Technical ReportPDF Available

The European Butterfly Indicator for Grassland species: 1990-2015

Authors:

Figures

Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... En España, el primer seguimiento de mariposas comenzó su andadura en Cataluña en 1994 (http://www.catalanbms.org/). El seguimiento de este grupo faunístico es relevante en un contexto de preocupación por la pérdida de biodiversidad, tanto por el valor intrínseco de las mariposas diurnas como componentes de la misma, como por su carácter bioindicador sobre procesos de cambio ambiental global (Van Swaay et al., 2010, 2013, 2016 o local (Stefanescu et al., 2005). Las mariposas diurnas son el único grupo de invertebrados terrestres para los que, al menos a escala europea, se pueden estimar tasas de declive cuantitativas (De Heer et al., 2005). ...
... Para la elección de transectos se ha procurado evitar ambientes forestados, tratando de aproximar el programa a los requerimientos del indicador europeo de mariposas de pastizales (European Grassland Butterfly Indicator;Van Swaay et al., 2013, 2016. A lo largo de las campañas realizadas hasta la fecha se ha logrado obtener datos sobre todas las mariposas utilizadas por este indicador (excepto Phengaris nausithous, que no presenta poblaciones conocidas en el País Vasco), que ya han podido ser incorporados a la base de datos europea. ...
... Todos estos requisitos favorecen la robustez de la serie y acotan al mínimo imprescindible la modelización, aunque como contrapartida se reduce el tamaño muestral. El indicador europeo de mariposas de prados y pastizales (Van Swaay et al., 2013, 2016 utiliza datos de 17 especies, 16 de las cuales cuentan con registros en el programa de la CAPV. No obstante, sólo las tres mencionadas en el párrafo anterior alcanzan un número de registros representativo para formar parte del pool de especies para el cálculo de un indicador de pastizales en la CAPV. ...
... En España, el primer seguimiento de mariposas comenzó su andadura en Cataluña en 1994 (http://www.catalanbms.org/). El seguimiento de este grupo faunístico es relevante en un contexto de preocupación por la pérdida de biodiversidad, tanto por el valor intrínseco de las mariposas diurnas como componentes de la misma, como por su carácter bioindicador sobre procesos de cambio ambiental global (Van Swaay et al., 2010, 2013, 2016 o local (Stefanescu et al., 2005). Las mariposas diurnas son el único grupo de invertebrados terrestres para los que, al menos a escala europea, se pueden estimar tasas de declive cuantitativas (De Heer et al., 2005). ...
... Para la elección de transectos se ha procurado evitar ambientes forestados, tratando de aproximar el programa a los requerimientos del indicador europeo de mariposas de pastizales (European Grassland Butterfly Indicator;Van Swaay et al., 2013, 2016. A lo largo de las campañas realizadas hasta la fecha se ha logrado obtener datos sobre todas las mariposas utilizadas por este indicador (excepto Phengaris nausithous, que no presenta poblaciones conocidas en el País Vasco), que ya han podido ser incorporados a la base de datos europea. ...
... Para el desarrollo de los índices multiespecíficos se seleccionaron trece especies que presentaban un número elevado de registros y que, en base a la bibliografía (Romo & García-Barros, 2010 El indicador europeo de mariposas de prados y pastizales (Van Swaay et al., 2013, 2016 utiliza datos de 17 especies, 16 de las cuales cuentan con registros en el programa de la CAPV. No obstante, sólo las tres mencionadas en el párrafo anterior alcanzan un número de registros representativo para formar parte del pool de especies para el cálculo de un indicador de pastizales en la CAPV. ...
... In summary, land use changes and the decline of dynamic, extensively used grassland habitats have a huge effect on the decline of the Jordanita species. This is in line with other observations concerning grassland species (Swaay et al., 2016;Warren et al., 2021) and the genus Jordanita is just a well-suited representative to exemplify the connection of land use change, decline of habitats and decline of population size. The relative importance of land use changes, pesticide use and over-fertilization via the air cannot be quantified, but it is this complex mixture of processes going on at the same time that leads to the strong decrease in grassland species observed in whole Central Europe. ...
Article
Full-text available
The decline of biodiversity in general and of insect diversity in particular has been recognized as a major environmental problem in recent years. In this study, we analyze the distribution and the decline of populations of forester moths of the genus Jordanita in Central Europe since 1950 as a type example of the loss of grassland biodiversity, and discuss potential drivers causing this decline. Based on the extensive work in museums and private collections, a literature review and own observations, and including data as far back as 1834, this genus helps to understand the deeper reasons of insect population and biodiversity decline, as the well investigated six Central European species cover a broad range of extensive grassland habitats (fens to low‐production grassland and xerothermic steppes) from low altitudes to high alpine meadows. Therefore, they monitor processes relevant also to other, less investigated grassland species. Although there are differences in research intensity over time and in different natural areas, we show that in the whole of Central Europe, the populations of all six investigated Jordanita species broke down massively in the past decades, both in terms of number of populated habitats (about 400 recorded localities after the year 2000 compared with a total number of about 1600 at all times, cumulated for all six species) and in terms of number of individuals. On the other hand, some natural areas on a regional scale have more or less maintained their Jordanita populations, due to conservative land use and due to the early implementation of conservation and protection management plans. The reasons of decline are manifold and monitored in detail by the different species with their different habitat requirements. They comprise (1) loss of habitats due to land use changes (both intensification and abandonment), (2) loss of habitats due to urbanization and construction work, (3) loss of habitat networks to cope with small‐scale extinction events, (4) more intensive growth of grass at the expense of other plants in otherwise undisturbed habitats due to fertilization through the air (increased nitrogen levels due to human activities) and (5) use of pesticides. Jordanita species (Lepidoptera) as a proxy for grassland species in general show a strong decline in Central Europe since 1950 which is mainly related to changing agricultural landuse and destruction of habitats. This article reviews thousands of observations, shows the decline and discusses the reasons in detail.
... Up to 75% of the terrestrial environment has been "severely altered", with land use change among the most important direct drivers of habitat loss and degradation (Brondizio et al. 2019). Rural landscapes in Europe have suffered considerable land-use change in the last 50 years, with agricultural intensification in western regions and land abandonment in eastern and southern regions (van Swaay et al. 2016). The negative impacts of agricultural intensification on butterflies in western Europe have been well studied and landscape matrix composition around cultivated land has been shown to be crucial on butterfly community dynamics Seibold et al. 2019;Gámez-Virués et al. 2015;Dainese et al. 2017;Öckinger et al. 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Rural landscapes in Europe have suffered considerable land-use change in the last 50 years, with agricultural intensification in western regions and land abandonment in eastern and southern regions. The negative impacts of agricultural intensification on butterflies and other insects in western Europe have been well studied. However, less is known about the impacts of abandonment on mountain and humid areas of eastern and southern Europe, where landscapes have remained more natural. We sampled butterfly communities in the Picos de Europa National Park (Spain), a region which is undergoing a process of rural abandonment. 19 hay meadows with different periods of abandonment were studied (long-term 18 years or mid-term abandoned, 3–7 years) and compared to meadows continuously managed in a traditional way. We examined how local meadow characteristics and landscape variables affected butterfly community response to abandonment. Butterfly communities were affected by abandonment, with an overall increase in the density of individuals in the long term. Community composition appears to undergo major change over time, with a species turnover of around 50% in the first few years of abandonment, rising to around 70% after 18 years of abandonment. There was a tendency for species with higher preference for closed habitats to increase their densities as time since abandonment proceeded. Landscape variables had a major impact on butterfly communities, stronger than the effect of meadow management. Community preference for closed habitats was associated with higher forest cover in the surroundings of the meadows, but heterogeneous landscapes (in their composition or configuration) mitigated this effect. Implications for insect conservation Our findings suggest that we should ensure that communities have time to react to the diverse stressors imposed by global change. Facilitating survival to all kinds of functional and taxonomic groups implies promoting landscape heterogeneity and connectivity.
... Als Begründung für die beschriebenen Entwicklungen wird in der Literatur primär die seit den 1950er Jahren flächig einsetzende Industrialisierung der Landwirtschaft bzw. die flächige Auflösung historischer Landnutzungsformen angeführt , IPBES 2019, VAN SWAAY et al. 2016). Die aus Sicht des Biodiversitätsschutzes negativen Entwicklungen wirken sich nicht nur direkt über die "moderne" Grünlandnutzung (z.B. ...
... In temperate regions, butterflies are often regarded as interesting bio-indicators of the quality of herbaceous or shrubby open habitats (Van Swaay and Warren 2012;Van Swaay et al. 2016), but rarely of forest environments. Only a few butterfly taxa from Western Europe have forest dwelling species. ...
Article
Full-text available
A dataset of 1621 records of the butterfly Limenitis populi from 1960 to 2018 was compiled using data gathered in France. Limenitis populi is a poorly recorded species with a mean of 27.2 ± 14.6 records per year during this period. The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate the impact of global warming since the 1990’s on the phenology and rang in France. Using linear mixed models, we estimated a delay in adult emergence of 0.07 days per 100 m increase in altitude and an advance of 0.33 days per 1 °C of mean temperature increase. Since 1960, the mean altitude of L. populi populations has increased by 321.9 m over the last 58 years, corresponding to a gain of mean temperature of 1.74 °C during this period. By comparing projections from climatic models, 60.2% of the suitable area predicted prior to 1990 has since been lost due to warming conditions. Lowlands are more affected by a decline in areas sheltering L. populi than montane regions probably because lowland populations cannot shift to higher altitudes as a means of mitigating the effect of global warming. In addition, changes in the rural landscape may lead to the possible decline of the larval food plant Populus tremula, thus affecting butterfly abundance. In terms of conservation strategy. Implications for Insect Conservation The key points are (1) to avoid cutting the host plant in montane areas where climatic constraints are not a threat, and (2) to develop forest patches that include P. tremula in lowlands to locally limit the effect of global warming.
Article
Full-text available
A pesar de que España es uno de los países con mayor diversidad de polinizadores silvestres y, que de su conservación depende el futuro de nuestros cultivos y por tanto de nuestra alimentación, lo cierto es que hoy día seguimos sin conocer el estado de conservación de gran parte de esta fauna, una demanda histórica de la sociedad cien- tífica que sigue sin cubrirse en la actualidad. Bajo esta premisa nace este decálogo, fruto de la colaboración de un conjunto de científicos/as especialistas en la materia, quienes han realizado una revisión profunda de la literatura científica sobre el declive de insectos polinizadores desde principios del siglo XX hasta hoy día, que puede consultarse en el monográfico Pérdida de poli- nizadores publicado por la Revista Ecosistemas de la Asociación Española de Ecología Terrestre (AEET). El propósito de este decálogo es recoger una serie de aspectos fundamentales sobre el declive en la península Ibérica de los polinizadores silvestres, los más sensibles a los cambios de los últimos años, para abrir el debate sobre una serie de medidas ur- gentes para su conservación. 1. Conservar y restaurar el paisaje 2. Aumentar la disponibilidad de flores en el medio silvestre, áreas agrícolas y ciudades 3. Maximizar la disponibilidad de recursos de nidificación y oviposición 4. Reducir el uso de plaguicidas 5. Fomentar una agricultura sostenible 6. Realizar acciones de sensibilización y educación sobre los beneficios que los polinizadores silvestres proporcionan al ser humano y al medio ambiente 7. Legislar la protección de las especies más sensibles 8. Potenciar la coordinación de los trabajos de protección y restauración 9. Mejorar la educación ambiental impartida a los agricultores/as 10. Impulsar la investigación y conocimiento sobre los polinizadores silvestres
Article
Full-text available
We envisage a future research environment where digital data on species interactions are easily accessible and comprehensively cover all species, life stages and habitats. To achieve this goal, we need data from many sources, including the largely untapped potential of citizen science for mobilising and utilising existing information on species interactions. Traditionally volunteers contributing information on the occurrence of species have focused on single-species observations from within one target taxon. We make recommendations on how to improve the gathering of species interaction data through citizen science, which data should be collected and how it can be motivated. These recommendations include providing feedback in the form of network visualisations, leveraging a wide variety of other data sources and eliciting an emotional connection to the species in question. There are many uses for these data, but in the context of biological invasions, information on species interactions will increase understanding of the effects of invasive alien species on recipient communities and ecosystems. We believe that the inclusion of ecological networks as a concept within citizen science, not only for initiatives focussed on biological invasions but also across other ecological themes, will not only enrich scientific knowledge on species interactions but also deepen the experience and enjoyment of citizens themselves.
Thesis
Full-text available
Since the beginning of the 20th century, drastic changes in agriculture occurred, mainly caused by mechanization and mass use of fertilizers and pesticides. Those changes disrupted the agricultural landscape, fragmenting habitats and lowering its quality, and thus biodiversity. Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES) were created to respond to this biodiversity crisis and try to halt the decline in farmland flora and fauna. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of sown flower strips (MC8c) on moth diversity and abundance. This was done by nocturnal surveys of 13 AES sites mainly situated in Famenne and Condroz. Two Skinner light traps were simultaneously operated inside of the AES and two outside of the flower strip on the standard field margins (Control sites). Obtained result failed to show significative differences between AES and Control sites. This lack of difference could be explained by a source-sink effect or because the real impact of the AES is obscured by the impact of nearby habitats (moths communities proved to be positively correlated with the presence of forest and hedgerows). Other information were also obtained from the data including the finding of indicator species for the flower strips, and information on the links between butterflies and moths and hostplant diversity and moths (no real correlation found for the first one but a positive correlation was found between moths and hostplants). Key words: Moths – AES – Agriculture – Biodiversity – Environment – Flower strips – Surveys – Natagriwal – Butterflies – Field margins - Hedgerows - Farmland
Article
Full-text available
Le protocole STERF (Suivi temporel des espèces de rhopalocères en France) est présenté ainsi que les résultats sur la période 2006-2016. En Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, 20 sites ont été suivis au moins une année. Les auteurs encouragent les lépidoptéristes amateurs à participer à ce programme de sciences participatives coordonné par le Muséum national d'histoire naturelle.
Article
Full-text available
1.The rapid expansion of systematic monitoring schemes necessitates robust methods to reliably assess species’ status and trends. Insect monitoring poses a challenge where there are strong seasonal patterns, requiring repeated counts to reliably assess abundance. Butterfly Monitoring Schemes (BMSs) operate in an increasing number of countries with broadly the same methodology, yet they differ in their observation frequency and in the methods used to compute annual abundance indices. 2.Using simulated and observed data, we performed an extensive comparison of two approaches used to derive abundance indices from count data collected via BMS, under a range of sampling frequencies. Linear interpolation is most commonly used to estimate abundance indices from seasonal count series. A second method, hereafter the regional GAM, fits a generalized additive model to repeated counts within sites across a climatic region. For the two methods we estimated bias in abundance indices and the statistical power for detecting trends given different proportions of missing counts. We also compared the accuracy of trend estimates using systematically degraded observed counts of the Gatekeeper Pyronia tithonus (Linnaeus 1767). 3.The regional GAM method generally outperforms the linear interpolation method. When the proportion of missing counts increased beyond 50%, indices derived via the linear interpolation method showed substantially higher estimation error as well as clear biases, in comparison to the regional GAM method. The regional GAM method also showed higher power to detect trends when the proportion of missing counts was substantial. 4.Synthesis and applications. Monitoring offers invaluable data to support conservation policy and management, but requires robust analysis approaches and guidance for new and expanding schemes. Based on our findings, we recommend the regional generalized additive model approach when conducting integrative analyses across schemes, or when analysing scheme data with reduced sampling efforts. This method enables existing schemes to be expanded or new schemes to be developed with reduced within-year sampling frequency, as well as affording options to adapt protocols to more efficiently assess species status and trends across large geographic scales. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
In Europe, and particularly in the Mediterranean Basin, the abandonment of traditional land-use practices has been reported as one of the main causes of decline for open-habitat species. Data from large-scale bird and butterfly monitoring schemes in the north-east Iberian Peninsula were used to evaluate the impact that land abandonment has had on local biodiversity. Species’ habitat preferences, along a gradient from open to forest habitats, were significantly related to population trends: for both birds and butterflies, open-habitat species showed the most marked declines while forest species increased moderately. Multi-species indicators for tracking the impact of land abandonment on bird and butterfly populations were developed using habitat preference estimates and population trend indices. The patterns shown by these indicators were in line with the changes occurring in forest cover in the monitoring sites. This study reveals that multi-species indicators based on monitoring data from different taxonomic groups (here, birds and butterflies) may usefully be employed to track impacts of environmental change on biodiversity.
Article
Full-text available
Currently, we are experiencing biodiversity loss on different spatial scales. One of the best studied taxonomic groups in decline is the butterflies. Here, we review evidence for such declines using five systematic studies from southern Sweden that compare old butterfly surveys with the current situation. Additionally, we provide data on butterfly and burnet moth extinctions in the region's counties. In some local areas, half of the butterfly fauna has been lost during the last 60-100 years. In terms of extinctions, counties have lost 2-10 butterfly and burnet moth species. Land use has changed markedly with key butterfly habitats such as hay meadows disappearing at alarming rates. Grazed, mixed open woodlands have been transformed into dense coniferous forests and clear-cuts, and domestic grazers have been relocated from woodlands to arable fields and semi-natural grasslands. Ley has increased rapidly and is used for bale silage repeatedly during the season. Overall, the changed and intensified land use has markedly reduced the availability of nectar resources in the landscape. Species that decline in Sweden are strongly decreasing or already extinct in other parts of Europe. Many typical grassland species that were numerous in former times have declined severely; among those Hesperia comma, Lycaena virgaureae, Lycaena hippothoe, Argynnis adippe, and Polyommatus semiargus. Also, species associated with open woodlands and wetlands such as, Colias palaeno, Boloria euphrosyne and the glade-inhabiting Leptidea sinapis have all decreased markedly. Current management practise and EU Common Agricultural Policy rules favour intensive grazing on the remaining semi-natural grasslands, with strong negative effects on butterfly diversity. Abandoned grasslands are very common in less productive areas of southern Sweden and these habitats may soon become forests. There is an urgent need for immediate action to preserve unfertilized, mown and lightly grazed grasslands. It is also crucial to encourage that management of abandoned grasslands resumes before it is too late. In order to mitigate risks of further species loss and to work towards recovery of threatened butterfly populations using best known practises, we recommend twelve types of management measures favourable for many butterflies.
Article
Butterflies are better documented and monitored worldwide than any other nonpest taxon of insects ( 1 ). In the United Kingdom alone, volunteer recorders have sampled more than 750,000 km of repeat transects since 1976, equivalent to walking to the Moon and back counting butterflies ( 2 ). Such programs are revealing regional extinctions and population declines that began before 1900 ( 3 , 4 ). In a recent study, Habel et al. report a similar story based on inventories of butterflies and burnet moths since 1840 in a protected area in Bavaria, Germany ( 5 ). The results reveal severe species losses: Scarce, specialized butterflies have largely disappeared, leaving ecosystems dominated by common generalist ones. Similar trends are seen across Europe ( 6 ) and beyond, with protected areas failing to conserve many species for which they were once famed.