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The Impact of Leadership Style on Employee's Motivation

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This mixed methods study aimed to examine the relationship between the adopted leadership style and employees motivation in a private petrochemical company that is located in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A survey was developed and distributed to 30 employees in two departments. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with a focus group of 10 employees to validate the results of the survey. The study found that there is a strong relationship between leadership style and employee motivation where the correlation was positive with transformational style and negative with transactional style.
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International Journal of Economics and Business Administration
Vol. 2, No. 5, 2016, pp. 37-44
http://www.aiscience.org/journal/ijeba
ISSN: 2381-7356 (Print); ISSN: 2381-7364 (Online)
* Corresponding author
E-mail address: dr.alialghazo@gmail.com (A. M. Alghazo), 201302527@pmu.edu.sa (M. Al-Anazi)
The Impact of Leadership Style on Employee’s
Motivation
Ali M. Alghazo
*
, Meshal Al-Anazi
College of Sciences and Human Studies, Masters of Education and Human Development Program, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al
Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Abstract
This mixed methods study aimed to examine the relationship between the adopted leadership style and employees motivation
in a private petrochemical company that is located in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A survey was developed and
distributed to 30 employees in two departments. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with a focus group of 10 employees
to validate the results of the survey. The study found that there is a strong relationship between leadership style and employee
motivation where the correlation was positive with transformational style and negative with transactional style.
Keywords
Employee Motivation, Leadership Styles, Performance Improvement
Received: June 16, 2016 / Accepted: June 28, 2016 / Published online: July 27, 2016
@ 2016 The Authors. Published by American Institute of Science. This Open Access article is under the CC BY license.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
1. Introduction
Attracting and retaining employees in this age has become
increasingly challenging [1]. Globalization and multinational
factors have contributed to make human resources more and
more demanding. At the same time, motivating employees
have been found to be a catalyst for employees performance
and therefore for organization success.
The challenges that are faced by companies in this age are
not comparable with the challenges of the past. “No matter
the size or the type of the organization, it must behave in
innovative ways, seeking opportunity, solving problems, and
embracing new directions”, all types of organizations (profit
or non-profit) are in need for such inovation and creativity.
“there is emerging now a general set of requirements for
organizations, their managers, and their employees that
includes attributes like initiative, flexibility, and creative
problem-solving” [2].
Another challenge that faces the organizations of today is
how to retain its human capital in a competitive market.
Many companies struggle to offer attractive benefits, salaries
and incentives [1] (Davis, 2004). Small business can still stay
competitive by adopting effective methods of motivating
employees [3].
Leaders and managers play an important role in creating an
atmosphere and culture of enthusiasm and productivity
among the employees that help them do what they need to
do. “Most large organizations… continue to spend millions
each year on motivation courses, training in motivation,
meetings to boost motivation, incentives to strengthen
motivation, meetings to analyze problems in the workforce
motivation, tools to measure motivation, mission statement
and so on…” [4] with no real outcomes.
It seems that the reason for that is the lack of understanding
to what motivation means. As [5], “Although motivation is
widely recognized its essence is elusive… it is a complex
multifaceted construct, which researchers have approached
from many perspectives”.
This study examines the motivational factors for the
38 Ali M. Alghazo and Meshal Al-Anazi: Impact of Leadership on Employees Motivation
employees of a department in an oil and gas private company
that is based in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Using a
self-made questioner as an instrument to measure the factors
of motivation.
1.1. Research Aim/Purpose
This study attempts to analyze the perception of department
employees in a private company about the motivation factors
and how it relates to leadership styles. For this purpose, a
questioner which is adapted from a similar study [1] was
developed.
Further, the purpose the study was to find an answer for the
following main questions:
How do employees perceive the relationship between
motivation and leadership?
Are employees intrinsically or extrinsically motivated?
What motivates employees working in the oil and gas
industry?
What do the leaders currently do to motivate their employees
and what they need to do in the future?
1.2. Significance of the Study
There is a strong tie between motivation and achievement
[6]. He maintained that motivated employees are almost
always high achievers. Many leaders think that materialistic
rewards are enough to motivate their employees but it is not
and money alone will not do the impact in motivating your
employees while the leader is ignoring individual’s needs to
contribute to the organizations and make meaning out of
what they do [7].
The literature is almost saturated with research on
motivation. However, this study is specific to the context of a
small department in a private company. The value of this
study can be explained in two goals, which are to:
Identify useful strategies that can help the leaders in an oil
and gas company develop an atmosphere of motivation.
Add to our understanding about the impact of leadership
on employees’ motivation.
This study was conducted on the employees of oil and gas
company, which is located at the eastern province of Saudi
Arabia.
2. Literature Review
2.1. Theories of Motivation
In order to understand motivation we need to historicize its
theories. Theorists of motivation such as Maslow, Mayo,
Hertzberg, McGregor and Vroom have contributed to human
understanding of this topic [1]. Although These theories are
not new but they still are relevant today [8], [3], [9].
According to [10], probably one of the most famous
theories of motivation is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human
Needs Theory. This theory suggests that people have five
levels of human needs and they are in order physiological,
safety, belonging, self-esteem and self-actualization.
According to [3] first level has to be satisfied before
moving to the next level and so on. While physiological
needs were enough to motivate people in the past, [11]
claims that today’s employees are looking for higher needs
to be satisfied.
Another theory of motivation is the theory of X and Y for
McGregor. In this theory, McGregor placed people in two
groups; X group who are the people interested in rewards and
compensation, and Y group who are the self-directed people
and who are looking for challenges [3]. Herzberg is another
theorist who studied employees motivation and developed a
thesis which categorizes motivation in two groups;
motivators and hygiene [12]. Hygiene factors are the
extrinsic motivators such as benefits, salary while the
motivators are intrinsically oriented such as challenging work
and greater responsibilities [13].
Expectancy theory for Vroom was specifically developed for
work context. This theory suggests that employees
voluntarily choose one behavior over another if they believe
that this behavior will result in a desired outcome, application
for example [14].
These theories are still relevant today and they have actually
influenced the way current theories explain motivation [1].
Many theories today still believe in the validity of these
theories and more importantly emphasis the intrinsic factors
of motivation [15], [16] and [17].
2.2. Leadership and Motivation
Developing an understanding of the impact leadership can
make on employees motivation is important [18]. In the past,
the mission of leader in relation to employees motivation has
not been clear [1] and leaders frequently undermined the
importance of developing effective relationship with
stakeholders including the employees [19].
Leaders also must recognize that what motivates “X” is
different than what motivates “Y”. Broder maintains that
leaders should implement different strategies that are
customized to individuals. For example, some employees
simply motivated by the job security, others by clear company
policies, power, recognition, compensation, on the other side,
there is a category of employees who are intrinsically
motivated who are just enjoying what they do [20].
International Journal of Economics and Business Administration Vol. 2, No. 5, 2016, pp. 37-44 39
2.3. Leadership Styles
There are many leadership styles such as authoritarian,
paternalistic, democratic, laissez-faire, transactional and
transformational [21]. In order to narrow down the research I
will discuss only transactional and transformational styles.
According to [22], transactional leader doesn’t involve
regularly with the workers unless a mistake or deviation
occurs. He maintained that transactional leaders want the
same procedures in the company to be followed flawlessly
every time the job is done. Additionally, transactional leaders
don’t motivate their employees or help them in a career
growth.
On the other hand, transformational leadership is
inspirational, challenging, charismatic, stimulating and
always developing the capability of the employees. As a
result, employees are willingly work towards their full
potential inspired by transformational leader [22].
2.4. Leadership and Decision Making Styles
According [23] discussed variety of ways through which
leaders can make decision. He maintained that leader can
expand or limit the participation of employees in the decision
making process. These procedures as follows:
Autocratic Decision: in this case, employees have no say
at all and the leader or manager is having full influence
over the decision.
Consultation: leader makes the decision but after taking
other employees opinion.
Joint Decision: leader has equal influence over decision
just same other employees.
Delegation: the authority of decision-making is given to
other employee by the leader.
When leaders engage their employees in making the decision
it is more likely that the decision will enhance the quality of
the decision, make it easily accepted, enhance employee’s
satisfaction and foster development of employee’s skills [23].
2.5. Power of Motivation
The power of motivation can’t be overemphasized [24].
Motivation has the power to energize people not only by
pushing them towards the right direction but by meeting their
basic human needs of self-esteem, belonging, recognition,
feeling of self-directedness and the ability to live one’s ideals
[15].
Motivation has been found to be correlated with employees
productivity [25].
In his article, [26] explains the different styles of leadership
and how they effect employee’s motivation. According to
Root, managers who follow Autocratic leadership styles
(make decisions by themselves without consulting
employees) can be beneficial decision speed matters and
when managers are knowledgeable and this by turn makes
employees more comfortable and motivated with this type of
leadership. The other style discussed by Root is the
Democratic style of leadership and its influence on
employee’s motivation. In this approach, employees are part
of decision-making process and by that they feel included
and their opinions are valued [26]. The third style is the Quit
leadership when the manager almost delegates most if not all
of his/her duties to the staff who are highly qualified and by
that, they are empowered to make their own success. The last
style discussed by Root is the Transformational style where a
leader or a manager brings a vision of the future and set clear
plan of achieving this vision.
2.6. Other Relevant Studies
[27] surveyed 50 employees in a petrochemical company in
India to find out the relation between leadership style and
motivation. They found that employees tend to be more
motivated with transformational style of leadership than
transactional or laissez-faire styles. [28] investigated the
impact of leadership style on employees on a Croatian
company and they found that employees are motivated with
participative leadership style than with authoritarian one. In
a recent study conducted by [29] who surveyed 378 people
to find out the impact of transformational leadership style
on employees morale and motivation, he found that the
there is a significant relationship between these variables.
Another recent study by [21] who investigated the
relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with
the types of leadership styles that are transactional and
transformational. He found that a close positive relationship
between transformational and intrinsic motivation, while
there is a relationship between transactional and extrinsic
motivation. This study, according to the research, had
implication on recruiting and selection, leadership
development.
Although motivation has been widely an interesting topic of
research in the field of industry, there are still little studies
aimed to understand the perception of employees about
motivation in the field for oil and gas companies in the
eastern province of Saudi Arabia.
3. Methods of Data Collection
Research is all about collecting information [30]. Collecting
information can be either informally or through a rigorous
procedure [1]. The method used in any research should be
appropriate in order to address the research question/s [21].
40 Ali M. Alghazo and Meshal Al-Anazi: Impact of Leadership on Employees Motivation
For the purpose of this research, mixed methods approach
of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to collect
data. Quantitative approach is used to test a hypothesis,
measure the size of phenomenon of interest and then
generalize the results [31]. Qualitative approach is used
when you want to understand the phenomenon and take into
consideration personal opinions [32]. Such qualitative
analysis will assist in acquiring a better understanding of
the specific context of an oil and gas industry setting.
Choosing mixed methods approach will help ensure the
reliability of the results, make it easily accepted by readers
and most importantly, overcome limitation of single
methodology [33] Using multiple methods in the same
research gives more credibility to the study and strengthens
its results.
In order to study the perception of employees on the impact
of leadership, a questionnaire was developed to measure
employees responses. A five point Likert Scale with strongly
agree; agree; neutral; disagree; and strongly disagree, was
used from main items. To collect data, an email with the link
to the questionnaire was sent to the employees of the
company. Once responses were received, they were
consolidated in a sheet and analyzed using descriptive and
inferential statistics.
Participants of this survey were randomly selected. Random
sample technique ensures equal opportunity to all target
population to participate in the study, hence, more reliable
results.
3.1. Data Analysis
Survey results were compiled and entered in SPSS and
results were analyzed accordingly. Applicable descriptive and
inferential statistics has been extracted. For the results
collected from the interviews (qualitative data), it was
analyzed using thematic and coding.
Part I: Descriptive analysis
i. Participants age
Table 1. Participant’s age.
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Age 30 20 50 29.07 6.389
Valid N 30
The average age of participants is 29, and the range of age
among participants is 30.
ii. Participants positions (managerial or non-managerial)
Figure 1. Participants Position Type.
Of total number of participants, 22 are in non-managerial
position, while eight are in managerial position.
iii. Departments
Figure 2. Participants Departments.
Of total number of participants, 22 are in shared services
department, while eight are in operation.
iv. Education level
Figure 3. Participants Educational Level.
Two third of participants are having master degree while
one-third is having bachelor degree.
v. Years of experience of participants
International Journal of Economics and Business Administration Vol. 2, No. 5, 2016, pp. 37-44 41
Figure 4. Participants Years of Experience.
The average years of experience are 5 years.
vi. Below graph shows the percentage distribution on what motivates the employees in the workplace, according to the
participants.
Figure 5. Participants Motivation Triggers.
The highest motivator is trustworthy leadership, and the lowest is clear job description.
vii. Which style of leadership is more likely to motivate the participants of the study?
42 Ali M. Alghazo and Meshal Al-Anazi: Impact of Leadership on Employees Motivation
Figure 6. Participants Preferred Leadership style for Motivation.
After describing each style of leadership, More than two-
thirds of participants selected transformational style of
leadership as a style that is more likely to motivate them.
Part II: Correlation analysis
i. Correlation between education level and the preferred
style of leadership
Table 2. Correlation analysis of Educational level and Preferred
Motivational Style.
Education
Level
Which style of
leadership is more likely
to motivate you?
Education
Level
Pearson
Correlation 1 -.167
Sig. (2-tailed) .378
N 30 30
Which style of
leadership is
more likely to
motivate you?
Pearson
Correlation -.167 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .378
N 30 30
No significant correlation is found between the two variables.
ii. Correlation between participants department and preferred
style of leadership.
Table 3. Correlation analysis of Department and Preferred Leadership Style.
Which style of
leadership is more
likely to motivate you?
Department
Which style of
leadership is
more likely to
motivate you?
Pearson
Correlation 1 .318
Sig. (2-tailed) .087
N 30 30
Department
Pearson
Correlation .318 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .087
N 30 30
No significant correlation is found between the two variables.
3.2. Findings from the Interview
The interview was conducted with 10 employees to validate
the results of the survey. The interview was semi-structure
and it was short due to time limitation. The questions were
mainly derived from the survey questions. In general, 8 out
of 10 employees agreed that transformational leadership is
more likely to lead to a better job satisfaction. The other two
employees said that it is not a big matter to work with any
type of leader. In the following part, I provide sample from
their responses:
Employee# 1: “I enjoy working with my supervisor because
he is trusting me and he also gives an opportunity to share
my opinions”
Employee# 2: “I feel happy when my manager sets
challenging goals and inspires me to achieve them”
Employee# 3: “I am new in the company but I can tell that
my manager is a transformational leader who tries to bring
the best of each employee and that is very interesting to me”
Employee# 4: “I am not happy about my manager because he
is silencing our voices and always takes a decision a lone”
Employee# 5: “My supervisor can be better if he listens more
to us”
Employee# 6: “My manager ignites my energy and I feel
motivated when he is available”
Employee# 7: “My manager only looks for mistakes and I
feel there is a distance between us”
Employee# 8: “I can’t work with someone who chase my
International Journal of Economics and Business Administration Vol. 2, No. 5, 2016, pp. 37-44 43
mistakes and enlarge them while underestimating my
achievements… my manager does that”
Employee# 9: “My manager sets clear goals for the team and
he closely monitors our progress and provide the resources
we need to accomplish our tasks, and that is a big motivator
for me”
Employee# 10: “I am delighted to work with such a leader
who is very respectful for us. I feel that he is prioritizing our
needs over his own needs and agenda”
The interview conducted with the employees has revealed the
following themes:
i. Managers who want to motivate their staff shall be
respectful, supportive and put the needs of their
subordinates first.
ii. Listening to employees voices is important to improve the
work environment and motivate employees
iii. Waiting until last minute to do intervention (transactional
leadership) could have potential negative consequences.
4. Conclusion
The purpose of this research was to examine the perception
of private petrochemical company employees about the
leadership styles and its effect on employee motivation. A
combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was
used in this study. Results from data collected indicate that
leaders who adapt participative and transformational
leadership are more likely to create an atmosphere of
motivation among their employees. In general,
transformational leadership might be of more preference for
the employees of this study than transactional. This result is
consistent with other researches such as the research
conducted by [21], [34] and [35]. The implication of this
study is that managers who want to be more effective might
need to be more inspirational, supportive, resourceful, and
work to develop their subordinate’s capabilities. Further
research is required to the study findings with the similar
firms in the region.
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... O campo de investigação sobre a motivação tem conhecido alguns avanços nos últimos anos, não tanto quanto seria talvez necessário para melhor se compreenderem as dinâmicas das organizações, mas é correto dizer-se que sabemos hoje mais do que no passado (Bright, 2008;Bekiari, 2014;Vandenabeele et al., 2014;Sherif et al., 2014;Alghazo & Al-Anazi, 2016;Kanat-Maymon et al., 2018;Mubarok, 2019). As organizações vivem hoje uma realidade em que muitas não estavam habituadas e outras nem sequer ponderavam essa possibilidade, isto é, a existência de longos períodos de constante mudança e adaptação a novos contextos, novas realidades e à frenética rapidez que esses processos exigem para manterem o seu normal funcionamento (Cunha & Rego, 2020 (Braun et al., 2013). ...
... Uma grande maioria percebe que a qualidade de vida envolve igual satisfação no que se faz e no que proporciona ao seu bem-estar físico e psicológico (Medeiros & Estender, 2015). A ambição é individual e as organizações precisam de todas as pessoas motivadas, não apenas de uma percentagem (Alghazo & Al-Anazi, 2016). Apesar de muitas organizações influenciarem a motivação com incentivos financeiros, em momentos de dificuldade ou crise esses mesmos incentivos são os primeiros a serem cortados, pelo que as pessoas já não se encontram inteiramente motivadas somente pela vertente financeira (Sherif et al., 2014). ...
... O papel da motivação e a sua importância nas organizações não deve ser menosprezado. É a motivação que permite dotar as pessoas de uma energia ímpar na procura pelas suas necessidades básicas ao nível da autoconfiança, sentimento de pertença, reconhecimento de que têm valor e lhes é reconhecido esse mesmo valor, sendo que tudo isto se reflete na forma de encarar a vida, quer a nível pessoal quer profissional (Sherif et al., 2014;Alghazo & Al-Anazi, 2016;Paais & Pattiruhu, 2020). ...
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RESUMO | A investigação e o conhecimento científico sobre a liderança e a sua importância no sucesso das organizações, continua a ser um tema amplamente explorado pela ciência. No que diz respeito às organizações desportivas, e à gestão do desporto em particular, persiste a necessidade de se continuar a estudar este fenómeno para compreendermos cada vez melhor o papel dos lideres e os seus comportamentos, assim como a sua importância no desenvolvimento das pessoas nas organizações. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar e avaliar a relação entre a gestão do desporto e liderança e os efeitos na motivação dos técnicos superiores de desporto nos municípios portugueses, com base nos estilos de liderança e respetivos comportamentos dos atuais responsáveis municipais pelo desporto. A investigação seguiu uma abordagem dedutiva de natureza quantitativa descritiva, incindindo sobre 302 dos 308 municípios de Portugal Continental, Região Autónoma dos Açores e da Madeira. O universo em estudo foi composto por técnicos superiores de desporto e pelos atuais responsáveis municipais pelas unidades orgânicas dos serviços de desporto. Os dados foram recolhidos entre novembro de 2020 e fevereiro de 2021 com recurso a questionários de respostas fechadas e no total obtiveram-se 443 respostas, tendo sido posteriormente analisados com recurso a técnicas de estatística descritiva e inferencial. Os resultados da investigação permitiram caracterizar e atualizar o conhecimento sobre os profissionais a atuar na gestão do desporto municipal e concluir que existe de forma geral um reconhecimento entre grupos sobre a predominância dos estilos de liderança existentes e do seu comportamento enquanto lideres, um claro reconhecimento sobre a importância da formação em gestão do desporto no âmbito da liderança e na melhoria das competências e conhecimentos para atuar na gestão do desporto, ao mesmo tempo que existem diferenças significativas entre técnicos superiores de desporto e responsáveis municipais pelo desporto ao nível da perceção sobre os estilos de liderança e motivação. As características associadas ao estilo de liderança transformacional também foram amplamente percecionadas como essenciais para se alcançar uma liderança de excelência nas organizações desportivas e na gestão do desporto. Palavras-chave: Gestão do Desporto; Liderança; Municípios; Motivação; Técnicos Superiores de Desporto. ABSTRACT | The research and scientific knowledge about leadership and its importance in the success oforganizations continues to be a subject widely explored by science. Regarding sports organizations,and sport management in particularly, there is still a need to continue to study this phenomenon tobetter understand the role of leaders and their behaviors, as well as their importance in thedevelopment of people in organizations. This study aimed to analyse and evaluate the relationshipbetween sport management and leadership and the effects on the motivation of sport technicians inPortuguese municipalities, based on the leadership styles and respective behaviors of the currentmunicipal heads of the organic units of the sport services. The research followed a deductiveapproach of a descriptive quantitative nature, focusing on 302 of the 308 municipalities in MainlandPortugal and in the Autonomous Region of Azores and Madeira. The universe under study wascomposed of sport technicians and the current municipal heads of the organic units of the sportservices. Data were collected between November 2020 and February 2021 using closed-endedquestionnaires and a total of 443 answers were obtained, which were subsequently analysed usingdescriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The results of the research allowed us to characterizeand update the knowledge about the professionals working in municipal sports management andconclude that there is a general recognition among groups about the predominance of the existingleadership styles and their behavior as leaders, a clear recognition of the importance of training insports management in the context of leadership and improvement of skills and knowledge to work insports management, while there are significant differences between sports technicians and municipalheads of the organic units of the sport services in terms of the perception of leadership styles andmotivation. The characteristics associated with the transformational leadership style were also widelyperceived as essential to achieve leadership excellence in sports organizations and in sportsmanagement. Keywords: Sports Management; Leadership; Local Authorities; Motivation; Sports Technicians.
... The result showed that leadership has a major impact on the ES and performance of commercial banks in Jordan. In a study at a private petrochemical company in Saudi Arabia (Alghazo and Al-Anazi, 2016), leadership is proved to lead to better job satisfaction. The findings of the above studies portrayed that SL is the primary variable to achieve the employees/job satisfaction. ...
... The literature is consistent with the relationship between SL and ES. For instance, (Alghazo and Al-Anazi, 2016;Serfontein, 2010;Sougui et al., 2017) found that SL affects ES both directly and indirectly. Moreover, Wang et al. (2011) also revealed that a leader's behaviour is straightforwardly associated with ES. ...
... Moreover, there is a significant relationship between leadership and employee motivation (Alghazo & Al-Anazi, 2016). Leadership motivates the followers to perform by stimulating them to override self-interest for the reputation and image of their organizations (Bass, 1985). ...
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The current study targets to examine the relations between motivation, attitude, job satisfaction, and tax administration efficiency with leadership as a moderator from the tax employee’s perspective using the Yemeni environment. The questionnaires were distributed among 505 employees of the Yemeni Tax Authority as part of the survey technique, exactly from six governorates. As a result, 306 questionnaires were appropriated for further analysis. Respondent data were analyzed using SPSS.23 and PLS software. The analysis results manifest that motivation, attitude, and job satisfaction significantly influence tax administration efficiency. Whereas motivation presents about 40% of the influence, attitude is about 31% of the influence, and job satisfaction is about 15% of the influence on the efficiency of tax administration. Furthermore, for the influence of leadership as a moderating variable, it was found to moderate the impact of job satisfaction and attitude on tax administration efficiency (β = 0.157; P < .001; β = 0.105; P < .01). On the contrary, the findings also show that leadership cannot moderate the correlation between motivation and tax administration efficiency (β = –0.061; P > .05). The findings of this study are helpful for the tax administration in the context of Yemen. AcknowledgmentsIt is our pleasure to thank Seiyun University and Universiti Utara Malaysia for their continuous support in the completion of this work. Appreciation also goes out to the anonymous reviewers, who had supplied excellent advice and comments.
... This search has resulted in endless efforts by researchers to ascertain how leaders operate and the resulting effect on employees' performance. According to (Alghazo& Al-Anazi, 2016), Leadership plays a significant role in building afervent environment and encouraging culture in an organization. Ngethe et al. (2012) argued that leadership roles and their styles contributes immensely to employees retention and performance. ...
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This study examined the impact of Democratic Leadership style on employees' performance in selected private Universities in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study gathered data through primary and secondary sources. The primary data was collected through a well-structured questionnaire circulated to three hundred and eighty (380) teaching staff of the selected universities. A proportionate stratified random sampling technique was adopted to determine the sample size of the sample. Cronbach's Alpha reliability test for the research instrument was 0.75, indicating a reliable instrument. Data collected was analyzed using Simple Linear Regression. The findings indicate that democratic leadership style has an impact on employees' performance in Nigerian private universities. The study recommends that the leaders should increase the level of democratic practice to spur employee performance in a greater rate. Also, the stakeholders of the private university should encourage the practice of democratic leadership style to further enhance employee performance.
... Firms in this powerful globalised world are ceaselessly attempting to create and motivate their employees to help accomplish improved performance with different Human Resource applications and practices (Bawa, 2017;Alghazo and Al-Anazi, 2016;Park et al., 2019). Working conditions, behaviour of presidents and subordinates, salary-incentives, and job stability are the exceptionally utilised practice for the firms to accomplish the desired goals through motivation and it will drive their desire to continue working (Lorincová et al., 2019;Nhede, 2019;Polas and Jahanshahi, 2020). ...
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... Management and leadership, as critical factors for organizational success or failure, have been attracting increasing research and discussion worldwide. Reviews of scholarly studies suggest that there are many different theoretical approaches to explain the complexity of the leadership process [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. Some researchers conceptualize leadership through the prism of traits or behaviors, whereas others view it from an information processing perspective or a relationship perspective. ...
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The continuous improvement of military leadership identity to maintain excellent performance with respect to the promotion of mission success is a highly desired by the Lithuanian Armed Forces. This study seeks to identify the criteria for effective leadership behavior that is appreciated by Lithuanian servicemen. The validated Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ XII) was used to collect data representing followers’ preferences with respect to commander–leader behavior by assessing twelve leadership behavior criteria. Additionally, commander–leaders were chosen as experts to judge the importance of the criteria by pair-wise assessment. Consequently, the Fuzzy Decision Making (FDM) with Fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method based on the new concept of the relationship between the influenced and influencing criteria were employed to analyze the ranking using leadership behavior and to establish the causal relationships among the criteria when the collected data were expressed in trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. This study contributes to military leadership by using a novel approach for identifying and prioritizing the behavior criteria for leaders. The results indicate six “cause” constructs: ability to persuade, taking the lead, result orientation, accurate forecasting, building interpersonal relationships, and cooperation with managers. These findings could assist militaries in designing effective improvement strategies for continuous leadership training.
... As it can be seen from the paragraph above, as well as it is also stated by [73] the literature is almost overlapped with the research on motivation. While in the past, the mission of the leader, especially regarding the employee motivation, was not clear and completely unambiguous [74] and leaders frequently undermined the importance of developing an effective relationship with stakeholders including the employees [75], nowadays we understand that leaders should implement different strategies that are customized to individuals, their desires and needs-some employees are simply motivated by job security, others by clear company policies, power, recognition, compensation, or there are also employees who are just enjoying what they do, and that is their motivation [76]. ...
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Although the issue of corporate culture has been taken over and addressed in the literature from various perspectives, there are very few researchers about the role of leadership and motivation in it, respectively very few researchers have addressed them as important components of the international company’s corporate culture. The present paper aims to point out that leadership and motivation can be perceived as important aspects of the international company’s corporate culture. The object of the investigation was an international company (situated in Italy) and its five subsidiaries (situated in Italy, Czech Republic, Germany, and Turkey). As the main research method, there was chosen the method of the questionnaire survey, which was attempted by all the company’s employees (totally 270 respondents). The questionnaire was divided into three separate, but logically related parts—leadership, motivation, and corporate culture, and submitted to two groups of respondents—the company’s management and its employees. In total 11 hypotheses were formulated and further evaluated by the methods of Pearson Chi-square Test, Fisher’s Exact Test, Cramer’s V coefficient, Kendall rank correlation coefficient, Eta coefficient, Spearman coefficient, Mann–Whitney U test and Wilcoxon W statistics, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Friedman’s test. The results of the research have proven that leadership and motivation are important parts of the corporate culture.
... Effective leadership enhances the productivity of employees in all the sectors of the economy in a country. Leadership plays a crucial role in creating an enthusiastic atmosphere and culture in an organization (Alghazo and Al-Anazi, 2016). The importance of leadership style is not unknown and it is shown by a significant number of studies that have been conducted on leadership style in developed and developing countries (Babatunde and Emem, 2015;Iqbal et al., 2015;Mohammed et al., 2014;Paracha et al., 2012;Zumitzavan and Udchachone, 2014). ...
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... "No matter the size or the type of the organization, it must behave in innovative ways, seeking opportunity, solving problems, and embracing new directions", all types of organizations (profit or non-profit) are in need for such innovation and creativity. (Alghazo & Al-Anazi, 2016). ...
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Chapter
Second language education in Canada is experienced by diverse populations in different ways across the country. English language learners (ELLs) comprise a significant number of those enrolled in second official language programs, and they are supported to varying degrees according to province or territory. Canada is renowned for its pedagogical approaches to integrated language and content learning, and recent research continues to explore this tradition, tracking both successes, such as the development of twenty-first-century literacies and multilingual pedagogies, and challenges, such as the exclusion of ELLs from mainstream official language classrooms. The majority of Canadian students learn French as a second language in Core French classes. Several studies underscore the challenges faced by teachers who lack sufficient linguistic or methodological background or, in some cases, support, leading to less than satisfactory student performance and high attrition rates. The introduction of the Common European Framework of Reference and language portfolios has created a shift in some regions to adopt an action-oriented pedagogical approach with greater learner autonomy. Work in progress includes research on identity and investment, innovative and inclusive pedagogical approaches, and resistance to monolingual teaching norms. The problem of ELLs’ low success rates in high school is being addressed by efforts to support teacher professional learning at preservice and in-service levels. The integration of transformative multilingual and multimodal practices that draw on the full range of students’ repertoires (in school, at home, and in the community) is seen as key for the future.
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We like to think enlightened managers understand employee motivation. But research conducted by Stanford's Chip Heath suggests that managers are not as good at judging what drives their employees as they might think. The key to improving your ability to understand motivation is to appreciate that employees are driven by the same things you are.
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The relationship between leadership styles, which managers practice, and their motivation, which drives them in accomplishing their organizational goals, is analyzed in this paper. For this purpose, on the sample of 40 Croatian managers, it is determined which is the dominant leadership style (by using the Likert's system) and to which degree it is applied at a particular management level. Subsequently, in accordance with Herzberg's two factor theory, the motivational influence on particular leadership style, considering management level, is being analyzed from the aspect of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.