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DevOps for Digital Leaders

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Learn to design, implement, measure, and improve DevOps programs that are tailored to your organization. This concise guide assists leaders who are accountable for the rapid development of high-quality software applications. In DevOps for Digital Leaders, deep collective experience on both sides of the dev–ops divide informs the global thought leadership and penetrating insights of the authors, all three of whom are cross-portfolio DevOps leaders at CA Technologies. Aruna Ravichandran, Kieran Taylor, and Peter Waterhouse analyze the organizational benefits, costs, freedoms, and constraints of DevOps. They chart the coordinated strategy of organizational change, metrics, lean thinking, and investment that an enterprise must undertake to realize the full potential of DevOps and reach the sweet spot where accelerating code deployments drive increasing customer satisfaction, revenue, and profitability. Digital leaders are charged to bridge the dev–ops disconnect if their organizations are to survive and flourish in a business world increasingly differentiated by the degree to which dynamic application software development harmonizes with operational resilience and reliability. This short book applies the DevOps perspective to the competitive challenge, faced by every high-performance IT organization today, of integrating and automating open source, cloud, and enterprise tools, processes, and techniques across the software development life cycle from requirements to release. What You Will Learn: • Remove dependencies and constraints so that parallel practices can accelerate the development of defect-free software • Automate continuous delivery across the software life cycle to eliminate release bottlenecks, manual labor waste, and technical debt accumulation • Generate virtualized production-style testing of applications through real-time behavioral analytics • Adopt agile practices so operations teams can support developer productivity with automated feedback, streamline infrastructure monitoring, spot and resolve operations issues before they impact production, and improve customer experience • Identify the DevOps metrics appropriate to your organization and integrate DevOps with your existing best practices and investment Who This Book Is For: IT leaders in large companies and government agencies who have any level of responsibility for the rapid development of high-quality software applications. The secondary readership is members of development and operations teams, security professionals, and service managers.
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Chapters (10)

In 2016, Formula 1 (FI) racecars, the ultimate in four-wheeled technology, are awash in wireless sensors and transmitters.
Ever since we flipped the switch on commercial computers back in the 1950s, IT departments have been struggling to keep up with an insatiable demand for software applications and services. Of course many technologies like commercial of-the-shelf software packages, virtualization, and cloud computing have helped along the way, but generally IT delivery has been slow and uncoordinated.
Blink during a Formula 1 pit-stop and you’ll probably miss it. But this wasn’t always the case. Fifty years ago, a pit-crew would take over a minute to change the wheels and refuel. Today, anything more than three seconds is considered a fail.
In the digital economy, building application programming interfaces (APIs) is essential for executing ideas quickly and seizing new business opportunities. They are the building blocks of digital transformation, enabling organizations to deliver exceptional customer experiences, create new revenue streams and connect employees, partners, apps, and devices to data—anytime, anywhere. APIs are not necessarily a new technology, but in today’s digital world, they have risen in prominence and become important to every facet of the enterprise. This in turn has increased the demand for effective API management.
The volume and velocity of software innovation afforded by DevOps is perhaps the biggest driver of IT’s shift to this new method of delivery. But when organizations neglect quality in the head-long rush to DevOps glory, the glass can only ever be half empty.
To keep pace with demands for new features and application updates, digital transformation must be driven by continuous delivery—the ability to rapidly and reliably release software across the pipeline at any time.
In traditional enterprise IT, developers code and operations manage what comes "over the wall" to production. While DevOps regards this as the ultimate divisive anti-pattern, this practice has still been conducted for decades—but why?
In enterprise computing, DevOps will never operate in a vacuum. Over many years businesses have invested, adopted, and adapted many other methodologies and practices. For DevOps to be successful, this means many practices and existing roles (beyond development and operations) should be carefully reviewed and, if necessary, adjusted to drive improvements across the DevOps-enabled software factory.
During the 2016 Formula 1 season, it’s not unusual for pit-stops to hover somewhere around the three-second mark. In rare instances, such as for the Williams F1 team at the 2016 European Grand Prix, the feat has amazingly been accomplished in less than two ticks of the clock.
Congratulations, you’ve read this far and are ready to floor the DevOps accelerator. Like a Formula 1 driver in pole-position at the start of a race, you’re eager to get the green light and hit the gas. Hopefully, you’re part of a team with a winning culture, managing to business outcomes and building the strategies needed for continuous improvement.
... According to Ravichandran et al. (2016), the first step in adopting business outcomes-oriented DevOps is to align business objectives with DevOps practices by focusing on the needs of the business and then aligning DevOps including metrics, tools, and processes [16]. Chasioti (2019) supported the same view but further integrated business requirements into DevOps to form BizDevOps [17]. ...
... According to Ravichandran et al. (2016), the first step in adopting business outcomes-oriented DevOps is to align business objectives with DevOps practices by focusing on the needs of the business and then aligning DevOps including metrics, tools, and processes [16]. Chasioti (2019) supported the same view but further integrated business requirements into DevOps to form BizDevOps [17]. ...
... Enabling a continuous cycle of feedback in the context of targeted team members in all areas of the software delivery chain is fundamental to achieving business outcomes. Teams need to include analytics, and intelligence, remove noise and put feedback in the context of people who most benefit from it [16]. ...
... • Improved customer satisfaction and experience: DevOps allows optimising the customer experience by providing faster and of higher quality services. In particular, customer needs and requirements are met to a higher degree resulting in increased business growth [14]. • Combine IT with business: A main DevOps requirement is that the Dev, QA and Ops teams communicate and cooperate with each other, thus creating a collaborative environment focused on experience and knowledge sharing. ...
Conference Paper
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Due to rapid technological advances, information and software systems play a vital role in today’s society. Demands for high quality products and services that meet the ever-changing users’/customers’ needs and requirements are continuously increasing while simultaneously bringing about fierce global market competition. DevOps is the new software development methodology which companies can adopt in order to satisfy and fulfil these new demands and stay ahead of the increased competition. DevOps is widely considered to be a cultural change and has been gaining popularity at a rapid pace. It combines software development (Dev) with information technology operations (Ops) and involves shared and efficient practices, tools, automation and event monitoring throughout all the phases of the software development lifecycle (SDLC). The aim of DevOps is to shorten the SDLC and to improve product quality and customers’ satisfaction. In this approach, multidisciplinary teams work closely together with the aim of meeting with business objectives and goals. Working side-by-side throughout all SDLC phases, Dev and Ops teams communicate directly with each other and get to know each other’s work, thus influencing the planning of the product and preventing many problems and errors from happening. Hence, better results and more collaborative environments are ensured in comparison to conventional methods. The aim of this study is to present and analyse the DevOps approach regarding software development. It explains the origins of this approach and analyses its concept and principles in detail. Moreover, it outlines the main advantages and drawbacks of DevOps. In addition, it briefly examines the Waterfall model, Software Process Improvement (SPI) and Agile methodology and compares them with the DevOps approach. Finally, it describes the way DevOps is adopted and implemented by companies based on the latest market reports and compares DevOps working environments with conventional ones.
... DevOps offers an unprecedented opportunity for organisations to transform their Software Development lifecycle to increase efficiency and meet end-users' changing expectations. DevOps attempts to redefine the foundations of software development and management recasting the approach to every element [16]. The reformation that DevOps brings with its set of practices extends to the customer experience as well. ...
Article
Full-text available
The contribution emphasizes research undertaken in highly structured software-intensive organisations and the transitional challenges associated to agile, lean and DevOps practices andprinciples adoption journeys. The approach undertaken to gain insights to research questions resulted in data collected, through a series of interviews, by thirtypractitioners from EMEA region (Czech Republic, Estonia, Italy, Georgia, Greece, The Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, UAE, UK) working in ninedifferent industry domains. A set of agile, lean and DevOps practices and principles that organisations are choosing to include in their adoption journeys towardsDevOps-oriented structures is identified. The most frequently adopted practices of structured service management that can contribute to the success of DevOps practices adoption are also identified. Results indicate that software product development andoperations roles in DevOps-oriented organisationscan benefit from specific leadership styles.
Article
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Attention is currently being focused on DevOps, which aims to reduce software development time by means of close collaboration between the development and operations areas. However, little effort has been made to determine the role of requirements management in DevOps. The objective of this study is to help both researchers and practitioners by providing an overview of the best practices regarding requirements engineering in DevOps and identifying which areas still need to be investigated. A multivocal mapping study has, therefore, been carried out in order to study which methodologies, techniques and tools are used to support requirements management in DevOps environments. After applying the review protocol, 37 papers from formal literature and 14 references from grey literature were selected for analysis. The general conclusions obtained after analysing these papers were that, within DevOps, more attention should be paid to: (1) the reuse of requirements in order to identify systems and software artefacts that can serve as a basis for the specification of new projects; (2) the communication of requirements between the different areas of an organisation and the stakeholders of a project; (3) the traceability of requirements in order to identify the relationship with other requirements, artefacts, tasks and processes; (4) non-functional requirements in order to identify the requirements of the operations area in the early phases of a project; and finally (5) specific requirements tools that should be seamlessly integrated into the DevOps toolchain. All these issues must be considered without ignoring the agile and continuous practices of development, operations and business teams. More effort must also be made to validate new methodologies in industry so as to assess and determine their strengths and weaknesses.
Article
Full-text available
DevOps (development and operations) is a collective and multidisciplinary organizational effort used by many software development organizations to build high-quality software on schedule and within budget. Implementing DevOps is challenging to implement in software organizations. The DevOps literature is far away from providing a guideline for effectively implementing DevOps in software organizations. This study is conducted with the aim to develop a readiness model by investigating the DevOps-related factors that could positively or negatively impact DevOps activities in the software industry. The identified factors are further categorized based on the internal and external aspects of the organization, using the SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities , threats) framework. This research work is conducted in three different phases: (1) investigating the factors, (2) categorizing the factors using the SWOT framework, and finally, (3) developing an analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-based readiness model of DevOps factors for use in software organizations. The findings would provide a readiness model based on the SWOT framework. The proposed framework could provide a roadmap for organizations in the software development industry to evaluate and improve their implementation approaches to implement a DevOps process.
Article
Full-text available
Information technology professionals often refer to DevOps as a cultural or professional movement that presents a new approach to software delivery through collaboration between the development (Dev) and the operations (Ops) teams. It is an expanding phenomenon, but its adoption in organizations is still at an embryonic stage, requiring research to clarify the benefits, challenges, and barriers to its adoption. With this objective in mind, it was carried out an in-depth study in a large telecommunications (Telco) company that decided to undertake a process of migration to DevOps. The case study involved several stakeholders and covers the DevOps’ ex-ante, adoption, and ex-post. Several important facets of DevOps are addressed in this paper, including: 1) practices (continuous delivery and continuous integration were considered the most relevant in the company), 2) benefits (from benefits stand out the improvement in the software quality and faster delivery, with fewer production failures), 3) barriers (the most significant obstacle was the resistance to change, in several dimensions), 4) success factors (the main influencing factors were top management support, implementation process and applied technology); and 5) others aspects (e.g., motivations and tools). Results provide academics and professionals with an integrated view of the conditions of DevOps adoption and its outcomes within organizations.
Chapter
Development and operations (DevOps) is a cultural movement or framework that aims to build a bridge between IT development and operation with the purpose of efficiently shortening the development cycle at low cost. Many organizations are adopting DevOps practices due to the substantial benefits that have been shown such as a significantly faster time to market and reliability. However, there is a lack of meaning and literature on the key concepts, methods, tools and challenges of adopting DevOps strategies. The purpose of this systematic literature review protocol (SLR) is to investigate and discuss challenges related to DevOps culture and its practices. This includes how DevOps works in an organization and provides a detailed definition of the concept of DevOps and identifies the cultural challenges faced by organizations during the adoption of DevOps. SLR has been conducted to identify ways to successfully adopt the DevOps approach. The identified data will be validated by empirical study and finally analytic hierarchy process (AHP) techniques will be applied to give an alternate solution. Finally, the ultimate goal of this protocol is to develop DevOps' Culture Challenges Model (DC2M) to improve collaboration, understanding and trust and reduce the barriers between development team and operation team.
Article
Full-text available
Microservices is an emerging paradigm for developing distributed systems. With their widespread adoption, more and more work investigated the relation between microservices and security. Alas, the literature on this subject does not form a well-defined corpus : it is spread over many venues and composed of contributions mainly addressing specific scenarios or needs. In this work, we conduct a systematic review of the field, gathering 290 relevant publications—at the time of writing, the largest curated dataset on the topic. We analyse our dataset along two lines: (a) quantitatively, through publication metadata, which allows us to chart publication outlets, communities, approaches, and tackled issues; (b) qualitatively, through 20 research questions used to provide an aggregated overview of the literature and to spot gaps left open. We summarise our analyses in the conclusion in the form of a call for action to address the main open challenges.
Chapter
This chapter studies the mapping of governance and security control objectives impacted by DevOps to the corresponding DevOps control objectives. These DevOps objectives introduce either an opportunity or a risk for the achievement of the security and governance control objectives. Finally, the artifact defines a list of SecDevOps controls that have proven to be effective in combining the agility of the DevOps paradigm with the security compliance assurance. The authors examine in collaboration with experts the multiple frameworks to be suitable. The authors define SecDevOps controls that have proven to be effective in combining the agility of the DevOps paradigm with the security compliance assurance. To design this artefact, four widely-used frameworks/standards (COBIT 5, NIST cybersecurity framework, NIST SP 800-53, and ISO 27002) were reviewed for sufficiently detailed security and privacy control objectives and controls. Based on these criteria, NIST SP 800-53 and ISO 27002 standards were selected for comparison and mapping with (Sec)DevOps controls in this research.
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors define the main problems when working on products in DevOps Teams and on CI/CD pipelines with regard to security and risk management. It focusses on the regulatory requirements and cyberthreats that have impact on organisations. Regulator requirements vary from industry and country. Working with multiple teams on products requires proper alignment in frameworks, controls, and architecture principles in order to be end-to-end protected throughout the connected platforms. This chapter examines the multiple compliance frameworks and architectural principles that can be applied to agile way of working and more precise to CICD pipelines. It defines the main problem statement and questions the authors wanted to answer. The authors looked with a lens of regulated industry since this industry suffers the most and therefore has the biggest benefit from this research project.
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