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(Poster) Does shank to foot length ratio influence knee-to-wall ankle DROM performance?



AIM The aim of this study was to establish if a shank-to foot-length ratio had an influence on the knee-to-wall assessment score.
Does shank- to foot-length rao inuence knee-to-wall
ankle DROM performance?
Rudi Meir, Zachary Crowley-McHaan, John Whing and Sonja Coetzee
School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia
The aim of this study was to
establish if a shank- to foot-
length rao had an inuence on
the knee-to-wall assessment
Ankle dorsiexion range of moon
(DROM) is oen assessed to
establish funconal ROM of this
joint. Ankle mobility is an
important factor in inuencing
performance during squang,
jumping and landing, movements
of daily living and balance (1-4). A
number of methods can be used
to assess ankle DROM. One such
method that is popular among
strength and condioning (S&C)
coaches is the knee-to-wall
assessment method, which
establishes a linear measure for
the distance of the foot away from
the wall during a weight bearing
lunge. However, such a measure
may be confounded by the relave
lengths of an individual’s foot and
shank. The aim of this study was
to establish if a shank- to foot-
length rao had an inuence on
the knee-to-wall assessment
The Australian Strength and Condioning
2016 Internaonal Conference on Applied
Strength and Condioning
assessment of ankle DROM. Ankle
DROM was assessed using two
methods: i) knee-to-wall method;
ii) and standard extendable joint
goniometer. All measures were
taken by the same rater on one
test occasion. Measures were
taken twice on each ankle using
the two methods of assessment
with the rst measure on both test
occasions being the knee-to-wall
assessment (Figure 1). Aer
compleng a warm-up a single
All variables of interest were
normally distributed, therefore
Pearson correlaons were used. A
signicant posive correlaon was
found between foot and shank
length for both right (p <0.001,
r = .877) and le (p <0.001,
r = .880). No other signicant
correlaons were found between
all other variables (>0.05).
measure on the le ankle followed
by the right using the knee-to-wall
method was determined.
Measurements then alternated
between the le and right ankle.
Both ankles were then assessed
using the goniometer aer the
knee-to-wall assessment had been
Findings suggest that neither the
length of the foot, length of the
shank, nor their rao, had any
inuence on the knee-to-wall
assessment of ankle joint
exibility in the sample
analysed. It is reasonable to
conclude therefore, that the
knee-to-wall technique provides
valid informaon about ankle
joint DROM, an important factor
in a range of lower body
funconal movements. S&C
coaches can use this simple
ankle DROM assessment
method with greater condence.
Figure 1: Posion when performing weight-
bearing lunge for Knee-to-wall assessment with
goniometer landmarks also idened.
1. Myer GD, Kushner AM, Brent JL, et al. The Back Squat: A Proposed Assessment of
Funconal Decits and Technical Factors That Limit Performance. Strength Cond J. 2014;36
2. Menz HB, Morris ME, Lord SR. Foot and ankle characteriscs associated with impaired
balance and funconal ability in older people. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60
3. Bohannon RW, Tiberio D, Waters G. Moon measured from forefoot and hindfoot
landmarks during passive ankle dorsiexion range of moon. J Orthop Sport Phys. 1991;13
4. Whing JW, Steele JR, McGhee DE, Munro BJ. Dorsiexion capacity aects achilles tendon
loading during drop landings. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(4):706-713.
Lateral femoral
condyle landmark
Lateral malleolus
Table 1: Basic descripve measures of
anatomical segment lengths and rao.
Tibiale mediale-sphyrion biale distance
Tip of akropodion to the pternion
Parcipants (N = 15) had their foot
length (p of the akropodion i.e.
p of longest toes, to the pternion
i.e. most posterior point on the
calcaneus) and shank length
(biale mediale-sphyrion biale
score) determined prior to
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Full-text available
Fundamental movement competency is essential for participation in physical activity and for mitigating the risk of injury, which are both key elements of health throughout life. The squat movement pattern is arguably one of the most primal and critical fundamental movements necessary to improve sport performance, to reduce injury risk and to support lifelong physical activity. Based on current evidence, this first (1 of 2) report deconstructs the technical performance of the back squat as a foundation training exercise and presents a novel dynamic screening tool that incorporates identification techniques for functional deficits that limit squat performance and injury resilience. The follow-up report will outline targeted corrective methodology for each of the functional deficits presented in the assessment tool.
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Ageing is associated with changes to the structure and function of the foot and ankle, and there is preliminary evidence that foot problems impair balance and increase the risk of falls. To explore this in more detail, we conducted a study to determine the relative contribution of several foot and ankle characteristics to performance on a range of balance and functional tests. One hundred seventy-six people (56 men and 120 women, mean age 80.1 years, standard deviation 6.4 years) residing in a retirement village underwent tests of foot and ankle characteristics (including foot posture, range of motion, strength, and deformity), sensorimotor function (including vision, sensation, strength, and reaction time), and balance and functional ability (including tests of standing balance, leaning balance, stepping, sit-to-stand, and walking speed). Many foot and ankle characteristics and sensorimotor measures were associated with performance on the balance and functional tests in univariate analyses. Multiple regression analysis consistently revealed that ankle flexibility, plantar tactile sensitivity, and toe plantarflexor strength were significant and independent predictors of balance and functional test performance, explaining up to 59% of the variance in these test scores. Foot and ankle characteristics, particularly ankle flexibility, plantar tactile sensation, and strength of toe plantarflexor muscles, are significant independent predictors of balance and functional ability in older people. Programs to improve the strength and flexibility of the foot and interventions to augment plantar sensation may be beneficial in improving mobility and reducing the risk of falls.
Evidence suggests a link between decreased dorsiflexion range of motion (DROM) and injury risk during landings. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of weight-bearing DROM on ankle mechanics during drop landings. Forty-eight men (mean ± SD = 22.5 ± 4.7 yr) were measured for DROM. Participants performed drop landings onto a force platform at two vertical descent velocities (2.25 ± 0.15 and 3.21 ± 0.17 m·s(-1)), while EMG activity of four shank muscles and three-dimensional ankle joint kinematics were recorded. Participants were classified into low (37.7° ± 2.5°) and high (48.4° ± 2.5°) DROM groups. Ground reaction force, EMG, dorsiflexion angle, plantarflexion moment, and Achilles tendon force outcome variables were all equivalent for the two DROM groups during each landing condition. However, the low DROM group performed each landing condition at a significantly greater percentage of their DROM and displayed significantly more ankle eversion throughout most of the movement. The low and high DROM groups displayed DROM percentages of 27 ± 11 and 10 ± 11 (P = 0.013), 32 ± 9 and 23 ± 9 (P = 0.056), 60 ± 13 and 46 ± 13 (P = 0.004), and 66 ± 16 and 54 ± 9 (P = 0.003) when they encountered the peak plantarflexion moments, Achilles tendon force, eversion angles, and dorsiflexion angles, respectively. Participants with a low DROM absorbed the landing impact forces with their plantarflexor muscle-tendon units in a more lengthened and everted position. Athletes with a low DROM may be more likely to regularly overload their plantarflexor muscle-tendon units, thereby potentially exposing themselves to a higher likelihood of incurring injuries such as Achilles tendinopathy.
This project was funded, in part, by the Research Foundation, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-2101. The purpose of this study was to document and compare, using surface landmarks, the magnitude of forefoot and hindfoot motion accompanying passive ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ADROM). Twenty-two healthy subjects had their right ankle passively dorsiflexed two times from a resting position to a maximum dorsiflexion while they were supine and their subtalar joints were positioned in neutral. Initial resting position and maximum ADROM were measured from surface markings over the fibula, fifth metatarsal, and heel in pictures taken with a 35 mm camera. The difference between the maximum ADROM and the initial measurements obtained from the markings over the fifth metatarsal and heel were used to represent motion of the forefoot and hindfoot, respectively. The grand mean forefoot motion (39.8 degrees ) and hindfoot motion (37.1 degrees ) were significantly different (F = 13.62, p </= 0.001). The motions, however, were significantly correlated for the two trials (r = 0.905 and 0.704). The small magnitude of the difference (= 2.7 degrees ) in forefoot and hindfoot motion and significant correlations between the motions challenge the need for foot stabilization other than maintaining the subtalar joint in neutral. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1991;13(1):20-22.