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Green Marketing: Greening the 4 Ps of Marketing

Authors:
  • Ashoka Business School, Nashik
  • International Institute of Management & Human Resource Development for Women, Pune

Abstract

Green Marketing as an area has not been a recent activity. If critically examined our ancestors had been involved in different ways to nurture and maintain the environment since a very long time. One may think of the various products required in our day-today life that were being manufactured in the olden times. All these products were extracted from nature in harmony taking into account its benefits and the way these products were even disposed of. But recently there has been a momentum in green activism so as to gain a competitive advantage. Due to consumer awareness, green activism and cut throat competition firms have started accepting the importance of green marketing to gain a competitive advantage over the competitors. But in this modern age as firms have started coming up with new technology products and services, so are the challenges. The paper attempts to overcome these challenges that had been posed to the environment and the society at large by way of considering green marketing from the view point of marketing mix. The paper discusses assimilation of green marketing and marketing mix by way of considering the 4 Ps of marketing.
International Journal of Knowledge and Research in Management & E-Commerce Vol.5, Issue 2, April, 2015
Print-ISSN: 2231-203X e-ISSN: 2231-0339 © RG Education Society (INDIA) 5
Green Marketing: Greening the 4 Ps of Marketing
Vaibhav Ramesh Bhalerao
Ashoka Business School
Savitribai Phule Pune University,
Maharashtra, India
Email: vrbhalerao@gmail.com
Dr. Anand Deshmukh
Research guide, Savitribai Phule Pune University
Maharashtra, India
Email: deshmukh_789@yahoo.co.in
Abstract: Green Marketing as an area has not been a
recent activity. If critically examined our ancestors
had been involved in different ways to nurture and
maintain the environment since a very long time. One
may think of the various products required in our
day-to-day life that were being manufactured in the
olden times. All these products were extracted from
nature in harmony taking into account its benefits and
the way these products were even disposed of. But
recently there has been a momentum in green
activism so as to gain a competitive advantage. Due
to consumer awareness, green activism and cut throat
competition firms have started accepting the
importance of green marketing to gain a competitive
advantage over the competitors. But in this modern
age as firms have started coming up with new
technology products and services, so are the
challenges. The paper attempts to overcome these
challenges that had been posed to the environment
and the society at large by way of considering green
marketing from the view point of marketing mix. The
paper discusses assimilation of green marketing and
marketing mix by way of considering the 4 Ps of
marketing.
Key words: Green Marketing, marketing mix, 4Ps of
marketing.
Introduction: Green Marketing has been a buzz
word these days. This may be attributed to the
increased consumer awareness towards the depleting
environment and everything that causes concern for
sustainability. It may be in terms of the air pollution,
water pollution, noise pollution or anything that takes
the society away from its originality. It is everything
that is concerned about the entropy i.e. the increase in
the disorder of a system. This system is nothing but
the dynamic environment of making business, the
way products and services are manufactured,
promoted and ultimately sold. The time has come for
business organizations irrespective of its size to
rethink on the methodology of doing business.
Organizations are these days competing on the basis
of the green effect that they produce in the market.
This green effect is equal to the ability of a firm to
minimize or at least restrict to a certain extent the
damages that are made to the environment.
According to the American Marketing Association
(AMA), Green Marketing can be defined in three
different ways: First, Green marketing is the
marketing of products that are presumed to be
environmentally safe (Retailing Definition). Second,
Green Marketing is the development and marketing
of products designed to minimize negative effects on
the physical environment or to improve its quality
(Social Marketing Definition). Third, Green
Marketing is the efforts by organizations to produce,
promote, package, and reclaim products in a manner
that it is sensitive or responsive to ecological
concerns (Environmental Definition). Charter (1992),
has defined green marketing as a holistic and
responsible strategic management process that
identifies, anticipates, satisfies and fulfills
stakeholder needs, for a reasonable reward, that does
not adversely affect human or natural environmental
well-being. Pride and Ferrell (1993), Green
marketing, also alternatively known as environmental
marketing and sustainable marketing, refers to an
organization's efforts at designing, promoting, pricing
and distributing products that will not harm the
environment. Polanski (1994) has defined green
marketing as all activities designed to generate and
facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human
needs or wants, such that the satisfaction of these
needs and wants occurs, with minimal detrimental
impact on the natural environment.
Significance of Green Marketing: Usually it has
been thought that green marketing is more concerned
in the manufacturing of products that are
environment friendly. So green marketing in that
sense is more aligned to the product and operation
dynamics. But taking into consideration various
factors that influence the environmental degradation,
it is the right time to broaden the meaning of green
marketing. Business houses should try to incorporate
the 4 Ps’ of marketing mix into green marketing. It is
quite challenging for firms to see that products are
produced in a way that will not harm the society and
the environment but at the same time be profitable.
International Journal of Knowledge and Research in Management & E-Commerce Vol.5, Issue 2, April, 2015
Print-ISSN: 2231-203X e-ISSN: 2231-0339 © RG Education Society (INDIA) 6
Green marketing has to be seen from society angle as
well. In that sense green marketing would be all
about the positivism of a product or a service. It
would be also inclined the way a product or a service
is being promoted. This promotion should be
designed on the principles of ethics and morality.
Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of
activities, including product modification, changes to
the production process, packaging changes, as well as
modifying the advertisement.
Incorporating the 4 P’s of Marketing mix into
green marketing:
1. Green Product: Product constitutes the first P
of marketing mix. Many companies these days
are quite serious of the ways the products are
being manufactured. Different upgraded
methodologies and systems are in place while
assessing the impact of manufacturing on
environment. The real challenge lies in front of
industries which are trying to cut down the
manufacturing cost by incorporating plastics and
different fiber materials to lower the weight and
cost of the manufactured tangible product. Here
polymers are being considered as great
substitutes for metals. It would be quite
challenging for the companies to justify their
stand on green products if they are using such
low cost non-biodegradable material in their
operations. The argument here would be how
products manufactured from non-biodegradable
plastic material can be considered as green
products.
Green marketing needs to be incorporated into
the first P of Marketing mix by considering the
following components.
Design: The Design is very important in today’s
world as it is all about gaining attention,
focusing on the product and influencing the
purchase decision of the customers. The design
of the product at the same time should be
customer friendly, non-vulnerable, comfortable
and user friendly.
Technology: The technology used in
manufacturing the product should be
environment friendly, in no way should pollute
the environment and be acceptable to all the
stakeholders.
Usefulness: A product being a bundle of utilities
should cater to the needs of a large spectrum of
consumers.
Value: Value is relative to what a customer seeks
in a product/service. For price sensitive
customers, cheaper products offering the same
benefits as that of others may be of value while
for others who are more brands oriented may not
value the price. Value of a product helps in
magnifying its utility to the customer. Value is
something which is always looked around by
companies while developing a product. Hence
high performance product which meets or
exceeds customer expectations related to its
performance should be developed without
sacrificing its environmental value.
Convenience: Convenience is a parameter
related to the usage and the means of obtaining a
product. The product should bring ease in life of
the customer by way of its easy availabity and
convenient usage.
Quality: Quality gains a customer as an
individual always looks for good quality product
or service. Hence green products manufactured,
in all sense should comply with quality.
Packaging: Packaging is used for raising the
product’s value. Usually polymers are having
wide applications in packaging especially
polystyrene and polyethylene. Many companies
these days are trying to have environmental
friendly packaging. Packaging is that area which
puts the environmental policies of a firm to
question as most of the products now-a-days are
being wrapped in polymers which are non-
biodegradable. Even if plastics are recycled it
emits harmful gases like sulphur dioxides and
carbon mono-oxides. A green product packaged
in a non-green or non-decomposable plastic
material is not a green product at all.
2. Green Price: Price refers to the amount paid
by the customer to purchase a product. The price
of a product is influenced by several factors like
cost of material, product differentiation,
competition, market share and the customer's
perceived value of a product. When it comes to
pricing the question arises as to how firms ensure
green marketing while pricing their products. In
this discussion it would be quite convincing that
green products are relatively costlier than non-
green products. The cost of absorbing
environmental concerns is relatively high
compared to conventional ones. It can be argued
that green marketing pricing should be
affordable to a common customer. Talking in
terms of electronic products, CRT (Cathode ray
tube) TVs and LCD TVs are relatively cheaper
than LED which is greener than the former. LED
bulbs are more costly than the conventional
bulbs. Similarly hybrid cars and electric cars are
relatively more costly than conventional
automobiles. Thus it becomes more logical to
International Journal of Knowledge and Research in Management & E-Commerce Vol.5, Issue 2, April, 2015
Print-ISSN: 2231-203X e-ISSN: 2231-0339 © RG Education Society (INDIA) 7
state that green technology is not cost effective.
Rather green pricing differs industry to industry.
So when customers have option to purchase a
green product, its price should never be
demotivating.
3. Green Place: Place is generally referred to as
the distribution channel or distribution network.
Place can be any physical store as well as virtual
stores. The process involved in transferring
products from the producer to the consumer is
known as physical distribution. Green place in
that sense can be anything which minimizes the
customers and the manufacturer’s effort in
acquiring and selling a product respectively.
Many firms now-a-days have started selling their
products online. This really cuts down the
customers cost to practically visit a market place,
select a store and then purchase the product.
Firms have come up with their own websites
which displays the merchandise and the
customers have to place the order online and get
the delivery of product within few days. The
internet can really be termed as a green place as
it offers an unmatchable comfort to the customer
and this also saves cost to the manufacturer in
way of commissions or cuttings given to various
middlemen. The challenge in selling a product
on a green place would be in terms of sensing the
features of a product and experiencing it. The
green place should be enough in convincing the
smart customer about the product features. Green
place will definitely influence the scope of
distribution partners and will also benefit the end
user in making the product available at a
relatively lower cost. The challenge in terms of
green place will be in case of highly technical
products which require prior testing and visiting
the manufacturers place by the end user. So B2B
selling in some cases may not adapt to green
place.
4. Green Promotion: Firms undertake
promotional activities so as to create awareness
about the product/services they make. It always
has been an expectation from the top
management of organizations to have an
optimum promotional budget that creates good
awareness and influences the target audiences for
further purchases. Talking in terms of green
promotion would then be meeting this optimum
level. The optimum level needs to be taken
forward not only in terms of the promotional
expenses but also the different ways in which
promotion is being affected. This can be thought
of in the following ways.
Selection of promotion partners: Only those
promotional partners should be contracted who
have a good track record in green marketing or
preserving the environment.
Selection of promotional material: Environment
friendly promotional material should be
encouraged for use, such as recyclable bags
rather than plastic which is detrimental to the
environment at large. Similarly online
advertising could reduce a great clutter offline.
Selection of advertising message: In a way to
expand the dimensions of green marketing
companies these days have to be very serious in
a way in which advertising message is being
generated. Green marketing should not be
evaluated only on the basis of environmental
impact but also the way a firm has societal
impact. Now-a-days firms have started
increasing the sexual content in its advertising
message which creates a great impact on
consumers mind. This helps the customers in
remembering an advertisement among others on
the TV network. This has been observed in the
ways deodorants, cosmetics, automobiles,
FMCG products; beverages to name a few are
advertised.
Firms if are really serious about green marketing
should also scrutinize the content or message
ethically and morally before being sent in the
society through advertisements. This would
certainly help in minimizing the bad effects of
advertisement on children.
Re-engineering green marketing
Green Marketing is the marketing of products
and services that are not only environment
friendly but also preferably acceptable to various
stakeholders in the society. Various dimensions
on which green marketing are based are a broad
range of activities including product
modification, production process, product
packaging, product transfer, and ethical product
promotion.
Conclusion: So as to ensure sustainable growth
and nurture a symbiotic relationship with the
society it is imperative for firms to come up with
green products and green services. This will be
of course not an end to the long lasting journey
of mankind towards a cleaner and sustainable
environment but the top management has to keep
evolving different principles and practices that
helps in providing a new platform for green
environment for future generations to come.
Green marketing should not be undertaken by
firms as a promotional measure but should be
considered as a corporate social responsibility.
As mankind will keep on progressing, different
International Journal of Knowledge and Research in Management & E-Commerce Vol.5, Issue 2, April, 2015
Print-ISSN: 2231-203X e-ISSN: 2231-0339 © RG Education Society (INDIA) 8
issues and challenges on the environment and
societal sides will keep on surfacing. On the
societal sides these challenges mainly would be
in the form of violation of ethics and moral
principles. Hence a holistic approach to green
marketing can be achieved by blending the
principles of green marketing into marketing
mix.
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[4] Ottman J. (2011) “The new rules of green
marketing”, San Francisco: Barrett-Koehler
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[5] Polonsky M. (1994) “An introduction to green
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Green marketing in India: Emerging opportunities and challenges
  • P Mishra
  • P Sharma
Mishra, P; Sharma, P. (2010) " Green marketing in India: Emerging opportunities and challenges ", Journal of Engineering, Science and Management Education, Vol. 3, pp. 9-14.
Evolution and future of green marketing
  • Parag Shil
Shil, Parag (2012) "Evolution and future of green marketing", Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing & Management Review, Vol. 1, Issue 3, pp. 74-81.