Management of Oral Health through Ayurvedic Methods

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... B. nigra oilseed has the ability to stimulate and enhance the blood circulation through restoration of health of the gingiva and reducing the occurrence of its inflammation (Markose et al. 2016). This is an important property when it comes to oral health, where Markose et al. (2016) have suggested that massaging with B. nigra oil is able to stimulate blood circulation and restore the health of gingiva. ...
... B. nigra oilseed has the ability to stimulate and enhance the blood circulation through restoration of health of the gingiva and reducing the occurrence of its inflammation (Markose et al. 2016). This is an important property when it comes to oral health, where Markose et al. (2016) have suggested that massaging with B. nigra oil is able to stimulate blood circulation and restore the health of gingiva. It may be implied from this particular study that incorporation of B. nigra seed oil into dental floss or toothpaste might be an effective means of maintaining oral health. ...
... Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism can be reduced by treatment with B. nigra plants while simultaneously reducing congestion among internal organs (Alam et al. 2011;Obi et al. 2009). The whole plantincluding seedshas been traditionally used for neuralgia, spasms, alopecia, epilepsy, snakebite and toothache (Alam et al. 2011;Markose et al. 2016). Moreover, sinigrin in B. nigra has the ability to act against atherosclerosis, a recognized chronic inflammatory disease (Mazumder et al. 2016). ...
Brassica nigra plays an important role in global agriculture, horticulture, health and wellness aspects due to its culinary and medicinal values. B. nigra plant is also grown to obtain oil for industrial purposes as well as a nutritionally valued seed meal. The seed primarily contains oligosaccharides belonging to the raffinose family; amino acids; fatty acids such as palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, eicosenoic and erucic acids; vitamins; minerals (mostly iron); anti-nutritional factors (in particular, enzyme inhibitors); glucosinolates; and a wide range of phenolic compounds. B. nigra seeds have demonstrated to impart antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antithrombotic, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities, as well as immunomodulatory and inflammatory effects. It is also recognized to provide protection against factors leading to gastrointestinal cancer. Given the presence of antioxidants in B. nigra seeds, it may be hypothesized as being useful for cardiac disorders as well. When it comes to safety aspects, B. nigra seeds contain storage proteins of the 2S albumin class and, hence, have been the cause food allergies which were mostly reported in Europe. During the last two decades, rapid developments have taken place in the agricultural breeding of B. nigra owing to the advancements in plant biology and biotechnology applications. These developments facilitated the adoption of B. nigra plant models which are of economic importance and commercial value.
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To investigate the association between orthodontic treatment need (OTN) and caries experience (CE). Using a stratified sampling method, 748 subjects (355 females, 393 males; mean ± standard deviation age 15.11 ± 2.23 years) were examined. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), DMFT, simple (DMFT > 0) and severe CE (DMFT > 8) were recorded. Socio-economic status (SES) was assessed by recording parental education, mother's employment status, and household size. Higher (but not statistically significant) CE was observed in subjects with OTN (DAI > 30). The association between DAI and DMFT scores was not significant (rho = 0.05). Mean DMFT score did not vary significantly between the SES and OTN subgroups. In children with a household size >6 persons (n = 85), OTN was associated with higher CE and a higher prevalence of severe CE compared with those without OTN. In this group, when DAI treatment need grade increased, severe CE prevalence also increased from 10.8% to 50%. Similarly, in those with OTN and household size >6 persons, the odds of observing subjects with severe CE was 4.6 times higher (95% confidence interval 1.45-14.55) compared to those without OTN. Associations were observed between OTN and CE and also between the prevalence of severe CE and the severity of malocclusion in children with a household size >6 persons. The current findings suggest that the relationship between caries experience and malocclusion should be assessed in a wider context of SES and background factors.
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This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries.
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The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., is an ancient, mystical, unique fruit borne on a small, long-living tree cultivated throughout the Mediterranean region, as far north as the Himalayas, in Southeast Asia, and in California and Arizona in the United States. In addition to its ancient historical uses, pomegranate is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior to that of single constituents. In the past decade, numerous studies on the antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate constituents have been published, focusing on treatment and prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dental conditions, erectile dysfunction, bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance, and ultraviolet radiation-induced skin damage. Other potential applications include infant brain ischemia, male infertility, Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, and obesity.
Oral pathologic abnormality is common and can be potentially serious. There are many diseases of the mouth that medical personnel must be able to diagnose and initiate management. The most prevalent lesions can be categorized as infectious, inflammatory, and common benign and malignant lesions. This article discusses prevalence, cause, diagnosis, and management of lesions such as stomatitis, candidiasis, caries, oral cancers, and bony tori.
Aim: Molar-Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) is a congenital disease which increases in prevalence. It affects permanent first molars and, often to a lesser degree, permanent incisors with variable severity. The aetiology is unknown, but different hypotheses have been advanced. Differential diagnosis is mandatory not to confound MIH with other diseases. Treatment consists in a minimally invasive approach by reinforcing and protecting the existing dental structure. In more severe cases, restorative treatment may be indicated.
Introduction The association between dental crowding and dental caries has long been accepted because of increased food accumulation and plaque retention in areas of crowding. The aim of this review was to evaluate this potential causal relationship systematically. Methods Six electronic databases were accessed, supplemented by manual searching of the references of the relevant retrieved articles, peer-reviewed orthodontic journals, and gray literature. Search terms included caries, decay, crowding, and irregularity. Non-English articles were excluded from the review in the study-selection stage. Data extraction and evaluation of primary studies were performed independently by 2 reviewers. Results The initial search retrieved 6914 citations. However, only 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. The qualitative systematic review included 8 studies, with articles of low or moderate quality. No association between crowding and caries was reported in 4 studies, a significant negative correlation was found in 2 studies, 1 study showed a direct and significant relationship, and another study showed a positive association in the mandibular anterior region but an inverse correlation in the maxillary posterior region. Conclusions To date, there are no high-quality studies to resolve the possible association between dental crowding and caries; further high-quality longitudinal studies are needed to clarify this relationship.
Studies of the dentitions of ancient English populations show that a change in the prevalence and distribution of caries took place between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries and was closely associated in time with an increase in the consumption of refined carbohydrates, especially sugar.
Many dental and periodontal diseases are largely a question of bacterial etiology. Dental caries develop due to an increase of strongly acidogenic and aciduric gram-positive bacteria while common forms of periodontal disease are linked to anaerobic gram-negative bacteria in subgingival plaque. Many plants and plant-derived antimicrobial components are used in folklore therapeutics for the treatment of periodontal disorders and for the purposes of oral hygiene. Some have been evaluated for possible use in modern medicine, while thousands of other potentially useful/plants have not been tested. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of screening for antibacterials isolated from plants with activity against three representatives of oral streptococci. We developed and tested the following methodologies: (1) Extraction of antibacterial components from plants; (2) Assays for antibacterial activity; (3) Chromatographic methods for initial analysis of compounds of interest. The screening process for plant antimicrobials consisted of extraction of plant material and assay of antibacterial activity using a spotting test with the selected oral streptococci as indicator strains. In addition, we developed chromatographic procedures that allow characterization and optimization of initial isolation steps. Depending on the indicator microorganisms used, the screening assay can target additional pathogens including other streptococci (group A and B, and pneumococci) and periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas. Also, we noted that the activity of some extracts varied against different oral bacteria. Our conclusion, supported by extensive data, was that the screening for antimicrobials from plants is a feasible approach to the identification of natural compounds with antimicrobial properties against dental pathogens.
Ethanolic extracts of 45 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicine were studied for their antimicrobial activity against certain drug-resistant bacteria and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 40 plant extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against one or more test bacteria. Anticandidal activity was detected in 24 plant extracts. Overall, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was observed in 12 plants (L. inermis, Eucalyptus sp., H. antidysentrica, H. indicus, C. equistifolia. T. belerica, T. chebula, E. officinalis, C. sinensis, S. aromaticum and P. granatum). No correlation was observed between susceptibility of test strains with plant extracts and antibiotic resistance behaviour of the microbial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans). Qualitative phytochemical tests, thin layer chromatography and TLC-bioautography of certain active extracts demonstrated the presence of common phytocompounds in the plant extracts including phenols, tannins and flavonoids as major active constituents.
Tumeric is a spice that comes from the root Curcuma longa, a member of the ginger family, Zingaberaceae. In Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine), tumeric has been used for its medicinal properties for various indications and through different routes of administration, including topically, orally, and by inhalation. Curcuminoids are components of tumeric, which include mainly curcumin (diferuloyl methane), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcmin. The goal of this systematic review of the literature was to summarize the literature on the safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin. A search of the computerized database MEDLINE (1966 to January 2002), a manual search of bibliographies of papers identified through MEDLINE, and an Internet search using multiple search engines for references on this topic was conducted. The PDR for Herbal Medicines, and four textbooks on herbal medicine and their bibliographies were also searched. A large number of studies on curcumin were identified. These included studies on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antifungal properties of curcuminoids. Studies on the toxicity and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin have included in vitro, animal, and human studies. A phase 1 human trial with 25 subjects using up to 8000 mg of curcumin per day for 3 months found no toxicity from curcumin. Five other human trials using 1125-2500 mg of curcumin per day have also found it to be safe. These human studies have found some evidence of anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin. The laboratory studies have identified a number of different molecules involved in inflammation that are inhibited by curcumin including phospholipase, lipooxygenase, cyclooxygenase 2, leukotrienes, thromboxane, prostaglandins, nitric oxide, collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interferon-inducible protein, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin-12 (IL-12). Curcumin has been demonstrated to be safe in six human trials and has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. It may exert its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different molecules that play a role in inflammation.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of an herbal-based mouthrinse in combination with an oral irrigator in reducing gingival inflammation. A total of 89 patients (45 females, 44 males; mean age 49.1 +/- 1.31 years) were included in this prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study and allocated to 3 treatment groups: group 1 (n = 34), treated with an oral irrigator with subgingival tips and an herbal-based mouthrinse; group 2 (n = 29), the oral irrigator was applied in combination with a conventional mouthwash; and group 3 (n = 26), treated with the conventional mouthwash without subgingival irrigation. Data collected at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks included gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), plaque index (PI), and probing depth (PD). Over a period of 3 months, GI decreased from 1.80 +/- 0.04 to 1.56 +/- 0.04 in group 1; from 1.79 +/- 0.05 to 1.68 +/- 0.04 in group 2; and remained nearly constant in group 3 (from 1.79 +/- 0.05 to 1.81 +/- 0.04). Differences between the groups were significant (analysis of variance, P < 0.05). SBI values in group 1 were reduced from 2.51 +/- 0.06 to 2.13 +/- 0.06 after 3 months and were significantly lower than in group 2 (P = 0.001) and 3 (P = 0.002), with SBIs of 2.44 +/- 0.06 and 2.42 +/- 0.07, respectively, after 12 weeks. A reduction in PI was noted for all 3 groups throughout the follow-up period, with no statistically significant differences. Probing depths were not reduced significantly in any group. Subgingival irrigation with an herbal-based mouthrinse led to a significant reduction in both SBI and GI. This regimen can, therefore, be recommended as an adjunctive procedure to reduce gingival inflammation.
The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists, and natural-products chemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and "leads" which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. While 25 to 50% of current pharmaceuticals are derived from plants, none are used as antimicrobials. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions; Western medicine is trying to duplicate their successes. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties. This review attempts to summarize the current status of botanical screening efforts, as well as in vivo studies of their effectiveness and toxicity. The structure and antimicrobial properties of phytochemicals are also addressed. Since many of these compounds are currently available as unregulated botanical preparations and their use by the public is increasing rapidly, clinicians need to consider the consequences of patients self-medicating with these preparations.
Selected natural compounds were evaluated for their effects on dental caries due to different strains of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. Out of 39 tested compounds, four (catechol, emetine, quinine, and flavone) showed potent inhibitory activity on different strains of S. mutans at 6.25 microg/mL or less with inhibition of adherence <50%, two compounds (5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy isoflavone and ellagic acid) exhibited a moderate inhibitory effect at 12.5 microg/mL with inhibition to adherence <50%, and 12 compounds exhibited weak antibacterial activity at 125 microg/mL or more with inhibition of adherence <25%. These compounds represent three major classes of natural products: tannins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. Further study for possible application of these compounds as inhibitors for dental caries is underway.
The study was aimed at evaluating the antiulcer and antioxidant activities of 70% ethanolic axtract of leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum L. (JGLE). The leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum L. (Family: Oleaceae) is used in folk medicine for treating ulcerative stomatitis, skin diseases, ulcers, wounds, corns - a hard or soft hyperkeratosis of the sole of the human foot secondary to friction and pressure (Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 28th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia. p. 443), etc., Antiulcerogenic activity of JGLE (100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w., orally) was evaluated employing aspirin + pylorus ligation (APL) and alcohol (AL) induced acute gastric ulcer models and ulcer-healing activity using acetic acid-induced (AC) chronic ulcer model in rats. Both the antisecretory and cytoprotection hypothesis were evaluated. The antioxidant activity of JGLE has been assayed by using in vitro methods like 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylhydrate (DPPH) assay, reductive ability, superoxide anion scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and total phenolic content, in order to explain the role of antioxidant principles in the antiulcerogenic activity of the extract. There was a significant (P<0.01) dose-dependent decrease in the ulcerative lesion index produced by all the three models in rats as compared to the standard drug famotidine (20 mg/kg, b.w. orally). The reduction in gastric fluid volume, total acidity and an increase in the pH of the gastric fluid in APL rats proved the antisecretory activity of JGLE. Additionally, JGLE completely healed the ulcer within 20 days of treatment in AC model as evidenced by histopathological studies. Like antiulcer activity, the free radical scavenging activities of JGLE depends on concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extract. These results suggest that leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum possess potential antiulcer activity, which may be attributed to its antioxidant mechanism of action.
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