magasabb az állami szektorban foglalkoztatottak minősítései alapján, a versenyszektorban dolgozó megkérdezettek pedig fokozottabban észlelik a piac, az adhokrácia és a klánkultúra jegyeit.
... Organizational culture is always considered an important topic and is never out of date. Organizational culture arises from each employee whose interactions create rituals, common language, and ultimately a behavior code is created to be able to help or hinder the organization's goals (Aly, Badawy, Kamel, & Hussein, 2016). Organizational culture consists of a set of values, beliefs, customs, principles and ways of thinking possessed by their members, dimensions, components, and several variables for organizational culture are presented in research variables and indicators of organizational culture in two dimensions and structural behavior is studied (Markoczylivia & Xin, 2004). ...
... They are optional behavior, they are not considered in appreciation or judgment. Organizational citizenship behavior towards organizations (OCB) is all behavior that is targeted to benefit the organization as a whole or certain departments such as volunteering to attend events that benefit the company, avoid complaining at work and preserve available resources (Aly et al., 2016). According to Ghashghaeinia & Hafezi (2015), the main research conducted in the field of organizational citizenship behavior is more to identify the responsibilities or behaviors that employees have in the organization, but are often overlooked. ...
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The contribution of organizational culture to the organization which includes the uniqueness of values, behavior, and psychology is needed by the organization. It also includes trust, experience, ways of thinking, and organizational expectations. Improving employee behavior into organizational citizenship behavior is needed by every organization. To bring OCB to employees, a well-formed commitment is needed. This study uses a quantitative approach to test 3 hypotheses using path analysis to see the role of mediation. Respondents numbered 169 in this study. The results found in this study are that mediators play a maximum role between organizational culture and OCB.
... Research on the influence of organizational culture on employee performance and OCB has been studied in both developed and developing countries. Countries that are sources of research data related to the impact of organizational culture on employee performance and OCB include South Korea, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Egypt (Pham et al., 2018;Martinez, 2021;El Badawy et al., 2016;Yunduk et al., 2019); and the United States (Desselle et al., 2018). ...
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The application of AKHLAK as the value and culture of SOE companies reflects on each individual employee to always provide the best performance for the company and the country. Since 2020, AKHLAK has become a value and commitment for every individual in the company to achieve more performance in terms of employee obligations and even beyond the standardization of the work provided or what is known as OCB (Organizational Citizenship Behaviour) and employee job satisfaction in terms of employee rights at SOE. The researcher took a sample of SOE Insurance companies in Batam City because Batam is a metropolitan city with an advanced economic aspect, a low minimum wage index, and the highest population in the Riau Archipelago Province. Researchers used quantitative research methods that aimed to examine the influence of organizational culture, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction on employee performance as mediated by OCB in 113 samples distributed through the medium of questionnaires at Insurance Holding SOE companies in Batam City. The results showed that, by direct test, organizational culture, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction influence OCB, as well as the effect of job satisfaction on employee performance. Organizational culture and organizational commitment do not affect employee performance. From the results of the indirect effect test, organizational commitment and job satisfaction affect employee performance with OCB as a mediating variable. With OCB as a moderating variable, organizational culture has no effect on employee performance.
... Organizational culture is an organizational system in which there are meanings, values, and beliefs that become a reference for acting and differentiate one organization from another (Arumi et al., 2019). It is a collection of ideologies, philosophies, values, behavior, attitudes, and norms that apply in an organization (El Badawy et al., 2016). Culture has an important role in company performance. ...
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... This means that in today's world of organizations characterized by expectations of higher work productivity, it is not surprising that organizations need employees who go beyond the call of duty and provide performance that exceeds expectations, which is involved in organizational citizenship behavior. Study conducted by Badawy et al., (2016) employees engaged in citizenship behavior to help each other and tighten their social relationships. The low level of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of employees is indicated by several factors, namely lack of job satisfaction, other interests during working hours, dissatisfaction with superiors and organizations, lack of communication between employees and incompatibility with colleagues is also one of the causes of low organizational citizenship employee behavior (OCB). ...
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... Some research results, including Banhwa et al. (2014), found that OCB was influenced by Organizational Employees and Engagement Strategies. According to Zanuchi et al. (2014) and Badawy et al., (2016), OCB is influenced by organizational culture and job satisfaction. Likewise Kasraie Sh et al. (2014), there is a significant positive relationship between work life quality, job stress, job satisfaction, and citizenship behavior. ...
... Subsequently the increase of intention to quit will result in lower performance and negative outcomes for employees in daily task (Umi Narimawati, 2007 ;Kasa and Hassan, 2015) Intention to quit can be reduced by increasing the commitment from strong culture (Awadh and Saad, 2013). Strong organizational culture provides more competitive advantage through commitment, strong association, and establishment of culture (Awadh and Saad, 2013;El Badawy, Kamel and Magdy, 2016). Thus, every company is attempting to have this competitive advantage to compete against competitors. ...
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The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationships between GLOBE organizational culture dimensions, facets of job satisfaction and the leadermember exchange relation in Serbian organizations. One of the most important aspects of this study was the demonstration of the utility of applying more general cultural theory to the study of organizational cultures. The sample consists of 256 middle managers in Serbian organizations. The results obtained proved that organizational culture dimensions are significant predictors of all facets of job satisfaction and that relations between some organizational culture dimensions and facets of job satisfaction are moderated by the leader-member exchange (LMX) variable. Our results may be of interest for human resource managers in Serbian organizations as well as for foreign investors. Das Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, die Beziehungen zwischen den GLOBE Kultur-Dimensionen, der Arbeitszufriedenheit und dem Führer-Mitarbeiter-Verhältnis in serbischen Organisationen zu untersuchen. Einer der wichtigsten Aspekte dieser Studie war die Demonstration der Nützlichkeit der Anwendung allgemeiner Kulturtheorien bei der Untersuchung von Unternehmenskulturen. Die Stichprobe besteht aus 256 mittleren Führungskräften aus serbischen Organisationen. Die erzielten Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Organisationskultur-Dimensionen signifikante Prädiktoren für alle Facetten der Arbeitszufriedenheit sind. Zudem werden die Beziehungen zwischen den Organisationskultur-Dimensionen und der Arbeitszufriedenheit durch die Führer-Mitarbeiter-Verhältnis-Variable moderiert. Unsere Ergebnisse können für Personalmanager in serbischen Organisationen von Interesse sein, ebenso wie für ausländische Investoren.
Article
Job Satisfaction at work has an influence on the level of Organizational Citizenship Behavior and in turn on work performance. The aim of this study is to determine and establish a relationship between Job Satisfaction (JS) and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) among faculty in higher education institutions. In this study we have employed the Wong’s Job Satisfaction and Organ’s Organizational Citizenship Behavior inventories to quantify the JS and OCB levels respectively. Samples from 252 faculty members in Tamil Nadu, India were used to obtain the empirical base for the study. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to interpret the data. Our results demonstrate that there is a positive relationship between JS and factors that constitute the OCB.
Article
This study investigated the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and turnover intention in 162 production workers in the same organization within Malaysia, Germany and England. Further, differences in ratings of OCB across cultures were examined. Self-report questionnaires measuring turnover intention and five dimensions of OCB (altruism, courtesy, conscientiousness, sportsmanship and civic virtue) were administered to the samples. Results illustrated that OCB related significantly to turnover intention, with sportsmanship emerging as the strongest predictor of turnover intention across cultures. Cultural differences in OCB ratings were seen, with the Malaysian sample generally scoring higher than the other two samples. However, the relationship between OCB and turnover intention was similar within each culture group. Explanations of the findings and limitations are discussed.
Article
This study examines whether individually held cultural values moderate the relationship between transformational leadership behavior of supervisors and the job involvement of subordinates in the Middle Eastern organizational context. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to analyze survey data from 229 employees of 10 organizations in the United Arab Emirates. In line with the findings of studies in Western countries, transformational leadership was found to influence job involvement positively. In addition, the cultural value orientations of individuals were found to moderate this relationship. Collectivism positively influenced the relationship between transformational leadership and job involvement, whereas uncertainty avoidance had a negative effect. These findings provide an insight into how transformational leadership may be used to motivate culturally diverse groups of employees within the Middle East. To enhance job involvement, organizations need to realize that the attitudinal response of subordinates to transformational leadership can depend on their cultural values. This has significant implications regarding the training and effective deployment of transformational leaders within Middle Eastern organizations.
Article
Purpose The purpose of the study is to examine whether and how different types of organizational culture are associated with job satisfaction and turnover intention among hospital nurses in Korea, where the work culture is often considered different from that of Western countries. Design/methodology/approach The sample for the study consists of 527 nurses working in two public hospitals in Korea. Perceived organizational culture was assessed by a previously validated 20‐item instrument, and job satisfaction and turnover intention were measured by self‐report questionnaires. Factor analysis was employed to construct four different types of culture (consensual, rational, developmental, and hierarchical). The relationship among organizational culture, job satisfaction, and turnover intention was tested by structural equation modeling (SEM). Findings Among the different types of culture, consensual culture and rational culture had significant, positive associations with the nurses' job satisfaction. In addition, consensual culture exhibited the strongest, negative association with the turnover intention of the nurses, while hierarchical culture showed a significant, positive association. Research limitations/implications Consensual culture that emphasizes teamwork and values human relations was most strongly associated with higher job satisfaction and lower turnover intention of nurses in Korea. However, caution is needed in inferring that organizational culture is the cause of the nursing outcomes because this study is designed as a cross‐sectional study; thus, an association alone was proven and not causality. Practical implications Managers should be aware that understanding the organizational culture can help them to determine where to strive to help improve nurses' job satisfaction and retention rate. Originality/value The results of the study may be useful to health administrators who wish to decrease nurse turnover. Improving nurses' job satisfaction in the work environment may reduce turnover and help ensure a stable and qualified workforce.
Article
The influence of individuals’ congruence with an organization’s culture on their affective orientations toward the organization has been the focus of a growing body of research. The present study contributes to this research by examining this relationship (I) in the context of an organization undergoing significant cultural transformation, and (2) across four theoretically identified dimensions of culture. We found that, across all four culture dimensions, the discrepancy between individuals’ assessments of the current culture and their ideal culture explained significant variance in two organization-focused affective outcomes, organizational commitment and optimism about the organization’s future. In contrast, the congruence effects across the four culture dimensions were not uniformly significant for job satisfaction, job involvement, and job turnover intention. The implications of these findings for future individual-culture congruence theory and research are considered.
Article
Investigates the relationships between employees’ perceptions of organisational culture and subculture, and job satisfaction and commitment. Questionnaires containing the above measures were distributed to nurses employed in seven large hospitals and a total of 251 responses were obtained. Measures of leadership style and employee demographics were also included in the questionnaire. Regression analysis was used to investigate the extent to which nurses’ job satisfaction and commitment to their wards are predicted by their perceptions of the hospitals’ cultures (or organisational culture), the cultures of their wards (or organisation subculture), the leadership styles of their ward managers, and several demographic characteristics including age, experience, education and job tenure. It was found that ward culture was more predictive of commitment than was hospital culture. Also, statistically controlling for job satisfaction did not substantially reduce the influence on commitment of any of the independent variables included in this study. The results suggest that managers may need to focus more on organizational subcultures in generating greater commitment among employees.
Article
Previous research on organizational citizenship behavior indicates that such behavior is critical for organizational effectiveness, but little theoretical work details how it might contribute to enhanced organizational functioning. Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) argue that a firm's social capital comprises a critical source of sustainable organizational advantage. Based on their work, we suggest that citizenship behaviors enhance firm functioning by contributing to the development of social capital in organizations; specifically, citizenship behaviors contribute to the creation of structural, relational, and cognitive forms of social capital.
Article
This paper examines the correlation between organizational culture, psychological contract and job satisfaction in the context of cooperation between employers and employees in a new social and economical environment. The empirical study is based on the analysis of the personnel survey data from thirteen St. Petersburg and Moscow companies. The typology of organizational cultures was evaluated using the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) methodology by K. Cameron and R. Quinn (2003). Job satisfaction was evaluated using A. Meier's questionnaire modified for our purposes. The research shows that organizations with different types of organizational culture differ in the level of job satisfaction of employees. According to our data, market culture mainly creates the conditions for the satisfaction of self-affirmation needs; hierarchic culture, for the satisfaction of cooperation and safety needs; clan culture, for the satisfaction of respect needs; adhocratic culture, for the satisfaction of self-actualization needs.
Article
Discusses corporate culture and career management, and analyzes 3 organizational cultures: bureaucratic, innovative, and supportive cultures. Career management is the process of assessing and matching individual and organizational goals, present and future. Through increased self-awareness and knowledge of a range of career options, employees become more active in developing and implementing realistic career goals. However, attention must also be given to the other critical match that affects career success: an individual employee's motivations and personality and the corporate culture. (6 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Research on commitment, procedural fairness, and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) suggests that employees maintain distinct beliefs about, and direct behaviors towards, multiple targets in the workplace (e.g., the organization as a whole, their supervisor, and fellow workgroup members). The present studies were designed to test for “target similarity effects,” in which the relationships between commitment, procedural fairness, and OCB were expected to be stronger when they referred to the same target than when they referred to different targets. As predicted, we found that: (1) the positive relationship between commitment and OCB, and (2) the mediating effect of commitment on the positive relationship between procedural fairness and OCB, was particularly likely to emerge when the constructs were in reference to the same target. Support for these target similarity effects was found among layoff survivors (Study 1) and student project teams (Study 2). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, as are limitations of the studies and suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Despite an abundance of research conducted on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) at the individual level of analysis, relatively little is known about unit-level OCB. To investigate the antecedents of unit-level OCB, data were collected from employees of 249 grocery store departments. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to test a model in which procedural justice climate was hypothesized to partially mediate the relationship between leadership behavior (servant-leadership) and unit-level OCB. Models were tested using both employee ratings and manager ratings of unit-level OCB. The results gave general support for the hypotheses, although there were some differences depending on the source of the OCB ratings (supervisor or subordinate), whether the type of department was controlled for, and whether a common method variance factor was included. Overall, the evidence generally supported the association of both servant-leadership and procedural justice climate with unit-level OCB. Building on the current study, a multilevel framework for the study of OCB is presented in conjunction with a discussion of future research directions in four specific areas.
Article
Customer satisfaction has been identified as an important relationship marketing outcome. As such, firms should continually track and assess customer satisfaction. The following study examines how four elements of corporate culture combine to form an optimal mix that encourages attention to and measurement of customer satisfaction. Culture is operationalized as a pattern of values and beliefs that aid individuals in understanding organizational functioning. A profile deviation analysis reveals that an optimal mix of the marketing corporate culture elements of adhocracy, clan, market, and hierarchy does exist and is positively related to customer satisfaction assessment activities. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
In recent years, the employer expectations have witnessed an upward surge, in anticipation of certain discretionary behaviors out of their employees, which fall beyond the purview of workplace requirement and reward systems. All this apparently is to ensure long service periods and bring out the Organizational Citizen’ within the employee in the organizational context. The present paper is an attempt to examine and investigate the extent of impact that a given Organizational Culture has on Citizenship Behaviors of the employees in an Organization. The study examines the impact of select Culture variables on Organizational Citizenship Behavior across three dominant Organizations representing three sectors of the economy namely, Manufacturing, and Information Technology & Banking. The paper specifically aims at establishing a cause effect relationship between dominant Organizational culture characteristics on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors.
Article
The high turnover of nurses has become a global problem. Several studies have proposed that nurses' perceptions of the ethical climate of their organization are related to higher job satisfaction and organizational commitment and thus lead to higher organizational citizenship behaviors. This study uses hierarchical regression to understand which types of ethical climate, facets of job satisfaction, and the three components of organizational commitment influence different dimensions of organizational citizenship behaviors. Questionnaires were distributed to 450 nurses, and 352 usable questionnaires were returned. The findings of the article suggest that hospitals can increase organizational citizenship behaviors by influencing an organization's ethical climate, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Hospital administrators can foster within organizations, the climate types of caring, law and code and rules climate, satisfaction with coworkers, and affective commitment and normative commitment that increase organizational citizenship behavior, while preventing organizations from developing the type of instrumental climate and continuance commitment that decreases it.
Article
Evidence suggesting that job satisfaction is caused by individual dispositions is reviewed, and stability coefficients for job satisfaction in previous studies are analysed with a meta-analytic procedure. Previous longitudinal studies analysing job changer samples imply an upper limit estimate of 0.51 for direct dispositional influences on job satisfaction. A study of job changers considering the stability of working conditions suggests that this estimate has to be considerably corrected downwards. At present, it is concluded that it is more likely that dispositions indirectly affect job satisfaction via selection and self-selection processes. Implications for job satisfaction as a tool for organizational assessment are discussed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) are typically defined as discretionary behaviors that contribute to the effective functioning of organizations. Prior research has generally focused on instances in which employees willingly engage in such behaviors; however, because OCBs are often informally encouraged and rewarded, workers may experience pressure to be “good soldiers” within their organizations. Using a sample of 245 employees, our findings indicate that citizenship pressure is related to increased levels of OCB, particularly among unmarried and less conscientious employees. However, there appear to be negative consequences associated with citizenship pressure, even when controlling for OCB and other job demands, such as role overload and hours worked. In particular, citizenship pressure is associated with work–family conflict, work–leisure conflict, job stress, and intentions to quit. Implications of this study and some directions for future research are also discussed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This article examines the processes by which market orientation (MO) affects performance using a cross-level approach. The results of a survey of 2,754 employees from 180 firms in China show that organization-level MO culture leads to unit-level MO behavior, which improves employee-level job satisfaction and then product quality, which in turn fosters organizational performance. In particular, MO behavior fully mediates the effects of MO culture on employee satisfaction, product quality, and organizational performance. Leadership quality strengthens the effect of MO culture on unit-level MO behavior. Moreover, MO behavior enhances firm performance indirectly through employee job satisfaction and product quality. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Analyzing data on classified employees working in 18 departments in a university, this paper uses hierarchical linear models to explore the effects of social context on workers' job satisfaction. Drawing on organizational demographers' claims that satisfying social relations in the workplace have demographic sources and that workers are more satisfied in demographically homogeneous work units, we examine the effects of department-level sex and race heterogeneity on workers' feelings about their jobs. Our results show that satisfaction levels are lower in more sex- and race-heterogeneous departments, as hypothesized. In addition, we found that satisfaction is higher in departments with higher average levels of job tenure, though the individual-level effect of tenure on job satisfaction was not statistically significant. Our results provide support for a social-relational view of work and demonstrate the usefulness of multilevel models as an analytic strategy for examining these issues.
Article
This study examines the question: Why would an employee engage in work that enhances organizational performance but is not necessarily recognized or rewarded by his or her employer? This study suggests that this question can be answered in part by the degree to which an employee endorses the Protestant work ethic (PWE). The relationship between the PWE and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) is analyzed using two separate survey data samples. Findings support a positive and significant relationship between OCB and two dimensions of the PWE, hard work and independence.
Article
Purpose This study seeks to address the challenge of repatriate turnover by focusing on how effective repatriation adjustment, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment are at predicting the Taiwanese repatriates' intentions to leave their organization. By building on the cross‐cultural adjustment and turnover theories and researches, this study expands these recent findings to Taiwanese repatriates. Design/methodology/approach Multiple regression was used to predict intent to leave and explain the impact of the three predictors on intent to leave. Correlation was used to compare the relationship of study variables. Findings The results of multiple regression indicated that repatriation adjustment was the strongest predictor of intent to leave followed by organizational commitment. The combination of the three variables can predict approximately 58 percent of the variance of intent to leave. Overall interrelations among the independent variables showed a positive strong relationship and negatively related to intent to leave the organization. Practical implications The results provide empirical evidence that repatriation adjustment, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment are negatively related to intent to leave the organization. Furthermore, the conceptual framework of this study can be a guide to future research in repatriates' turnover intention. Originality/value The results of this study may help multinational organizations in Taiwan to enhance the international assignment process of their employees and keep valuable human capital within the organization.
Article
Past research has suggested that dispositional sources of job satisfaction can be traced to measures of affective temperament. The present research focused on another concept, core self-evaluations, which were hypothesized to comprise self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and nonneuroticism. A model hypothesized that core self-evaluations would have direct effects on job and life satisfaction. It also was hypothesized that core self-evaluations would have indirect effects on job satisfaction. Data were collected from 3 independent samples in 2 countries, using dual source methodology. Results indicated that core self-evaluations had direct and indirect effects on job and life satisfaction. The statistical and logical relationship among core evaluations, affective disposition, and satisfaction was explored.
Article
To examine the relationship between job stress, social support, and organizational citizenship behaviors, by using job satisfaction and organizational commitment as intervening variables among public health nurses (PHNs) in rural areas of Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used to sample all 265 PHNs in two rural counties of Taiwan. Of those, 231 (87.2%) PHNs responded. A mailed survey questionnaire was sent to subjects for completion in early 2004. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analyses, and multiple regression analyses. With six multiple regression models, intervening effects were explored by the approach of Baron and Kenny (1986). Supervisor support indirectly influenced organizational citizenship behaviors through the intervening effect of organizational commitment, whereas, kinship support, role ambiguity, and workload demonstrated direct impacts on organizational citizenship behaviors. This study provides insights into how social support and job stress impacted PHNs' organizational citizenship behaviors. Those PHNs who experienced more supervisor support exhibited higher levels of organizational citizenship behaviors via the intervening effect of organizational commitment.
Article
This paper summarizes the author's recently published findings about differences in people's work-related values among 50 countries. In view of these differences, ethnocentric management theories (those based on the value system of one particular country) have become untenable. This concept is illustrated for the fields of leadership, organization, and motivation.© 1983 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1983) 14, 75–89
The Organizational Culture of Learfield Sports Properties (PhD thesis)
  • B Worley
Worley, B. (2010). The Organizational Culture of Learfield Sports Properties (PhD thesis). International Journal of Human Resource Studies ISSN 2162-3058 2016, Vol. 6, No. 4
Can organizational culture predict individual and organizational level factors?
  • Ü Übius
  • R Alas
Übius, Ü. & Alas, R. (2008). Can organizational culture predict individual and organizational level factors? EBS Review, 25, 39-60.
Organizational cultures in public and private Portuguese International Journal of Human Resource Studies ISSN
  • A Ferreira
  • M Hill
Ferreira, A. & Hill, M. (2007). Organizational cultures in public and private Portuguese International Journal of Human Resource Studies ISSN 2162-3058 2016, Vol. 6, No. 4 31 universities: A case study. Higher Education, 55(6), 637-650.
Insights into organizational challenges
  • D Du Preez
Du Preez, D. (2003). Insights into organizational challenges. People Dynamics, 21(9), 28-30.