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Social mentalities: Internal ‘social’ conflicts and the role of inner warmth and compassion in cognitive therapy

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... However, there are several limitations in the present study. Firstly, only external sources of criticism were examined in the present study although another equally significant source of criticism is the self, where self-criticism can be thought of as relating to a form of negative selfjudgment and self-evaluation [66,67]. Similarly, self-criticism is a clinically relevant construct where excessive self-criticism has been shown to associated with a range of psychological disorders such as mood disorder [66] and social anxiety [68]. ...
... Firstly, only external sources of criticism were examined in the present study although another equally significant source of criticism is the self, where self-criticism can be thought of as relating to a form of negative selfjudgment and self-evaluation [66,67]. Similarly, self-criticism is a clinically relevant construct where excessive self-criticism has been shown to associated with a range of psychological disorders such as mood disorder [66] and social anxiety [68]. It has also been proposed that selfcriticism may stimulate the same neurophysiological systems as external criticism [66,69]. ...
... Similarly, self-criticism is a clinically relevant construct where excessive self-criticism has been shown to associated with a range of psychological disorders such as mood disorder [66] and social anxiety [68]. It has also been proposed that selfcriticism may stimulate the same neurophysiological systems as external criticism [66,69]. Hence, future studies can look into comparing the differences in neural responses between self and external criticism. ...
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The prevalence of criticism in everyday social situations, and its empirically demonstrated association with psychopathology, highlight the importance of understanding neural mechanisms underlying the perception and response of individuals to criticism. However, neuroimaging studies to date have been limited largely to maternal criticism. The present study aims to investigate neural responses to observing criticism occurring in the context of three different relationship types: romantic partners, friends, and parents-from a third-party perspective. 49 participants were recruited and asked to rate the perceived criticism for these relationships. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure changes in oxygenated haemoglobin levels in the prefrontal cortex when participants read vignettes describing three different scenarios of criticism. Participants were randomly assigned to 3 groups where the given description of the relationship of the protagonist to the source of criticism for each vignette was randomised. A significant interaction between relationship type and perceived criticism ratings for mothers was found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Compared to low perceived criticism, high perceived criticism individuals showed increased activation reading vignettes describing criticism from romantic partners and parents but decreased activation for those from friends. Findings contribute to understanding neural responses to criticism as observed from a third-party perspective. Future studies can look into differentiating neural responses of personalised experiences of criticism and third-party observations.
... He believed that "unless you're a success, y o u 're a fa ilu re " and "I f y o u 're not superior, y o u 're inferior". These beliefs generated frequent social rank comparisons between himself and others, known to be common to depression-prone individuals (Gilbert, 2000). The accident, in conjunction with his weight gain and dichotomous beliefs regarding success, led him to 'lose status' ...
... Internal shame is highly correlated with external shame (Gilbert, 1998), which refers to fear of being judged negatively, as subordinate, or a failure by others. BD experienced this with other men, as he engaged in 'mind-reading', assuming that they would judge him by his own high standards (Gilbert, 2000). Gilbert (1998) describes shame as 'coordinating' affect, particularly self-disgust, anger (attacking self and others) and anxiety, all of which BD experienced as a result o f his intrusions and appraisals. ...
... Indeed, BD found it extremely hard to disclose his thoughts and feelings about the RTA for this reason. Gilbert (2000) suggests that therapeutic neutrality should therefore be avoided, as it can intensify patients' fears o f negative evaluation. Instead, 'active, affective engagement' and warmth are recommended as central to the development o f a strong therapeutic alliance in which BD would feel safe to disclose. ...
Thesis
'Drug-rape', an increasingly prevalent crime (Sturman, 2001), occurs when a centrally acting drug is administered to a victim to facilitate a sexual assault or rape. The effects of the drugs used include muscle relaxation, disinhibition and anterograde amnesia. Experimental and clinical research has demonstrated that these drugs impair conceptual processing and explicit memory, whilst sparing data-driven processing and implicit memory (Bishop and Curran, 1995; Curran, 2000). These drug effects share similarities with dissociation, a known predictor of PTSD (Mechanic et al, 1998). The present study is the first to systematically explore the psychological consequences of drug-rape and associated memory loss. A retrospective self-report design was employed, using both questionnaires (N = 29) and interviews (N = 12). Participants were female drug-rape survivors (over 18 years old) who were recruited through rape support organisations. Informed by current cognitive conceptualisations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), memory and cognitive psychopharmacology (e.g. Brewin et al, 1996; Ehlers and Clark, 2000; Curran. 2000), it was hypothesised that a number of factors would predict the prevalence and severity of PTSD. This was selected as the primary outcome variable as prospective research demonstrates that most rape survivors develop PTSD (Rothbaum et al, 1992). Eighty percent of participants reported moderate to severe PTSD, with clinical levels of anxiety and depression being reported by 90[percent] and 69[percent] respectively. Participants reported persistent and extensive anterograde amnesia of the rape. However, even with extensive impairment of explicit memory, all reported distressing, involuntary intrusive memories characterised by a strong sense of 'reliving' the rape. The prevalence and severity of PTSD was not significantly associated with loss of consciousness during the rape, or extent of perceived amnesia, and was comparable with other trauma populations. Ratings of peritraumatic dissociation significantly predicted PTSD symptomatology, as found in previous research (e.g. Griffin et al, 1997). A diagnosis of PTSD requires that individuals experience intense fear, helplessness or horror during trauma (criterion A2: DSM-IV, APA, 1994), and experience actual or perceived threat to physical integrity (criterion A1). Participants reported high levels mental confusion and helplessness, but very low levels of fear during the assault, and sixty-five percent of participants reported no perceived life threat. This indicates that the drugs have significant anxiolytic effects even during rape. Consequently, over a third of participants did not meet criterion A1 or A2. Importantly, these participants reported re-experiencing arousal and avoidance PTSD symptoms of comparable severity to those who met criterion A. In fact, reduced fear during rape was associated with higher negative appraisals, fear and PTSD post-assault. The results of this study suggest that the drugs impair cognitive and emotional processing during sexual assault. These impairments, which show similarities to dissociation, elicit more extensive negative appraisals post-assault, and have repercussions for subsequent emotional processing. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that significant posttraumatic symptomatology is not precluded by a reduced emotional response during rape, or by persistent and severe impairment of explicit memory. The findings of this research are further considered in relation to both clinical implications and current theoretical conceptualisations of PTSD.
... CFT is an integrative, multidisciplinary, process-based therapy that utilizes insights and wisdoms from many of the main schools of psychotherapy (Gilbert, 1989(Gilbert, /2016(Gilbert, , 2007a(Gilbert, ,b, 2019Bell et al., 2020a,b;Fox et al., 2020) with increasing evidence of effectiveness (Craig et al., 2020;Fox et al., 2020). CFT was developed with and for people with mental health difficulties, particularly those who had not responded to other therapies, who had problems with self-criticism, shame, and trauma, often came from difficult backgrounds (Gilbert, 2000(Gilbert, , 2010Gilbert and Choden, 2013) and were fearful and/or distrustful of compassion from others and/or for self (Pauley and McPherson, 2010;Gilbert et al., 2011Gilbert et al., , 2014Kirby et al., 2019). This paper is in two main sections. ...
... Understanding how and why caring and compassion evolved gives insight into a whole range of biopsychosocial processes (e.g., Gilbert, 1989Gilbert, /2016Gilbert, , 2005aGilbert, , 2009aGilbert, , 2017aDepue and Morrone-Strupinsky, 2005;Goetz et al., 2010;Porges and Furman, 2011;Keltner et al., 2014;Brown, 2015, 2017;Carter et al., 2017;Porges, 2017;Petrocchi and Cheli, 2019). Recognizing that compassion can be understood as an evolved strategy, supporting survival and reproduction, and as a basic, personally experienced motivation that can be in conflict with other strategies and motivations (Gilbert, 2000), such as self-focused competitiveness, offers insight into its role in social behavior and mental states. Hence, rather than focusing on a clustering of "symptoms" or suggested "attributes, " the evolutionary approach seeks the origins of compassion in the evolution of caring motives and behavior, which then allows for the identification of the phylogenetic journey of the algorithms and physiological systems that make caring-compassion possible (Gilbert, 1989(Gilbert, /2016(Gilbert, , 2005aGoetz et al., 2010;Carter et al., 2017;Porges, 2017;Uomini et al., 2020). ...
... This puts threat management center ground to most therapy (Rachman, 1990). CFT distinguishes two quite different basic systems involved with threat regulation and explorative behavior (Gilbert, 1989(Gilbert, /2016(Gilbert, , 1993(Gilbert, , 2000(Gilbert, , 2009a. Gray (1987) described a threat focused, behavioral inhibition system (BIS) that is triggered by signals indicating punishment and reduction in rewards (losses) and unexpected or novel stimuli. ...
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The concept, benefits and recommendations for the cultivation of compassion have been recognized in the contemplative traditions for thousands of years. In the last 30 years or so, the study of compassion has revealed it to have major physiological and psychological effects influencing well-being, addressing mental health difficulties, and promoting prosocial behavior. This paper outlines an evolution informed biopsychosocial, multicomponent model to caring behavior and its derivative “compassion” that underpins newer approaches to psychotherapy. The paper explores the origins of caring motives and the nature and biopsychosocial functions of caring-attachment behavior. These include providing a secure base (sources of protection, validation, encouragement and guidance) and safe haven (source of soothing and comfort) for offspring along with physiological regulating functions, which are also central for compassion focused therapy. Second, it suggests that it is the way recent human cognitive competencies give rise to different types of “mind awareness” and “knowing intentionality” that transform basic caring motives into potentials for compassion. While we can care for our gardens and treasured objects, the concept of compassion is only used for sentient beings who can “suffer.” As psychotherapy addresses mental suffering, cultivating the motives and competencies of compassion to self and others can be a central focus for psychotherapy.
... The second chapter is an empirical paper which aimed to reduce burnout and selfcriticism among mental healthcare professionals using Compassionate Mind Training (CMT; Gilbert, 2000) to increase the three flows of compassion (to self, towards others and from others). In total, 205 mental healthcare professionals participated in Part A of the study, exploring baseline associations between the three flows of compassion, burnout and self-criticism. ...
... Grounded in evolutionary psychology, attachment theory (see Bowlby, 1969;1982) and neurophysiology (e.g. Porges, 2007), whilst also drawing upon several Buddhist teachings (i.e., the sensitivity and motivation to relieve suffering), Gilbert's ( , 2000Gilbert's ( , 2014 Social Mentality Theory (SMT) posits that compassion is part of an evolved motivational system. According to Gilbert, there are two separate functional psychological processes to compassion. ...
... SMT theorises that a number of these functionally specific motivational systems, referred to as 'social mentalities', evolved to enable co-creation of seeking out and forming specific types of relationships (e.g., tribal, sexual, caring of-care for, dominant-subordinate etc.) to pursue evolved biosocial goals and motives (e.g., looking after one's offspring, forming alliances and seeking out a sexual partner) in one's life (Gilbert, 2010). Gilbert (2000) defined these social mentalities as internal motivational systems that "generate patterns of cognition, affect and behaviour… that allow for the enactment of social roles" (p. 120) which support the ability to overcome a variety of social challenges essential for survival, such as mating and care-seeking, caregiving and alliance formation . ...
Thesis
The first chapter is a systematic review and meta-analysis which aimed to explore the relationship between self-compassion and compassion towards others among healthcare professionals. The review was conducted in line with PRISMA guidelines and a multi-base search identified 11 studies that met the inclusion criteria for the review. Overall, a small positive association was found between self-compassion and compassion towards others. This review offers preliminary support that it may be possible for interventions to target self-compassion to enhance compassionate care among healthcare professionals. Although, due to the cross-sectional nature of the included studies, conclusions regarding a causal relationship is limited. Future research directions are discussed. The second chapter is an empirical paper which aimed to reduce burnout and self-criticism among mental healthcare professionals using Compassionate Mind Training (CMT; Gilbert, 2000) to increase the three flows of compassion (to self, towards others and from others). In total, 205 mental healthcare professionals participated in Part A of the study, exploring baseline associations between the three flows of compassion, burnout and self-criticism. Cross-sectional analyses revealed significant negative associations between self-compassion and compassion from others and burnout, while compassion towards others negatively associated with client-related burnout only. Burnout positively associated with self-criticism, depression, anxiety and stress. Part B of the study consisted of a randomised controlled trial with 68 mental healthcare professionals. Analyses revealed openness to receiving compassion from others significantly increased and personal and work-related burnout significantly decreased post-intervention. These findings have important clinical implications for understanding and reducing burnout and self-criticism among mental healthcare professionals. Keywords: Mental Healthcare Professionals, Burnout, Self-Criticism, Compassionate Mind Training, Flows of Compassion, Self-Compassion, Compassion towards Others, Compassion from Others.
... Sőt, míg másokkal szemben időnként könnyebben visszafogjuk az esetleges bántó megjegyzéseinket, saját magunkkal már nem vagyunk ennyire kedvesek, mivel nincs, ami gátat szabjon a kritikus gondolatainknak (Gilbert, 2009). ...
... Szégyennel párosulva pedig egyike a leginkább romboló belső folyamatoknak, és az önegyüttérzés szöges ellentétét képviseli, amelyek kapcsolatára a későbbiekben részletesen kitérünk. Alááshatja az ember pszichológiai jóllétét, megelégedettségét, sőt boldogságát is -így jelentősége egyáltalán nem elhanyagolható (Gilbert, 2009). Hazánkban eddig még nem állt rendelkezésre megfelelő mérőeszköz a jelenség mérésére. ...
... Az önkritikus beállítódás összekapcsolódhat azzal az aggodalommal is, hogy vajon mit gondolnak rólunk mások, milyennek tűnhetünk a szemükben; félünk, hogy lenéznek és visszautasítanak minket; emellett kritikát vagy elutasítást feltételezünk az irányukból. Ekkor a külső és a belső világunk egyaránt kritikusnak és fenyegetőnek látszik: sehol sem érezzük magunkat biztonságban, sehol sem tudunk igazán megnyugodni (Gilbert, 2009). Mindez kapcsolatban állhat az önkritika kialakulásának hátterével. ...
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Elméleti háttér: A Self-Criticizing/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale (Önkritikusság és Önmegerősítés Skála) magyar változatának köszönhetően az önkritikusság jelensége Magyarországon is mérhetővé vált. Cél: Jelen vizsgálat során bemutatásra kerül az Önkritikusság és Önmegerősítés Skála magyar mintán történő alkalmazhatósága, és az önegyüttérzéstől való félelem mellett a depresszióval, valamint az élettel való elégedettséggel vizsgált öszszefüggése. Módszerek: A kutatásban összesen 434 fő vett részt: 107 férfi és 327 nő, átlagéletkoruk 30,2 (SD = 12,15) év. Eredmények: A feltáró faktoranalízis az Önkritikusság és Önmegerősítés Skála (FSCRS-HU) esetén az eredetihez hasonló háromfaktoros struktúrát jelzett: a magyar mintán is megjelentek az alkalmatlan én (inadequate self), a megerősített én (reassured self) és a gyűlölt én (hated self) dimenziói. Ezt a struktúrát a konfirmatív faktoranalízis is megerősítette (RMSEA = 0,056; CFI = 0,945) és az alskálák belső megbízhatósága megfelelőnek bizonyult (Cronbach- α = 0,9; 0,87, 0,83, sorrendben). Az FSCRS-HU mind a depresszióval ( r = 0,62 – 0,68; p < 0,01), mind az önegyüttérzéstől való félelemmel ( r = 0,65 – 0,68; p = 0,01) és az élettel való elégedettséggel ( r = [–0,51] – [–0,52]; p = 0,01) is szignifikáns, közepes erősségű együttjárást mutatott. Az életkor gyenge, az alkalmatlan én esetében pedig közepes mértékű szignifikáns hatása mindhárom alskálánál megjelent. A nemek közt azonban egyedül az alkalmatlan én esetén volt szignifikáns különbség ( Z = –2,109; p = 0,040; rang Cohen- d = –0,229). Következtetések: Összességében az Önkritikusság és Önmegerősítés Skála megbízható és érvényes mérőeszköznek bizonyult hazai mintán is. Background: Due to the Hungarian version of the Self-Criticizing/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale, the phenomenon of self-criticism has become measurable in Hungary as well. Aims: In the present study we present the applicability of the Self-Criticism and Self-Reassuring Scale on a Hungarian sample and its relationship to depression, life satisfaction, and fear of self-compassion. Methods: A total of 434 people participated in the research: 107 men and 327 women, with a mean age of 30.2 (SD = 12.15) years. Results: The exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor structure similar to the original version of the Self-Criticism and Self- Reassuring Scale, the Hungarian sample also showed the dimensions of the inadequate self, the reassured self and the hated self. This structure was also confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (RMSEA = 0.056, CFI = 0.945) and the internal reliability of the subscales proved to be adequate (Cronbach's α = 0.9, 0.87, and 0.83, respectively). The FSCRS-HU showed a significant, moderate association with both depression ( r = 0.62 – 0.68; p < 0.01) and fear of self-compassion ( r = 0.65 – 0.68, p < 0.01) and life satisfaction ( r = [–0.51] – [–0.52], p = 0.01). Age had a weak and, in the case of an inadequate self, a moderately significant effect on all three subscales. There was a significant difference between the sexes only in the case of the inadequate self ( Z = –2.109, p = 0.040, rank Cohen’s d = –0.229). Conclusions: Overall, the Self-Criticism and Self- Reassuring Scale proved to be a reliable and valid measurement tool in the Hungarian sample as well.
... L'autocritique est donc une relation à soi qui, au contraire d'apaiser les souffrances, tend à les favoriser de différentes façons et favorise l'émergence de troubles psychopathologiques. 1.4.4. Une approche évolutionniste et cognitive de l'autocritique La modélisation par Gilbert de l'autocritique basée sur les mentalités sociales (Gilbert, 2000(Gilbert, , 2005(Gilbert, , 2009 Neff propose que l'effet le plus bénéfique de l'auto-compassion sur l'anxiété et la dépression réside en la diminution de l'autocritique . Mais elle trouve un effet bénéfique même lorsque l'autocritique est contrôlée (Neff, 2003) 1.4.6. ...
... Le soi rassurant est associé à une gamme d'effets bénéfiques pour le bien-être physiologique et psychologique (Keltner, Kogan, Piff & Saturn, 2014) ainsi qu'à l'amélioration des stratégies d'adaptation, de la résilience et de la persévérance Kirby, 2016) . Gilbert (2000) suggère que la chaleur intérieure et la compassion envers soi-même sont une réponse affective réduisant le dégoût et à la haine de soi. ...
... Dans une vaste étude interculturelle de 12 pays différents, Halamova et al. (2017Halamova et al. ( , 2019 L'imagerie focalisée sur la compassion (IFC) est l'une des stratégies thérapeutiques utilisées dans la thérapie fondée sur la compassion (Gilbert, 2000(Gilbert, , 2007. Nous avons exploré le décours du temps de traitement de l'attention. ...
Thesis
Contexte : La compassion est une motivation qui permet de réduire la souffrance. Ces deux dernières décennies, les recherches sur l’auto-compassion ont clairement montré un rôle bénéfique sur la détresse psychologique. A l’inverse l’autocritique est une relation à soi caractérisée par l’hostilité dans l’épreuve qui favorise l’émergence de troubles psychopathologiques. Ce travail explore pour la première fois le rôle de l’activation de la joie sociale dans la compassion.Objectifs : L’objectif était d’étudier le rôle des émotions positives dans la compassion à un niveau processuel (attention et émotions) dans l’imagerie focalisée sur la compassion. La version française du questionnaire Forms of Self-Criticizing/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS) ainsi que sa structure factorielle ont été étudiées. L’effet d’un programme à distance d’entrainement à la compassion sur quatre semaines a été exploré. Méthode : La structure factorielle en deux ou trois facteurs et les qualités psychométriques du FSCRS ont été analysés (n=285). Le traitement attentionnel des visages émotionnels, critiques et de compassion, a été évalué grâce à l'ensemble de stimuli « McEwan Faces », avant et après l'exposition à une imagerie de compassion ou une imagerie neutre (n = 80) selon la méthodologie appelée dot probe task. Les émotions des participants (positives et négatives) ont également été mesurées. L’imagerie de compassion a été conçue pour activer de la joie sociale. L’effet de l’autocritique a été explorée. Dans l’intervention en quatre semaines (n=90), un groupe non clinique a été affecté par randomisation stratifiée par bloc en deux groupes équivalents. Nous avons vérifié l’effet bénéfique du programme sur des dimensions de psychopathologie, d’autocritique, de pleine conscience et sur des processus psychologiques liés à la régulation émotionnelle.Résultats : Une analyse factorielle confirmatoire a montré un ajustement des items du FSCRS à un modèle à trois facteurs ainsi que des qualités psychométriques satisfaisantes du questionnaire. Avant l’imagerie, les participants avaient tendance à détourner le regard des visages critiques avec un effet de l’autocritique. Les deux types d'imageries réduisaient le biais d’éloignement des visages critiques lorsque les stimuli étaient présentés pendant 1200 ms. Cet effet interagissait avec l’autocritique dans l’imagerie neutre. L'imagerie de compassion réduisait d’avantage les émotions négatives que l’imagerie de neutre (d = 0,78) et augmentait les niveaux d'émotions positives, alors que l'imagerie neutre réduisait les émotions positives (d = 0,77) sans interaction de l’autocritique sur cet effet. Finalement, les résultats indiquaient un effet significatif de l’intervention sur les variables de compassion, de psychopathologie et de pleine conscience. Cet effet était maintenu après un mois. Conclusion : Les résultats confirment que la version française du FSCRS est un instrument robuste et fiable. Pour la première fois, il a été montré un effet de l’autocritique sur le traitement attentionnel des visages critiques. Les résultats questionnent la possibilité d’un effet de l’imagerie de compassion sur le traitement attentionnel des visages critiques. Les émotions positives et en particulier la joie sociale, définie comme la joie d’une attention ou d’une présence partagée semblent jouer un rôle de régulation émotionnelle dans la compassion. Finalement, le programme d’entrainement à la compassion présentait un effet bénéfique sur la santé psychique et cet effet était maintenu un mois après la fin du programme.
... Pugh (2019a) suggests that 'self-multiplicity', 'personification and embodiment', and 'dialogue' are common, trans-theoretical principles that guide the method's application. The conception of the self as a multiplicity of parts, sub-personalities, or modes is common in psychotherapy and wider scientific discourse (Gilbert, 2000;Rowan, 2010). Chairwork differentiates such self-parts into separate chairs, highlighting the potential for clients to step-back, literally and psychologically, from aspects of themselves that are dominant or distressing, whilst providing the opportunity to step-towards and build new self-representations. ...
... The format, principles, and process-skills of chairwork are complimentary to the application of compassion and the main aims and theory of CFT. Both CFT and chairwork share an emphasis on self-multiplicity, with Gilbert (2000Gilbert ( , 2010 highlighting how the human 'multi-mind' is formed of various motivations, emotions, and cognitive competencies originating at different stages of evolution. In terms of self-multiplicity, CFT is also rooted in the concept of 'social mentalities', which refer to how socially mediated motives organise the mind in very different ways to form specific relational roles and interactions (Gilbert, 1989(Gilbert, , 2017. ...
... Chairwork also offers CFT a unique experiential means to explore and change the nature of internal relationships. One key intervention in CFT chairwork involves the enactment of selfcriticism to demonstrate the presence and impact of internal 'social conflict' and the way in which competitive, rank-based social mentalities can shape our self-relationship (see Table 17.2 below) (Gilbert, 2000;Gilbert & Irons, 2005). Chairwork allows clients to take on both dominant and subordinate roles within the self-critical dialogue, acting as both critic and criticised by moving between chairs. ...
Chapter
Chairwork refers to a group of experiential, psychotherapeutic methods that utilize chairs, their positioning, and the client’s movement between them. Chairwork forms an integral part of compassion focused therapy (CFT) and is used to differentiate, integrate, and transform threat-based processes via compassionate relating. This chapter highlights how the core principles and processes of chairwork practice (self-multiplicity, embodiment and personification, and dialogue between internal parts or patterns) can be used to compliment and support the aims of CFT. Core CFT chairwork exercises will be outlined in detail to aid practical application; these exercises include: two-chair self-compassion; chairwork for self-criticism; and ‘multiple-selves’ for addressing threat-based emotions. Novel forms of CFT chairwork will also be introduced and contextualized, including the use of chairwork to explore blocks to compassion and to enhance motivation. Recent research on the therapeutic relationship and process skills in CFT chairwork will be outlined to support clinicians in their delivery of this powerful method.
... The therapeutic property of self-compassion stems from the social mentality theory, which draws upon the evolutionary biology, neurobiology, and attachment theory to describe humans' tendency to seek support and resources during times of need (Gilbert, 2000;Hermanto & Zuroff, 2016). When people seek support from others or, in the case of self-compassion, give support to themselves, they deactivate the threat system (i.e., the sympathetic nervous system) and activate the self-soothing system (i.e., the parasympathetic nervous system) by reducing cortisol and heart rate (Arch et al., 2016;Gilbert, 2000;Luo et al., 2018). ...
... The therapeutic property of self-compassion stems from the social mentality theory, which draws upon the evolutionary biology, neurobiology, and attachment theory to describe humans' tendency to seek support and resources during times of need (Gilbert, 2000;Hermanto & Zuroff, 2016). When people seek support from others or, in the case of self-compassion, give support to themselves, they deactivate the threat system (i.e., the sympathetic nervous system) and activate the self-soothing system (i.e., the parasympathetic nervous system) by reducing cortisol and heart rate (Arch et al., 2016;Gilbert, 2000;Luo et al., 2018). Thus, when distressed individuals observe their thoughts, treat themselves kindly, and relate their experience to others, they experience physiological and psychological decreases in stress. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify levels of self-compassion in adults who do and do not stutter and to determine whether self-compassion predicts the impact of stuttering on quality of life in adults who stutter. Method Participants included 140 adults who do and do not stutter matched for age and gender. All participants completed the Self-Compassion Scale. Adults who stutter also completed the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering. Data were analyzed for self-compassion differences between and within adults who do and do not stutter and to predict self-compassion on quality of life in adults who stutter. Results Adults who do and do not stutter exhibited no significant differences in total self-compassion, regardless of participant gender. A simple linear regression of the total self-compassion score and total Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering score showed a significant, negative linear relationship of self-compassion predicting the impact of stuttering on quality of life. Conclusions Data suggest that higher levels of self-kindness, mindfulness, and social connectedness (i.e., self-compassion) are related to reduced negative reactions to stuttering, an increased participation in daily communication situations, and an improved overall quality of life. Future research should replicate current findings and identify moderators of the self-compassion–quality of life relationship.
... Certain competitive contexts, guided by the requirement of high performances, seem to promote the development of a social ranking mentality (Gilbert, 2000). ...
... From this perspective, self-criticism (attitude of self-condemnation or negative judgment activated in situations of failure/mistakes), and shame (feelings of devaluation/inferiority) may be triggered by the perceived failures of athletes who may assume that failures/errors reveal lack of aptitude/capacity and/or personal value to others (e.g., parents, peers, and coaches; Brown et al., 2017;Gilbert, 2000;Vilela & Gomes, 2015). These environments may lead to increased levels of stress and anxiety in sport, associated with emotional/physical exhaustion, devaluation of the practice of sports, and decreased quality of life (Correia & Rosado, 2018;Vilela & Gomes, 2015). ...
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PLAYwithHEART: Study protocol to test the efficacy of a mindfulness, acceptance and compassion-based programme for adolescent athletes • pág. 65-86 Abstract Some studies have documented that athletes experience mental health challenges associated with the practice of sports. There is evidence of the benefits of mindfulness, acceptance, and compassion skills in athletes. The contribution of these processes has never been tested in an integrated and structured way. In this protocol, we aim to describe a controlled non-randomized trial to test a new integrative intervention based on contextual-behavioral therapies for adolescent athletes: the PLAYwithHEART programme. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04850872). The PLAYwithHEART programme will comprise eight weekly sessions (of about 45 minutes each) directed towards adolescent athletes. The PLAYwithHEART programme's structure and contents are presented in this protocol. Athletes will be recruited through contact with sport clubs in Portugal. A total of 189 participants will be selected and assigned to one of two conditions: experimental group (who will participate in the programme) or control group (in the waitlist control condition). Outcome measure
... According to the social mentality theory (Gilbert, 1989(Gilbert, , 2000, self-to-self relating through self-compassion is posited to stimulate the soothing system through activating caregiving systems that evolved originally for affiliative interactions towards others (e.g., a caregiver comforting their child). Influenced by attachment and evolutionary theory, Gilbert (1989Gilbert ( , 2000Gilbert ( , 2005 suggests that self-compassion is underpinned by the same mammalian motivational caregiving systems embedded within the attachment system through extending affiliative signals of warmth and affection leading to soothing responses that downregulate negative affect (Thayer & Lane, 2000). ...
... According to the social mentality theory (Gilbert, 1989(Gilbert, , 2000, self-to-self relating through self-compassion is posited to stimulate the soothing system through activating caregiving systems that evolved originally for affiliative interactions towards others (e.g., a caregiver comforting their child). Influenced by attachment and evolutionary theory, Gilbert (1989Gilbert ( , 2000Gilbert ( , 2005 suggests that self-compassion is underpinned by the same mammalian motivational caregiving systems embedded within the attachment system through extending affiliative signals of warmth and affection leading to soothing responses that downregulate negative affect (Thayer & Lane, 2000). These are known as social mentalities, defined as internal motivational systems that "generate patterns of cognition, affect and behaviour . . . ...
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Objectives: Early shaming experiences have been suggested to be associated with later psychopathological symptoms. Understanding this relationship is complex, due to a number of psychological processes potentially influencing this. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to further explore the nature of the mediating effect of experiential avoidance in the association between early shame experiences and psychological distress, and whether self-compassion moderates this relationship by mitigating the effects of this. Design: A cross-sectional design was conducted using self-report measures of early shaming experiences, experiential avoidance, self-compassion, and psychological distress. Method: An online study of 556 participants, comprised of participants from the general population and university students participated within this online study. Results: The moderated mediation model explained 51% of variance within depressive symptoms. Experiential avoidance was found to mediate the association between early shaming experiences and depressive symptoms. This mediating relationship was shown to be moderated by self-compassion, with higher levels of self-compassion being associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms across all levels of experiential avoidance levels (low, medium, and high). Conclusion: These findings suggest that self-compassion may play a significant buffering role within attenuating the effects of experiential avoidance associated with depressive symptoms. Such findings present important clinical and theoretical implications in further understanding the protective role of self-compassion within early shaming experiences and the relationship between depressive symptoms. Practitioner points: Early shaming experiences have been linked to later psychological distress. Experiential avoidance identified a core underlying psychological process in the relationship between early shaming experiences and psychological distress. Self-compassion offers a range of protective features that may alleviate the effects of experiential avoidance and depressive symptoms. Self-compassion-based interventions that target experiential avoidance may offer greater reductions within depressive symptoms.
... A sociedade e os meios de comunicação social exercem pressão sobre como deve ser a estrutura corporal tanto no sexo feminino como no sexo masculino (Porto e Lins, 2009 (Gilbert, 2000, citado por Castilho e Pinto-Gouveia, 2011. O autocriticismo é, portanto, uma relação que sujeito estabelece consigo próprio, em que se autoavalia de forma negativa, proferindo criticas a si mesmo e posicionandose com dureza e intolerância, quando é confrontado com as suas próprias falhas, erros ou frustrações (Gilbert, 2000(Gilbert, , 2007Gilbert, Clarke, Hempel, Miles e Irons, 2004). ...
... A sociedade e os meios de comunicação social exercem pressão sobre como deve ser a estrutura corporal tanto no sexo feminino como no sexo masculino (Porto e Lins, 2009 (Gilbert, 2000, citado por Castilho e Pinto-Gouveia, 2011. O autocriticismo é, portanto, uma relação que sujeito estabelece consigo próprio, em que se autoavalia de forma negativa, proferindo criticas a si mesmo e posicionandose com dureza e intolerância, quando é confrontado com as suas próprias falhas, erros ou frustrações (Gilbert, 2000(Gilbert, , 2007Gilbert, Clarke, Hempel, Miles e Irons, 2004). O autocriticismo assume diferentes formas e funções a que se associam várias emoções negativas (Gilbert et al., 2004). ...
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Introdução: A preocupação excessiva com a imagem corporal nos homens pode desencadear diversas perturbações, como a Dismorfia Muscular. Poucos estudos exploram a associação entre a imagem corporal masculina e variáveis como o impulso para a muscularidade, estados de humor e mecanismos de autorregulação emocional. São, então, objetivos deste estudo: estudar a imagem corporal masculina e os mecanismos de autorregulação emocional em praticantes de exercício físico, nomeadamente, explorar associações e diferenças entre o impulso para a muscularidade, a aceitação da imagem corporal, a comparação social da aparência física, o autocriticismo e os estados de humor; explorar as diferenças em função da satisfação com a imagem corporal, dos cuidados especiais com a alimentação, da existência de problemas alimentares na infância e adolescência e da idade dos sujeitos. Metodologia: 56 homens praticantes de exercício físico com idades entre os 20 e os 63 anos (M = 37,02; DP = 9,31) preencheram um questionário sociodemográfico, a Escala das Formas do Autocriticismo e Autotranquilização, a Escala de Aceitação e Ação da Imagem Corporal, a Escala de Comparação Social da Aparência Física, a Escala de Impulso para a Muscularidade e o Perfil dos Estados de Humor. Resultados: À medida que aumentou o eu inadequado do autocriticismo aumentou o nível de perturbação de humor, assim como a inflexibilidade psicológica em relação à imagem corporal, enquanto o aumento do eu-tranquilizador associou-se positivamente ao vigor-atividade. A flexibilidade da imagem corporal diminuiu com o aumento das atitudes focadas na muscularidade. A comparação com colegas associou-se positivamente ao eu tranquilizador e ao vigor-atividade. Os homens que não estão satisfeitos com a imagem corporal revelaram maior perturbação do humor comparativamente aos que estão satisfeitos. Quem não tem cuidados especiais com a alimentação evidenciou mais perturbação do humor e mais impulso para a muscularidade. Já quem mostrou mais cuidados com a alimentação e mais problemas com o peso em criança/adolescente apresentou maior inflexibilidade com a imagem corporal. Discussão: É necessário investir em pesquisas futuras sobre o tema, que conduzam a um aprofundamento de conhecimentos sobre as variáveis associadas, a uma maior compreensão desta realidade e à intervenção terapêutica. Assim, é fundamental delinear medidas preventivas, de avaliação e de intervenção psicológica, junto de populações vulneráveis, nomeadamente em contextos desportivos. Palavras-chave: imagem corporal masculina, estados do humor, impulso para a muscularidade, mecanismos de autorregulação emocional.
... Em oposição, a recordação de calor e afeto numa fase inicial da vida encontra-se associada à capacidade do indivíduo se reconfortar . Assim sendo, em cenários de fracasso e desapontamento, que tipicamente ativam o autocriticismo, o indivíduo pode assumir uma postura calorosa e de compaixão pelo eu (Gilbert, 2000). ...
... Este conceito remete para o modo como as pessoas se relacionam consigo mesmas perante situações de falha, erro e desapontamento pessoal, adotando uma postura dura, crítica, intolerante, punitiva e de autoavaliação negativa para com a sua própria condição. Trata-se, portanto, de uma forma de relação eu-eu (Gilbert, 2000(Gilbert, , 2007Gilbert et al., 2004). Esta visão multidimensional postula que existem diferentes formas e funções para o autocriticismo associadas a diferentes tipos de emoções negativas, ou seja, criticamo-nos de maneiras diferentes, para diferentes fins . ...
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Até ao momento, nenhum estudo se dedicou a explorar construtos como o autocriticismo, a autocompaixão e a insónia. Este estudo tem como objetivos estudar estas associações em estudantes universitários, assim como analisar as diferenças destas associações em dois momentos – janeiro (em plena época de exames) e março (época sem exames) –, que nos permitirá perceber se o stresse e a pressão da época de exames têm impacto no sono dos estudantes. Pretendemos, também, verificar se existem associações significativas com algumas variáveis sociodemográficas (idade, sexo). Em virtude das associações encontradas, pretendemos realizar análises preditivas, controlando a influência de sintomas de depressão, ansiedade e stresse. A amostra ficou constituída por 268 estudantes universitários, dos quais 160 participaram no primeiro momento da investigação e 108 participaram no segundo momento com idades compreendidas entre os 19 e 54 anos (M = 26,45, DP = 7,982; M = 26,34, DP = 0,427). Os participantes preencheram um protocolo composto por um questionário sociodemográfico, a Escala de Autocriticismo e Autotranquilização (FSCRS), a Escala da Autocompaixão (SELFCS), a Escala de Ativação Pré-Sono (PSAS), o Questionário de Avaliação do Sono (QAS) e as Escalas de Ansiedade, Depressão e Stress (DASS-21). Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que, tanto no primeiro como no segundo momento do estudo, foram os estudantes mais velhos (30 - 54 anos) que tendiam a ser mais compassivos e tolerantes consigo próprios, tal como menos autocríticos e punitivos perante situações difíceis e fracassadas. No primeiro momento, em época de exames, os estudantes mais jovens (19-29 anos) foram quem mais manifestou níveis elevados de autocriticismo e ativação cognitiva e somática antes de adormecer, bem como foram quem, em maior proporção, pertenceu aos grupos de insones e sintomas de insónia, comparativamente com os mais velhos. Verificaram-se, ainda, correlações significativas entre a ativação cognitiva e somática e a depressão, ansiedade e stresse. Pode-se concluir, neste estudo, que em plena época de exames, os estudantes mais novos são mais autocríticos e menos autocompassivos o que poderá gerar uma maior ativação cognitiva e somática antes de adormecer e, consequentemente, sintomas de insónia e em insónia propriamente dita. Palavras-chave: autocriticismo, autocompaixão, insónia, sono, alunos universitários.
... The importance of social and relational factors, including how individuals relate to themselves and their voices, is increasingly being recognized as influencing and contextualizing the voice-hearing experience (see Paulik, 2012 for review). Social mentality theory (Gilbert, 2000) suggests that different forms of social relationships and relational signals (e.g., caring, hostility, dominance) activate different systems within the brain. In relation to voice hearing, the belief that the voice is malevolent (e.g., "you are stupid, you are worthless") could be received as a threatening social cue, which activates the threat system (i.e., stress-cortisol) resulting in distress. ...
... The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between self-compassion, beliefs about voices (malevolence and omnipotence), and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and stress), within a population of T A B L E 1 Means (M) and standard deviations (SD), and Pearson's r correlations between study measures hearers may experience decreased negative affect, due to the activation of the caregiving system, and the resulting downregulation of the threat system (Gilbert, 2005). An alternative hypothesis, however, is that individuals in a heightened sense of threat (possibly from higher beliefs of voice malevolence) may have an inability to access the caregiving system, because from an evolutionary standpoint, this may increase the feeling of vulnerability (Gilbert, 2000). It may be that a heightened sense of threat, and increased negative affect, may impede an individual's ability to be self-compassionate. ...
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Objective The cognitive behavior model of voice hearing suggests individuals who have lower self‐esteem, perceive themselves to be of low social rank, and hold negative beliefs about their voices, are more distressed by their voices. Self‐compassion may help reduce voice‐related distress through the activation of positive self and social mentalities. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of self‐compassion in variables within the cognitive behavior model. Method Measures assessing self‐compassion, negative affect, self‐esteem, voice malevolence, omnipotence, and distress were administered to a sample of clinical voice hearers (N = 53). Results Correlation and mediation analyses were conducted. Higher self‐compassion was associated with lower negative affect, voice malevolence, omnipotence, and distress. Voice malevolence was found to mediate the relationship between self‐compassion and voice distress. Self‐compassion was a stronger predictor of these constructs than self‐esteem. Conclusion Improving self‐compassion may have significant clinical benefits in reducing voice‐related distress.
... The effects of social rank on children's reports of selfconscious emotions were not particularly convincing. In line with social rank theory [7,24,39], low social rank descriptions in the vignettes elicited somewhat higher levels of shame than high social rank descriptions, whereas no such an effect could be noted for the self-conscious emotion of guilt. The most likely explanation for this finding is that children's perception of social rank may be rather difficult to manipulate by means of vignettes. ...
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This experimental study examined the role of negative feedback and social rank in the experience of self-conscious emotions, shame and guilt, in typically developing children aged 8 to 13 years. Participants were tested by means of a vignette paradigm in which feedback and social rank were systematically manipulated and levels of shame and guilt were assessed after listening to each of the vignettes. In addition, children completed a set of questionnaires for measuring individual differences in shame and guilt proneness, social comparison, submissive behavior, and external shame. The results showed that children presented with negative feedback reported higher ratings of shame and guilt than when presented with positive feedback, implying that the provision of negative feedback has a significant impact on children's experience of self-conscious emotions. Social rank had less effect on children's report of these self-conscious emotions. Furthermore, the individual difference variables of guilt proneness, and to a lesser extent shame proneness and submissive behavior, appeared to be positively related to self-conscious emotions as reported during the vignette task.
... Treating oneself in a caring manner is conducive to one's coping, emphasising one's strengths in the process of resilience (Fergus and Zimmerman 2005). Moreover, Social Mentality Theory suggests how we treat ourselves originates from how we treat others (Gilbert 2000). Therapeutic students aspire to help others; therefore, based on this theory, they may be also willing to help themselves. ...
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This study aimed to examine the relationships between mental wellbeing and positive psychological constructs in therapeutic students (psychotherapy and occupational therapy students). The number of therapeutic students has increased recently, however they suffer from poor mental health, which may be improved by potentiating their positive psychological constructs, bypassing mental health shame. Therapeutic students (n=145) completed measures regarding positive psychological constructs, namely mental wellbeing, engagement, motivation, resilience, and self-compassion. Resilience and self-compassion predicted mental wellbeing, explaining a large effect. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between resilience and mental wellbeing. This study highlights the importance of positive psychological constructs, especially resilience and self-compassion, for mental wellbeing of therapeutic students.
... Social comparison, as earlier explained, consists of people's natural inclination to evaluate and compare their situation, skills, identity, and even performance with others (Festinger, 1954). Both upward and downward comparisons have been shown to often harm the mental wellbeing of individuals (Gilbert, 2000;Stein and Sareen, 2015). Antony et al. (2005) explained this by stating that people who compare themselves to other people (either upward or downward comparison) are significantly more likely to care about how other people perceive them which can affect their mental wellbeing (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). ...
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Body dissatisfaction has become increasingly common among women and young adults and has only become worse in the digital age, where people have increased access to social media and are in constant competition and comparisons with their “friends” on their different social media platforms. While several studies have looked at the relationship between social media and body dissatisfaction, there is an obvious dearth of empirical studies on the mediating role of social anxiety- a gap this study hoped to address. Using a cross-sectional research design, this study examined the mediating role of social anxiety on the relationship between social media usage and body dissatisfaction. The sample consisted of 432 students from Kampala International University and Victoria University in Uganda. The findings show a significant positive relationship between social media usage and body dissatisfaction. The findings prove that heavy users of social media are significantly more likely to suffer from body dissatisfaction. In a similar vein, the findings show that there is a significant positive relationship between social media usage and social anxiety. This suggests that people that frequently make use of social media have a much higher chance of suffering from social anxiety, that is the inability or difficulty to engage in social interactions, than people that rarely or moderately make use of social media. Finally, findings show that social anxiety mediates the relationship between social media usage and body dissatisfaction. It indicates that people with high levels of social anxiety are more likely to suffer from body dissatisfaction as a direct result of heavy social media usage. These findings imply that although heavy users of social media tend to have a more negative perception of their body, if these same users can properly engage in social interactions, then this might mitigate the negative effects of social media usage (in terms of body dissatisfaction).
... Indeed, self-compassion has been described as 'an important mechanism of change in psychotherapy' (Baer, 2010;Germer & Neff, 2015, p.55). A prominent exponent of this idea is Paul Gilbert, whose work on shame and self-criticism (Gilbert, 2000) contributed to the development of compassionate mind training (Gilbert & Proctor, 2006) and compassion-focused therapy (CFT; Gilbert, 2009). Self-compassion is identified within various psychotherapeutic approaches (Kirby, 2017;Germer & Neff, 2013) and forms the basis of several interventions, which show promising efficacy for alleviating symptoms of psychopathology and increasing feelings of well-being (Athanasakou et al., 2020;Baer, 2010;Wilson et al., 2018), including amongst family members of people with mental illness (Hansen et al., 2021). ...
Article
Objectives: Individuals who have a parent with mental illness are more likely to experience mental illness than their contemporaries. As such, it is valuable to examine potential psychological resources, which might assist these individuals to experience good mental health throughout their lifespan. We aimed to learn how clinicians perceive self-compassion, and how it can be incorporated into therapy with clients who have parents with mental illness. Design: A qualitative interview design was employed to explore clinicians' perspectives and experiences. Methods: Eight mental health clinicians experienced in working with clients who have parents with mental illness were interviewed. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to establish themes representing the clinicians' perspectives and experiences of incorporating self-compassion into their work. Results: This study found that clinicians were generally positive about incorporating self-compassion into interventions with clients who are children of parents with mental illness. The participants noted barriers to self-compassion for these clients, namely a poor sense of self and divided loyalty between self and family. Participants recommended taking time and care, building rapport and involving others when cultivating self-compassion with those who have parents with mental illness. Conclusions: This group of clinicians viewed self-compassion as relevant to clients whose parents have mental illness and believe it can be introduced therapeutically in various ways. Suggestions are made for tailoring self-compassion training to the needs and experiences of this group.
... Moreover, other authors have pointed out how another predominant emotion among depressed patients, shame-which derives from the fear of losing one's social ranking-has an important adaptive value since it inhibits the aggressiveness of the dominant member within the group, and leads who feels it to avoid other potentially humiliating situations (Gilbert 1997;Kim et al. 2011;Wiechelt 2007). Later, Gilbert (2000Gilbert ( , 2005 has postulated four motivational systems (social mentalities): careseeking, caregiving, cooperation, and competition. Gilbert has been one of the first authors to emphasize the role of cooperation among humans. ...
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Attachment theory is useful, but per se it may not be sufficient to understand the complexity of human relationships. For this reason, we believe that there is the need to refer to a broader (evolutionary theory of motivation; Liotti, Psychoanal Inquiry 37(5):319–331, 2017) that considers normal functioning as the result of the harmonious activation of various motivational systems, each aimed at achieving an objective of high evolutionary value (adaptive for the individual, the social group, and the species). In this approach, pathology results from the disharmonious and dysfunctional activation of one or more motivational systems. This leads to a theory of care aimed at modulating the maladaptive activation of motivational systems by recognizing each patient’s dysfunctional interpersonal schemas and restoring his ability to function in more flexible ways. Motivational monitoring allows us to recognize impasses/ruptures within the therapeutic alliance and effectively use interventions to restore it. It may enhance patients’ emotional regulation and the interpersonal attunement between patient and therapist, reducing the risk of dropouts and leading to better therapeutic outcomes.
... Self-compassion was positively associated with meaning in life, consistent with previous studies that established links between self-compassion and other indicators of wellbeing (Neff & Germer, 2017). Self-compassion is considered to activate the "soothing system" in regulating affective experiences by providing safeness and reassurance (Gilbert, 1989(Gilbert, , 2000. Activated by the "soothing system," these latter processes enable individuals to feel more secure and at ease, and also see the "bright side" of a given situation involving the self. ...
Article
Identifying antecedents to meaning in life has been a long-standing interest among researchers. Based on the Self-Determination Theory (SDT), this study examined the independent and additive functions of two individual characteristics (perfectionism, self-compassion) in predicting meaning in life. With 245 diverse community adults, we first tested whether perfectionism dimensions and self-compassion independently predicted meaning in life. Then, the moderating effect of self-compassion in the association between perfectionism and meaning in life was tested. Results found that two dimensions of perfectionism predicted meaning in life, with perfectionistic strivings positively predicting meaning in life whereas perfectionistic concerns negatively predicting meaning in life. Self-compassion also facilitated experiences of meaning in life, indicating that having a healthy attitude toward oneself promotes meaning in life. However, there was no evidence of self-compassion moderating the association between perfectionism and meaning in life. Findings suggest that perfectionistic strivings is adaptive and perfectionistic concerns is maladaptive in experiencing meaning in life, consistent with the literature on perfectionism’s relation to well-being. Self-compassion facilitated meaning in life but infusing self-compassion into interventions to further promote meaning in life among perfectionists may not prove fruitful. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
... The Buddhist tradition defines compassion as sensitivity to suffering in self and others, following an endeavor to diminish and prevent it (Dalai Lama, 2001). The CFT approach adjoins social, evolutionary and neurophysiological concepts (Gilbert, 2000(Gilbert, , 2005(Gilbert, , 2009(Gilbert, , 2010. It aims to change the way people connect themselves through procedures which results in understanding, nonjudgment, and kind attitude toward themselves (Van Vliet & Kalnins, 2011). ...
Article
The current study was carried out to investigate the effects of compassion-focused therapy (CFT) on experiential avoidance, meaning-in-life, and sense of coherence (SoC) in women suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to the intimate partner violence (IPV). 42 women suffering from PTSD due to the IPV exposure were randomized to the two groups of experimental and control (21 per group). All participants completed the questionnaires of experiential avoidance, meaning-in-life, and SoC as pre-test measures. The experimental group received eight sessions of CFT, while the controls did not receive any treatment. After that, all subjects responded to the questionnaires of experiential avoidance, meaning-in-life, and SoC as the post-test measures. Data were analyzed using one-way repeated measures MANOVA. Subjects of the experimental group indicated a greater reduction in post-test scores of experiential avoidance, and a significant rise in the level of meaning-in-life and its subscales including the presence of meaning-in-life and search for meaning-in-life when compared to the controls. Nevertheless, there was no change in the level of SoC as a function of CFT. Applying CFT can result in reducing experiential avoidance and raising the meaning of life in women with PTSD due to IPV exposure. CFT is highly recommended to strengthen the well-being of patients with PTSD and reduce the PTSD symptoms.
... LKM and CM have recently been used by many mental healthcare professionals, including social workers, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and nurses (Cheng and Tse 2015). Recently introduced in psychotherapy, CM and, to a lesser extent, LKM started to gain evidence for their efficacy in treating a comprehensive range of clinical conditions (Fredrickson et al. 2008;Germer and Neff 2013;Gilbert 2000Gilbert , 2010Kirby 2016;Leaviss and Uttley 2015). While some authors did not differentiate between LKM and CM in their meta-reviews (e.g., Rao and Kemper 2017;Stefan and Hofmann 2019), others put emphasis on differences between them (e.g., Graser and Stangier 2018). ...
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Objectives: Despite being often overlapped and used interchangeably in academic literature, loving-kindness meditation (LKM) and compassion meditation (CM) are also seen to have their distinct features. As a differential approach towards LKM and CM can promote a more accurate integration of these practices into the clinical field, it is worth studying their differential effects. The present pre-registered study, thus, aimed to experimentally compare effects of single-session LKM and CM on first-time practitioners’ emotions. Methods: Two hundred and one university students were randomly allocated to three (LKM, CM and control) groups. The self-reported emotions were measured twice, before and after completing an assigned task. Results: (1) Both LKM and CM significantly increased other-focused positive emotions compared with the control condition; (2) Both LKM and CM increased happiness and overall positive emotions, and decreased sadness; however, the effect sizes of LKM were consistently larger compared to those of CM; (3) Both LKM and CM significantly increased low arousal positive emotions compared with the control condition. Conclusions: LKM and CM represent two theoretically different practices. However, as they belong to the same tradition of meditation, they are similar in their intention of forming positive wishes towards self and others, and this appeared to have a positive effect on practitioners’ emotional experience. At the same time, LKM was found to be more effective in evoking positive emotions in first-time practitioners, compared to CM.
... For instance, the Mahayana Buddhist tradition posits that mindfulness serves to cultivate awareness for the suffering of the self and others, whereas compassion is the motivational drive that eventually leads to caring behaviors and well-being. Another theoretical framework that underpins the connection between these concepts is Gilbert's [41] social mentality theory, which suggests that the practice of mindfulness sets the stage to engage with suffering, but that the development of compassionate competencies is necessary to foster growth in the self and others. Compassion considered a pivotal aspect of mindfulness practice since learning how to be forgiving with oneself and others is a key component in mindfulness practice. ...
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COVID-19 has dramatically affected the mental health and work environment of the educational sector. Our primary aim was to investigate preschool teachers’ psychological distress and work engagement during the COVID-19 outbreak, while examining the possible protective role of participating in a mindfulness-based intervention geared to foster compassion (Call2Care-Israel for Teachers; C2C-IT) and emotion regulation. The prevalence of emotional distress, work engagement, and COVID-19 concerns were evaluated in 165 preschool teachers in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in Israel through questionnaires. The findings showed that preschool teachers experienced increased emotional distress. Teachers who had participated in the C2C-IT intervention six months before the pandemic outbreak (N = 41) reported lower emotional distress, higher use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies, and higher work engagement, compared to their counterparts that had not participated in the intervention (N = 124). Emotion regulation strategies mediated the link between participating in CTC-IT intervention and emotional distress and work engagement. Teaching is a highly demanding occupation, especially during a pandemic, thus making it important to invest resources in empowering this population. The findings here suggest that the implementation of a mindfulness-based intervention during the school year can enhance teachers’ well-being, even during stressful events such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
... People often refer to self-criticism as an intrusive inner voice manifested via rehearsing, which is ruminative by default (Gilbert, 2000). Indeed, rumination plays a major role in maintaining levels of self-critical thinking and subsequent psychological distress, including unhealthy perfectionism, parental stress, depression and anxiety (James et al., 2015;Moreira and Canavarro, 2018;Schiller et al., 2016;Smart et al., 2016). ...
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Background: Self-critical rumination is the process of repetitively thinking about one's past instances of failure without actively problem-solving. Shame has a central role within self-critical rumination and is accompanied by physiological changes that resemble stress responses. Aims: To experimentally investigate the effects of self-critical rumination on shame and stress following perceived failure. Method: Sixty volunteers engaged in an impossible task that resulted in guaranteed failure. Four groups, combining presence or absence of induced self-critical rumination with high or low performance expectations, were created. Self-reports were used to measure levels of shame and stress at baseline immediately after the task, as well as following a debrief on the real purpose of the study. Results: Participants experiencing self-critical rumination accompanied by high performance expectations reported higher levels of shame and stress, especially immediately following the impossible task. On average, members of the high-expectations groups tended to score higher on shame and stress scales. Reported levels of trait self-critical rumination were also significantly correlated with levels of shame and stress across time when controlling for group membership and baseline stress and shame, respectively. Conclusions: Self-critical rumination in highly evaluative circumstances increased levels of shame and stress following perceived failure. Even though highly evaluative conditions are considered a particularly strong predictor of shame and stress, they could potentially result in self-critical rumination; this matter needs to be addressed in future research.
... Additionally, CFT proposes that evolved motives organize the mind and body and that the relative balance, operation, and co-regulation of these three systems are dependent on the underlying social mentality that is operating and/or predominant at any one time (Liotti & Gilbert, 2011). Social mentalities can loosely be described as a collection of evolved motives that coordinate patterns of attention, emotion, cognition, and behaviour in the service of orienting us towards, co-creating and enacting certain (social) roles with others that are essential for survival (Gilbert, 1989(Gilbert, , 2000(Gilbert, , 2005b(Gilbert, , 2017b. Furthermore, as a consequence of the uniquely human evolved new brain abilities (i.e., socially intelligent competencies), social mentalities are proposed not only to be activated in relation to others but also in self-to-self relating (Gilbert, 2005b(Gilbert, , 2017bHermanto & Zuroff, 2016). ...
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Purpose This paper outlines the concept of the ‘Compassionate Kitbag’, a novel multi‐sensory‐based means of helping draw together the various elements of compassionate mind training and processes within compassion‐focused therapy (CFT), to help clients cultivate and facilitate their capacities for compassion. Building on the work of Lucre and Corten (2013, Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice , 86, 387), this is the first published work exploring this concept and the theoretical underpinnings, with a specific focus on how this can be used to support people with attachment and relational trauma. Methods A narrative review of the literature on multi‐sensory stimulation in facilitating people's capacities for compassion was conducted, coupled with a review of the literature of the use of non‐human and transitional objects as explained by attachment theory and the broader scientific research underpinning the CFT model. Results Clinical examples of how to use the Compassionate Kitbag to help stimulate compassionate therapeutic processes demonstrate the benefits of and how to begin utilizing this approach in compassion‐focused work with clients with complex needs. Conclusions The Compassionate Kitbag's potential therapeutic value lies in offering multifarious creative and tangible means of accessing compassion to a wide range of individuals whom are typically fearful of, blocked, and/or resistant to compassion. Further research into the wider application of the concept of the Compassionate Kitbag is needed. Practitioner points • Many patients with ruptured and/or traumatized early attachment relationships can find more traditional talking therapies difficult to access. • Compassion‐focused therapy (CFT) can offer an evolutionary‐based understanding of interpersonal difficulties which can be helpful for such patients. • Creatively harnessing and utilizing multi‐sensory and non‐linguistic social signals in CFT is key to exercising the care‐giving and care‐receiving social mentalities that facilitate compassionate flow. • There is considerable evidence to support the use of a multi‐sensory component to the therapeutic work to help patients cultivate and facilitate their capacities for compassion. • The Compassionate Kitbag can be a way of supporting patients to create concrete representations of compassion in the context of the compassionate mind training component of the therapeutic work. Some of these objects can become transitional objects which can aid the therapeutic work.
... Pensamentos automáticos positivos relacionam-se positivamente com o funcionamento positivo no quotidiano, expectativas de futuro e avaliações do próprio ou do outro mais positivas. Por sua vez, os pensamentos automáticos negativos (e.g., vergonha interna) estão ligados a desajustamentos pessoais, a uma maior vulnerabilidade para a psicopatologia (Gilbert, 2000), a autoconceito negativo, a expectativas baixas e a sentimentos de desamparo (Mathew, Sudhir, & Mariamma, 2014). O treino de práticas meditativas baseadas no mindfulness permite, desta forma, desenvolver uma perceção da realidade tal e qual se apresenta, o que pode servir como fator de proteção aos pensamentos automáticos negativos, prevenindo uma identificação excessiva com esses mesmos pensamentos. ...
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... The data emerging from this study underline the importance of ongoing assessment of the patient's active emotional state and especially whether a competitive mental state is being activated. It also supports the idea that failure in mindreading is not just connected to problems in the attachment domain, but depends also on the activation of social rank motive (Dimaggio et al., 2007(Dimaggio et al., , 2015bLiotti and Gilbert, 2011;Gilbert, 2014;Colle et al., 2017;Popolo et al., 2019). It looks like that actual experiences of failures, something the person experiences in the moment, disrupts capacity to think about mental states, more than just remembering similar experiences. ...
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... One of the explanations Muris and Otgaar (2020) provided for the fact that researchers continue to use the SCS as a total score despite what they believe is obvious and "irrefutable" evidence to the contrary, is that there is not a viable alternative model available. However, they note that Paul Gilbert's Social Mentality Theory (Gilbert, 2000(Gilbert, , 2005 proposes that CS involves the parasympathetic nervous system associated with care and attachment and that UCS involves the sympathetic nervous system associated with threat-defense. "Thus, there is a solid alternative theory...proposing that compassionate and uncompassionate self-responding indeed reflect different processes that are moderated by different brain systems...whichas noted earlier-implies that it is not appropriate to combine them in a single score of self-compassion." ...
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... The conversation between the Dalai Lama and Aaron Beck highlighted their similarities in stressing the importance of examining one's thoughts, challenging certain thoughts or thought patterns, and using techniques for breaking rigid thinking patterns (Taams, 2006). Cognitive therapy has moved increasingly towards highlighting the importance of compassion, which is core to Buddhism (Gilbert, 2014). Although many synergies are apparent, caution around cultural limitations of this integration have been highlighted in the cognitive-behavioral sphere (Dowd & McCleery, 2007). ...
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Chapter
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Individuals with chronic conditions are susceptible to stress-related health complications. Left unattended, chronic stress exacerbates inflammation, diminishes quality of life (QOL), and increases all-cause mortality. Here, we suggest a theoretical framework promoting the use of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in patients with chronic conditions and a conceptual model of how MBIs may influence stress and QOL.
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Background Practising compassion has shown to increase well-being and reduce distress in people across cultures. However, very little research has explored cultural differences in different facets of compassion with a dearth of research evident especially in the Asian context. Several inhibitors and facilitators of compassion have been identified although the nuances of cultural differences of these remain unexploited. This study aimed to discover cross-cultural similarities and differences of the levels of compassion, facilitators and inhibitors of compassion between Sri Lankan and UK people. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based quantitative research was conducted among 149 Sri Lankan and 300 UK participants. Individual predictors (such as fears of compassion, self-reassurance, external shame, social safeness and pleasure, depression and anxiety) were also explored in relation to compassion, compassion to others, and compassion from others in each group. Results The results indicated that Sri Lankan participants were more self-reassured and self-compassionate and self-identifying as a Buddhist predicted higher self-compassion, when compared to UK participants. However, Sri Lankan participants reported higher levels of external shame and fear of compassion not just towards themselves, but also towards and from others, indicating difficulty in engaging compassionately with others. In contrast, UK participants reported higher social safeness, indicating that they were more likely to feel safe and soothed by the society than the Sri Lankan participants. Conclusions Society plays a pivotal role in shaping one's experiences of compassion. This study suggests that specific cultural and social factors should be considered when implementing Western compassionate approaches to non-Western settings.
Research
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Araştırmanın temel amacı Fauville vd.’nin (2021) geliştirdiği Zoom Exhaustion & Fatigue Scale isimli ölçüm aracının Türk kültüründe geçerlik ve güvenirliğini sağlamaktır. Araştırmanın evrenini Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi’nde görevli akademisyenler oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada zaman ve maliyet kısıtları nedeniyle kolayda örnekleme yöntemi tercih edilmiştir. Araştırma kapsamında Türkçeİngilizce çeviri ile ters çeviri işlemleri tamamlandıktan ve madde toplam korelasyonları incelendikten (.55 ile .88 arasında) sonra ifadeleri son haline getirilen ölçek, örnekleme elektronik ortamda ulaştırılmıştır. Gerekli analiz varsayımlarını karşılayan 62 katılımcıya ilişkin verilerle ileri analizler gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ölçeğin geçerleme sürecinde verilere uygulanan Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizi sonucu, orijinaline uygun şekilde 15 ifade (en düşük madde faktör yükü .62) ve 5 alt boyut ile yapı geçerliği sağlanmıştır. İç tutarlılık katsayısı 5 alt boyut için .82 ile .94 arasında değişim göstermiştir. İlgili katsayı ölçeğin tamamı için .95 şeklinde hesaplanmıştır. Bulgulardan hareketle ölçeğin Türk kültürü için geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçüm aracı olduğu tespit edilmiştir.
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Objectives Self-compassion-promoting components are increasingly included in parenting interventions. The strength of the evidence for the effectiveness of these components on self-compassion and both parent and child outcomes is unknown.MethodsA systematic review of parenting intervention studies published between January 1st 2003 and February 8th 2019, that included self-compassion components and measured self-compassion quantitatively was undertaken. The outcomes of interest were the effect of these interventions on self-compassion and the effect of these interventions on both parent and child outcomes. Quantitative meta-analyses were conducted where appropriate.ResultsThirteen trials met inclusion criteria. Results suggest that parenting interventions that include self-compassion components significantly increased parental self-compassion (pre-post: g = 0.372; between groups: g = 0.690). Pre-post analyses suggest that these interventions decreased parental depression (g = − 0.425), parental anxiety (g = − 0.377) and parental stress (g = − 0.363) and increased parental mindfulness (g = 0.529). Between-group and follow-up results for parent outcomes ranged from no effect to significant improvements. Five of the studies assessed the effects on child outcomes, with mixed results. Included studies were of low methodological quality, lacked control groups and generally failed to report study-level predictors and moderators of treatment effectiveness. There was also evidence of publication bias. Thus, the generalisability of findings may be limited.Conclusions Parenting interventions that include self-compassion components appear to improve parental self-compassion, depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness. Further research is needed to clarify these gains and to identify the mechanisms by which this benefit occurs, both for parents and their children.
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