Article

Exploring Consumer Insights in Wine Marketing: An Ethnographic Research on #Winelovers: EXPLORING CONSUMER INSIGHTS IN WINE MARKETING

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Abstract

Nowadays social media offer a great opportunity to wineries in order to better understand their customers’ needs, both potential and actual. Especially for winelovers, their collective imagination, expectations, and lifestyle in terms of passion for wine can be continually supervised and used in brand strategies. By collecting these data on Instagram and analyzing them through a netnographic research, the purpose of the present study is to validate the emerging “map of identity” for winelovers as a basis of segmentation in the wine sector. In a second step, the accuracy of the profiles has been tested by distributing a questionnaire both to a specific community of winelovers and to a control group of self-defined winelovers active on Facebook. The findings underline that winelovers’ identities could be better arranged considering their knowledge and awareness in consumption, even though they clearly represent a basis for further in-depth researches, interested in exploring attitudes, values, and motivations of winelovers and wine consumers on the Web.

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... This has also been confirmed by recent studies, which show that the consumption of quality wines has increased in recent years among certain groups of consumers (with particular characteristics and lifestyles) [8,9]. Wine is a product with significant symbolic components, and the territory of origin is crucial for its connotation and recognizability [8,[20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. Less experienced consumers, on the other hand, correlate quality with price [7,26], mainly using the information on labels or, if possible, asking the retailer. ...
... Wine is a product with significant symbolic components, and the territory of origin is crucial for its connotation and recognizability [8,[20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. Less experienced consumers, on the other hand, correlate quality with price [7,26], mainly using the information on labels or, if possible, asking the retailer. ...
... Additionally, supervisory actions can be carried out mainly at the trading phase, in collaboration with the "Ispettorato Centrale della tutela della Qualità e Repressione Frodi dei prodotti agroalimentari" (ICQRF) Central Inspectorate for the Protection of Quality and Fraud Prevention of Agri-food Products). The fact that buyers perceive the presence of higher values justifies firms implementing selective policies, both at a distribution and premium price level, that incorporate a surplus of value from an economic point of view [26]. Territories that have a heritage that is rich in cultural values, traditions, raw materials, and quality production processes have the ability to become brands themselves, which, just as in the case of branded products, are perceived by the market as the embodiments of unique and inimitable values. ...
Article
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This is the first study on the brand–land link for quality wines with a strong identity produced in extreme territories using the Policy Delphi methodology. The objective of this study is to assess the existence of a relationship between the wine brand and the territory of origin for wines produced in the Etna valley in Sicily (southern Italy). Awareness among producers and stakeholders of the recognizability of local wines by the market was investigated. Moreover, the forecasts/reliability, issues/importance, options/feasibility, and goals/desirability of development factors for wines with a brand–land link in the Etna valley were analyzed. The results were used to design a model of the value chain for wines with a brand–land identity which is generalizable to other wine regions. In this study, the policy Delphi method was adapted, consolidated, and improved for marketing studies in the agri-food sector. This adapted method can be replicated in other studies focusing on similar contexts. The findings provide insights into the characteristics (type and category) of development factors that add value to Etna Rosso DOC wine and provide interesting food for thought for wine-producing companies in other wine-growing areas with unique pedoclimatic characteristics that determine a strong brand–land link between wine and its territory or origin. Practical implications encompass new elements for winemakers, as well as for local decision-makers and stakeholders, for the formulation of more effective communication strategies and territorial revitalization strategies to enhance the competitiveness and appreciation of wines with strong geographical identity traits. To highlight these elements, a new theoretical model was designed that includes the experience of the territory and the product in the value chain of iconic wines.
... Furthermore, by sharing content online, social media and mobile technologies have enabled the establishment of online communities of value creators (Tynan & McKechnie, 2009). Such communities interact and share passions, affections and personal meanings, creating at the same time emotional bonds (Cuomo, Tortora, Festa, Giordano, & Metallo, 2016;Rokka, 2010). User-generated content (UGC) on social media is, therefore, a reflection of tourists' emotions, beliefs and preferences about their travel experience (Ibid, Buhalis & Foerste, 2015;Woodside, Cruickshank, & Dehuang, 2007). ...
... Online photography apps can quickly emulate lens and post-processing effects to foster a sense of nostalgia, authenticity (Chopra-Gant, 2016), skilfulness (Prideaux et al., 2018) or self-based idealized and imagined ways of "being there" (Conti & Heldt Cassel, 2019;Fast et al., 2019;Lo & McKercher, 2015), thereby acting as a vehicle of utopianism (Maclaran & Brown, 2005). Users can also assign hashtags, captions and geo-tagging to their pictures to describe contexts, emotions, and opinions that may not be self-evident in the photos (Abbott, Donaghey, Hare, & Hopkins, 2013), and to link the picture(s) to a specific group of posts with similar content (Cuomo et al., 2016;Fatanti & Suyadnya, 2015). According to Chopra-Gant (2016), post-processing effects and customization tools become iconic elements which are added to the subject of the picture. ...
... According to Chopra-Gant (2016), post-processing effects and customization tools become iconic elements which are added to the subject of the picture. These features make communication with friends, and broader groups of users who share similar interests, particularly convenient and appealing (Cuomo et al., 2016;Ting, Wong, de Run, & Lau, 2015). Therefore, online photography apps help the tourist in interpreting, capturing and expressing something meaningful about being in a specific place, in relation to his/her self and their lifeworld, and in sharing it in a digital context (Conti & Heldt Cassel, 2019;Lo & McKercher, 2015;Pearce & Moscardo, 2015). ...
Article
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The purpose of this research is to explore the role of online photography in creating experience value in nature-based tourism, and what types of experience value are conveyed through photography-based user-generated content. The paper draws from existing literature in defining tourism experience value as a subjective, inter-subjective and inter-contextual construct, performed by situated valuation practices. Consequently, the paper presents interpretive and participatory netnography as an effective method to investigate experience value, and identifies online photography on Instagram as both a valuing practice and a valuing place. Results show the capability of online photography-based UGC to create multidimensional values from strategic combinations of textual and visual content. Simultaneously, new dimensions of experience value are introduced, which exist beyond single tourism experiential encounters, but critically contribute to an iterative experience valuation. Finally, Instagram posts introduce valuation timelines that can elude linear models of pre/in-situ/post-experience valuation, and assume subjective and fluid connotations.
... An acknowledged consequence is that the experience value that tourists create is increasingly influenced by internet, social media and mobile-based applications such as travel blogs, Twitter, Instagram and Facebook, and these platforms act as a critical source of experience value creation (Helkkula, et al., 2012;Prebensen, et al. 2014;Zhang, et al., 2017). As well as providing logistical and functional featured, according to Tynan and McKechnie (2009), ICTs and mobile technologies enable the establishment of online communities of value creators : Cuomo, et al., (2016) argue that, particularly on social media, such communities "interact and create strong emotional ties, share passions and similar experiences by means of an acknowledged ritual" (Ibid:1082). In 2012, Instagram surpassed Twitter and became the second most popular social network in the world after Facebook (Abbot, et al., 2013;Hu, et al., 2014). ...
... Instagram enables users to take photos or upload existing pictures, apply different manipulation tools to alter them, and then share them with friends on various social networking sites (Ting, et al., 2015). Users can assign hashtags, captions, and geo-tagging to their pictures to describe contexts, emotions, and opinions that may not be self-evident in the photos (Abbot, et al., 2013), and to link the picture(s) to a specific group of posts with similar content (Cuomo, et al., 2016;Fatanti, et al., 2015). They can also interact with others by visualizing a "stream" of the latest photos and videos from all their friends on a home page, and they can like such posts, comment, and tag other users, (Ibid; Hu, et al., 2014;Fatanti, et al., 2015). ...
... They can also interact with others by visualizing a "stream" of the latest photos and videos from all their friends on a home page, and they can like such posts, comment, and tag other users, (Ibid; Hu, et al., 2014;Fatanti, et al., 2015). Such capacities make communication with friends, and broader groups of users who share similar interests, particularly convenient and appalling (Cuomo, et al., 2016;Ting, et al., 2015). While connecting physical world with a digital context by the means of online photography (Lo and McKercher, 2015), Instagram act as an effective vehicle in the construction of the tourist identity, because it helps the tourist in capturing and expressing something significant, infused with personal meanings related to being in a specific place (Ibid; Pearce and Moscardo, 2015). ...
Conference Paper
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Social media and mobile-based applications act as an increasingly critical source of experience value creation in tourism and nature-based tourism, as confirmed by the most recent trends in the industry. Although being one of the most popular mobile-based social media, Instagram is still underrepresented in value creation research, and no study has been conducted specifically in nature-based tourism. Moreover, current research on value lack of interpretive methodologies able to grasp the complexity of experience value creation from a phenomenological point of view. This research aims at tackling these gaps by conducting an in-depth investigation on experience value creation on Instagram in nature-based tourism. A combination of different types of qualitative data, obtained through a participatory netnography, will be collected on Instagram, and consequently triangulated and analyzed by means of grounded theory. While assessing the depth of value creation emerging from personal, elicited tourist narratives, in a way not seen yet in similar studies, the results are argued to expand the theoretical understanding of experience value creation in nature-based tourism and service research.
... Identifying consumer segments based on their social media behavior opens up the opportunity for immediate and targeted or even personalized marketing communications. Cuomo et al. (2016) studied the Instagram postings of people who used the #winelovers hashtag and identified four distinct segments of consumers based on their wine related interaction with social media. These segments were labelled: Enjoyers (drinking wine is a way to be happy, cheerful, and joyful); Wannabes (drinking wine is a way to express their aspiration to get a better social status); Wine Victims (drinking wine is a way to affirm their social status) and Prophets (drinking wine is an act of responsibility toward the environment) respectively (Cuomo et al., 2016(Cuomo et al., , p. 1085). ...
... Cuomo et al. (2016) studied the Instagram postings of people who used the #winelovers hashtag and identified four distinct segments of consumers based on their wine related interaction with social media. These segments were labelled: Enjoyers (drinking wine is a way to be happy, cheerful, and joyful); Wannabes (drinking wine is a way to express their aspiration to get a better social status); Wine Victims (drinking wine is a way to affirm their social status) and Prophets (drinking wine is an act of responsibility toward the environment) respectively (Cuomo et al., 2016(Cuomo et al., , p. 1085). ...
... Another potential area of research lies in those mature dynamic markets where longitudinal segmentation studies would identify the changes in the market over time and therefore may be useful in predicting future trends. The use of social media as a segmentation tool described above is in its infancy and Cuomo et al. (2016) suggest further in-depth studies to explore the attitudes and values of wine consumers who interact with the internet. Furthermore, investigating individual biological differences in aroma and flavor perception might deliver valuable insight in the formation of food and wine preferences. ...
Chapter
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This chapter provides an overview of wine consumer segmentation methods and the application of them in wine consumer research. The first section briefly reviews general aspects of consumer segmentation, including segmentation variables and bases. The second part describes different segmentation methodologies and their application for wine consumer segmentation using published studies as examples. The final section covers practical considerations based on the authors' expertise and areas of future research.
... These are important insights for wine marketing that may bring important contributions towards increasing wine consumption around the world [66], where personal recommendations hold more and more relevance [67]. In these contexts, social media can contribute to a more effective understanding about the consumers' needs and preferences [68,69]. In any case, market understanding is crucial for any efficient marketing plan [70][71][72][73][74][75]. ...
... February 2020 [107] Millennial (26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43), GenX (44)(45)(46)(47)(48)(49)(50)(51)(52)(53)(54)(55) and boomer (56)(57)(58)(59)(60)(61)(62)(63)(64)(65)(66)(67)(68)(69)(70)(71)(72)(73)(74) are the generations with higher frequency wine consumption. If the European wine prices increased, the majority will buy their favourite wine but less often or from non-European regions. ...
Article
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Marketing for wines is a determinant tool for several stakeholders within the wine sector, but there are not many studies concerning the topic “wine marketing” and even fewer that take a bibliometric approach. In turn, wine is a strategic agri-food product for the economy of several countries around the world, particularly in Mediterranean countries. Beyond the economic level, wine has an environmental, social, and cultural dimension. All these dimensions have implications in any plan for the wine sector and should be taken into account. In addition, these dimensions change around the world in accordance with different local factors. In this way, sometimes, it is not easy to design adjusted marketing plans for the wine sector, namely, in international markets. Taking the frameworks into account, the main objective of this study is to explore the scientific documents available on scientific platforms, namely, in the Web of Science, related to “wine marketing”. These studies (87 documents) were first explored through bibliometric software, such as the VOSviewer and the Atlas.ti, and then analyzed individually to capture the main insights shown by the scientific literature about wine marketing. To better organize the literature survey, with the information obtained from the bibliometric analysis, the following indexes were identified through factor analysis: “supply index”, “demand index”, “winery strategy index”, “tourism index”, “innovation index”, and “wine characteristics index”. The supply index highlights questions related to new technologies, climate change, logistics in international markets, institutions and regulations, being the main factors that influence wine producers. The demand index stresses the relevance, for consumers, of the relationship between the price and quality of a wine. On the other hand, younger consumers, in general, consume wine outdoors while socializing, giving importance to the label, often when the wine is recommended by someone. Older consumers give greater importance to the wine’s variety and to its region of origin. The winery strategy index shows the importance of questions relating to agri-chains, market differentiation, the history, and the brand. The tourism index brings together aspects associated with the complementarity between activities in the wine sector, wine routes, and contributions from culture and landscape. The innovation index highlights aspects related to the quality and the perceptions of the consumers. Finally, the wine characteristics index shows the little importance given by scientific literature relating to wine marketing and to attributes such as alcohol. A search on the Web of Science for the topic addressed here and “bibliometric” showed that there has been no research carried out with the approach taken here, showing the novelty of this study.
... Platforms such as Instagram, You Tube, Twitter and blogs can influence considerably consumers purchase intentions [22]. Among the main social networks, Instagram, allows users to share and interact visually with each other, typing their experiences in a direct, emotional and engaging way, using photos and keywords with the #Hashtag [23,24]. ...
... First, we assumed that the #Hashtags could be considered as the keywords of conversations and discussions. In fact, aiming at selecting the main topics of discussions #Hashtags represented the key-words that summarized the communicated message [5,22,23]. In an online context, where one cannot fully perceive people's moods, the use of emoticons, i.e., the set of emoticons that represent a real semiotic system, makes the conversation interesting and more truthful. ...
Article
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Wine Influencers (WIs) represent a new type of independent third party endorsers that are progressively establishing themselves within social networks. This study analyzes the characteristics of the activity of WIs and the communication model used via Instagram. Netnographic Analysis, Factor Analysis and AGIL methods were applied. The results show five Key-findings within specific relationships established during discussions: advice from Wine Influencers and generalized reciprocity in relationships; structural and social bonds established based on the frequency of messages from regular followers; peer-to-peer relationship development through recommendation; development of trust established through online relationships; wine influencer’s influence on followers regarding everything about the wine. The study derives a model that explains the communication dimensions used by WIs that are: advertising (information about product/brand) (35.71%); persuasion—added value to brand and product (42.62%); brand democratization (10.07%); and identity (8.03%). This study provides a novel contribution to the open innovation process of small and medium-sized wine industries for their marketing strategies.
... Charters and Ali-Knight (2002), pointed out a lack of research in the nature of wine tourists and their motivations as well as their segmentation. Recent authors also corroborate the fact that segmentation studies in the wine market yet have not reached maturity (Bruwer et al., 2017;Cuomo et al., 2016;Getz & Brown, 2006;Johnson et al., 2017;Lockshin & Corsi, 2012). ...
... In addition to this, Bruwer and Li (2007) later adopted a similar approach to which they added two more segments: mature time-rich wine drinkers and young professional wine drinkers. In a more current and advanced perspective, three new bases have already emerged in recent years in segmentation: (1) biological segmentation (Pickering & Hayes, 2017;Thibodeau et al., 2017), (2) sustainability segmentation (Pomarici et al., 2016;Schäufele & Hamm, 2017), and (3) social media segmentation (Cuomo et al., 2016). ...
Article
This paper segments a sample of 918 Porto wine cellars visitors based on their wine product involvement. A segmentation methodology was applied to the wine product involvement of wine tourists. Three clusters were identified with high, medium and low wine product involvement levels. The relevant theoretical contribution of this study was to provide new evidence of segmentation based on product involvement studies in the wine tourism market field in an area were empirical studies still remain scarce. The findings offer managerial implications regarding the wine tourists’ identification and how to better adapt the visits. This is also the first study demonstrating wine tourist profiling and segmentation specifically applied to involvement with the Porto wine product.
... In Sicily (Galati et al., 2017), wineries show a limited social media adoption, with smaller wineries being more engaged in social media than larger wineries. Social media are claimed to open up opportunities for Italian wineries, which can be enhanced for company and wine branding strategies, i.e. using variables collected through social media as an innovative basis for market segmentation (Cuomo et al. 2016), exploiting downloadable applications, such as mobile commerce (Pelet and Lecat, 2014), and/or using other software to collect further relevant information on the market (Scorrano et al., 2015). ...
... This is despite the fact that in the literature on consumer behavior and marketing in general, knowledge has long been recognized as a variable that influences an individual's purchasing behavior (e.g. Brucks, 1985;Aurier and N'gobo, 1999;Festa et al., 2016). ...
Article
Purpose –The purpose of this paper was to investigate the influence that social media usage has on online purchases of wine and to examine whether objective and subjective knowledge moderates this relationship. Design/methodology/approach – A structured questionnaire was completed by a sample of 2,597 Italian wine consumers. A multinomial logistic model was used to assess how the investigated variables influenced online purchasing behavior. Findings – Social media usage was found to be positively related to online wine buying and consumer’s objective and subjective knowledge moderates the relationship between social media usage and online wine purchasing. Research limitations/implications – Wineries should acknowledge the relevance of social media in favoring online wine buying and adopt integrated multi-channel marketing strategies. Given that knowledge moderates the relationship between social media usage and online wine buying, in order to optimize the channel management, wineries should segment customers and prospects based on subjective and objective product knowledge. Originality/value – The study represents one of the first attempts to investigate social media use and online wine purchasing behavior in Italy. In addition, it sheds light on previous research on the influence that objective and subjective knowledge has on consumer behavior.
... Discussions are centered on connective memory, the co-construction of shared values, building narratives about collective meaning, identities, and experiences, and everyday practices (Hoskins, 2009;Sauter & Bruns, 2015;van der Hoeven, 2018;Agostino et al., 2020;Conti & Lexhagen, 2020;Ginzarly & Teller, 2020). Further to this, it is argued that hashtag communities represent a network and a virtual space that reflects people's preferences, beliefs, emotions, and experiences (Cuomo et al., 2016). In this research, we address the discourse of "sharing" heritage and cultural content on social media during the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
Article
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This study examines the discourse emerging from cultural heritage content shared online during the COVID-19 pandemic. It aims to understand the different affective and cognitive dynamics that are associated with the online sharing of cultural heritage in difficult times. To do so, we analyzed two Instagram hashtags – #ShareOurHeritage and #ShareCulture – that are promoted by UNESCO on a global scale. We applied a comprehensive quantitative method for qualitative data analysis. This method relied on Latent Dirichlet Allocation for topic modeling to generate automated induction of semantic topics and understand the underlying cognitive and affective dimensions of Instagram posts under each topic. Social values — including safety, inclusion, participation, and resilience — positive emotional language, and diverse cultural expressions were the most shared by the investigated hashtag community during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, results showed that users approach the virtual space as a substitute for the loss of their physical place through terms like home, virtual, online, travel tomorrow, and museums from home. Results are discussed in the context of the global digital divide, the social value of heritage to hashtag communities, and the use of Instagram as a longitudinal record of how cultural heritage values change across time. Free access to the article till December 20, 20210 via the beIow Iink: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1d-cp,6w-XnDdU
... Digital ethnography provides substantial opportunities as well as challenges for social science researchers (Dicks et al., 2006;Murthy, 2008; Thompson et al., 2021). Opportunities include; representations made possible through image capturing and sharing of naturalistic domestic activities (Chalfen & Rich, 2004), community shared interests (Cuomo et al., 2016), and expressing intimate details (Murthy, 2008) which can give a fuller account of actual behavior (Dicks et al., 2006). Challenges encountered include; the analysis of data in multiple formats and the difficulty in developing appropriate analytic inclusive categories (Sassen, 2002). ...
Article
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This methodological paper investigates how visual methods contribute to the understanding of consumers' values. The study adopts a digital ethnography approach in which participant generated photographs and videos unearth complex and intangible consumer values associated with food consumption. The findings indicate that visual methods are powerful in moving beyond the representational and offer a transformative capability for participants in making abstract constructs more concrete. The research illustrates that embedded visual methods are compelling in giving “voice” to participants and as such they are more engaged with the research process. In addition, the study suggests that visual methods provide valuable and more complete insights into consumer research when text, sound, and image interplay.
... Today, consumers feel a strong need to have value exchanges with peers and firms. Social networks represent a virtual space where users can create and share multimedia content and interact with other users who are interested in the same topics, brands, or goods (Cuomo, Tortora, Festa, Giordano, & Metallo, 2016). The blogosphere and social networks are therefore ideal places for people to share and interact with one another within an alternative community. ...
Article
This article examines unconventional entrepreneurship (accidental or end-user entrepreneurs) to determine whether the decision-making phase of the entrepreneurial process is collective. The analysis identified a virtuous circle that links knowledge, innovation, judgment, and decision making to collective interactions built on passion, experience, and sharing. To study food bloggers as unconventional user entrepreneurs, data were collected and analyzed using netnographic analysis. A supplementary online survey of food bloggers and their followers was also performed. Three groups of food bloggers are identified: amusing, functional, and fervent. Only fervent food bloggers, thanks to the virtuous circle built on passion, experience, and sharing as enablers, can be considered accidental or end-user entrepreneurs.
... Some studies have analyzed the use of social media from a business perspective, investigating how wineries use these platforms for their business interests [43][44][45][46][47]. Others have involved wineries' use of social media, primarily to inform current customers about upcoming events and to advertise potential customers [48,49]. Some studies focus on Italian wineries where social media are seen as an opportunity to improve wine branding strategies or as an innovative basis for market segmentation [50], to exploit downloadable applications for mobile commerce [51] or use other software to collect further relevant information on the market [52]. ...
Article
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The development of Web 2.0 technologies and social media, along with the emergence of wikis, blogs, online communities, and social networks, has rapidly transformed e-commerce. This phenomenon is commonly known as social commerce, an evolution of e-commerce characterized by a strong customer orientation. The aim of this paper is to understand the support of social commerce for e-commerce. We conducted an exploratory analysis of the Italian wine market via in-depth interviews with experts in the wine business: three wine producers and three companies running an online wine business. The interviews were recorded with the consent of the interviewees and transcribed, and their content was analyzed through content analysis. In particular, an analysis grid was created, following a closed procedure, with an ex-ante definition of the categories of analysis. Our results reveal that the COVID-19 outbreak has given a significant boost to digital transformation and online purchases in the wine sector. While some operators in the sector have merely undergone this change, others have been riding the wave, trying to benefit from it.
... Just-about-right scaling Consumer neuroscience Netnography: these studies are conducted using accessible data from online communities and social media. An example is provided by Cuomo et al. (2016) who derived consumers' insight and mapped wine lovers' identity on the basis of thematic clusters that emerged from hashtags. ...
Chapter
Consumer-driven innovation is becoming more and more central and decisive as a way to understand what makes consumers choose the product that maximizes their satisfaction. In the last decades, modern marketing research methods have been applied to understand and better predict the consumer behavior of specific target groups. The need of introducing techniques that can explain more accurately how individuals perceive and respond to new products is becoming a crucial topic, especially in the food and beverage sector where, due to an increasingly global competition regarding quality and quantity, product differentiation is a key element. ... This chapter aims to create an integrated and comprehensive framework regarding the most impactful consumer and sensory methods and themes to assess wine consumers’ behavior and perception.
... In communication and social media studies, experiments were successfully conducted to investigate the effects of communication variables on the dependent variables (e.g. Kim, 2016;Xu and Wu, 2015;Cuomo et al., 2016;Jin, 2018) . To test our hypotheses, we modified existing images by manipulating gaze in terms of the subject's gaze direction and the product salience by varying the size of the product showed. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of visual communications on Instagram users’ propensity to engage with image-based content through online behaviors such as liking, sharing, commenting and following, and their intention to purchase the product depicted in the visual communications. Design/methodology/approach An experimental design was used to measure the effect of branded Instagram images on a sample of active Instagram users. Two features of Instagram images (subject’s gaze: direct vs indirect; product salience: low vs high) were manipulated and their interactive effect tested on online behaviors. Findings The paper offers empirical evidence that direct gaze and high product salience positively affect digital visual engagement. Moreover, digital visual engagement influences intention to purchase. Research limitations/implications The hypotheses were tested on a single product category and on only two image-based features. Further studies might replicate the experiment on different product categories and include different image-based features. Practical implications This empirical study can offer communication managers important information on the image-based features that are most effective in increasing digital visual engagement and positively influencing purchase intentions in visual communications. Originality/value The study empirically demonstrates that the choice of specific image-based features in visual communication matters for increasing digital visual engagement among Instagram users.
... To date, little academic research has focused on the public perceptions of wine. Research over the last decade has focused largely on specific aspects of wine, such as marketing strategies (Iaia, Scorrano, Fait, & Cavallo, 2017;Paschen, Paschen, & Kietzmann, 2017;Thach, 2009), branding, brand image and personality (Brochado, Vinhas da Silva, & LaPlaca, 2015;Johnson & Bruwer, 2007;Wilcox, Laverie, Kolyesnikova, Duhan, & Dodd, 2008), regional or operational differences between wine and / or wineries, such as family business and tourism (Cassar, Caruana, & Konietzny, 2018;Iaia et al., 2017;Johnson & Bruwer, 2007), customer segmentation and motivations for consumption (Olsen, Thach, & Nowak, 2007;Paschen, Paschen, & Kietzmann, 2016;Taylor, Bing, Reynolds, Davison, & Ruetzler, 2018;Thach, 2012;Wolf, Higgins, Wolf, & Qenani, 2018), as well as new information sources, including social media platforms (Beninger et al., 2014;Cuomo, Tortora, Festa, Giordano, & Metallo, 2016;Reyneke, Pitt, & Berthon, 2011;Thach, 2009). As far as we are aware, this is the first study that presumes that cartoons do in fact reflect public perceptions toward wine-relevant issues, and that investigates public perceptions of wine over a relatively long period. ...
Article
Understanding public perception of a wine festival, organic wine, or the impact of climate change on wine quality can be a complex task. Wine consumers’ opinions, thoughts, feelings and attitudes seem to appear in traditional channels, such as newspapers and magazines, as well as in digital channels, such as blogs, tweets, text messages, social media comments, and consumer ratings. These come in all sorts of formats, but most commonly through text (e.g. posts, tweets) and images (e.g. pictures and videos). Content analysis can be an effective way to understand these widely shared means of expressing sentiment towards a wine and the wine industry. This article examines 300 wine cartoons using a content analysis method that classifies their content into four analytical dimensions: narrative, domestication, binary struggle, and normative transference. This cartoon content analysis reveals details of how different types of wine customers consume and evaluate wine across contexts (e.g. wine in restaurants or at home). This analysis also explores public perception trends regarding wine: social status associations, emotional consumer responses, and consumption-specific concerns. We conclude by discussing future research directions and managerial implications.
... To begin with, one does not need to be followed back in order to follow another user and interact, which can be done by liking and commenting posts, as well as by instant-messaging through the 'Direct' feature (which is a tool for getting in personal contact with those posting images on Instagram). Moreover, in addition to sharing their content with their followers, users are able to share their posts to users outside their circle, by turning single words typed in a post into hashtags, tagging pages and other users, as well as sharing the post on other social media (Cuomo, Tortora, Festa, Giordano, & Metallo, 2016;Fatanti & Suyadnya, 2015). By connecting online photography with a more personalized expression of being in a specific place in a specific way, Instagram is capable of conveying personalized definitions of space, time, experiences and the way these connect with the user's identity, interpretation and imagination (Lo & McKercher, 2015;Pink, 2006;Pearce & Moscardo, 2015). ...
Article
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The intersection between social media, liminality and nature-based tourism experiences hasn’t been the focus of previous tourism research. Such intersection, on the other hand, is illustrative of how social media relate to the constitution and performance of tourism spatialities, tourist identities, storytelling and place-making, and can lead to relevant theoretical contributes. We aim to investigate how liminality is expressed in relation to nature-based experiences by tourists on social media, and what role social media plays in mediating liminality during nature-based tourism experiences. The analysis is based on a participatory netnography of images and text posts, as well as online interviews with users of the popular social media Instagram. Findings show that the expression of tourism experiences in nature is closely related to specific notions of liminal otherness as opposed to the urban life and the everyday, where nature and wilderness are expressed as related to the genuine, the authentic and a true inner self. Creative combinations of pictures, captions and hashtags make it easier for tourists to express the contrast between the natural landscape and the everyday landscape once they returned home. These combinations also relate closely to performances of resistant and alternative selves and communities. At the same time, such performances are mediated and contested between freedom of self-expression, surveillance and social norms, an aspect that makes their liminal nature ambiguous.
... Knowing consumer behaviour, customers' preferences and desires allows brands to realise both an emotional and cognitive connection with them (Kumar & Bhagwat, 2010;Kumar & Pansari, 2016), in order to activate and control the loyalty process (Galvão et al., 2018;. In this perspective and in accordance with the technological evolution/revolution, internet and social media provide a great opportunity for all brands to better understand their consumers' needs and expectations by virtue of a large amount of valuable information available (Cuomo et al., 2016;Schudy & Utikal, 2017). Therefore, data acquire a new value for themselves (Prince, 2018) and need to be protected regardless of the people they refer to. ...
... O setor vitivinícola é um dos modelos de negócios mais antigos do mundo, e tem se mantido constantemente competitivo e atualizado, acompanhando de perto as tendências mercadológicas e o desenvolvimento tecnológico. As pesquisas da comunidade acadêmica têm estudado a evolução deste tradicional nicho de mercado, pela ótica do comércio eletrônico e suas implicações na geração de valor no modelo de negócio (IAIA et al, 2017;BONN et al, 2016;CAPITELLO et al, 2014;SELLITTO;BURGESS, 2005); do uso das redes sociais, para obter insights que podem auxiliar na adequação da proposta de valor (CUOMO et al, 2016;WILSON;QUINTON, 2012); e a utilização do comércio mobile, em conjunto das mídias sociais, como um meio de comercialização para a indústria de vinhos (PELET; LECAT, 2014). ...
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A arquitetura de uma plataforma multilateral possibilita que a unidade de valor flua entre todos os stakeholders envolvidos, gerando efeitos de redes e interações positivas. Nesse sentido, tem- se como objeto de estudo a Evino, empresa atuante no comércio eletrônico de vinhos em plataforma multilateral, a qual promove interações entre os consumidores nacionais e produtores de vinícolas internacionais, visando disseminar a cultura do consumo de vinhos entre os brasileiros. O objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar a arquitetura utilizada pela plataforma Evino, e entender como se dá a relação da proposta de valor da empresa com os seus consumidores. Utilizou-se da netnografia como método de pesquisa, coletando dados por observações do pesquisador e pelo discurso textual dos clientes nas redes sociais e aplicativos da empresa. Os resultados apontam que a arquitetura em plataforma multilateral adotada pela Evino demonstra-se apropriada a sua proposta de valor, pois ao mesmo tempo que atrai diferentes produtores de vinhos para o seu catálogo, traz vários consumidores com preferências distintas, fazendo com que o valor envolvido cresça para os dois lados. No que tange a assimilação da proposta de valor pelos consumidores, percebe-se que a maioria das interações tende a promover relacionamentos harmônicos e positivos com a empresa.
... Additionally, empirical findings indicated three consumer segments in the Russian wine market: a segment demanding only high-quality and highly-priced Italian and French wines, the segment for medium-quality Spanish wines, and segment for lower quality wines (Cicia et al. 2013). Cuomo et al. (2016) defined the "map of identity" for consumers who express their liking of wine ("wine lovers") via Instagram and defined the following clusters: "enjoyer" (consumes wine as a way to feel happiness and joy), "wannabe" (consumes wine as a way to express an aspiration to reach a better social status), "wine victim" (consumes wine in a manner to affirm social status), and "prophet" (consumes certain types of wine as an act of responsibility toward the environment). ...
Chapter
There are currently about 68 different species of the genus Vitis, with a wide variety of morphological and physiological characteristics, however, all plants of this genus are lianas, woody or climbing vines. Grapevines are one of the most economically important crops in the world. Indeed, the growing consumer demand for healthy food with numerous nutritional and benefits and sustainably produced has grown the market for products obtained from the grapevine, such as table grapes, raisins, and infusions, besides, the use of its leaves in gastronomy. This chapter aims to review the biology and anatomy of the most important Vitis species, overview the recent innovations in Viti's products worldwide. Will be also taken into account the development of ideas related to the usage of grapes as well as how the evolution of awareness increased the ability of scientists to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the appearance of new consumer trends.
... Dessa sociala gemenskaper som formas via inlägg på sociala medier kan beskrivas som ett slags grupper som knyts samman genom gemensamma värderingar, sk. "Value tribes" (Cuomo et al. 2016). Genom att som turismproducent och entreprenör kunna få tillgång till denna information via sociala medier om befintliga och potentiella besökare till ett område eller till en specifik typ av produkt eller tillrättalagt erbjudande så kan dessa i sin tur göras mer specifika, nischade och kundanpassade. ...
... Dessa sociala gemenskaper som formas via inlägg på sociala medier kan beskrivas som ett slags grupper som knyts samman genom gemensamma värderingar, sk. "Value tribes" (Cuomo et al. 2016). Genom att som turismproducent och entreprenör kunna få tillgång till denna information via sociala medier om befintliga och potentiella besökare till ett område eller till en specifik typ av produkt eller tillrättalagt erbjudande så kan dessa i sin tur göras mer specifika, nischade och kundanpassade. ...
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Bokkapitlet "Att synliggöra skogens subjektiva värden - explorativ metodutveckling" i antologin "Skogen som resurs i en gränsregion" handlar om utvecklingen av metoden landskapsresursanalys i ett område i norra Klarälvdalen. Metodutvecklingen hade som mål att, tillsammans med lokala aktörer, synliggöra och kommunicera både kvantitativa och kvalitativa värden i skogen. Ett moment var digitalisering av kvalitativa data som lades in i en GIS-databas.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to verify the preferences for the purchase of rosé wine by Italian and French Millennials, with the aim of allowing Italian companies to acquire knowledge in improving the positioning of this product in both the Italian and French markets. Design/methodology/approach The study involved a descriptive survey conducted between December 2018 and January 2019 on Millennials residing in Italy and France, intercepted via Facebook. In total, 500 valid responses to a highly structured self-administered questionnaire were collected. Descriptive and multivariate analysis techniques were used to examine the responses. Findings The two groups of Millennials show different preferences in the purchase of rosé wine. French Millennials rarely buy the product, and perhaps only for reasonable prices. Their purchasing process involves no characteristics of particular importance. On the other hand, Italian Millennials buy the product with a higher frequency and show a greater propensity to spend. In general, they attribute greater importance (though not a great deal of importance) to the characteristics of the product, paying attention to both its intrinsic aspects and its territorial origin and the quality certifications. Research limitations/implications The main limitation of the research is the small sample size. Future insights into the consumption of rosé wine will be sought in other significant European markets. Practical implications This study is of value to academic researchers, wine industry practitioners and other members of the wine distribution channel, as it provides insights into consumer behavior differences. Originality/value This research is the first to compare rosé wine preferences of Millennials in France and Italy.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibility that individual differences in consumer choice of cognac are at least partially influenced by parental cultural capital. Also examined are ten value orientations factors (e.g. hedonism and self-direction) and attitudes toward France, cognac’s country-of-origin that may affect the degree of this intergenerational influence. Design/methodology/approach The survey research measures parents’ cultural capital, value orientations and attitude toward France and purchase intention using recognized scales. Data were collected from the faculty and students of a major university located in the southeast of the USA. The sample size was 234. Findings The results confirm that parental cultural capital, consumer value orientations and attitudes toward France have significant impacts on the consumer’s willingness to purchase cognac. Adult children of high cultural capital parents are more likely to buy cognac. Practical implications The findings of this paper provide meaningful insights into intergenerational influences on consumer purchase intention of cognac and socialization theory. The paper provides several managerial implications for segmentation, targeting and positioning of cognac in the US market. Originality/value As the first of its kind, this paper introduces the parents’ cultural capital into the consumer research regarding cognac. The longer-term effects that parents can have on grown children’s consumer behavior are confirmed, suggesting that parental influence persists well into adulthood and has impact on their brand preference.
Chapter
Wine tourism is not a new phenomenon, but is growing in popularity as the various activities and experiences it entails are increasingly democratised to new markets, and as destinations seek to further exploit their wine industry resources and assets. Wine has enormous complementary potential with other destination products and experiences, such that wine/ries are increasingly a key component of the marketing mix and strategies of destinations. While there is an abundance of literature speaking to the motivations of wine tourists, and subsequent segmentation, far less of utility to wine tourism businesses and destinations is on offer. This includes firm level operational research and that related to destination strategy. Moreover, as more regions and wine tourism products and experiences come to market, the competition correspondingly intensifies. Opportunities are opening in a plethora of new markets: mass and niche. In this introduction to our book we set the tone for the chapters to follow by examining factors transforming both the wine tourist (e.g. their profile, behaviour and forces driving demand) and wine tourism businesses (critical success factors and emerging innovations). We conclude by summarising how these factors have influenced the composition and structure of this book.
Article
Purpose Purpose: To explore and describe online communication about the experiences and attitudes towards Swedish Healthcare Direct, a national telephone advice nursing service Design/methodology/approach Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive research design was adopted using a six-step netnographic method. Three Swedish forums were purposefully selected and data from the virtual discussions were collected. Findings Findings: Three themes emerged: expectancy and performativity of the nurses, absurdity in accessibility, and the scrutinizing game. The most prominent finding was the scrutinizing game, which included aspects of a bidirectional mistrust from both nurses and callers. Another salient finding was the attitudes that callers held toward nurses who used a technique interpreted as “passing the buck”. Research limitations/implications The use of a nethnographic method is novel in this area of research. Consequently, the body of knowledge has regarding telephone advise nursing service has significantly been broadened. A limitation in this study is that demographic data for the posters are not available. Practical implications Practical implications: Bidirectional distrust is an important issue that must be acknowledged by telephone advice nursing services, since it might damage the service on a fundamental level. Healthcare providers, politicians, and researchers should account for the power and availability of virtual discussions when seeking consumers’ opinions and evaluating the quality of the care provided. Originality/value Originality/value: This analysis of the ongoing discussions that take place on the internet provides insight into callers’ perceptions of a national telephone advice nursing service. The bidirectional mistrust found from both the nurses and the callers might be a threat to callers’ compliance with the advice given and their care-seeking behavior.
Article
This paper presented a survey of models for possible aspects of Internet marketing and online advertising. The aim of the survey was to improve the business of enterprises engaged in the wine production and wine marketing with special emphasis on the improvement of the sales process. By using the most recent literature and the data obtained, the survey deal with the Internet advertising, the advantages and disadvantages of the Internet as an advertising medium, the use of online advertising in the world and forms of internet advertising. Afterwards, the factors that influence the procurement of wine, as well as influential factors for making decisions on the purchase of certain wine varieties were examined. Decision-making process of consumers when buying wine was investigated as well. The paper consists of theoretical and empirical parts. The first part discusses the general overview of winemaking in the world. In the empirical part, the attitudes of consumers and managers of several wineries were examined, which are related to the application of internet marketing in the wine industry with key findings and new opportunities in the promotion of wine.
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Purpose Social media as a competitive marketing tool deliver online platforms for retailers to get closer to their consumers/visitors/shoppers through continued interaction. The purpose of this paper is to scrutinize how customer values (functional, social and experimental) enhance satisfaction, loyalty and identification, and how such relationships, in turn, impact users’ continuance interaction intention. Design/methodology/approach A mixed-method approach was designed to identify the consumers’ perception toward high-end retailers of worldwide brands. In all, 12 interviews with experts in retailing and a survey among 390 respondents were conducted. Structural equation modeling/AMOS was employed to gain insight into the various relationships and influences. Findings To augment users’ continuance interaction intention, the results indicate that retail managers should focus more on customer-based values when they design marketing strategies for brand pages on social media. The findings also provide guidelines for retail marketing and social media managers to generate consumer value in the retail environment via information quality, product-related learning and economic benefits (functional value); interaction, collaboration and social presence (social value); and experiential value (intellectual and effective value). Originality/value The paper offers critical managerial contributions by presenting a comprehensive picture of the condition in which a favorable brand social media page could be constructed within a brand to satisfy consumer value and achieve satisfaction, loyalty, identification and continuance interaction intention, all of which are critical objectives for every company. In other words, a clear knowledge of the dimensions of consumer value concepts can assist retail communication managers to improve consumers’/visitors’/shoppers’ intention to continue their interaction in a competitive market. The current study is one of the very few emerging research studies to have examined the relationships between consumers’/visitors’/shoppers’ functional values, social values and experimental values empirically, and to have further explored the relationships between the research constructs.
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Netnography is a specific approach to conducting ethnography on the internet. It is a qualitative, interpretive research methodology that adapts traditional ethnographic techniques to the study of social media. As discussed in this entry, Netnography adds specific practices that include locating communities and topics, narrowing data, handling large digital datasets, analyzing digitally contextualized data, and navigating difficult online ethical matters and research procedures. The nature of researcher immersion and ethnographic (or “netnographic”) participation is also treated rigorously within netnography. The new approach has gained wide acceptance within business research and is spreading to other fields.
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In an attempt to approach wine tourism as a form of consumer behaviour, a substantial amount of research has focused on the demand-side, exploring the consumers who travel to wine regions. Despite the fact that there is no single, stereotypical "wine tourist", some distinctive characteristics regarding demographics, motivations or wine lifestyle can be drawn from literature. Several authors have recently addressed this issue and developed various wine tourist typologies, on the basis both of socio-economic and psychographic data. The objective of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the wine tourist, taking into account the different approaches for profiling and segmentation that have been used in recent studies.
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This paper builds upon a core metaphor of scientific methodological diffusion as a specialized form of the marketing of ideas. Using as an illustrative the development and spread of netnography, online ethnography of social media data, this paper explores the nature of the creation, legitimation, adoption, and spread of a new scientific method. Viewing method diffusion as a type of marketing suggests a range of implications. Ideas about the method can be viewed, treated, and managed as a type of ‘brand’. The method is not created in a vacuum but, like a marketed new product, is engineered to satisfy a particular scientific or investigative need, and its success depends on how well it satisfies that need. A particular ‘research-oriented segment’ can be investigated, reached, and deliberately targeted. In this article, I explore how institutional waves of academic, geographic, and pragmatic target research audiences helped to reinforce the adoption of a new scientific approach. The method can be positioned intentionally in a particular methodological category, and as superior to other methods. Once the strategy for marketing the method is intact, the tactics for its spread can be introduced. The ideas for the method and methodology can be brought to their audience in a particular form, with particular attributes, through certain distribution or publication channels, promoted through various means, and offered through for a ‘price’ that encapsulates the difficulty of adopting it. The article explores these ideas about the promulgation of a new method using the development of netnography as an extended case study example.
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Purpose – The purpose of the study was to devise an instrument, labelled the Fine Wine Instrument (FWI), to measure the fine wine behaviour of respondents and then use that base to segment the consumer sample. The behaviour of those respondents who scored highly on the FWI was examined in detail. Design/methodology/approach – An online survey collected quantitative information from a convenience sample of Australian wine consumers (n = 1,017). Using the FWI as the segmentation base, cluster analysis identified three segments of consumers, denoted “Wine Enthusiasts”, “Aspirants” and “No Frills” wine drinkers, and their respective wine-related behaviours were examined. Findings – The Wine Enthusiasts’ segment consumed more wine, spent more money on wine and were more knowledgeable about wine than the other two segments. The demographics of the Wine Enthusiasts’ segment indicated that the members were not consistent with the conventional view of wine connoisseurs, as many were under the age of 35. Their lifetime value to the wine industry was highlighted along with potential targeting strategies. Some structural elements of the Australian domestic wine market were also noted. Practical implications – A segmentation base of a wine market is presented, which the authors argue provides a more sophisticated analysis than other commonly used segmentation bases. Originality/value – This study was the first to segment the Australian market using the recently developed FWI. The study provides the latest information on this market and deeper consumer insights that may permit better business-to-consumer engagement.
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In this new and completely updated book, Netnography is (re) defined as a specific set of related data collection, analysis, ethical and representational research practices, where a significant amount of the data collected and participant-observational research conducted originates in and manifests through the data shared freely on the Internet, including mobile applications. The book explains in detail exactly what those constitutes those research practices, why they are should be conducted, and how netnography is being used by researchers across the social sciences.
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Heavy users of consumer products are important to marketers as a profitable target segment. This is equally true in the wine industry, but with the added precaution of encouraging responsible consumption. This study examines the attributes and behaviors of 681 high frequency (heavy-user) wine consumers in the US, based on a price segmentation of High, Moderate, and Low Spenders. For this study, price segmentation was defined as the price typically paid for a bottle of wine for home consumption. Significant differences were discovered based on gender, age, income, wine involvement, shopping channel, ecommerce/social media usage and other key areas. Implications for marketing managers as well as areas of future research are described.
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In this article, I examine the cultural and subcultural construction of consumption meanings and practices as they are negotiated from mass media images and objects. Field notes and artifacts from 20 months of fieldwork at Star Trek fan clubs, at conventions, and in Internet groups, and 67 interviews with Star Trek fans are used as data. Star Treks subculture of consumption is found to be constructed as a powerful utopian refuge. Stigma, social situation, and the need for legitimacy shape the diverse subcultures' consumption meanings and practices. Legitimizing articulations of Star Trek as a religion or myth underscore fans' heavy investment of self in the text. These sacralizing articulations are used to distance the text from its superficial status as a commercial product. The findings emphasize and describe how consumption often fulfills the contemporary hunger for a conceptual space in which to construct a sense of self and what matters in life. They also reveal broader cultural tensions between the affective investments people make in consumption objects and the encroachment of commercialization.
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There is a strong emphasis in the literature today on the importance of developing and maintaining strong relationships with customers. Often, a strong brand is the first step in relationship marketing. Strong brands lead to brand loyalty and the promise of long term profitable relationships with customers (Bhattacharya, Rao, and Glynn, 1995). One way to achieve the “Holy Grail of brand loyalty” is through brand communities (McAlexander, Schouten, and Koenig, 2002). Brand community is a specialized community “whose primary base of identification is a brand or brand consumption activity” (McAlexander et al., 2002, p. 38). Community, brand or otherwise, is not restricted by geographic area. However, the members of community need to interact (in‐person or online) to create a sense of “we‐ness” or felt connection to the brand, the company and community members (McAlexander et al., 2002). Further, shared rituals pass on stories and traditions where the meaning of community is produced and shared. Many types of brand community exist. Brand communities can be organic, but a growing number are based on dedicated company resources. For example, companies like Jeep, Harley Davidson and Apple sponsor and facilitate their brand communities. These examples are top brands in their product categories, but many smaller, less known brands sponsor brand communities as well. For companies to have the ability to cultivate community, they should be perceived as a competent firm with a strong reputation and a high level of quality.
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Purpose – Studies of marketplace cultures emphasize the benefits of communal consumption and explain the ways that brand managers can leverage subcultures and brand communities. The ephemeral and often non‐commercial nature of consumer tribes means that they are more difficult to manage. This paper, aims to suggest that a necessary pre‐requisite for understanding how to engage with consumer tribes is to identify how consumers become members of tribes. Design/methodology/approach – Data are drawn from a five‐year ethnographic study of the archetypical club culture tribe that utilized a variety of data collection methods including participant observation and in‐depth interviewing. Findings – The paper identifies “learning to be tribal” as a communal practice that occurs through three interconnected processes of engagement, imagination and alignment. Originality/value – This paper makes three contributions: it clearly distinguishes between the three main forms of communal consumption found in the marketing literature; it identifies how consumer tribes are formed; and it questions received wisdom and shows how tribal theory can guide managers to offer products and services as learning resources that facilitate tribal practices.
Book
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While consumer research is founded on traditional quantitative approaches, the insight produced through qualitative research methods within consumer settings has not gone unnoticed. The culturally situated consumer, who is in intimate dialogue with their physical, virtual and social surroundings, has become integral to understanding the psychology behind consumer choices. This volume presents readers with theoretical and applied approaches to using qualitative research methods in ethnographic studies looking at consumer behavior. It brings together an international group of leading scholars in the field of consumer research, with educational and professional backgrounds in marketing, advertising, business, education, therapy and health. Researchers, teaching faculty, and students in the field of consumer and social psychology will benefit from the applied examples of qualitative and ethnographic consumer research this volume presents.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the visibility of luxury wine brands, in particular the Bordeaux first growth brands in social media. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses data from howsociable.com to portray similar luxury wine brands in multi-dimensional space. To identify the associations between the brands and the social media visibility indicators, the paper uses correspondence analysis. Findings – The findings of the paper show that some of the brands considered did not, at the time the data were gathered, have a clearly defined social media strategy. Practical implications – The indication is that there are opportunities for luxury wine brand managers to use social media as a tool in their marketing strategies; also some threats may exist to these brands should they take a laissez faire approach to social media, particularly when social media are becoming as influential, if not more so than conventional media. Originality/value – Brands can take directions in social media today that would have been unlikely if not impossible five years ago. While brand managers may not fully be able to control the destinies of these brands, this paper suggests that the approaches followed in this particular research will present brand managers with a tool that will assist them in directing conversations that occur around their brands.
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Purpose To help shape a more cohesive research program in marketing and consumer research, this paper presents a systematic effort to integrate current research on consumer empowerment with highly influential theories of power. A conceptual overview of power consisting of three dominant theoretical models is developed onto which is mapped existing consumer empowerment research. Design/methodology/approach A synthetic review focuses on three perspectives of consumer power: consumer sovereignty, cultural power and discursive power, drawing from sociological, philosophical and economic literature. These models are then applied to consumer research to illuminate research applications and insights. Findings Research of consumer empowerment has grown significantly over the last decade. Yet, researchers drawing from a variety of intellectual and methodological traditions have generated a multitude of heuristic simplifications and mid‐level theories of power to inform their empirical and conceptual explorations. This review helps clarify consumer empowerment, and offers a useful map for future research. Research limitations/implications Researchers in consumer empowerment need to understand the historical development of power, and to contextualize research within conflicting perspectives on empowerment. Originality/value The paper makes several contributions: organizes a currently cluttered field of consumer empowerment research, connects consumer and marketing research to high‐level theorizations of power, and outlines specific avenues for future research.
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research technique for providing consumer insight. “Netnography ” is ethnography adapted to the study of online communities. As a method, “netnography ” is faster, simpler, and less expensive than traditional ethnography, and more naturalistic and unobtrusive than focus groups or interviews. It provides information on the symbolism, meanings, and consumption patterns of online consumer groups. The author provides guidelines that acknowledge the online environment, respect the inherent flexibility and openness of ethnography, and provide rigor and ethics in the conduct of marketing research. As an illustrative example, the author provides a netnography of an online coffee newsgroup and discusses its marketing implications.
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This paper presents an alternative, “Latin” vision of our societies. Here the urgent societal issue is not to celebrate freedom from social constraints, but to re-establish communal embeddedness. The citizen of 2002 is less interested in the objects of consumption than in the social links and identities that come with them. This Latin view holds that people like to gather together in tribes and that such social, proximate communities are more affective and influential on people’s behaviour than either marketing institutions or other “formal” cultural authorities. There is also an element of resistance and re-appropriation in the acts of being, gathering and experiencing together. This view of the shared experience of tribes sets it apart from both Northern notions of segmented markets and one-to-one relationships. In this Latin view, the effective marketing of 2002 and beyond is not to accept and exploit consumers in their contemporary individualisation, as Northern approaches might. Rather the future of marketing is in offering and supporting a renewed sense of community. Marketing becomes tribal marketing. In a marketing profession challenged by the Internet phenomenon, tribal marketing is by no means just another passing fad but a Trojan horse to induce companies to take on board the re-emergence of the quest for community.
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This introduction reviews core principles of storytelling theory. The article explains basic propositions of good storytelling. A brief summary of each of the six articles that follow appears. The article extends a note of appreciation to the members of the special editorial board for this issue and to Rajan Nataraajan. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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This article focuses on consumer movements that seek ideological and cultural change. Building from a basis in New Social Movement (NSM) theory, we study these movements among anti-advertising, anti-Nike, and anti-GE food activists. We find activists' collective identity linked to an evangelical identity related to U.S. activism's religious roots. Our findings elucidate the value of spiritual and religious identities to gaining commitment, warn of the perils of preaching to the unconverted, and highlight movements that seek to transform the ideology and culture of con-sumerism. Conceiving mainstream consumers as ideological opponents inverts conventional NSM theories that view them as activists' clients. S ocial movements are intentional collective efforts by activists to transform the social order (Buechler 2000). This article focuses on consumer movements, which are particular kinds of social movements that attempt to trans-form various elements of the social order surrounding con-sumption and marketing. As consumption has come to play an increasingly central role in contemporary society, con-sumer movements have arisen to challenge and transform aspects of it by propagating ideologies of consumption that radicalize mainstream views. As we seek to increase our understanding of the dynamics and complexities of consumer culture, we need theory that conceptualizes consumer movements and their ideological role. As we follow the historical trajectory of a culture of consumerism that seems in many accounts to be globally ascendant and apparently unstoppable, conceptualizing con-sumer movements that stand in opposition to it may be viewed as increasingly important. Sklair (1995, p. 507) terms the mutually reinforcing integration of consumer cul-ture and consumerist ideology the "culture-ideology of con-sumerism" and concludes that it is a "fundamental institu-tional support of global capitalism." The purpose of this article is to arrive at a theory-based understanding of con- for their many insightful comments and suggestions. The authors thank the editor, associate editor, and three reviewers for their comments and helpful suggestions. They are also grateful for the contri-butions of the consumer activists and consumers who were observed and interviewed for this article.
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This research draws on longitudinal network data from an online community to examine patterns of users' behavior and social interaction, and infer the processes underpinning dynamics of system use. The online community represents a prototypical example of a complex evolving social network in which connections between users are established over time by online messages. We study the evolution of a variety of properties since the inception of the system, including how users create, reciprocate, and deepen relationships with one another, variations in users' gregariousness and popularity, reachability and typical distances among users, and the degree of local redundancy in the system. Results indicate that the system is a “small world” characterized by the emergence, in its early stages, of a hub-dominated structure with heterogeneity in users' behavior. We investigate whether hubs are responsible for holding the system together and facilitating information flow, examine first-mover advantages underpinning users' ability to rise to system prominence, and uncover gender differences in users' gregariousness, popularity, and local redundancy. We discuss the implications of the results for research on system use and evolving social networks, and for a host of applications, including information diffusion, communities of practice, and the security and robustness of information systems. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability). Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of categories and deductive application of categories, are worked out. The possibilities of computer programs in supporting those qualitative steps of analysis are shown and the possibilities and limits of the approach are discussed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002204
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Brands are today under attack by an emerging countercultural movement. This study builds a dialectical theory of consumer culture and branding that explains the rise of this movement and its potential effects. Results of an interpretive study challenge existing theories of consumer resistance. To develop an alternative model, I first trace the rise of the modern cultural engineering paradigm of branding, premised upon a consumer culture that granted marketers cultural authority. Intrinsic contradictions erased its efficacy. Next I describe the current postmodern consumer culture, which is premised upon the pursuit of personal sovereignty through brands. I detail five postmodern branding techniques that are premised upon the principle that brands are authentic cultural resources. Postmodern branding is now giving rise to new contradictions that have inflamed the antibranding sentiment sweeping Western countries. I detail these contradictions and project that they will give rise to a new post-postmodern branding paradigm premised upon brands as citizen-artists. Copyright 2002 by the University of Chicago.
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Content analysis is a widely used qualitative research technique. Rather than being a single method, current applications of content analysis show three distinct approaches: conventional, directed, or summative. All three approaches are used to interpret meaning from the content of text data and, hence, adhere to the naturalistic paradigm. The major differences among the approaches are coding schemes, origins of codes, and threats to trustworthiness. In conventional content analysis, coding categories are derived directly from the text data. With a directed approach, analysis starts with a theory or relevant research findings as guidance for initial codes. A summative content analysis involves counting and comparisons, usually of keywords or content, followed by the interpretation of the underlying context. The authors delineate analytic procedures specific to each approach and techniques addressing trustworthiness with hypothetical examples drawn from the area of end-of-life care.
Book
This book focuses on principles and practices in digital wine marketing. By providing a global overview of social media and e-commerce strategies and practices in the wine business, this book allows readers to understand how consumers and producers deal with these modern communication and selling platforms.
Article
The aim of the paper is to verify whether web and social-media marketing’s actions increasing knowledge of the expectations of the end-consumer, the presence on social networks, the use of wine club and the societal marketing strategies affect product improvement. An exploratory survey is carried out in the wine sector in Apulia region (South Italy). Data were collected by on-line survey using the Survey Monkey software and were administered to a sample of pre-selected wineries; then, responses were processed by means of an ordinary logistic regression. Results are presented. Management implications and conclusions close the paper.
Article
The aim of this article is to discuss methodological implications and challenges in different kinds of deep and big data studies of Facebook and Instagram through methods involving the use of Application Programming Interface (API) data. This article describes and discusses Digital Footprints (www.digitalfootprints.dk), a data extraction and analytics software that allows researchers to extract user data from Facebook and Instagram data sources; public streams as well as private data with user consent. Based on insights from the software design process and data driven studies the article argues for three main challenges: Data quality, data access and analysis, and legal and ethical considerations.
Article
Recently, the wine sector is developing very interesting market dynamics, both for old-world countries (as regards wine) and new world ones. Furthermore, old-world countries still have a product orientation, whereas new-world ones have a market orientation. Starting from the 4Ps model (product, price, promotion, and place), this study develops a theoretical framework specifically for wine-marketing mix. This study draws on a literature review on marketing mix variables—and the role of knowledge in consumer purchase behavior—to propose the 4Es formula (expertise, evaluation, education, and experience) based on a certain knowledge of the consumer/taster. Thus, an experimental marketing action applies the concept of wine marketing mix, according to the 4Es model, to a panel of consumers. The results, although with some limitations, support the relevant contribution of knowledge to the wine-marketing mix.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate variety-seeking behavior among US wine consumers to determine if there are differences in their personal characteristics, values and relationship with wine. Design/methodology/approach – The research design uses a quantitative research study using data from an online survey of 401 US wine consumers. The Schwartz Value Inventory and the VARSEEK scale are used as measurement instruments. Data are analyzed using descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, ANOVA and discriminate analysis. Findings – The results illustrate strong differences between high variety-seeking consumers compared to moderate variety-seeking and variety avoiders. High variety seekers are younger, hold values favoring stimulation and tolerance of risk, pay more for wine, purchase wine in more locations, prefer more varietals and consider themselves more wine knowledgeable and involved than the other two segments. Practical implications – The results provide implications for wine marketers targeting high variety-seeking consumers, including offering wine brands with a wider array of varietals, wines from different countries, various price tiers and include creative packaging and sustainable messages in their presentation. Originality/value – This paper presents research addressing an important construct for wine marketers attempting to introduce new products and build brand loyalty.
Article
This study investigates factors known to affect online wine consumer purchasing behavior issues. Specifically, the study examines the effects that social influence, perceived usefulness, perceived use and involvement levels have upon purchasing wine online. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), a total of 425 responses were analyzed. Results suggest a significant relationship exists between factors which were influenced by social groups (subjective norms, image, and visibility), and perceived usefulness of online wine sites. The study also confirms the moderating effect that involvement has on the relationship between social influence and perceived usefulness. The opportunity for consumers to use online sales channels for purchasing wine is at the beginning of its life cycle. Results from this study provide implications for future theory and practices for developing future online wine business models designed to increase online wine sales.
Article
Despite the extensive literature on the benefits of netnography and crowdsourcing for insight and idea generation, little research has been conducted on their practical relevance and application for identifying lead users. We address this gap through an analysis of 24 lead user projects investigating the viability, underlying processes, and main differences of these new search strategies. We argue that both methods justify the significant investments by additionally providing a user-centric basis for subsequent ideation sessions with lead users. Our findings contribute to user innovation literature by demonstrating new ways of identifying these highly valuable users in the social media age.
Article
Although Spain is a traditional wine-producing area, there is little research on its wine tourism segmentation in comparison to that carried out in New World countries. The main aim of this paper is to identify the different segments of wine tourists that visit Spanish wineries. This research makes a theoretical and practical contribution to both the literature on the segmentation of wine tourists and segmentation techniques. The empirical analysis was carried out in the five Spanish denominations of origin with the largest market shares (Rioja, Ribera del Duero, Navarra, Rueda and La Mancha) and was based on a survey of 598 tourists. The latent class segmentation technique was used for the analysis, and four segments of wine tourists were obtained according to subjective and objective variables. This paper demonstrates how the a posteriori technique of segmentation can be applied in wine tourism research. The findings may provide the managers of wineries and destination management organizations with an important instrument when making strategic decisions.
Article
Since social networking sites (SNS) are widely used in modern society, users increasingly use SNS to manage or maintain their existing social relationships and form new ones. This research applies social surveillance and self-surveillance to classify SNS user types and explores each type's effect on SNS’ marketing performances. Three hundred three online questionnaires are collected to test the research questions. The results of cluster analysis and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) reveal the following four user types based on the different degrees of social surveillance and self-surveillance: versatile users, self-expression users, pass-along users, and introvert users. Further, the introvert users have the least impact on product-related information sharing, perception of social presence, purchase intention toward offers on SNS, and emotional experiences in social shopping among the four SNS user types.
Article
Conceptual blind spots persist when it comes to understanding the value of consumptive dimensions of participation, such as lurking, in online community. This article uses a practice-theoretical lens to conceptualize the consumptive moments of online community practices and explores how they shape different value outcomes. Building on a mixed-method investigation through two studies within an online gardening community, findings reveal two specific consumptive moments, direct and vicarious, and their differential role in the creation of community engagement and vitality. These findings suggest that lurking is not adequately described as a unidimensional construct, but is best understood as vicarious consumptive moments of specific online community practices with distinctive value outcomes. Implications for research on online consumption community are discussed.
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Online consumption communities play a significant role in the life of many consumers. These communities remove temporal and spacial boundaries, allowing consumers to convene online to connect over a shared consumption interest anytime and from anywhere. The objective of this special issue is to advance our understanding of online consumption communities and stimulate future research in this exciting research domain. Eight papers are included that present cutting-edge research exploring three issues: (1) governance and conflict management in online consumption communities, (2) implications of community membership for individual and societal well-being, and (3) drivers of community success under different ownership structures. In this introductory editorial, each of the papers and its contribution is briefly overviewed.
Article
This study employed a content analysis of the creative strategies present in the social media content shared by a sample of top brands. The results reveal which social media channels are being used, which creative strategies/appeals are being used, and how these channels and strategies relate to consumer engagement in branded social media. Past research has suggested that brands should focus on maintaining a social presence across social channels with content that is fresh and frequent and includes incentives for consumer participation (Ling et al., 2004). This study confirmed the importance of frequent updates and incentives for participation. In addition, several creative strategies were associated with customer engagement, specifically experiential, image, and exclusivity messages. Despite the value of these creative approaches, most branded social content can be categorized as functional.
Article
Qualitative research is often associated with interpretivism, but alternatives do exist. Besides critical research and sometimes positivism, qualitative research in information systems can be performed following a paradigm of pragmatism. This paradigm is associated with action, intervention and constructive knowledge. This paper has picked out interpretivism and pragmatism as two possible and important research paradigms for qualitative research in information systems. It clarifies each paradigm in an ideal-typical fashion and then conducts a comparison revealing commonalities and differences. It is stated that a qualitative researcher must either adopt an interpretive stance aiming towards an understanding that is appreciated for being interesting; or a pragmatist stance aiming for constructive knowledge that is appreciated for being useful in action. The possibilities of combining pragmatism and interpretivism in qualitative research in information systems are analysed. A research case (conducted through action research (AR) and design research (DR)) that combines interpretivism and pragmatism is used as an illustration. It is stated in the paper that pragmatism has influenced IS research to a fairly large extent, albeit in a rather implicit way. The paradigmatic foundations are seldom known and explicated. This paper contributes to a further clarification of pragmatism as an explicit research paradigm for qualitative research in information systems. Pragmatism is considered an appropriate paradigm for AR and DR.
Book
Fully revised and updated throughout, the new edition of Discourse Analysis is a user-friendly textbook for students taking their first course in linguistic approaches to discourse.Second edition of a popular introductory textbook, combining breadth of coverage, practical examples, and student-friendly features Includes new sections on metaphor, framing, stance and style, multimodal discourse, and Gricean pragmatics Considers a variety of approaches to the subject, including critical discourse analysis, conversation analysis, interactional and variationist sociolinguistics, ethnography, corpus linguistics, and other qualitative and quantitative methods Features detailed descriptions of the results of discourse analysts’ work Retains and expands the useful student features, including discussion questions, exercises, and ideas for small research projects.
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In the discourses of the electronic commerce (e-commerce) industry, consumers are alleged to be empowered by the affective relations they establish in online communities. This article investigates this claim using a Foucauldian archaeological framework. It seeks to identify the key social and historical conditions that have enabled this representation to appear and to become a viable characterization. The question it examines is not whether consumers are actually empowered by e-commerce, but why it is deemed important to interrogate online consumers’ affective activity in terms of power.
Article
During the course of the past year, at least four different academic surveys have been conducted, each focusing to some extent on the impact of Internet use on the quantity and quality of interpersonal communication and sociability. Remarkably, these studies arrive at starkly different conclusions regarding the social repercussions of Internet use. At the heart of this debate is whether Internet use can be a potentially isolating activity or one that leads to substantially greater communication among people and thus enhances human connectivity and sociability. Based on an analysis of these studies' key findings and methodological approaches, this article attempts to understand the role of the Internet in shaping our interpersonal relations. The key findings suggest that Internet users do not become more sociable; rather, they already display a higher degree of social connectivity and participation, due to the fact that they are better educated, better off financially, and less likely to be among the elderly. And simply because of the inelasticity of time, Internet use may actually reduce interpersonal interaction and communication.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to stimulate reflection on the concept of Mediterranean brands, to map and qualify their specific genetic make up and their influence on brand equity. Design/methodology/approach – From an overview of the available literature and using the brand genetics model, conceptual dimensions inherent to the Mediterranean brand are identified, so as to evaluate their contribution in the building and transfer of brand value. Findings – This paper shows how the properties of Mediterranean elements are reconciled with branding models and more in general, with sustainable business. Originality/value – The paper highlights the generating drivers of value from a Mediterranean marketing perspective. Management has to govern these strategically in order to retain lasting competitive advantage.
Article
The 21st century has brought both opportunities and challenges in our global, boundaryless world. Importantly, managers face a dynamic and interconnected international environment. As such, 21st century managers need to consider the many opportunities and threats that Web 2.0, social media, and creative consumers present and the resulting respective shifts in loci of activity, power, and value. To help managers understand this new dispensation, we propose five axioms: (1) social media are always a function of the technology, culture, and government of a particular country or context; (2) local events rarely remain local; (3) global events are likely to be (re)interpreted locally; (4) creative consumers’ actions and creations are also dependent on technology, culture, and government; and (5) technology is historically dependent. At the heart of these axioms is the managerial recommendation to continually stay up to date on technology, customers, and social media. To implement this managerial recommendation, marketers must truly engage customers, embrace technology, limit the power of bureaucracy, train and invest in their employees, and inform senior management about the opportunities of social media.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to extend the emergent consumer tribe literature to facilitate a more complete understanding of the antecedents and roles implicit within consumer tribal membership. Principally a conceptual paper, this study focuses upon how a more complete understanding of consumer roles can be leveraged to create sustainable loyalty. Design/methodology/approach – This study comprised an examination of the tribe's social behaviour, membership roles and influence on individual consumption. The research was approached interpretively with a case study design investigating a tribe of vinyl record collectors in a New Zealand context. Findings – Key findings include the confirmation of Kozinets' antecedents of tribal membership and the four roles of tribal members previously conceptualised by Cova and Cova. The tribe was found to have a core set of values that moderated any individual differences. A hierarchy, managed through the distribution of “cultural capital”, was found to exist amongst the group. In an extension of Cova's modelling a fifth role of “Chief” was identified, whereby the Chief was found to act as an opinion leader and organiser amongst the group. Research limitations/implications – Owing to constraints of both time and research funding, only one tribe was examined in this case study, hence the results are very specific to the group studied. Future research should apply the managerial implications from this study to other case contexts to test and expand understanding of consumer tribe dynamics and the creation of consumer loyalty. Originality/value – This paper creates a link between extant consumer behaviour, loyalty and consumer culture theory. The presented results have implications for the marketing manager through advancement towards creation of a model of tools a firm can use to connect with and build sustainable loyalty with consumer tribes.
Article
Managers are more and more interested in social networking sites because they provide opportunities for strengthening relationships with customers as well as site content and service. Using social networking sites effectively, however, depends on understanding both the psychological attributes and social interactions of participants. This paper addresses these topics by presenting the results of a two-study inquiry into the importance of two personality traits (consumer innovativeness and expressiveness) to active and passive use of social networks among Italian consumers. In Study 1 (n = 753) it was found that innovativeness is positively related to active and passive use. Study 2 (n = 277) revealed that self-identity expressiveness and social identity expressiveness positively influence only active use. These results suggest that managers need to distinguish bet-ween, and differentially encourage, joining and browsing such sites on the one hand and actively contributing to them on the other. Managers can also enhance the impact of their social networking sites by taking into account social and self-identity expressiveness to increase affiliation and market share and by encouraging consumers to use these sites actively. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
We argue that consumer sovereignty in an increasingly high tech world is more of a fiction than a fact. We show how the principle of consumer sovereignty that governs the societal impact of economic competition is no longer valid. The world of high tech is increasingly responsible for changes in the opportunity, ability, and motivation of business firms to compete. Furthermore, the world of high tech is increasingly responsible for changes in the opportunity, ability, and motivation of consumers to engage in rational decision making. We conclude that we cannot rely on consumer sovereignty to maintain a thriving economy. Instead, we need to develop performance standards designed to meet the demands of the various stakeholders of the organization.
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This article investigates joint-development activities within online consumer groups. While research on user-innovations within communities exists for open source software as well as for emerging extreme sports like kite-surfing or rodeo kayaking in offline contexts, this study focuses on innovation activities within online consumer communities for basketball shoes, a physical consumer product in a mature market. The research shows that a small number of consumers are highly creative and possess sufficient domain specific skills and motivation to develop new innovative basketball shoes. While many community members state their experiences and problems with existing shoe models, those actively participating in joint-innovation activities tend to be driven by excitement rather than by pure need for product improvement. The high quality and variety of innovations, and general willingness of community members to share their ideas with producers, lead to the discussion of how to integrate creative online communities into a company's innovation process.
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This paper represents a condensed version of the keynote address given by the author at the 2003 E-commerce Research Conference in Taichung, Taiwan. Donning a critic's glasses, the author views the e-commerce phenomenon and comments on its future.