Conference Paper

East Asian Super Grid: Can Australia become an electricity source for Asia?

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Abstract

Energy is a key driver for social and economic change. Many countries trying to develop economically and socially and many developed countries trying to maintain their economic growth will create a huge demand for energy in the future. The growth in energy production will put our climate at risk, without change in the existing fossil fuel based energy system. In this paper, 100% renewable energy based system is discussed for East Asia, integrating the two large regions of Southeast Asia and Northeast Asia. Regional integration of the two regions does not provide significant benefit to the energy system in terms of cost reduction. However, reduction of 0.4-0.7% in terms of total annual cost of the system can be achieved for East Asia, mainly realised in optimising the bordering regions of South China and Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The idea of Australia being an electricity source for Asia, does not pay off due to the long distances and local storage of the generated electricity in the regions is more cost competitive. However, such an integration provides a sustainable and economically feasible energy system with the cost of electricity between 53-66 €/MWh for the year 2030 with the assumptions used in this study. The described energy system will be very cost competitive to the widely discussed nuclear and fossil carbon-capture and storage (CCS) alternatives.

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In this work, a 100% renewable energy (RE)-based energy system for the year 2030 for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim 1 , and Eurasia was prepared and evaluated and various impacts of adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES) were researched on an hourly resolution for one year. To overcome the intermittency of RE sources and guarantee regular supply of electricity, energy sources are complemented by five energy storage options: batteries, pumped hydro storage (PHS), thermal energy storage (TES), (A-CAES) and power-togas (PtG). In a region-wide scenario the energy system integration is within a sub-region of the individual large areas of Southeast Asia and Eurasia. In this scenario simulation were performed with and without A-CAES integration. For Southeast Asia and Eurasia, the integration of A-CAES has an impact on the share of a particular storage used and this depends on the seasonal variation in RE generation, the supply share of wind energy and demand in the individual areas. For the region-wide scenario for Southeast Asia (region with low seasonal variation and lower supply share of wind energy) the share of A-CAES output was 1.9% in comparison to Eurasia (region with high seasonal variation and a high supply share of wind energy) which had 28.6%. The other impact which was observed was the distribution of the storage technologies after A-CAES integration, since battery output and PtG output were decreased by 72.9% and 21.6% (Eurasia) and 5.5% and 1.6% (Southeast Asia), respectively. However, a large scale grid integration reduces the demand for A-CAES storage drastically and partly even to zero due to substitution by grids, which has been only observed for A-CAES, but not for batteries and PtG. The most valuable application for A-CAES seems to be in rather decentralized or nationwide energy system designs and as a well-adapted storage for the typical generation profiles of wind energy.
Conference Paper
Grid integration for renewable energy (RE) is in many studies observed as the major option to increase energy system reliability and decrease costs: overflows in the grid can support the system in case of component failure and decrease the need for balancing capacities. Energy transmission grids additionally increase capacity utilisation and efficiency by smoothing of total demand, especially for geographically wide expanded grids. Wherefore it had been often assumed that a development of close to 100% RE systems may be only possible with the installation of extended power grids as was discussed in the Desertec or Gobitec vision and other comparable centralised RE approaches. In this work impacts of the different levels of high voltage direct current (HVDC) grid integration on cost optimized 100% RE system were researched for the example of Northeast Asia. Three grid scenarios were applied for the area: region-wide open trade, where the energy system integration happens only inside one region; country-wide open trade, where a HVDC transmission grid connects regions inside one country; and area-wide open trade scenario, where all the countries are interconnected. These scenarios were simulated using the LUT energy system model for the two cost years 2020 and 2030. The optimized energy system included solar photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar thermal power, wind onshore, hydropower, geothermal energy and biomass as energy sources. The storage options are batteries, thermal energy storage, pumped hydro storage, adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES) and gas storage including power-togas. It was found, that grid integration leads to a significant decrease of total levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) for the years 2020 and 2030: LCOE for the area-wide scenario was 8% lower than the region-wide scenario for the year 2020 and 5% lower for year 2030. However, the cost spread for 2030 is 50% lower (3 €/MWh vs 6 €/MWh) because of expected storage cost development and consequently different storage and grid utilisation. The optimal storage structure for both years is 20% of long-term storage and 80% of short to mid-term storage. Short-term storage technologies, Li-ion batteries and PHS are insignificant for the Northeast Asian case. The cost development of storage technologies results in increased storage and reduced grid supply share of 16% to 22% and 14% to 9% for the year 2020 and 2030, respectively, i.e. reduced storage costs lead to a reduced relevance of long distance grid integration. The total share of the flexible power sources stays stable for both cost years at around 30%. Finally, the lower cost spread for the year 2030 makes it possible in some cases to take a transformation towards 100% RE into account without massive grid installations.
Article
This study demonstrates how seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants, necessary to meet increasing future global water demand, can be powered solely through renewable energy. Hybrid PV–wind–battery and power-to-gas (PtG) power plants allow for optimal utilisation of the installed desalination capacity, resulting in water production costs competitive with that of existing fossil fuel powered SWRO plants. In this paper, we provide a global estimate of the water production cost for the 2030 desalination demand with renewable electricity generation costs for 2030 for an optimised local system configuration based on an hourly temporal and 0.45° × 0.45° spatial resolution. The SWRO desalination capacity required to meet the 2030 global water demand is estimated to about 2374 million m3/day. The levelised cost of water (LCOW), which includes water production, electricity, water transportation and water storage costs, for regions of desalination demand in 2030, is found to lie between 0.59 €/m3–2.81 €/m3, depending on renewable resource availability and cost of water transport to demand sites. The global system required to meet the 2030 global water demand is estimated to cost 9790 billion € of initial investments. It is possible to overcome the water supply limitations in a sustainable and financially competitive way.
Article
In order to define a cost optimal 100% renewable energy system, an hourly resolved model has been created based on linear optimization of energy system parameters under given constrains. The model is comprised of five scenarios for 100% renewable energy power systems in North-East Asia with different high voltage direct current transmission grid development levels, including industrial gas demand and additional energy security. Renewables can supply enough energy to cover the estimated electricity and gas demands of the area in the year 2030 and deliver more than 2000 TW hth of heat on a cost competitive level of 84 €/MW hel for electricity. Further, this can be accomplished for a synthetic natural gas price at the 2013 Japanese liquefied natural gas import price level and at no additional generation costs for the available heat. The total area system cost could reach 69.4 €/MW hel, if only the electricity sector is taken into account. In this system about 20% of the energy is exchanged between the 13 regions, reflecting a rather decentralized character which is supplied 27% by stored energy. The major storage technologies are batteries for daily storage and power-to-gas for seasonal storage. Prosumers are likely to play a significant role due to favourable economics. A highly resilient energy system with very high energy security standards would increase the electricity cost by 23% to 85.6 €/MW hel. The results clearly show that a 100% renewable energy based system is feasible and lower in cost than nuclear energy and fossil carbon capture and storage alternatives.
Chapter
It is the pretension of this book to give a comprehensive picture of today's energy world, to describe the potential for energy savings which can be achieved and to get an understanding of technology development which will lead to a 100% renewably powered world as the most likely situation. Th is is based on the long-term economic and ecological superiority of renewables over traditional energy sources. It is the combination of these topics which makes the book unique. Th is abstract can also be used by the reader to make his or her own sequence for the 11 chapters according to personal preference - although for those who are no experts in the fi eld it is useful to follow the given order.
Conference Paper
Increasing ecological problems provoked by human activities, including the fossil fuel based energy sector, emerge the development of a renewable energy (RE) based system as the way to stop pollution and global warming but also to reduce total energy system cost. Small population density and availability of various types of RE resources in Eurasian regions including solar, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal energy resources enables the very promising project of building a Super Grid connecting different Eurasian regions' energy resources to reach synergy effects and make a 100% RE supply possible. For every sub-region it is defined a cost-optimal distributed and centralized mix of energy technologies and storage options, optimal capacities and hourly generation. Charge and discharge profiles of storages are computed for regions interconnected by high-voltage direct current (HVDC) power lines. System cost and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for each sub-region are computed. The results show that a 100% RE-based system is lower in cost than nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS) alternatives.
Data
Presentation on the occasion of the GÜNDER Workshop held as part of the 45th IEA PVPS Task 1 Meeting in Istanbul on October 27, 2015.
Research
Poster on the occasion of the 2nd International Conference on Desalination using Membrane Technology in Singapore on July 26 - 29, 2015.
Book
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a commercially attractive phase of the commodity that facilitates the efficient handling and transportation of natural gas around the world. The LNG industry, using technologies proven over decades of development, continues to expand its markets, diversify its supply chains and increase its share of the global natural gas trade. The Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas is a timely book as the industry is currently developing new large sources of supply and the technologies have evolved in recent years to enable offshore infrastructure to develop and handle resources in more remote and harsher environments. It is the only book of its kind, covering the many aspects of the LNG supply chain from liquefaction to regasification by addressing the LNG industries' fundamentals and markets, as well as detailed engineering and design principles. A unique, well-documented, and forward-thinking work, this reference book provides an ideal platform for scientists, engineers, and other professionals involved in the LNG industry to gain a better understanding of the key basic and advanced topics relevant to LNG projects in operation and/or in planning and development. • Highlights the developments in the natural gas liquefaction industries and the challenges in meeting environmental regulations • Provides guidelines in utilizing the full potential of LNG assets • Offers advices on LNG plant design and operation based on proven practices and design experience • Emphasizes technology selection and innovation with focus on a "fit-for-purpose" design • Updates code and regulation, safety, and security requirements for LNG applications.
Article
This paper explores the large scale transmission of solar electricity to Southeast Asia from Australia. Despite the expense and losses incurred in long distance transmission of Australian solar electricity, it appears to be competitive with locally produced solar electricity because of high insolation levels in Australia. Supplementation of locally produced electricity (both from renewable and conventional sources) with power from Australia, together with substantial integrated energy storage, would allow a high solar electricity fraction to be achieved in Southeast Asia.
Conference Paper
Case studies for very large scale PV (VLS-PV) in desert areas, by the IEA PVPS Task8 study, showed that the Gobi desert area of Mongolia is one of the most promising candidate sites for VLS-PV. It is expected that the demonstration phase will be started in the near-term, and it is intended that a concrete sustainable development scheme would be designed and that the capacity of the total PV system, VLS-PV, will reach GW-scale. Further, thinking about a concept of 'Renewable Energy Super Grid' in North-East Asia, the VLS-PV systems should play important roles.
Conference Paper
Grid-parity is a very important milestone for further photovoltaic (PV) diffusion. An updated grid-parity model is presented, which is based on levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) coupled with the experience curve approach. Relevant assumptions for the model are given and its key driving forces are discussed in detail. Results of the analysis are shown for 215 countries/ islands and a total of 645 market segments all over the world. High PV industry growth rates have enabled a fast reduction of LCOE. Depletion of fossil fuel resources and climate change mitigation forces societies to internalize these effects and pave the way for sustainable energy technologies. First grid-parity events have already occurred. The 2010s are characterized by ongoing grid-parity events throughout the most regions in the world, reaching an addressable market of up to 96% of total global electricity market till 2030. In consequence, new political frameworks for maximizing social benefits will be required. In parallel, PV industry tackle its next milestone, fuel-parity. In conclusion, PV is on the pathway to become a highly competitive energy technology.
Conference Paper
In terms of levelized cost of electricity, renewable energies are able to compete with cost of conventional grid electricity, as of today in relevant regions of the world. Partially, electricity being generated by renewable energy sources reached to be less expensive than conventional electricity from the grid. Thus, an electricity supply by renewable energy sources becomes more and more attractive. Furthermore, a decentralized electricity generation appears to be reasonable. This, enables everyone to generate electricity at the place where it is consumed, reducing cost by less grid electricity demand. The renewable energy source solar irradiation can be used in a decentralised manner, whereas a combination with energy storage systems is needed since the fluctuating energy flow has to be adapted to the load profile of human activities. This combination is about to enhance high shares of self consumed electricity in ones electricity demand. This paper gives an overview on grid-parity for photovoltaic systems with energy storage for Germany and some more regions of the world. Residential systems are focused. System configurations as a function of specific factors like regional economics, typical consumption profiles and geographical conditions are analysed.
Article
This study demonstrates – based on a dynamical simulation of a global, decentralized 100% renewable electricity supply scenario – that a global climate-neutral electricity supply based on the volatile energy sources photovoltaics (PV), wind energy (onshore) and concentrated solar power (CSP) is feasible at decent cost. A central ingredient of this study is a sophisticated model for the hourly electric load demand in >160 countries. To guarantee matching of load demand in each hour, the volatile primary energy sources are complemented by three electricity storage options: batteries, high-temperature thermal energy storage coupled with steam turbine, and renewable power methane (generated via the Power to Gas process) which is reconverted to electricity in gas turbines. The study determines – on a global grid with 1°x1° resolution – the required power plant and storage capacities as well as the hourly dispatch for a 100% renewable electricity supply under the constraint of minimized total system cost (LCOE). Aggregating the results on a national level results in an levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) range of 80-200 EUR/MWh (on a projected cost basis for the year 2020) in this very decentralized approach. As a global average, 142 EUR/MWh are found. Due to the restricted number of technologies considered here, this represents an upper limit for the electricity cost in a fully renewable electricity supply.
Article
BY 2050, Asia could be connected by a massive energy and information architecture. This ‘Pan-Asian Energy Infrastructure’ could be inspired by – and dramatically extend – the concept of cross-border grids elsewhere, most notably in Europe and North Africa.
Article
We present a geographical assessment of the performance of crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules over Europe. We have developed a method that is based on a material specific analytical expression of the PV conversion efficiency, relative to nominal efficiency, as a function of module temperature and irradiance. This method is combined with a climate database that includes average daytime temperature and irradiance profiles. It is found that the geographical variation in ambient temperature and yearly irradiation causes a decrease in overall yearly PV performance from 3 to 13% relative to the performance under Standard Test Conditions, with the highest decrease found in the Mediterranean region. Based on the above results we developed a simplified linear expression of the relative PV module efficiency that is a simple function of yearly total irradiation and yearly average daytime temperature. The coefficients to the linear expression are found by fitting to the map resulting from the above-mentioned analytical approach. The prediction of total yearly PV output from this linear fit deviates less than 0·5% from the more detailed calculation, thus providing a faster and more simplified alternative to the yield estimate, in the case when only limited climate data are available. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Discussions about the origin of energy in a post fossil fuel world are quickly dominated by a general exchange of mostly fruitless arguments about the future contribution of nuclear energy. In this paper we discuss the status of nuclear energy today and analyze its potential evolution during the next 10-20 years. The facts are that nuclear energy contributes only about 14% of the world's electric energy mix today, and as electric energy contributes itself only about 16% to the end energy use, its contribution is essentially negligible. Still, nuclear energy is plagued already with a long list of unsolved problems. Among the less known problems one finds the difficulties that nuclear plants can not provide power according to needs, but have to be operated at full power also during times of low demand. As a result, regions with large contributions from nuclear power need some backup hydropower storage systems. Without sufficient storage capacity, cheap electric energy is suggested during low demand times, which obviously results in wasteful applications. The better known problems, without solutions since at least 40 years, are the final safe storage of the accumulated highly radioactive nuclear waste, that uranium itself is a very limited and non renewable energy resource and that enormous amounts of human resources, urgently needed to find a still unknown path towards a low energy future, are blocked by useless research on fusion energy. Thus, nuclear energy is not a solution to our energy worries but part of the problem.
Article
In this paper, we argue that Asia's unique geography, abundant low-emission energy resources, rapid economic growth, and rising energy demands merit consideration of a Pan-Asian Energy Infrastructure. In our study, we focus on development of wind and solar resources in Australia, China, Mongolia, and Vietnam as the potential foundation for an electricity grid stretching from China to Australia. Hourly climate data for a full year are used to estimate renewable energy generation, electricity demand, generation capacity are projected forward to the year 2025, and economic dispatch in an international market is simulated to demonstrate cost benefits. Intermittency, connectivity, future dispatch orders, storage, line losses, and engineering and financial issues are all addressed.
Article
Each stage in the life cycle of coal-extraction, transport, processing, and combustion-generates a waste stream and carries multiple hazards for health and the environment. These costs are external to the coal industry and are thus often considered "externalities." We estimate that the life cycle effects of coal and the waste stream generated are costing the U.S. public a third to over one-half of a trillion dollars annually. Many of these so-called externalities are, moreover, cumulative. Accounting for the damages conservatively doubles to triples the price of electricity from coal per kWh generated, making wind, solar, and other forms of nonfossil fuel power generation, along with investments in efficiency and electricity conservation methods, economically competitive. We focus on Appalachia, though coal is mined in other regions of the United States and is burned throughout the world.
Energy from the desert -very large scale photovoltaic systems: socio-economic, financial, technical and environmental aspects
  • K Komoto
  • M Ito
  • P Van Der Vleuten
K. Komoto, M. Ito, P. Van der Vleuten, D. Faiman, K. Kurokawa (eds.), Energy from the desert -very large scale photovoltaic systems: socio-economic, financial, technical and environmental aspects. Earthscan, London, 2009.
  • W Urban
  • H Lohmann
  • K Girod
  • Bmbf-Verbundprojekt Abschlussbericht Für Das
  • Biogaseinspeisung
W. Urban, H. Lohmann, K. Girod, Abschlussbericht für das BMBF- Verbundprojekt Biogaseinspeisung. Fraunhofer UMSICHT, Liepzig. [in German], 2009.
How the jaw-dropping fall in solar prices will change energy markets, article in RenewEconomyhow-the-jaw-dropping-fall-in- solar-prices-will-change-energy-markets-55160
  • G Parkinson
G. Parkinson. How the jaw-dropping fall in solar prices will change energy markets, article in RenewEconomy, September 21, 2016. http://reneweconomy.com.au/2016/how-the-jaw-dropping-fall-in- solar-prices-will-change-energy-markets-55160
The Asian Super Grid
  • J A Mathews
J. A. Mathews, The Asian Super Grid, The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol 10, Issue 48, No. 1, November 26, 2012.
Current and Future Cost of Photovoltaics – Long-term Scenarios for Market Development System Prices and LCOE of Utility-Scale PV Systems Report by Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems on behalf of Agora Energiewende
  • Agora Energiewende
Agora Energiewende, Current and Future Cost of Photovoltaics – Long-term Scenarios for Market Development System Prices and LCOE of Utility-Scale PV Systems. Report by Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems on behalf of Agora Energiewende, Berlin, 2015. www.fvee.de/fileadmin/publikationen/weitere_publikationen/15_Ag oraEnergiewende-ISE_Current_and_Future_Cost_of_PV.pdf
Desert power – perspectives on a sustainable power system for EUMENA. Munich: Dii
  • Dii
Dii, 2050 Desert power – perspectives on a sustainable power system for EUMENA. Munich: Dii; 2012.
North Australia's electrifying future: powering Asia with renewables, article in RenewEconomy
  • A Campbell
  • A Blakers
  • S Blanch
A. Campbell, A. Blakers and S. Blanch, North Australia's electrifying future: powering Asia with renewables, article in RenewEconomy, New South Wales, August 21, 2013, http://reneweconomy.com.au/2013/north-australias-electrifyingfuture-powering-asia-with-renewables-80382.
A Pan-Asian Energy Infrastructure By 2050, GRENATEC
  • S Taggart
S. Taggart, A Pan-Asian Energy Infrastructure By 2050, GRENATEC, 2013.
Desert power -perspectives on a sustainable power system for EUMENA
  • Dii
Dii, 2050 Desert power -perspectives on a sustainable power system for EUMENA. Dii, Munich, 2012.
Gobitec and Asian super grid for renewable energies in Northeast Asia
  • S Mano
  • B Ovgor
  • Z Samadov
  • M Pudlik
  • V Jülich
  • D Sokolov
S. Mano, B. Ovgor, Z. Samadov, M. Pudlik, V. Jülich, D. Sokolov, et al., Gobitec and Asian super grid for renewable energies in Northeast Asia, report prepared by Energy Charter Secretariat, Energy Economics Institute of the Republic of Korea, Energy Systems Institute of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Energy of Mongolia, Japan Renewable Energy Foundation; Brussels, 2014.
How the jaw-dropping fall in solar prices will change energy markets, article in RenewEconomy
  • G Parkinson
G. Parkinson. How the jaw-dropping fall in solar prices will change energy markets, article in RenewEconomy, September 21, 2016. http://reneweconomy.com.au/2016/how-the-jaw-dropping-fall-insolar-prices-will-change-energy-markets-55160