ChapterPDF Available

The Playful City: Using Play and Games to Foster Citizen Participation

Social Technologies
and Collective Intelligence
ISBN 978-9955-19-708-9 (print)
ISBN 978-9955-19-707-2 (online) © Mykolas Romeris University, 2015
is monograph is prepared by the European Social Fund under the Global Grant
funded project “Social Technologies for Development Collective Intelligence in Networked
Society” (project No. VP1-3.1-ŠMM-07-K-03-030).
Dr. Dap Hartmann, Del University of Technologies, Netherlands
Dr. Agota-Giedrė Raišienė, Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania
Dr. Povilas Aleksandravičius, Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania
Editor in Chief
Dr. Aelita Skaržauskienė
Dr. Jacqui Ewart – 0,4 authorial quires
Dr. Beata Krzywosz-Rynkiewicz – 0,2 authorial quires
Dr. Edgaras Leichteris – 1,6 authorial quires
Dr. Algimantas Mačiulis – 0,6 authorial quires
Dr. Hamish McLean – 0,4 authorial quires
Dr. Algis Mickūnas – 1,7 authorial quires
Dr. Birutė Mikulskienė – 1,4 authorial quires
Dr. Gintarė Paražinskaitė – 0,7 authorial quires
Dr. Žaneta Paunksnienė – 1,2 authorial quires
Dr. Birutė Pitrėnaitė-Žilėnienė – 3,7 authorial quires
Dr. Rasa Rotomskienė – 3 authorial quires
Dr. Aelita Skaržauskienė – 6,4 authorial quires
Dr. Andrius Stasiukynas – 1,2 authorial quires
Dr. Anna Zalewska – 0,2 authorial quires
Dr. Inga Žalėnienė – 0,3 authorial quires
Dr. Michiel de Lange – 0,5 authorial quires
PhD students: Benas Brunalas – 1,1 authorial quires, Laura Gudelytė0,7 authorial
quires, Marius Kalinauskas – 1,2 authorial quires, Monika Mačiulienė – 1,5 authorial
quires, Olga Navickienė – 0,4 authorial quires, Viktorija Stokaitė – 0,6 authorial quires,
Rūta Tamošiūnaitė – 0,3 authorial quires, Agnė Tvaronavičienė – 0,7 authorial quires,
Taurimas Valys – 0,6 authorial quires.
Translated by: Nijolė Burkšaitienė, Alvyda Liuolienė, Viktorija Mažeikienė, Daiva Užpalie-
nė, Vilhelmina Vaičiūnienė, Darius Valūnas
Publishing was approved by:
Institute of Communication and Mediation of Faculty of Social Technologies of Mykolas
Romeris University in the meeting of 22 January 2015 (Record No KMI-9).
Social Technologies Research programme of Mykolas Romeris University in the meeting
of 23 December 2014 (Record No MPK2-11).
Council of Faculty of Social Technologies of Mykolas Romeris University in the meeting
of 30 January 2015 (Record No 1STH-21).
All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be
made without written permission of the authors and the publisher.
Creating the Future of Lithuania
against cancer by playing a hang-glider arcade type of game. During the
game, the players glide in space and collect valuable space dust and at
the same time identify negative elements in real genetic data. Scientists
spend hours and hours to carry out the process; however, if there is a big
number of players, such a task becomes a problem which takes just a few
minutes to be solved. e game “Foldit” is a protein folding game, which
helped to disclose the structure of enzymes causing a disease similar to
AIDS in monkeys’ organisms. Researchers had been trying to solve this
problem for 13 years, whereas the players solved it in only three weeks.
e game “Planet Hunters” helped to nd over forty planets that could be
suitable for life. “Galaxy Zoo” allows looking for similarities in galaxies
and classifying them according to their type and origin and, thus, creating
a huge bank of collective knowledge. ese are just a few examples of the
existing projects that aim at invoking the players’ potential for solving real
problems through collective games. e brilliance of this concept lies in
the fact that people participating in the creative process do not necessarily
know what important goal they are making a contribution to. us, it
is likely that it will not take too long for the day to come when games
that had been previously considered to be childish entertainment and a
careless form of wasting one’s time will with the help of virtual worlds be
saving thousands of lives by joining the players’ creative potential.
5.2.3. e Playful City: Using Play and Games to Foster Citizen
Michiel de Lange,
Utrecht University, Netherlands,
Introduction: the playful smart city. Since several decades, the
relationship between technology, creativity and city life has been an
intimate one. Following creative city” policies popular in the late 1990s and
early 2000s, “smart city” business, policy and design visions have gained
considerable traction since the middle of the 2000s. Smart city agendas
aim to improve services and liveability through ICTs and supporting
infrastructures, such as urban labs, and rapidly gain foothold in cities
worldwide. Large tech companies, such as IBM, HP, CISCO, Microso,
etc., are forming smart city coalitions with municipalities and knowledge
institutions. Among the issues that smart city policies seek to address are
5. Developing CI Monitoring Technique
mobility, clean energy, water and food production and distribution, health,
living and public participation (Hollands, 2008). However, among cities,
such as Rio de Janeiro, Barcelona, Amsterdam, Masdar and Songdo, the
emphasis and actual implementation of smart city visions hugely dier.
Smart city visions have received wide criticism (see, for example,
Greeneld, 2013; Hemment and Townsend, 2013). By and large, these
criticisms have focussed on the ill-dened notion of “smartness” in
smart city visions, targeted the simplied view of what cities actually are
and attacked their a-political technocratic nature. What does “smart
mean and who are actually supposed to be smart? Is city life and the
urban experience about control, eciency and predictability, or about
encountering the unexpected and dealing with dierences? Moreover,
smart city views propose “technological xes” to complex problems.
Many so-called “smart technologies” or smart interventions are implicitly
driven by logics of consumption, control and capsularization but do not
empower citizens to become active players in their cities (de Lange and
de Waal, 2013). e push for safety with CCTV and smart risk assessing
algorithms turn cities into places of pervasive control and surveillance.
Smart retails solutions, location-based services and predictive algorithms
push a consumerist view of urban life. Also, personal mobile technologies
foster a culture of capsularization and retreat. When technology-driven
solutions ignore active contributions of citizens, they may have adverse
eects for urban public life and identities at large.
Alternative notions have been proposed to address these asserted
shortcomings, which, among others, are the “playable city” and “playful
city”241. In these people-centered views, the issue at stake is how to engage
“smart citizens” with their urban environment and each other with the aid
of play and games. In this chapter, the author further explores this nascent
research and design agenda that connects the world of urban research and
design to the world of research and design of play and games. e aim is to
contribute to debates about smart cities and smart citizenship through the
particular lens of play and games, to provide a typology for analyzing and
developing the playful city and to reect on the strengths and weaknesses
of this idea.
241 See, for example, the Playable City program and conference at Bristols Watershed <http://>; or the Playful City workshop held in Amsterdam in
2014 <
Play and the city: a historical overview. To gain a rmer grasp of
play and games as ways to engage people in participatory city making,
it is fruitful to trace some historical connections between play and the
city. In various ways, play and games have been part and parcel of urban
theory and practices since ancient times (see also de Lange, 2009).
From Roman “bread and games” (panem et circenses) to the present
experience economy” (Pine and Gilmore, 1999), cities have long been
conceived as centers of entertainment and fun. e city in this view is the
locus for actual playful behavior and activities, and for enjoying games
or other forms of entertainment. Second, with the rise of the modern
metropolis, people’s behaviors and attitudes in public space have come to
be understood in playful terms through the use of theatrical metaphors.
eorists, such as Simmel, Goman and Loand, argued that urbanites
engage in continuous role-playing and information games to deal with
life among strangers who meet in highly segmented roles (Simmel,
1997; Goman, 1959; Loand, 1973). ird, a historical strand of “ludic
architectureconnects play and games to the physical form of the city.
Aer the Second World War, Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck dotted the
ruined cityscapes in the Netherlands with outdoor play spaces as a way
to counter top-down functionalist planning policies and open up room
for people’s own creativity (Oudenampsen, 2013). If this historical line
connects play to education, civilization and Bildung ideals, a related
yet distinct fourth strand as about play as downright subversive. e
Situationists criticized mass consumer society and sought to reclaim the
right to the city through subversive counter-play and everyday spatial
tactics, such as dérive and detournement (Debord, 1955, 1958, 2005; De
Certeau, 1984). Recent approaches in the same tradition have focused on
subcultural or countercultural urban practices, such as skateboarding or
parkours (Borden, 2001; Mould, 2009). Fih, while not strictly playful,
key notions from the world of informatics, such as networks, simulation,
feedback loops and virtual reality, have come to profoundly inuence
architectural theory and practice as new ways to imagine, represent and
design cities with digital tools (see, for instance, Wigley, 2001; Picon,
2008). Cybernetics and systems theory have been very inuential ways
of understanding the city as emergent rule-based systems, which can be
“played” through creative recombinations and generative, algorithmic,
responsive or parametric design (see, for example, Berry, 1964; Beesley
5. Developing CI Monitoring Technique
and Khan, 2009). Finally, in late capitalism, play has been absorbed by
work itself, through the conation of labor and leisure time and the
concomitant ethics of the creative class, hacker ethic, etc. (Riin, 2000;
Florida, 2002; Himanen, 2001; Scholz, 2013; Fortunati, 2015).
From this extremely compressed overview, several insights can
be distilled. Historical conceptions of the “playful city” have existed on
multiple levels and in various forms, across spatial, social and mental
spheres of urban life. In the majority of these views, there is a clear
conception of “smartness” involved in play. However, it is a rather dierent
view of smartness: didactic and self-empowering in Van Eyck’s urban
playgrounds, shrewd subversiveness in Situationisms playful tactics,
cleverness and self-condence in playing information games in role-
playing, and of almost demiurgic ambition in parametric design. Note
that in some other historical strands sketched above play is equated with
mere entertainment and implicitly taken as childish, stupefying or opium
for the masses. Another point is that in early modern times the realms of
play and everyday life became separated. More recently, they have been
(again) understood as inextricably intertwined. is has been largely
driven by the advent of digital technologies in the urban realm and the
presumed link to creativity and smartness. A nal point is that there are
salient dierences in play and between play and games itself. Following
the work of Roger Caillois, several play activities are distinguished, such
as competition, chance, pretense and sensory stimulation (Caillois, 2001).
In addition, Caillois noted that play attitudes may alternate between
spontaneous and intrinsically motivated free play (paidia) to rule-based
and goal-oriented gaming (ludus).
In game design too, the city has oen been a central source of
inspiration. Alternately called pervasive/ubiquitous/location-based mobile/
hybrid reality/alternate reality/urban games, a whole genre of games frames
the city as a playing board in order to escape the connes of the screen
and be played in hybrid physical-digital spaces (de Souza e Silva, 2006;
Chang and Goodman, 2006; Montola, Stenros and Waern, 2009; de Souza
e Silva and Sutko, 2009). Cities also frequently gure in game design. is
may range from representations of particular cities in the US in the GTA
series, to simulating the complexities of city-making in SimCity, to playing
with the future of a smart city gone rogue in Ubisos Watchdogs. In this
chapter, we focus on the question how game designers, artists and architects
have been developing games that center on specic urban problems, and
create play experiences that connect people to life in the city and to fellow
urbanites. is is a relatively recent area of expertise that connects urban
design with developments in the world of game design. Designing games
that are not just played for their entertainment value but also for serious
purposes is known under such labels as serious games, games for change,
applied games, gamication, persuasive games, etc. e dierences between
these notions will not be discussed here. It suces to note that while the
use of games and play elements to help solve problems appears promising, a
careful balance must be struck between simulating “real world” complexity
and deliberate simplication, and between leveraging peoples intrinsic play
motivations and achieving external goals.
Levelling city play. Play and games may foster participation and
citizen-driven innovation on various levels. In this analysis, the author
will move from the most applied level of using games for actual urban
design to playful experiences without any immediate utilitarian purpose.
First, games may be used to engage people in the actual planning and
design process itself through simulation, feedback and using outcomes
in actual design. An early example from the Netherlands is Baas op Zuid
(, 2002), a project by BBVH architects in collaboration
with housing corporations. e online simulation game was used for
the redevelopment of two old neighbourhoods in the city of Rotterdam.
Players had to make decisions about their neighbourhood. With a limited
budget, would they choose more green spaces, more parking spots or more
playgrounds? Players immediately could see the consequences of their
choices. Outcomes were aggregated and sent to the planners. Not only did
this inform the actual design and decision-making process, but inhabitants
also acquired a better understanding of stakeholder deliberations in
complex trajectories of city rejuvenation. People who normally would not
attend a town hall meeting now had a chance to speak up. Still, in this case
the professional remained the initiator and there was no far-reaching shi
in the relationship between expert and amateur. Moreover, there was no
true gameplay involved, except for the immediate multi-sensory feedback
on decisions made (for example, seeing less coins or hearing trac noise).
Second, games allow people to act on a wide range of specic urban
issues through role-playing, building trust, forging collaborations and
tapping into crowd creativity. An example is Community PlanIt (http://
5. Developing CI Monitoring Technique
engage, 2011) by Eric Gordon
and team (Gordon and Koo, 2008; Gordon, Schirra and Hollander, 2011).
Players answer questions and complete missions to earn virtual coins that
they can pledge to real-world urban planning causes. Players also earn
awards, including bonus coins by participating in in-game deliberations.
rough this game, citizens, municipality and other stakeholders take up
dierent yet equivalent roles and collectively try to solve problems. rough
team cooperation, these games build trust, which helps to overcome the
tension between short and long term interests. Citizens now have become
actual agenda-setters and problem-solvers.
Another project from the Netherlands is Rezone the game (de Lange,
2013). Two cultural organizations from the city of Den Bosch, together with
a university for applied sciences game design program, developed a game
hybrid board/screen game. Rezone consists of a physical board game with
3D printed iconic buildings that represent the neighborhood, an augmented
reality layer of real-time information about these buildings projected on a
screen, and a computer algorithm programmed to let vacancy spread like
a virus around already empty buildings. Players have to salvage real estate
from decline by making strategic investments and forging collaborations.
Participants adopt one out of four possible stakeholder roles. In the case
of vacancy, these roles include proprietor (owner of real estate), mayor
(representing the municipality), engineer (urban designer) and citizen
(neighbors). e challenge is for players to not just pursue individual
self-interest, but to strategically collaborate in order to defeat the system,
which is programmed to let the city descend into decay. In a time in which
architecture is under pressure – nancially, but also with regard to the
legitimacy of professional expertise – it is important that new processes are
developed that allow citizens to become shared owners of the processes and
outcomes of urban interventions. Rezone is an attempt to establish this sense
of ownership through intrinsically motivated play and contribute to livable
and lively cities. Like most other games, Rezone is a radical simplication
of a complex issue. Rezone itself does not provide solutions. What it can do
is to put an issue on the agenda, convene various stakeholders around an
issue and allow them to discover horizons for action for themselves. When
people cra their own solutions, they will have a much stronger sense of
ownership over the outcomes. Already one of the largest construction and
real estate companies in the Netherlands has shown interest.
ird, games are used to stimulate playful encounters and inter-
actions with other people and places by stimulating serendipity and fun.
In Koppelkiek (, 2009),
by social game maker Kars
Alfrink, players in a troublesome neighborhood in Utrecht had to execute
simple missions by taking a snapshot of oneself, for example, together with
someone else and a randomly found number. ese pictures where publicly
shown in the window of a neighborhood center and acted as a conversation
piece between neighbors. is game was explicitly created to promote
playful interactions and serendipity. Players were invited to drop their usual
defense mechanism and open themselves up. e game, thus, helped to
cement social cohesion and trust between neighbors, and re-engage with
the urban environment.
Fourth, games are used to foster a “sense of place, a feeling of belonging
and care for the city through emotionally powerful play experiences. An
example is the “subtlemob” project As If It Were the Last Time (http://, 2009) by artist
Duncan Speakman, in which participants underwent a cinematographic
experience in the streets of London. Participants downloaded an mp3 track
and received a secret location and time to start the track on a portable audio
player. ey were divided into two teams. One team received instructions
to perform a minimal scene, while the other group listened to a soundtrack
and voice-over and became the audience of a lmic scene performed out
on the streets. is hardly qualies as a game, yet it creates a shared playful
experience and induces a sense of connectedness. rough a minimal
intervention, participants themselves turn the everyday into a magical
situation. Playfulness here stimulates aective responses and emotional ties.
ese examples are about applying games or play experiences to the
urban realm to foster the “playful city”. e reverse also happens: the city
itself can be made “playable” in dierent ways (on the notion of playability,
see, for instance, Kücklich, 2004). Two levels can be distinguished: the
procedural level of designing certain playable urban infrastructures and
services, and the conditional level of opening up existing urban policies for
experiments and creative “smart governance. At the procedural level, city
infrastructures and services (e.g., trac speed meters, public transport
staircases) can be made interactive and gamied to stimulate certain
behavior and mentality. A well-known example is the subway staircase
turned into a giant live piano as a way to seduce travelers to climb the stairs
5. Developing CI Monitoring Technique
instead of taking the escalator242. At the level of urban governance, there
are numerous experiments that aim to open up the city to systemic change
by its inhabitants. Innovations in “playing with the rules” and “leveling
the playing eld” include participatory budgeting, liquid politics, opening
data repositories, and urban labs for semi-autonomous innovation. It is
important to note the subtle but salient dierence between the “playful
city”, taken here as the city in which play and games stimulate the smartness
of citizens, and the “playable city”, taken here as the city that itself becomes
smart at infrastructural and institutional levels.
Conclusion: the playful smart citizen. In summary, some provisional
lessons that could inuence how we think about, study and design the
smart city are formulated. From the brief historical excavation of the
relationship between play and the city, it has been shown how “smartness
in play is understood in a variety of ways. e author suggests that thinking
and working along the lines of the “playful city” open up a host of ways
to conceive “smartness”, instead of just a technologically-driven one. If we
want citizens to be smart alongside cities, we need to better understand how
people are already smart in a multitude of ways and how we could leverage
this to make better and more interesting cities. Also, from this overview, an
important consideration has arisen with a more critics dimension. Play risks
becoming absorbed into goal-oriented utilitarian practices and neoliberal
and self-disciplining discourses of labor as play. While this has not received
much attention here, this should be born in mind when further studying
and design the playful city.
From the analysis of the mentioned examples, it has been seen that
stakeholders while playing meet in a joyous atmosphere, instead of intense
town hall meetings or around the negotiation table. Playing together allows
trustful relationships to form, which allows forging new social ties or
solidifying existing ones. Play in itself probably is not enough to solve urban
problems, such as vacancy or the lack of ownership and social cohesion.
Playing together, however, may act as a catalyst. From the analysis, it has
also become clear that urban design no longer is the exclusive domain of
architects and planners. Game makers, media artists and app developers too
are designers of today’s cities across physical, social and experiential ranges.
Cities face ever more complex issues. is requires smart strategies to tap
242 Piano Staircase [interactive]. <>. e notion of gamication has
been hotly debated; see, for instance, Deterding, 2011.
into the pool of citizen wisdom and participation. Games and play seem great
ways to do so. However, this requires planners to relinquish control, accept
uncertain and ambiguous outcomes, and to allow failure to possibly occur.
Games are ontologically ambiguous: they are composed of a set of
constitutive rules, a material setting, and actualized through the embodied
activities of the players. is is comparable to what architects may
recognize as program, design and use, but with a twist. Game designers
create rules and settings, yet the game is only actualized by actual players.
People playing are not merely end users. ey are active participants. ey
frequently engage in active production and “meta-play”, playing with
the (rules of) the game itself. Players subvert original rules, hack, cheat,
exchange game tips, create derivatives and tell stories about their own play.
According to Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, author of the seminal work
Homo ludens from 1938, play is not an element in culture, but at the origin
of culture (Huizinga, 1955). Play generates culture because it provides room
for innovation. Play oers a safe space for experiment and collaborations
in which failing does not immediately have grave consequences. Huizingas
observation that culture emerges from play suggests that these various
play interventions discussed above may contribute to a new urban
planning culture in particular and participatory urban culture at large (van
Westrenen, 2011; de Lange, 2013; de Lange, van Boxmeer and Peters, 2014).
Playful citizens then are not passive users of their city, but adopt a more
active role as co-creators of their environments or “city hackers. is way
a sense of ownership can arise (de Lange and de Waal, 2012, 2013). Instead
of leaving it up to governments, corporations and (design) professionals,
citizens in the playful city create their own smart urban culture.
5.3. Experimental Application of the CI Potential Index Methodology
B. Pitrėnaitė-Žilėnienė,
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E. Leichteris,
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Printed by JSC “Vitae Litera”
Savanorių av. 137, Kaunas, Lithuania
Ewart J., Krzywosz-Rynkiewicz B., Leichteris E., Mačiulis A., McLean H.,
Mickūnas A., Mikulskienė B., Paražinskaitė G., Paunksnienė Ž., Pitrėnaitė-
Žilėnienė B., Rotomskienė R., Skaržauskienė A., Stasiukynas A., Zalewska A.,
Žalėnienė I., Lange M., Benas B., Gudelytė L., Kalinauskas M., Mačiulienė M.,
Navickienė O., Stokaitė V., Tamošiūnaitė R., Tvaronavičienė A., Valys T.
graph– Vilnius: Mykolas Romeris University, 2015. 628 p.
Bibliogr. 570–623 p.
ISBN 978-9955-19-708-9 (print)
ISBN 978-9955-19-707-2 (onl