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Abstract

In 2015, a group of small predominantly tridactyl tracks was discovered in the lower Shawan Member of the Lufeng Formation during an expedition to the Dalishu area, Lufeng County, Yunnan Province, China. The tracks are attributable to Anomoepus, and although mostly tridactyl, they include a few examples with characteristic tetradactyl morphology. Although considered a characteristic index ichnotaxon of a footprint-based Lower Jurassic biochron, Anomoepus has often been overlooked in assemblages dominated by theropod tracks. This is one of the earliest Anomoepus records from the Jurassic of China, and the fifth report of Anomoepus from China at all. To date, four reports represent sites inferred to be Lower or Middle Jurassic in age, with one dated as Upper Jurassic. It is an important component of Early Jurassic ichnofaunas because it points to the presence of ornithischian trackmakers, which are often rare or missing in the local skeletal faunas (Lufengosaurus faunas).

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... Anomoepus is a characteristic track type of the Lower Jurassic ichnofaunal biochron, originally described from eastern North America (Hitchcock 1848), and subsequently from western North America (Lockley and Hunt 1995;Lucas 2007), It also occurs in Middle and Upper Jurassic deposits of China Xing et al. (2016a), Xing et al. (2021c)) and North America (Lockley and Gierlinski 2006) and locally in Upper Jurassic deposits of Europe (Lockley et al. 2008). (Xing et al. 2017a). ...
... Morphologically, YBQ-T1-L1 and R1, YBQ-TI-1 and TI-2 Anomoepus tracks are similar to the Lower Jurassic Dalishu specimens, from Yunnan Province (Xing et al. 2016a). The length of the Dalishu specimens is 10.8 cm, and their length/width ratio ranges from 1.0 to 1.1. ...
... The divarication angle is relatively wide (77-115°), the anterior triangle length/width ratio is 0.48, and the ratio between stride length and track length is 5.3. This again indicates that track assemblages in the Sichuan Basin are similar to those from the Lufeng Basin, Yunnan (Peng et al. 2005;Xing et al. 2016a). ...
Article
Two newly discovered dinosaur track locations near the town of Bijie in Guizhou Province, southwestern China are named the Yuanbaoqing and Yejiatian tracksites. They represent the Lower Jurassic Maanshan Member of the Zijiujing Formation and Upper Jurassic Xiashaximiao Formation, respectively. The former Yuanbaoqing tracksite reveals a minimum of three Anomoepus trackways and two poorly preserved incomplete sauropod trackways, tentatively assigned here to cf. Brontopodus. They occur in shallow lake to shoreline facies depositional environments. The Yejiatian site shows a well-preserved, narrow-gauge sauropod trackway in a delta plain facies which is identified as Parabrontopodus. The occurrences enhance the local faunal record in Guizhou Province were previous tracksite reports for these stratigraphic intervals are sparse. In the broader regional context of southwestern China the track record is consistent with the body fossil record in both the Lower and Upper Jurassic of this region.
... The overall morphology of morphotype II tracks at the Lephoto dam site (Figures 4-6) is reminiscent of modern, large avian tracks and resemble the diagnostic features described by Ellenberger (1970Ellenberger ( , 1972 for the ichnogenus Trisauropodiscus, which is defined as an aviform tracks with a wide a V-or Table 5. comparsion of measurements of the lephoto dam site morphotype ii (Trisauropodiscus-like) tracks, Anomoepus Xing et al. 2016Xing et al. ), A. moabensis (lockley et al. 1992, A. lacertoides and A. crassus (Dalman & Weems 2013), A. scambus (olsen & rainforth 2003, Trisauropodiscus aviforma, T. superaviforma, T. levis, T. phasianiforma, T. galliforma and T. pompompoi (Ellenberger 1970(Ellenberger , 1972, Trisauropodiscus isp. (gierlínski 2016) and Eocene bird footprints (Melchor et al. 2002). ...
... Furthermore, we consider the unjustified grouping of Trisauropodiscus (and Trisauropodiscus-like tracks) with Anomoepus (e.g. Xing et al. 2016) regrettable, because such taxonomic lumping could hamper palaeobiodiversity and evolutionary studies (Figure 9). Morphotype II tracks are different to Anomoepus isp., because: (1) the Lephoto tracks and trackways are exclusively pes impressions (of a bipedal trackmaker); (2) the proximal end of the digits been drawn. ...
... Rainforth (1997) originally considered T. moabensis (in the Navajo Formation, USA) to represent a juvenile Anomoepus, therefore representing either a sub-adult or small ornithischian dinosaur. Generally, Anomoepus is assigned to facultative biped ornithischians rather than theropods (Gierlínski 1996;Lockley & Rainforth 2002;Olsen & Rainforth 2003;Xing et al. 2016). An ornithischian trackmaker for Trisauropodiscus was also suggested by Gierlínski (1996), Rainforth (2001) and Lockley and Rainforth (2002). ...
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In Gondwana, Early Jurassic dinosaur track sites are especially concentrated in Lesotho. Despite intensive investigations during the third quarter of the twentieth century, a limited number of vertebrate track sites of this country have been studied with rigorous ichnological and sedimentological methodology. Here, we present a previously mentioned, but undescribed track site in the upper Elliot Formation (Hettangian?) of Lesotho, located near Roma (at Lephoto dam). Two tridactyl ichnite morphologies, made by bipedal vertebrate trackmakers are recognised. The first can be identified as Grallator-like, an ichnotaxon common in the Lower Jurassic of both Laurasia and Gondwana that can be attributed to small and medium-size theropod dinosaurs. In contrast, the second ichnite type is reminiscent of Trisauropodiscus, which is a rare ichnotaxon that resembles tracks of small birds and is known with certainty in Lesotho from only a few places. We suggest that at our upper Elliot Formation study site, Trisauropodiscus was potentially made by a heterodontosaurid ornithischian dinosaur. Our work provides further evidence that the ichnological record of the Stormberg Group of southern Africa is in a unique position to shed light not only on Early Jurassic biostratigraphy and palaeoenvironments but also on the biodiversity and palaeobiology of early dinosaurs.
... The ichnogenus Anomoepus represents a classic Lower Jurassic ornithischian footprint with wide geographical distribution (western United States, Poland, Italy, China, Australia, Morocco and Lesotho), with the ages ranging from the Late Triassic to the Late Jurassic (e.g. Ellenberger, 1970;Olsen and Rainforth, 2003;Lockley and Gierlínski, 2006;Gierlínski, 1991;Belvedere et al., 2011;Dalman and Weems, 2013;Xing et al., 2015b) 2016), the Middle Jurassic of Sichuan Province, Shaanxi Province and Henan Province (Young 1966;Lockley and Matsukawa 2009;Xing et al., 2015bXing et al., , 2016Xing et al., , 2017a, and the Upper Jurassic of Chongqing municipality (Xing et al., 2013). These Anomoepus-like tracks are characterized by lower L/W ratio (average 0.8), wide digit divarication angles (80 e128 ), weak mesaxony (0.4e0.6), backward hallux traces and small estimated size of trackmaker (0.57e2 m) (Xing et al., 2017b). ...
... In recent years, a large number of Anomoepus ranging in age from the Early Jurassic to the Late Jurassic have been reported from China (Lockley and Matsukawa 2009;Li et al., 2010Li et al., , 2012Xing et al., 2013Xing et al., , 2015bXing et al., , 2016Xing et al., , 2017b. It usually cooccurred with ChangpeipuseKayentapuseEubronteseGrallator and Deltapus, constituting abundant ichnofaunas, some of which exhibit similarities (Xing et al., 2015b;2017b). ...
... The ichnogenus Anomoepus represents a classic Lower Jurassic ornithischian footprint with wide geographical distribution (western United States, Poland, Italy, China, Australia, Morocco and Lesotho), with the ages ranging from the Late Triassic to the Late Jurassic (e.g. Ellenberger, 1970;Olsen and Rainforth, 2003;Lockley and Gierlínski, 2006;Gierlínski, 1991;Belvedere et al., 2011;Dalman and Weems, 2013;Xing et al., 2015b) 2016), the Middle Jurassic of Sichuan Province, Shaanxi Province and Henan Province (Young 1966;Lockley and Matsukawa 2009;Xing et al., 2015bXing et al., , 2016Xing et al., , 2017a, and the Upper Jurassic of Chongqing municipality (Xing et al., 2013). These Anomoepus-like tracks are characterized by lower L/W ratio (average 0.8), wide digit divarication angles (80 e128 ), weak mesaxony (0.4e0.6), backward hallux traces and small estimated size of trackmaker (0.57e2 m) (Xing et al., 2017b). ...
... In recent years, a large number of Anomoepus ranging in age from the Early Jurassic to the Late Jurassic have been reported from China (Lockley and Matsukawa 2009;Li et al., 2010Li et al., , 2012Xing et al., 2013Xing et al., , 2015bXing et al., , 2016Xing et al., , 2017b. It usually cooccurred with ChangpeipuseKayentapuseEubronteseGrallator and Deltapus, constituting abundant ichnofaunas, some of which exhibit similarities (Xing et al., 2015b;2017b). ...
Article
Ancient desert, characterized by low biotic diversity as well as low preservation potential, has long been assumed as devoid of biotic activity. However, recent works from Mesozoic trace fossils preserved in the eolianites in North America, South America and East Asia indicate that the ancient desert can also have diverse inhabitants. This paper presents a diversified preserved dinosaur track assemblage from the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition eolian dune deposits in western Shandong Province, China. Based on the ichnological analysis, tracks are assigned to ichnogenus Anomoepus, Eubrontes-like and Ornithopodichnus-like forms, representing the oldest and second example of the Chelichnus ichnofacies reported from China as well as Asia. Sedimentological analysis of the tracksites indicates that tracks occurred in linear dunes under arid climatic conditions. Well-preserved tracks with detailed anatomical information are more likely to be preserved in moist sands, contrary to the dry cohesionless sands. Anomoepus and Ornithopodichnus-like tracks cooccurring with northwestward winds were made during summer wet season, while Eubrontes-like track was present during winter dry season characterized by strong northeastward wind, implying different habits between ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs. The preserved Jurassic-Cretaceous transition dinosaur tracks in eolian dune deposits not only expand the spatial-temporal distribution of dinosaur fauna in North China, but also greatly improve our understanding of the adaptive capacity of dinosaurs in severe living conditions, such as the desert environment.
... Before the discovery of tracks in 2009, the fossil record of the Lufeng Basin was referred to Type 5, and was then changed to Type 4a (bonedominated) (Xing et al. 2009a). However, more discoveries in 2016 (Xing et al. 2016a) revised the categorization to Type 3b. Middle Jurassic dinosaur records from the Chuanjie Formation, both skeletons and tracks are rare (Xing et al. 2014), and are typical Type 3a. ...
... However, Early Jurassic track records greatly differ from the skeleton records. Current track records include theropod tracks Changpeipus (Xing et al. 2009a), Kayentapus (Xing et al. 2016c), small ornithischian tracks Anomoepus (Xing et al. 2016a), and abundant Ornithischian tracks Shenmuichnus wangi (Xing et al. 2016c(Xing et al. , 2016d. While in addition to the sauropods, only theropods are also represented in the skeletal record. ...
Article
Late Jurassic dinosaur track assemblages from China are much less common than those reported from the Lower and Middle Jurassic which are heavily dominated by well-known theropod ichnogenera such as Grallator, Eubrontes, Kayentapus, and a few sauropodomorph and ornithischian ichnotaxa. We here report two tridactyl dinosaur morphotypes from the Lufeng Basin in southern China that most closely resemble Late Jurassic Dinehichnus from North America, a probable gracile ornithopod morphotype, and an unnamed avian morphotype reported from rare occurrences in North America and Europe, which we here name as Tridentigerpes ichnogen. nov., accommodating two ichnospecies T. huasibanleei ichnosp. nov. from the Lufeng Basin, and T. pinuelai ichnosp nov., from Spain. These ichnites re-orient our understanding of Late Jurassic dinosaur track distributions in the Late Jurassic of China, which was previously based in large part on very poor material of presumed theropod affinity. Given the sparse body fossil record from southern China including very fragmentary sauropod remains, the ichnological record of diverse bipedal dinosaurs, suggestive of avian and non-avian dinosaurs and ornithopods, the Anning Formation represents a type 2b deposit where tracks are more common than skeletal remains and indicative of faunas not represented by the body fossil record.
... On the other hand, ZDM201712-5-1 is morphologically similar to the ornithischian ichnogenus Anomoepus. In China, most Anomoepus tracks are found in Lower-Middle Jurassic formations, and have low length/width ratios (~1.0), weak mesaxony (0.40-0.60), and wide divarication angles (80-91°) (Xing et al. 2016). However, these features of ZDM201712-5-1 are also close to those of the grallatorid tracks on the same slab. ...
Article
The smallest non-avian theropods have often attracted attention of palaeobiological and ichnological research. Here, we describe a diminutive tridactyl track (10.2 mm in length) from the Lower Jurassic Ma’anshan Member of the Ziliujing Formation, Wuli site, Sichuan Province, China. The Wuli specimen may be the smallest theropod track in the world. However, as with other diminutive tracks, it remains unresolved if it was made by a juvenile or by a small species. The body length of the trackmaker is estimated at 12 cm, equivalent to the size of a modern sparrow. Possibly the track belongs to a juvenile suggesting precociality or superprecociality.
... In recent years, abundant new discoveries of dinosaur footprints have been made in China, such as the Early-Middle Jurassic tracksites in Yunnan Province (Xing et al., 2013a(Xing et al., , 2014a(Xing et al., , 2016a, Sichuan Province (Xing et al., 2015a(Xing et al., , 2016b, the Early Cretaceous tracksites in Shandong Province (Li et al., 2011;Chen et al., 2013;Kuang et al., went to the tracksite and conducted a detailed study of tracks and also paid particular attention to the sedimentary features of the trackbearing levels. The aims of this paper are: (1) to describe the morphology of sauropod tracks and trackways; (2) to analyze the sedimentary environment of the tracksite, (3) to analyze the possible track makers and their behavior; (4) to reconstruct the paleoenvironments and (5) discuss the effect of arid environments on the paleogeographical dispersions of the Late Jurassic dinosaur fauna in North China. ...
Article
This paper presents the first report of sauropod tracks from the Upper Jurassic of Shanxi Province, China. Dinosaur tracks appear concentrated in five trackways, in different stratigraphic levels of the Late Jurassic Tianchihe Formation. Tracks are dominantly small and medium-size sauropod tracks and are tentatively assigned to Brontopodus based on preserved track morphology, trackway pattern and statistical analysis. The Tianchihe Formation in which the tracks appear shows a gradual change from meandering fluvial to sandy braided fluvial depositional systems developed in a seasonally arid environment. Comparisons of the evaluated speed of bipedal to quadruped trackways indicate that the slower walk more easily produces pes-dominated overprints. Trackways in the Guxian tracksite appear following different orientations, suggesting that these trackways were produced by different sauropods at different times. An unusual trackway following a curved pattern has been identified in the site and could represent a special locomotion character or a social behavior. The presence of eolian deposits in central Shanxi Province could have acted as a paleogeographic and paleoenvironmental barrier for the dispersion of the Yanliao Biota that survived in northern Hebei-western Liaoning and northestern Shanxi Province to the Ordos Basin during the Late Jurassic.
... On the other side, Trisauropodiscus was considered as the junior synonym of Anomoepus (e.g., Lockley & Harris, 2010), or as a separate ichnogenus, but close to Anomoepus (Abrahams et al., 2017). Recently described Trisauropodiscus-like footprints from the Early and Middle Jurassic of China are assigned directly to Anomoepus (Xing et al., 2016a(Xing et al., , 2017, whereas Abrahams et al. (2017) argued to keep Trisauropodiscus as a separate ichnogenus from Anomoepus, but similar to the latter and of ornithischian origin as well (precisely of heterodontosaurid origin). In our opinion however, Trisauropodiscus does not exhibit any of the typical anomoepodid nor ornithischian foot patterns (see, discussion chapter). ...
Article
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Small bird-like tracks have recently been discovered at three outcrops of the Imilchil Formation (Middle Jurassic, Bajocian-Bathonian) in the Central High Atlas of Morocco. The track-bearing strata are part of a marine-continental transitional succession, the studied surfaces being sandy marls and limestones of a brackish depositional environment. The footprints strongly resemble the ichnogenus Trisauropodiscus Ellenberger, 1970, from the Lower Elliot Formation (latest Triassic) of Lesotho, southern Africa and are assigned to Trisauropodiscus isp. These are functionally tridactyl, widely divaricated pes tracks with digit III being longest and a trace of the reverted digit I (hallux) being occasionally imprinted. In contrast to some former studies suggesting Trisauropodiscus as a junior synonym and extramorphological variation of the ornithischian ichnogenus Anomoepus, this ichnotaxon is considered here as a distinctive morphotype among similar theropod tracks found in Jurassic-Cretaceous ichnoassemblages. An amended diagnosis is proposed focusing on the features that are here discussed and considered as key characters of this ichnotaxon. An avian interpretation of the trackmaker is problematical, especially against the background of the stratigraphic range of Trisauropodiscus back to the Late Triassic. Presently, theropods with very bird-like feet are the more likely producers. Future analyses and comparison of Trisauropodiscus with pes skeletons of avian and non-avian theropods might enlighten this.
Article
An assemblage of small, Middle Jurassic tracks from the Xishanyao Formation, located about 100 km west of Urumqi in the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang Province, is here designated the Nanshan site. The site reveals three ornithischian trackways identified as Anomoepus. These represent the eleventh report of the ichnogenus from the Jurassic of China. Two of the trackways show diagnostic hallux traces and indicate bipedal progression. A third indicates a quadrupedal gait. The biostratigraphic distribution of Anomoepus, and Anomoepus-like tracks indicates that they predominate in the Lower and Middle Jurassic of China and are rare in younger deposits. This distribution is consistent with that reported from North America and Europe.
Article
The Xixipo dinosaur tracksite in the Chuanjie Formation of Yunnan Province is one of the 14 Chinese sites yielding sauropod tracks from between the Triassic–Jurassic and Jurassic–Cretaceous boundaries, but is only one of the two that represent the Middle Jurassic. Although it is a small site, it adds incrementally to the overall track record of the region and allows comparison with the body fossil record and classification of the Chuanjie Formation as a Type 3b or Type 4b deposit in which both the body fossil and trace fossil record, in this case representing sauropodomorphs, are similar in composition and frequency of occurrence. We argue that the sauropod trace and body fossil records, while based on different categories of evidence, are very important. Integrating and correlating all available data from both records increases our understanding of sauropod communities, and both are equally valuable for this. In addition, we also discuss narrow to wide gauge, coeval sauropod trackways from China, and the relationship between the potential trackmaker of China's Jurassic Brontopodus-type trackways and mamenchisaurids and, beginning from the Late Jurassic, representatives of this type and titanosauriform sauropods.
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The functional anatomy of the hindlimb of bipedal dinosaurs has been intensively studied. Yet, surprisingly little work has been done concerning functional adaptation of digits for terrestrial locomotion. While complete and articulated pes skeletons are scarce, pes shape is abundantly recorded by fossil footprints. We elucidate the significance of footprint shape and size for locomotion using a large sample (n = 303) of tridactyl dinosaur footprints from a broad range of geographical localities and time slots. Size and shape variation are characterized separately for theropods and ornithischians, the two principal trackmaker taxa. At smaller sizes, theropod footprints are best discriminated from ornithischian footprints by their smaller interdigital angle and larger projection of digit III; at larger sizes digital widths are effective discriminants. Ornithischian footprints increase in size from the Early Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous, a trend not observed in theropod footprints. Size and function are argued to be important determinants of footprint shape, and an attempt made to infer function from shape. Digit III projection and length‐to‐width ratio of the footprints are negatively correlated with size in both groups; digit impression width is positively correlated with size only in ornithischians. Digit III projection appears to be positively correlated with cursorial ability. Increased interdigital angles are associated with a decrease in digital width, possibly an adaptation for stability. Weak digit III projection and increased digital width are interpreted as adaptations for graviportality. Footprints yield great potential for the understanding of the functional morphology of dinosaur feet.
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The collection and dissemination of vertebrate ichnological data is struggling to keep up with techniques that are becoming commonplace in the wider palaeontological field. A standard protocol is required to ensure that data is recorded, presented and archived in a manner that will be useful both to contemporary researchers, and to future generations. Primarily, our aim is to make the 3D capture of ichnological data standard practice, and to provide guidance on how such 3D data can be communicated effectively (both via the literature and other means) and archived openly and in perpetuity. We recommend capture of 3D data, and the presentation of said data in the form of photographs, false‐colour images, and interpretive drawings. Raw data (3D models of traces) should always be provided in a form usable by other researchers (i.e. in an open format). If adopted by the field as a whole, the result will be a more robust and uniform literature, supplemented by unparalleled availability of datasets for future workers.
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Almost all dinosaur tracks in Poland come from three lowermost formations of the Lower Jurassic in the Holy Cross Mountains: Zagaje Formation, Skloby Formation and Przysucha Ore-Bearing Formation. Floristic remains and sequence stratigraphy correlation indicate the Hettangian age of all three formations. They represent various continental and marginal-marine environments. Fluvial and lacustrine sediments dominate in the continental Zagaje Formation, while the nearshore and deltaic facies are dominant in the two overlying formations. Various ornithischian, sauropod and theropod tracks occur in these sediments. Parallel sauropod trackways reported herein are the earliest record of sauropod gregarious behavior. Moreover, the present paper summarises and systematises the whole existing material, addressing the ichnosystematic and preservational aspects. Dinosaur tracks assemblages are assigned to three parts of the lithostratigraphical succession in which they occur and are discussed against their palaeoenvironmental background. Two general assemblages are distinguished: lower Zagaje assemblage of an inland, humid habitat with both low- and high-growing vegetation, dominated by high browsing herbivores (sauropod trackmakers of Parabrontopodus) and medium- to large-sized predators (theropod trackmakers of Anchisauripus and Kayentapus), and upper Zagaje-Skloby-Przysucha assemblage, representing deltaic plain-shoreline habitats with low, dense vegetation, dominated by low browsing herbivores (ornithischian trackmakers of Anomoepus and Moyenisauropus), associated by small- to medium-sized predators (theropod trackmakers of Grallator and Anchisauripus). Dinosaur ichnofauna from Poland rather poorly reflects biostratigraphical vertebrate faunal change in Early Jurassic time, but it does reflect environmental and biogeographical differences quite well. The discussed data imply also a high dinosaur phylogenetical diversity as early as in the Hettangian age.
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Herein we describe three and one half footprints that pertain to Grallator isp. from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation, Sihetun, Liaoning Province, China. This is the first description of dinosaur footprints from the Yixian Formation. The tracks were left by at least three individual track makers. It is estimated from the tracks that the body lengths of the track makers were 1.51 m, which is the average length of known theropods from the Yixian Formation. The feet of Caudipteryx and Sinosauropteryx were reconstructed. The former was more similar than the latter to the Grallator isp. track outlines. Feet capable of registering Grallator morphotype tracks may therefore have been widely distributed in small-medium sized theropods (other than dromaeosaurids and troodontids) from the Yixian Formation.
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The new ichnospecies, Shenmuichnus wangi ichnosp. nov., is the first evidence for the presence of large ornithischians in the Early Jurassic of Yunnan Province, whereas the known skeletal record documents small species only. Until now Shenmuichnus was known from a single locality in Shaanxi Province by the ichnospecies Shenmuichnus youngteilhardorum. Compared with the latter, Shenmuichnus wangi is larger and shows a different trackway configuration, particularly in the relative position of manus and pes imprints. Palecologically, the occurrence of Shenmuichnus wangi in a red bed facies indicates the preference of distinctive environments of trackmakers of both ichnospecies, questioning former hypotheses of exclusivity of ornithischians in more humid climates. By abundance both skeletons and footprints of ornithischians suggest their role as a minor component in Early Jurassic saurischian dominated dinosaur faunas in this region.
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Coelophysoid dinosaurs represent the earliest major radiation of neotheropods. These small-to-medium-sized agile bipeds lived throughout much of Pangaea during the Late Triassic-arly Jurassic. Previously reported coelophysoid material from Asia (excluding the Gondwanan territory of India) is limited to two specimens that comprise only limb fragments. This paper describes a new genus and species of coelophysoid, Panguraptor lufengensis, from the Lower Jurassic Lufeng Formation of Yunnan Province, China. The new taxon is represented by a well-preserved skeleton, including the skull and lower jaw, the presacral vertebral column and partial ribs, the right scapula, a partial forelimb, part of the pelvic girdle, and an almost complete hind limb. It is distinguished from other coelophysoid theropods by the unique combination of the following three character states: 1) diagonal (rostrodorsal-caudoventral) ridge on lateral surface of maxilla, within antorbital fossa, 2) elliptical, laterally facing fenestra caudodorsal to aforementioned diagonal ridge, and 3) hooked craniomedial corner of distal tarsal IV. Cladistic analysis recovers Panguraptor lufengensis deeply nested within Coelophysoidea as a member of Coelophysidae, and it is more closely related to Coelophysis than to "Syntarsus". Panguraptor represents the first well-preserved coelophysoid theropod dinosaur from Asia, and provides fresh evidence supporting the hypothesis that terrestrial tetrapods tended to be distributed pan-continentally during the Early Jurassic.
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“Splitting” and “lumping” are perpetual problems in vertebrate, especially dinosaur, ichnotaxonomy. Chinese dinosaur ichnotaxonomy, which began in 1940, provides a series of interesting case studies, highlighting the dual problems of historical and dubious ichnotaxonomy. Chinese Mesozoic tetrapod track types have been placed into 63 ichnospecies (one Triassic, 28 Jurassic, and 34 Cretaceous), exclusive of other, non-type ichnospecies or ichnotaxa identified from China. Fifty-two (∼83%) of these 63 tetrapod ichnospecies were placed in monospecific ichnogenera. At the ichnogenus level, we prune—either by recognizing nomina dubia or by synonymy—17 from the list of 53 dinosaurian ichnogenera (a 32% reduction), leaving 36 ichnotaxa that we consider valid. Most of the cuts affect Jurassic theropod ichnotaxa, which are reduced from 23 to only nine because most ichnogenera are subjective junior synonyms of Grallator and Eubrontes. Fewer Chinese Cretaceous ichnotaxa (only six of 21 ichnogenera) are obvious nomina dubia or subjective synonyms, suggesting greater east Asian endemism during this time. Because ichnospecies differences are subtle, we provisionally retain ichnospecies as valid pending detailed comparative analyses of congeneric ichnospecies. This synthesis is long overdue and is necessary to address problems of historical and provincial ichnotaxonomy, which severely hamper comparisons of tetrapod ichnofaunas in space and time.
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Dinosaur footprints have been used extensively as biostratigraphic markers, environmental indicators, measures of faunal diversity and evidence of group behaviour,. Trackways have also been used to estimate locomotor posture, gait and speed, but most prints, being shallow impressions of a foot's plantar surface, provide little evidence of the details of limb excursion. Here we describe Late Triassic trackways from East Greenland, made by theropods walking on substrates of different consistency and sinking to variable depths, that preserve three-dimensional records of foot movement. Triassic theropod prints share many features with those of ground-dwelling birds, but also demonstrate significant functional differences in position of the hallux (digit I), foot posture and hindlimb excursion.
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Paleomagnetic study of about 2400 samples from nearly 7 km of core recovered at seven drill sites in the Newark continental rift basin of eastern North America provides a detailed history of geomagnetic reversals and paleolatitudinal motion for about 30 m.y. of the Late Triassic and earliest Jurassic (Carnian to Hettangian). Northward drift of only about 7° is recorded in the continental sediments and minor interbedded basaltic lavas in the basin, from 2.5° to 6.5° north paleolatitude in the Carnian and from 6.5° to 9.5° north paleolatitude over the Norian-``Rhaetian'' and the early Hettangian. A total of 59 polarity intervals, ranging from about 4 m to over 300 m in thickness, have been delineated in a composite stratigraphic section of 4660 m. The lateral continuity and consistent relationship of lithological lake level cycles and magnetozones in the stratigraphically overlapping sections of the drill cores demonstrate their validity as time markers. A geomagnetic polarity timescale was constructed by scaling the composite section assuming that lithostratigraphic members in the predominant lacustrine facies represent the 413-kyr orbital periodicity of Milankovitch climate change and by extrapolating a sedimentation rate for the fluvial facies in the lower part of the section; a 202 Ma age for the palynological Triassic/Jurassic boundary was used to anchor the chronology based on published concordant radiometric dates linked to the earliest Jurassic igneous extrusive zone. Geomagnetic polarity intervals range from about 0.03 to 2 m.y., have a mean duration of about 0.5 m.y., and show no significant polarity bias. The cyclostratigraphically calibrated record provides a reference section for the history of Late Triassic-earliest Jurassic geomagnetic reversals. Correlations are attempted with available magnetostratigraphies from nonmarine sediments from the Chinle Group of the southwestern United States and marine limestones from Turkey.
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Osteological fossils of dinosaurs are relatively rare in the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. Thus, ichnofossils are a critical source of information on Late Triassic terrestrial vertebrate communities. The outcrops of the Tomanova Formation (?late Norian-Rhaetian) in the Tatra Mountains of Poland and Slovakia have yielded a diverse ichnofauna. Seven more or less distinct morphotypes of dinosaur tracks have been recognized and are discussed. Most tracks are partly eroded or deformed, but are preserved well enough to be assigned to a range of trackmakers, including early ornithischians, small and large theropods (coelophysoids and/or possibly early tetanurans), and probably basal sauropodomorphs ("prosauropods") or first true sauropods.
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Large theropod and sauropod footprints predominated in the continental Zagaje Formation (early Hettangian) exposed in the Sołtyków outcrop. Geological and paleobotanical data indicate an inland seasonal habitat with low and high growing vegetation on the flood plain. The theropod-sauropod ichnofauna also contains occasional footprints of small ornithischians and mammals. The Sołtyków track assemblage, together with other similar assemblages, suggests a wide range of habitats occupied by sauropods.
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Rocks of floodplain origin contain relatively few trace fossils; both abundance and diversity are low. Conversely, Holocene floodplain sediments locally contain abundant and diverse lebensspuren mostly produced by insects, spiders, nematodes, annelids and molluscs. Identification of tracemakers for rocks of floodplain origin as difficult as for marine rocks. Trace fossil form genera morphologically similar to Holocene floodplain lebensspuren include Skolithos, Cylindricum, Sabellarifex, Macanopsis, Planolites, Palaeophycus, Sinusites, Cochlichnus, Amphorichnus and possibly also Scolicia; many previous authors have regarded these as more typical of marine environments than of floodplains. - from Authors
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REE are absorbed and fixed into the lattice of biogenic-to-authigenic apatite within the remains of organisms during the fossilization process.
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The ichnology of the Pleistocene sand sequence of Gravina is described. The trace fossils provide evidence for marine coastal environments, ranging from the lower infralittoral to intertidal. The study is based on two sections, at Lama La Noce and at Notargiacomo's Quarry respectively. Meniscate backfill structures produced by echinoids (Schizaster canaliferus) occur in thin clay horizons. Sand substrates are dominated by Ophiomorpha, Thalassinoides, Cylindrichnus and vertical equilibrium traces. Two new ichnospecies are erected: Cylindrichnus errans, which has lateral spreite-like displacement of the shaft: and Dactyloidites peniculus for finely branched, radiating spreite structures-Authors
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The Institute of Geo-environment Inspection of Inner Mongolia discovered dinosaur footprints located at about 10km west of Hailiutu, Wulatezhongqi, Nei Menggol in 2006. Due to the poor understanding of the sequence hosting dinosaur footprints, this batch of the footprints is of great importance for defining the timing of the sequence and restoring the paleoenvironment. The total of 119 vertebrate tracks was recognized, including theropod tracks : Eubrontes glenrosensis and Kayentapus hailiutuensis ichnosp. nov, ornithopod tracks: Anomoepus intermedins, and crocodile tracks, Batrachopus. The track bearing layer consists of an undulating exposure of coarse sandstone containing scour features indicating flow towards the southeast. The track makers of the footprints studied here are suggested to be Megalosaurus, Dilophosaurus and Hypsilophodont, respectively. The assemblage of the tracks in Hailiutu is similar to that found in the Lower Jurassic of Podole area, Poland. Based on the research on the sequence around this area and footprint combination containing a lot of dinosaur footprint, it can be referred that this area should be intermountain basins with plentiful rain in Early Jurassic. Class Reptilia Order Sauroschia Suborder Theropoda Infraorder Canrnosauria Ichnofamily Grallatoridae Lull, 1904 Ichnogenus Kayentapus Welles, 1971 Kayentapus hailiutuensis Ichnosp. nov Diagnosis: Small to medium sized bipedal tridactyl, the digital divarication angles are large, II 40° III 43°IV , no manus or caudal trace.
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The present study re-evaluates Chuanjiesaurus anaensis Fang et al., 2000 from the Middle Jurassic of Lufeng, Yunnan, Southwest China. The holotype and a new referred specimen are described in detail, and re-examined osteologically and phylogenetically. In this report, the author proposes several emended diagnoses based on close observations and comparisons of the specimens. Some osteological features reveal that Chuanjiesaurus belongs to Mamenchisauridae. Compared to other mamenchisaurid dinosaurs, C. anaensis possesses relatively primitive characters. The phylogenetic position of C. anaensis was determined according to the present analysis. In addition, the data sets of some taxa of Mamenchisauridae from southwestern China are modified in the present research. The present analysis reveals that C. anaensis, Mamenchisaurus, Tienshanosaurus and Yuanmousaurus constitute a monophyletic group that belongs to relatively derived Eusauropoda. This suggests that Mamenchisauridae could be positioned at a more derived part of Eusauropoda than previously thought. This study confirms that C. anaensis is a member of Mamenchisauridae.
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Three classifications of the Dinosauria have been proposed, which differ from each other in the principles on which their authors proposed to make the divisions. First in time is Professor Cope’s classification (‘Philadelphia, Acad. Nat. Sci. Proc.,’ November 13th, 1866, and December 31st, 1867; ‘Amer. Phil. Soc. Trans.,’ vol. 14, Part I). He relied upon the characters of the tarsus and the ilium; and on their varied condition divided Dinosaurs into three orders named Orthopoda, Goniopoda, and Symphopoda. In the Orthopoda , the generic types associated are Scelidosaurus, Hylæosaurus, Iguanodon, and Hadrosaurus. And in this group the relations of the tibia and fibula are compared to those of modern Lizards, the proximal tarsals being distinct from each other and from the tibia. The ilium has a narrowed anterior prolongation.
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Jurassic Jinlijing site, Sichuan Province. C) Middle Jurassic Jiaoping Coal Mine site, Shaanxi Province (Xing et al. 2015). D) Lower Jurassic Lijiananwa site from Shaanxi Province
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FIG. 8.-Schematic diagrams of Anomoepus ichnotaxa to the same scale. A, B) Middle Jurassic Jinlijing site, Sichuan Province. C) Middle Jurassic Jiaoping Coal Mine site, Shaanxi Province (Xing et al. 2015). D) Lower Jurassic Lijiananwa site from Shaanxi Province (Li et al. 2012). E) Middle Jurassic Huo and Wang sites from Shaanxi Province (Xing et al. 2015). F) Lower Jurassic Wulatezhongqi site from Inner Mongolia (Li et al. 2010). G) Upper Jurassic Nan'an site from Chongqing municipality (Xing et al. 2013). H, I) This paper.
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