ArticleLiterature Review
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which is associated with a significant improvement in health status, as measured by reduced mortality from several chronic diseases. The current pandemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes is intimately associated with an atherogenic dyslipidemic phenotype. The core components of the dyslipidemia of the metabolic syndrome, which most likely initiate atherosclerosis, are the "lipid triad" consisting of high plasma triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoproteins, and a preponderance of small, dense low-density lipoproteins at fasting. However, postprandial (non-fasting) TGs (postprandial hyperlipidemia) are also recognized as an important component for atherosclerosis. Herein, the purpose of this review was to provide an update on the effects and mechanisms related to olive oil on postprandial hyperlipidemia and its implications for the onset and progression of atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Such benefits are attributed to its nutritional composition, which is predominantly monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), with oleic acid (C18:1) being the fraction representing 55% to 83%, followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), representing 4% to 20%, such as linoleic (C18:2) and α-linolenic (C18:3) acids, and saturated fatty acids (SFA), representing 8% to 14%, such as palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids. It also contains minor compounds, with the phenols oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol standing out nutritionally [1,[4][5][6]. Such benefits are attributed to its nutritional composition, which is predominantly monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), with oleic acid (C18:1) being the fraction representing 55% to 83%, followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), representing 4% to 20%, such as linoleic (C18:2) and α-linolenic (C18:3) acids, and saturated fatty acids (SFA), representing 8% to 14%, such as palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids. ...
... Such benefits are attributed to its nutritional composition, which is predominantly monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), with oleic acid (C18:1) being the fraction representing 55% to 83%, followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), representing 4% to 20%, such as linoleic (C18:2) and α-linolenic (C18:3) acids, and saturated fatty acids (SFA), representing 8% to 14%, such as palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids. It also contains minor compounds, with the phenols oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol standing out nutritionally [1,[4][5][6]. ...
... The MedDiet has been investigated since 1960 and is associated with longevity and well-being with beneficial effects on health, related to a reduction in the development of non-communicable chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disorders and some types of cancer, such as colon and breast cancer [4]. Such benefits are associated with the synergic effects of its components, as the diet is based on the consumption of foods such as fish, nuts, unrefined cereals, fresh fruits, beans, and olive oil [12][13][14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Olive oil is one of the main ingredients in the Mediterranean diet, being an important ally in disease prevention. Its nutritional composition is comprised of mainly monounsaturated fatty acids, with oleic being the major acid, plus minor components which act as effective antioxidants, such as hydroxytyrosol. Studies have shown that the consumption of olive oil, as well as its isolated components or in synergism, can be a primary and secondary protective factor against the development of cardiovascular diseases since it reduces the concentrations of low-density lipoproteins and increases the concentration of high-density lipoproteins. Furthermore, it exerts an influence on the inflammatory markers, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor, which are pro-inflammatory agents in the body. The components present in olive oil are also associated with the promotion of intestinal health since they stimulate a higher biodiversity of beneficial gut bacteria, enhancing their balance. The objective of this review is to present recent data on investigated effects of olive oil and its components on the metabolism, focused on cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, and gut biota.
... This problem is often driven by low consumption of plant ingredients rich in bioactive compounds that protect human health. Thus, it can be inferred that one of the causes of CVD may be due to food dysregulation, taking into account that plant-based diets are associated with the prevention of cardiovascular diseases [1][2][3]. ...
... The P/S ratio in plant oils is one of the most relevant in functional terms. The lower its value, the better its action in the prevention of CVD [1,2,5], which demonstrates the high functionality of the pupunha oil found in this investigation, considering its P/S ratio of 0.12. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The presence of dietary bioactive compounds in the human diet becomes a major factor in combating the etiology of different pathologies. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the fatty acids profile, cardiovascular functionality indices, bioactive compounds and spectroscopic pattern of peach palm oil (pupunha oil) and their impact on human health. Methods The oil was obtained by soxhlet extraction; the oil yield and qualities were determined according to the standards of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. For the fatty acids profile, the practical recommendations of the American Oil Chemists’ Society and of the International Organization for Standardization were followed. Total carotenoids and polyphenols were determined by spectrophotometry; the composition of the chemical groups was determined by infrared spectroscopy. The anti-atherogenic, antithrombogenic and hypocholesterolemic indices were obtained using mathematical models. Results The results showed good quality oil based on acid and peroxyde indices (2.45±0.33mg KOH g⁻¹ and 5.47±1.05mEq kg⁻¹). The main fruit bioactive compound was β-carotene (832.4±0.64µg/100g). The chromatographic profile showed a high saturated fatty acid content (53.74%); unsaturated (46.25%); fats were monounsaturated (39.66%) and polyunsaturated (6.59%). The antiatherogenic, antithrombogenic and hypocholesterolemic indices were, on average, 1.10, 2.04 and 0.84, respectively. The spectroscopic profile exhibited bands with variation from 2918.8cm⁻¹ to 714cm⁻¹. Conclusion The results indicate that the consumption of isolated lipid content of the pupunha palm oil provides health protection with emphasis on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
... The consumption of virgin olive oil (VOO) appears to be a main determinant of the health benefits of Mediterranean diet (Montserrat-de la Paz et al., 2016). Besides high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), VOO contains a minor, but yet significant, amount of bioactive constituents, such as phenolic and unsaponifiable compounds ( Lopez et al., 2014). ...
... The composition of VOO includes minor compounds (UF and PF) that could range from 1 to 3% of the oil. The constituents of minor compounds are present in low concentrations but they are responsible for their flavor, nutritional and biological properties of VOO (aldehydes, alcohols,esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, furans, and others) (Montserrat-de la Paz et al., 2016). ...
... Consumption of polyphenols reduce the risk of the development of human chronic diseases (cardiovascular, type 2 diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer). Biological activity of polyphenols is strongly related to their antioxidant properties as they interact reactive oxygen species and neutralize the active metabolites (Montserrat-de la Paz et al., 2016). Polyphenols possess antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, and anti-mutagenic effects (Montserrat-de la Paz et al., 2016). ...
... Biological activity of polyphenols is strongly related to their antioxidant properties as they interact reactive oxygen species and neutralize the active metabolites (Montserrat-de la Paz et al., 2016). Polyphenols possess antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, and anti-mutagenic effects (Montserrat-de la Paz et al., 2016). In addition, polyphenols improve the immunological defense by increasing the production of white blood cells and cytokines (Santangelo et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Chronic diseases have become the largest contributor to worldwide morbidity and mortality. Healthy diet represents an effective primary intervention measure in combating the onset of chronic diseases, and epidemiological studies had documented that Mediterranean foods are associated with low incidence of chronic diseases. Mediterranean diet is a combination of vegetables, fruits, moderate amounts of fish, white meat and some dairy produce. One key aspect of the Mediterranean diet is the inclusion of olive oil, nuts and fish. This chapter aims to clarify the positive effects of Mediterranean foods, mainly olive oil, polyphenols, nuts and fish in relation to human health and therapeutic properties.
... Consumption of polyphenols reduce the risk of the development of human chronic diseases (cardiovascular, type 2 diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer). Biological activity of polyphenols is strongly related to their antioxidant properties as they interact reactive oxygen species and neutralize the active metabolites (Montserrat-de la Paz et al., 2016). Polyphenols possess antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, and anti-mutagenic effects (Montserrat-de la Paz et al., 2016). ...
... Biological activity of polyphenols is strongly related to their antioxidant properties as they interact reactive oxygen species and neutralize the active metabolites (Montserrat-de la Paz et al., 2016). Polyphenols possess antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, and anti-mutagenic effects (Montserrat-de la Paz et al., 2016). In addition, polyphenols improve the immunological defense by increasing the production of white blood cells and cytokines (Santangelo et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
Traditional food products in the Maghreb constitute a huge element of North African culture and identity. These foods contribute significantly to maintaining and even the development of sustainability of rural economy. Thus, the production of traditional foods could be considered as an issue that assumes increasing importance within the food industry. The traditional foods are a major concern not only to rural population, and consumers, but also to producers and distributors. Indeed, regulatory authorities, food processors, retailers and consumer groups have interests in ensuring that these foods present specific quality related to the production area and the know-how of the producers.
... Among the vegetable oils, olive oil has the highest proportion of oleic acid (70%) and about 12% of LA and traces of ALA. Olive oil is one of the vital constituents of the Mediterranean diet and it has been shown to improve cardio-metabolic risk factors such as abnormal lipid profile, high blood pressure, postprandial hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress [8,9]. Notably, the newly developed transgenic mustard variety has 67% oleic acid in its oil [7]. ...
... Also, they have shown that with increased dietary supplementation of fish oil, there was a linear increase in the incorporation of EPA and DHA into the erythrocyte membranes. Sengupta et al. [8], have shown that the feeding n-3 PUFA-enriched conventional mustard oil to hypercholesterolemic rats efficiently reversed the increased osmotic fragility. On the other hand, the conventional mustard oil feeding to identicallytreated (hypercholesterolemic) rats has failed to bring about such effect [31]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Brassica juncea, the Indian mustard variety has high erucic acid (22:1 n-9) in its oil, which causes several deleterious effects. The Centre for Genetic Manipulation of Crop Plants (India) has developed a zero-erucic and high-oleic acid transgenic mustard variety having 67% oleic acid, which is almost equivalent to that of olive oil, i.e. 71%. Therefore, we assessed its impact on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, fluidity and activities of membrane-bound enzymes and insulin sensitivity. 40 male Syrian golden hamsters of 6–8 weeks age, were divided into five groups, consisting of 8 hamsters in each and fed diet containing any one of the oils, i.e. groundnut (GNO), conventional mustard (OCM), low-erucic mustard (OLM), zero-erucic high-oleic transgenic mustard (OTM) and olive (OLO) at 10% level for 16 weeks. At the end, compared to OLO group, OTM-fed hamsters resisted osmotic shock-induced erythrocyte-haemolysis, which corroborated with higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) levels in their erythrocyte membranes. However, it did affect neither the fluidity nor the activities of membrane-bound enzymes. Although fasting plasma glucose, insulin and free fatty acid levels were comparable among the various groups; during glucose challenge, OTM diet-fed animals displayed higher disposal rate of circulatory glucose, without altering the insulin levels, when compared to the conventional mustard; OCM. In conclusion, the consumption of oil from zero-erucic high-oleic transgenic mustard improved the DHA content of erythrocyte membrane, which possibly resisted haemolysis and enhanced glucose clearance during glucose overload. However, it did not affect the activities of erythrocyte membrane-bound enzymes and fluidity compared to olive oil.
... The PREDIMED study results demonstrate that a highunsaturated fat and an antioxidant-rich dietary pattern such as the Mediterranean diet are useful tools in the prevention of CVD, while many other large or smaller scale studies have also provided significant data on the subject, investigating the effects of Mediterranean Diet as a whole or focusing on its various components [17,18,[49][50][51][52][53]. ...
Article
Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most important reason of global mortality and it is predicted that it will continue to dominate mortality trends in the future. Hyperlipidemia is one of the most sever CVDs and plays role in the development of atherosclerosis, which can lead to coronary artery disease and stroke. In recent years, there is growing interest in prevention and demand for alternative therapeutic treatments based on natural products, due to the better recovery and the avoidance of side effects they provide. Objective This is a comprehensive overview of the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of plant extracts, vegetables, fruits and isolated compounds from plants included in Mediterranean diet region with anti-hyperlipidamic activity as well as their mechanisms of action in modulating gene expression in metabolic and signaling pathways. Method In terms of this study there was a systematic review of the literature over the last six years. Our search key words included: hyperlipidemia, plant extract, herbs, natural products, vegetables, cholesterol and Mediterranean diet. We initially included over 90 relevant articles (in vitro studies, animal studies, RCTs, and previous reviews), which were distributed to 4 reviewers for verification and data extraction. Conclusion Many of the natural products found in Mediterranean diet contribute in the treatment of hyperlipidemia, however the effects seem to be dose and/or consumption frequency related, which highlights the fact that a healthy diet can only be effective in reversing disease markers if it is consistent and within the frame of a healthy life style.
... After fatty meal intake, dietary fatty acids are largely integrated into nascent TRLs, which are liberated from the small intestine into the bloodstream. It has been previously reported that dietary fatty acids have divergent postprandial effects on chronic disease-related events [31], suggesting that acute outcomes in response to dietary SFA-, MUFA-or PUFA-adjustment may be helpful to lightly attenuate, even for preventing, diet-related chronic diseases [10]. It is essential to mention that the postprandial period is defined by a large number of metabolic transformations that comprise the raise of circulating TRLs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary fatty acids have been demonstrated to modulate systemic inflammation and induce the postprandial inflammatory response of circulating immune cells. We hypothesized that postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) may have acute effects on immunometabolic homeostasis by modulating dendritic cells (DCs), sentinels of the immunity that link innate and adaptive immune systems. In healthy volunteers, saturated fatty acid (SFA)-enriched meal raised serum levels of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor GM-CSF (SFAs > monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) = polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)) in the postprandial period. Autologous TRL-SFAs upregulated the gene expression of DC maturation (CD123 and CCR7) and DC pro-inflammatory activation (CD80 and CD86) genes while downregulating tolerogenic genes (PD-L1 and PD-L2) in human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs). These effects were reversed with oleic acid-enriched TRLs. Moreover, postprandial SFAs raised IL-12p70 levels, while TRL-MUFAs and TRL-PUFAs increased IL-10 levels in serum of healthy volunteers and in the medium of TRL-treated moDCs. In conclusion, postprandial TRLs are metabolic entities with DC-related tolerogenic activity, and this function is linked to the type of dietary fat in the meal. This study shows that the intake of meals enriched in MUFAs from olive oil, when compared with meals enriched in SFAs, prevents the postprandial production and priming of circulating pro-inflammatory DCs, and promotes tolerogenic response in healthy subjects. However, functional assays with moDCs generated in the presence of different fatty acids and T cells could increase the knowledge of postprandial TRLs’ effects on DC differentiation and function.
... Postprandial state is a normal and transient physiological phenomenon that occurs in response to the ingestion of a fatty meal [1]. Dietary fatty acids (FAs) are absorbed by the enterocytes via passive diffusion and transported in the form of postprandial triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) [2]. Postprandial TRLs consist of lipoproteins derived from the intestine containing apolipoprotein B48 (ApoB48) (chylomicron) and very low density lipoproteins derived from the liver containing ApoB100, and their remnants [3]. ...
... Monosaturated fatty acids prevent inflammatory reactions by interfering various inflammatory biomarkers [27]. Oleic acid inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor (TNF)eae, cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 gene, and prostaglandins (PG) E2 [28]. ...
Article
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of topical application of olive oil either to delay chemotherapy induced oral mucositis (OM) or to alleviate its severity in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia children. Materials and methods: a randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at Hematology- Oncology Department of Children’s Hospital of Damascus University, Syria. 24 children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged between 4 and 6 years old were randomly assigned into two groups, olive oil and sodium bicarbonate 5% (12 in each group). Preventive protocol started two days before the induction of chemotherapeutic drugs. Topical application was done by a sterilized spongeous stick in order to swab tongue, buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, lips and hard palate, as those tissues of the mouth are susceptible to chemotherapy induced OM [1]. The study period was within induction and consolidation phases of chemotherapy. Oral mucosa was assessed weekly up to eight weeks by two external investigators using the World Health Organization grading scale. Results: Data was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the observed results, (OM) grades were with less severity in olive oil group than in sodium bicarbonate group with statistically significant difference reported from the 2 nd week of study phase. In addition, Mann-Whitney U test demonstrated that patients in olive oil group started (OM) later than those in sodium bicarbonate group with statistically significant difference (p 1⁄4 0.022). As a result, olive oil retarded the beginning of oral mucositis (OM) compared with sodium bicarbonate. Conclusions: olive oil can be used topically on oral tissues to prevent chemotherapy induced (OM) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia children.
... This result may be related to men's preference for higher-energy aquatic products and meat and poultry, which are more convenient to provide more energy and meet their physical demands. Studies have shown that over-consumption of oil, and meat and poultry would lead to the increased risk of NCDs (24,25), which is consistent with the results of our study. Palm oil is one of the most commonly used vegetable oils and is found in around half of frequently used foods such as cooking oil, shortening and margarine (26). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives A healthy dietary habit is essential for preventing non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We aimed to assess the adherence to the Chinese Food Pagoda (CFP) proposed in the Chinese Dietary Guidelines 2016 in the high-risk population of NCDs in central China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in two large enterprises (totally 3,016 employees) from October to December 2019 in Hubei Province (central China). The high-risk population of NCDs was identified by physical examination, laboratory test and face-to-face questionnaire survey according to the National Norms for Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases issued by the Chinese government. We assessed the deviation of real diet from the CFP recommended diet in the high-risk population of NCDs. Results A total of 821 participants aged 35–59 years old with at least one high-risk factor of NCDs were enrolled in our study. Of them, 53.8% were daily smokers, 49.6% had elevated blood cholesterol, 31.4% were centrally obese, 23.3% had high normal blood pressure, and 3.5% had impaired fasting glucose. Significant disparity was detected in the high-risk population of NCDs between real food consumption and the CFP's recommendation ( P < 0.05), such as the deficient intake of nuts and milk and dairy products, and the over-consumption of cereals, meat and poultry, oil, and salt. Participants with impaired fasting glucose had the highest intake of cereals and vegetables on average. Participants with central obesity were more likely to consume meat and poultry ( P < 0.05). The lowest average intake of eggs and the highest average intake of milk and dairy products were found in participants with high blood cholesterol ( P < 0.05). The daily smokers were more likely to consume beans and nuts ( P < 0.05). The lowest average intake of fruits and the highest average intake of tubers were found in participants with high normal blood pressure ( P < 0.05). Conclusion Adherence to CFP in the high-risk population of NCDs appeared to be challenging. It is necessary to adopt dietary education campaign focusing on the high-risk population of NCDs to prevent or delay the occurrence of NCDs.
... The atherogenic dyslipidemic phenotype is characterized by high plasma triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and excessive LDL. Additionally, postprandial (non-fasting) triglycerides (postprandial hyperlipidemia) are also an important component of atherosclerosis [152]. The modern synthetic drugs that have been used as treatment for lipid abnormalities are effective at reversing the measured signs, such as decreased LDL levels, but are difficult to afford for many patients and are associated with several side-effects [153]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cultural and economic shifts in the early 19th century led to the rapid development of companies that made good profits from technologically-produced commodities. In this way, some habits changed in society, such as the overconsumption of processed and micronutrient-poor foods and devices that gave rise to a sedentary lifestyle. These factors influenced host-microbiome interactions which, in turn, mediated the etiopathogenesis of “new-era” disorders and diseases, which are closely related, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertension, and inflammatory bowel disease, which are characterized by chronic dysregulation of metabolic and immune processes. These pathological conditions require novel and effective therapeutic approaches. Morinda citrifolia (noni) is well known as a traditional healing plant due to its medicinal properties. Thus, many studies have been conducted to understand its bioactive compounds and their mechanisms of action. However, in obesity and obesity-related metabolic (dysfunction) syndrome, other studies are necessary to better elucidate noni’s mechanisms of action, mainly due to the complexity of the pathophysiology of obesity and its metabolic dysfunction. In this review, we summarize not only the clinical effects, but also important cell signaling pathways in in vivo and in vitro assays of potent bioactive compounds present in the noni plant which have been reported in studies of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction.
Article
The postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is an important and largely silent disturbance involved in the genesis of numerous pathological conditions. Exaggerated and prolonged states of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia are frequently related to the ingestion of meals enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFAs). MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that function as gene regulators and play significant roles in both health and disease. However, differential miRNA expression between fasting and postprandial states has never been elucidated. Here we studied the impact of a high-saturated fat meal, mainly rich in palmitic acid, on the miRNA signature in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of nine male healthy individuals in the postprandial period by using a two-step analysis, miRNA array and validation through qRT-PCR. Compared with miRNA expression signature in PBMCs at fasting, 36 miRNAs were downregulated and 43 miRNAs were upregulated in PBMCs at postprandial hypertriglyceridemic peak. Six chromosomes (3, 7, 8, 12, 14, and 19) had nearly a half (48.1%) of dysregulated miRNA-gene-containing regions. Downregulated miR-300 and miR-369-3p and upregulated miR-495-3p, miR-129-5p, and miR-7-2-3p had the highest number of target genes. The differentially expressed miRNAs and their predicted target genes involved pathways in cancer, MAPK signalling pathway, endocytosis, and axon guidance. Only downregulated miRNAs notably targeted PI3K-Akt signalling pathways, whereas only upregulated miRNAs targeted focal adhesion, Wnt signalling pathway, transcriptional misregulation in cancer, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This is the first study of miRNA expression analysis of human PBMCs during postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and offers insight into new potential mechanisms by which dietary SFAs influence on health or disease.
Article
Full-text available
Virgin olive oil (VOO) constitutes the main source of fat in the Mediterranean diet. VOO is rich in oleic acid, displaying health-promoting properties, but also contains minor bioactive components, especially phenolic compounds. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main polyphenol of olive oil, has been reported to be the most bioactive component. This review aims to compile the results of clinical, animal and cell culture studies evaluating the effects of HT on the features of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (body weight/adiposity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia/insulin resistance) and associated complications (oxidative stress and inflammation). HT was able to improve the lipid profile, glycaemia, and insulin sensitivity, and counteract oxidative and inflammatory processes. Experimental studies identified multiple molecular targets for HT conferring its beneficial effect on health in spite of its low bioavailability. However, rodent experiments and clinical trials with pure HT at biologically relevant concentrations are still lacking. Moreover, the roles of intestine and its gut microbiota have not been elucidated.
Article
This is the first investigation concerning the white peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunt) variety. The aim was to determine the nutritional composition, chromatographic profile, triglyceride composition, thermogravimetric-differential behavior, spectroscopic profile and morphological patterns. The analysis results showed that white peach palm is a promising source of nutritional compounds, such as lipids (7.80%), fiber (10.37%), proteins (5.35%), minerals such as copper, manganese and zinc, supplying from 30 to 80% of the daily recommended doses of those minerals The plant is low in sodium (1%) and has adequate selenium (above 10%). Its oil showed high quality and functionality (ω-6 and ω-3) and predominance of long-chain triacylglycerol, with high thermogravimetric stability (350 ºC), and no oxidative changes in its spectroscopic profile. The Morphological analysis revealed the presence of fibers and starches in the granules. The potential of this new variety expands the application possibilities of this matrix in different industrial segments.
Article
Main methods: Human hepatoma cell line HepG2 cells and neonatal rat primary hepatocytes were treated with PA or/and OA for 24 h. SD rats were fed with high fat diet (HFD) to induce NASH. From the 16th w, the HFD was full or half replaced by olive oil to observe the protective effects. Key findings: In vitro, OA substantially alleviated PA induced cellular apoptosis, oxidative stress, ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as inflammation in hepatocytes. In vivo, only olive oil supplementation had no detrimental effects, while HFD developed NASH in normal rats. Full replacement of HFD with olive oil had profoundly reversed NASH. Noteworthily, half replacement of HFD with olive oil (a mixed diet) has ameliorated NASH injury as well. It strikingly changed the hepatic histology from macrovesicular-steatosis into entire microvesicular-steatosis, and significantly reduced inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis. Significance: Our study has demonstrated in both hepatocytes and NASH rats that oleic acids had great potential to combat the saturated fatty acids induced hepatic lipotoxicity. Only half replacement of HFD by monounsaturated fatty acids rich diet still had significant therapeutic outcome in NASH rats. Redirecting the toxic saturated fatty acids into triglyceride storage and reduction of cholesterol accumulation might be the possible explanation of OA driven protection in this scenario.
Article
Owing to the poor ability of cells to decompose triglycerides, most studies of edible oil have depended on animal or clinical trials. However, such trials are expensive and time consuming, and the results are limited to considerable individual differences. This is the first study to comprehensively investigate the effect of different oils on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HepG2 cells by hydrolyzing oil to fatty acids with integrated fat content. In addition, the key components of fatty acid composition, phytosterol, polyphenols, and tocopherol/tocotrienol, in different oils, contributing to a decrease in content of lipid accumulation, cholesterol, ROS, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were analyzed using multivariate analysis. The results showed that the lipid accumulation content of coconut oil, Pu’er tea oil, olive oil, and flaxseed oil at a concentration of 200 μM decreased by 45.98 ± 0.75%, 50.35 ± 1.37%, 40.43 ± 2.44% and 42.76 ± 1.88%, respectively, compared with the lard. In addition, the ROS contents of Pu’er tea oil, olive oil and flaxseed oil had no significant difference from that of control cells (p<0.05). In the results, (3β, 5α)-stigmastan-3-yl, cholane-5, 20(22)-diene-3b-ph, and β-sitosterol were determined to be the key components in edible oils associated with lipid accumulation and ROS production.
Article
The objective of this study is to evaluate the physicochemical, chromatographic, and thermogravimetric parameters and the oxidative stability of the high-oleic peanut oil (IAC-505) obtained by hydraulic pressing extraction. The analyses were performed according to the International and Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC, AOCS). The high-oleic peanut oil (IAC-505) was obtained by hydraulic pressing and stored at 4 °C. The acidity value (1.20 mg KOH g⁻¹) and peroxide value (3.75 mEq kg⁻¹) obtained were within the maximum values established by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) for cold-pressed oil. The fatty acid profile showed high levels of oleic fatty acid (81.88%). The thermogravimetric behavior and differential analysis indicated good stability upon gradual temperature increase around 200 °C. The oxidative stability index or oxidation induction period of the oil was 15.74 h. The differential scanning calorimetry showed crystallization temperature of − 5 °C and − 33 °C and melting temperature of − 16 °C and − 6 °C. Based on the results obtained, the nutritional and functional quality, mass loss pattern, and oxidative stability of the high-oleic peanut oil (IAC-505) were determined, demonstrating its potential applications in various industrial segments and in food technology research.
Article
Full-text available
We have analyzed the effects of minor compounds found in the unsaponifiable fraction (UF) and in the phenolic fraction (PF) of virgin olive oil (VOO) on LPS‐induced inflammatory response via visfatin modulation in human monocytes. For this purpose, monocytes were incubated with UF and PF at different concentrations and the pro‐inflammatory stimulus LPS for 24 hr; squalene (SQ) and hydroxytyrosol (HTyr), the main components in UF and PF, respectively, were also used. The relative expression of both pro‐inflammatory and anti‐inflammatory genes, as well as other genes related to the NAD+‐biosynthetic pathway was evaluated by RT‐qPCR; and the secretion of some of these markers was assessed by ELISA procedures. We found that UF, SQ, PF, and HTyr prevented from LPS‐induced dysfunctional gene expression and secretion via visfatin‐related gene modulation in human monocytes. These findings unveil a potential beneficial role for minor compounds of VOO in the prevention of inflammatory‐disorders. Practical application In this project, potential health benefits of VOO micronutrients (unsaponifiable and phenolic compounds) were confirmed through anti‐inflammatory assays. Our results reveal new interesting researching goals concerning nutrition by considering the role of bioactive VOO compounds in the prevention and progress of diseases related to inflammation.
Article
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and chronic low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of high-fat low-cholesterol diets (HFLCDs) rich in SFAs (HFLCD-SFAs), MUFAs (HFLCD-MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain PUFAs (HFLCD-PUFAs) on vascular calcification by the modulation of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system in the aortic roots of Lep(ob/ob)LDLR(-/-) mice. Animals fed with HFLCD-SFAs had increased weight and a greater atheroma plaque size, calcification, and RANKL/CATHK expression in the aortic root than mice on MUFA-enriched diets, with an increasing OPG expression in the aortic roots of the latter. Our study demonstrates that compared to dietary SFAs, MUFAs from olive oil protect against atherosclerosis by interfering with vascular calcification via the RANKL/RANK/OPG system in the setting of MetS. These findings open opportunities for developing novel nutritional strategies with olive oil as the most important dietary source of MUFAs (notably oleic acid) to prevent cardiovascular complications in MetS.
Article
Full-text available
Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for the purification of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory results, principally due to complexity or cost-ineffectiveness. The olive oil industry in its current status, composed of little and dispersed factories, cannot stand such high costs. Moreover, these treatments are not able to abate the high concentration of dissolved inorganic matter present in these highly polluted effluents. In the present work, a review on the actual state of the art concerning the treatment and disposal of OMW by membranes is addressed, comprising microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO), as well as membrane bioreactors (MBR) and non-conventional membrane processes such as vacuum distillation (VD), osmotic distillation (OD) and forward osmosis (FO). Membrane processes are becoming extensively used to replace many conventional processes in the purification of water and groundwater as well as in the reclamation of wastewater streams of very diverse sources, such as those generated by agro-industrial activities. Moreover, a brief insight into inhibition and control of fouling by properly-tailored pretreatment processes upstream the membrane operation and the use of the critical and threshold flux theories is provided.
Article
Full-text available
Aim: The aim of the present study were to elucidate the role of NAMPT in atherosclerosis, by examine NAMPT expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and healthy controls and by examining the regulation and effect of NAMPT on macrophage polarization, hypothesizing that it could influence the polarization to inflammatory and resolving macrophages. Method and results: We analyzed RNA levels of NAMPT in PBMC from CAD and healthy controls and found NAMPT to be increased in PBMC from patients with acute coronary syndrome (n = 39) compared to healthy controls (n = 20) and patients with stable CAD (n = 22). Within the PBMC NAMPT was correlated to several inflammatory cytokines and the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 2. In vitro cell experiments revealed that NAMPT is increased both intracellular and extracellular in inflammatory M1 macrophages compared to in anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. In addition, inhibiting NAMPT enzymatic activity inhibited M1 polarization in macrophages. Conclusion: Based on our in vivo and in vitro findings we suggest that NAMPT could contribute to systemic and plaque inflammation in atherosclerotic disorders at least partly through effect on macrophages.
Article
Full-text available
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a worldwide health problem, being the third most commonly detected cancer in males and the second in females. Rising CRC incidence trends are mainly regarded as a part of the rapid 'Westernization' of life-style and are associated with calorically excessive high-fat/low-fibre diet, consumption of refined products, lack of physical activity, and obesity. Most recent epidemiological and clinical investigations have consistently evidenced a significant relationship between obesity-driven inflammation in particular steps of colorectal cancer development, including initiation, promotion, progression, and metastasis. Inflammation in obesity occurs by several mechanisms. Roles of imbalanced metabolism (MetS), distinct immune cells, cytokines, and other immune mediators have been suggested in the inflammatory processes. Critical mechanisms are accounted to proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). These molecules are secreted by macrophages and are considered as major agents in the transition between acute and chronic inflammation and inflammation-related CRC. The second factor promoting the CRC development in obese individuals is altered adipokine concentrations (leptin and adiponectin). The role of leptin and adiponectin in cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis is attributable to the activation of several signal transduction pathways (JAK/STAT, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), mTOR, and 5'AMPK signaling pathways) and multiple dysregulation (COX-2 downregulation, mRNA expression).
Article
Full-text available
Intestinal lipoprotein production is a multistep process, essential for the absorption of dietary fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Chylomicron assembly begins in the endoplasmic reticulum with the formation of primordial, phospholipids-rich particles that are then transported to the Golgi for secretion. Several classes of transporters play a role in the selective uptake and/or export of lipids through the villus enterocytes. Once secreted in the lymph stream, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are metabolized by Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols of very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) and chylomicrons, thereby delivering free fatty acids to various tissues. Genetic mutations in the genes codifying for these proteins are responsible of different inherited disorders affecting chylomicron metabolism. This review focuses on the molecular pathways that modulate the uptake and the transport of lipoproteins of intestinal origin and it will highlight recent findings on TRLs assembly.
Article
Full-text available
T cells are central players in the regulation of adaptive immunity and immune tolerance. In the periphery, T cell differentiation for maturation and effector function is regulated by a number of factors. Various factors such as antigens, co-stimulation signals, and cytokines regulate T cell differentiation into functionally specialized effector and regulatory T cells. Other factors such as nutrients, micronutrients, nuclear hormones and microbial products provide important environmental cues for T cell differentiation. A mounting body of evidence indicates that the microbial metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have profound effects on T cells and directly and indirectly regulate their differentiation. We review the current status of our understanding of SCFA functions in regulation of peripheral T cell activity and discuss their impact on tissue inflammation.
Article
Full-text available
The chemical composition, oxidative stability, aroma and sensory profiles of virgin olive oils from two Tunisian cultivars, Chemlali and Neb Jmel, grown in two different locations, the center and south of Tunisia, have been evaluated. There were significant differences between the oils from both cultivars when grown in the two different environments. At higher altitude, the oils showed a greater amount of oleic acid, phenols and a higher oxidative stability, while at lower altitude, the oils had higher saturated and linoleic acid contents. The aroma profiles in Chemlali and Neb Jmel cultivars were also influenced by the pedoclimatic conditions, as shown by the difference in volatiles as a function of the geographical area. The volatile compounds of the monovarietal virgin olive oils were identified and compared using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS–SPME) technique coupled with GC–MS and GC–FID. The proportions of different classes of volatiles of the oils have shown significant differences throughout the obtained oils. These results suggest that besides the genetic factor, the agronomic conditions affect the volatile formation and, therefore, the organoleptic properties of VOO, and can be used to discriminate and characterize the Chemlali and Neb Jmel olive oils from each region.
Article
Full-text available
This is the second iteration of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) joining forces to write guidelines on the management of diabetes mellitus (DM), pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), designed to assist clinicians and other healthcare workers to make evidence-based management decisions. The growing awareness of the strong biological relationship between DM and CVD rightly prompted these two large organizations to collaborate to generate guidelines relevant to their joint interests, the first of which were published in 2007. Some assert that too many guidelines are being produced but, in this burgeoning field, five years in the development of both basic and clinical science is a long time and major trials have reported in this period, making it necessary to update the previous Guidelines.
Article
Full-text available
Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of interconnected physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors that directly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all cause mortality. Insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, genetic susceptibility, elevated blood pressure, hypercoagulable state, and chronic stress are the several factors which constitute the syndrome. Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which is characterized by production of abnormal adipocytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α , interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin. The interaction between components of the clinical phenotype of the syndrome with its biological phenotype (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc.) contributes to the development of a proinflammatory state and further a chronic, subclinical vascular inflammation which modulates and results in atherosclerotic processes. Lifestyle modification remains the initial intervention of choice for such population. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioural strategies. Pharmacological treatment should be considered for those whose risk factors are not adequately reduced with lifestyle changes. This review provides summary of literature related to the syndrome's definition, epidemiology, underlying pathogenesis, and treatment approaches of each of the risk factors comprising metabolic syndrome.
Article
Full-text available
The endogenous synthesis of lipids, which requires suitable dietary raw materials, is critical for the formation of membrane bilayers. In eukaryotic cells, phospholipids are the predominant membrane lipids and consist of hydrophobic acyl chains attached to a hydrophilic head group. The relative balance between saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated acyl chains is required for the organization and normal function of membranes. Virgin olive oil is the richest natural dietary source of the monounsaturated lipid oleic acid and is one of the key components of the healthy Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil also contains a unique constellation of many other lipophilic and amphipathic constituents whose health benefits are still being discovered. The focus of this review is the latest evidence regarding the impact of oleic acid and the minor constituents of virgin olive oil on the arrangement and behavior of lipid bilayers. We highlight the relevance of these interactions to the potential use of virgin olive oil in preserving the functional properties of membranes to maintain health and in modulating membrane functions that can be altered in several pathologies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane structure and function: Relevance in the cell's physiology, pathology and therapy.
Article
Full-text available
HDL removes excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues and delivers it to the liver and steroidogenic tissues via selective lipid uptake without catabolism of the HDL particle itself. In addition, endocytosis of HDL holo-particles has been debated for nearly 40years. However, neither the connection between HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake, nor the physiological relevance of HDL uptake has been delineated clearly. This review will focus on HDL endocytosis and resecretion and its relation to cholesterol transfer. We will discuss the role of HDL endocytosis in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in tissues and cell types involved in atherosclerosis, focusing on liver, macrophages and endothelium. We will critically summarize the current knowledge on the receptors mediating HDL endocytosis including SR-BI, F1-ATPase and CD36 and on intracellular HDL transport routes. Dependent on the tissue, HDL is either resecreted (retro-endocytosis) or degraded after endocytosis. Finally, findings on HDL transcytosis across the endothelial barrier will be summarized. We suggest that HDL endocytosis and resecretion is a rather redundant pathway under physiologic conditions. In case of disturbed lipid metabolism, however, HDL retro-endocytosis represents an alternative pathway that enables tissues to maintain cellular cholesterol homeostasis.
Article
Full-text available
Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL) in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10), the second including patients with superficial gastritis caused by pathogens other than H. pylori (non-HPG; n = 14) and the control group including healthy adolescents (n = 14). Activity of HGL was measured in gastric juice collected during endoscopy. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured in all adolescents. Activity of HGL in the non-HPG group was significantly lower than in the HPG group (p < 0.005) and the control group (p < 0.005). Mean plasma GIP levels in the control group were lower than in the non-HPG group (p < 0.003) and the HPG group (p < 0.01). We conclude that the regulation of HGL secretion by GLP-1 and CCK is altered in patients with gastritis. Moreover, GIP is a potent controller of HGL activity, both in healthy subjects and in patients with gastritis.
Article
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Dietary fats must be digested into fatty acids and monoacylglycerols prior to absorption. In adults, colipase-dependent pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL) contributes significantly to fat digestion. In newborn rodents and humans, the pancreas expresses low levels of PTL. In rodents, a homologue of PTL, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) and carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) compensate for the lack of PTL. In human newborns, the role for PLRP2 in dietary fat digestion is unclear. To clarify the potential of human PLRP2 to influence dietary fat digestion in newborns, we determined PLRP2 activity against human milk and infant formula. METHODS The activity of purified recombinant PLRP2, gastric lipase and CEL against fats in human milk and formula was measured with each lipase alone and in combination with a standard pH-stat assay. RESULTS Colipase added to human milk stimulated fat digestion. PLRP2 and CEL had activity against human milk and formula. Pre-digestion with gastric lipase increased PLRP2 activity against both substrates. Together, CEL and PLRP2 activity was additive with formula and synergistic with human milk. CONCLUSIONS PLRP2 can digest fats in human milk and formula. PLRP2 acts in concert with CEL and gastric lipase to digest fats in human milk in vitro.
Article
Full-text available
Lipid droplets (LDs) store metabolic energy and membrane lipid precursors. With excess metabolic energy, cells synthesize triacylglycerol (TG) and form LDs that grow dramatically. It is unclear how TG synthesis relates to LD formation and growth. Here, we identify two LD subpopulations: smaller LDs of relatively constant size, and LDs that grow larger. The latter population contains isoenzymes for each step of TG synthesis. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4 (GPAT4), which catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step, relocalizes from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to a subset of forming LDs, where it becomes stably associated. ER-to-LD targeting of GPAT4 and other LD-localized TG synthesis isozymes is required for LD growth. Key features of GPAT4 ER-to-LD targeting and function in LD growth are conserved between Drosophila and mammalian cells. Our results explain how TG synthesis is coupled with LD growth and identify two distinct LD subpopulations based on their capacity for localized TG synthesis.
Article
Full-text available
An Expert Panel group of scientists and clinicians met to consider several aspects related to non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides (TGs) and their role as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this context, we review recent epidemiological studies relevant to elevated non-fasting TGs as a risk factor for CVD and provide a suggested classification of non-fasting TG concentration. Secondly, we sought to describe methodologies to evaluate postprandial TG using a fat tolerance test (FTT) in the clinic. Thirdly, we discuss the role of non-fasting lipids in the treatment of postprandial hyperlipemia. Finally, we provide a series of clinical recommendations relating to non-fasting TGs based on the consensus of the Expert Panel: 1). Elevated non-fasting TGs are a risk factor for CVD. 2). The desirable non-fasting TG concentration is <2 mmol/l (<180 mg/dl). 3). For standardized postprandial testing, a single FTT meal should be given after an 8 h fast and should consist of 75 g of fat, 25 g of carbohydrates and 10 g of protein. 4). A single TG measurement 4 h after a FTT meal provides a good evaluation of the postprandial TG response. 5). Preferably, subjects with non-fasting TG levels of 1-2 mmol/l (89-180 mg/dl) should be tested with a FTT. 6). TG concentration ≤ 2.5 mmol/l (220 mg/dl) at any time after a FTT meal should be considered as a desirable postprandial TG response. 7). A higher and undesirable postprandial TG response could be treated by aggressive lifestyle modification (including nutritional supplementation) and/or TG lowering drugs like statins, fibrates and nicotinic acid.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aim was to develop clinical practice guidelines on hypertriglyceridemia. Participants: The Task Force included a chair selected by The Endocrine Society Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee (CGS), five additional experts in the field, and a methodologist. The authors received no corporate funding or remuneration. Consensus process: Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence, e-mail discussion, conference calls, and one in-person meeting. The guidelines were reviewed and approved sequentially by The Endocrine Society's CGS and Clinical Affairs Core Committee, members responding to a web posting, and The Endocrine Society Council. At each stage, the Task Force incorporated changes in response to written comments. Conclusions: The Task Force recommends that the diagnosis of hypertriglyceridemia be based on fasting levels, that mild and moderate hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides of 150-999 mg/dl) be diagnosed to aid in the evaluation of cardiovascular risk, and that severe and very severe hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides of > 1000 mg/dl) be considered a risk for pancreatitis. The Task Force also recommends that patients with hypertriglyceridemia be evaluated for secondary causes of hyperlipidemia and that subjects with primary hypertriglyceridemia be evaluated for family history of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. The Task Force recommends that the treatment goal in patients with moderate hypertriglyceridemia be a non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in agreement with National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel guidelines. The initial treatment should be lifestyle therapy; a combination of diet modification and drug therapy may also be considered. In patients with severe or very severe hypertriglyceridemia, a fibrate should be used as a first-line agent.
Article
Full-text available
The metabolic syndrome is a complex of clinical features leading to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus in both sexes. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are considered the main features determining the negative cardiovascular profile in metabolic syndrome. The aim of this paper is to highlight the central role of obesity in the development of a chronic low-grade inflammatory state that leads to insulin resistance, endothelial and microvascular dysfunctions. It is thought that the starting signal of this inflammation is overfeeding and the pathway origins in all the metabolic cells; the subsequent increase in cytokine production recruits immune cells in the extracellular environment inducing an overall systemic inflammation. This paper focuses on the molecular and cellular inflammatory mechanisms studied until now.
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally, nutrients such as fatty acids have been viewed as substrates for the generation of high-energy molecules and as precursors for the biosynthesis of macromolecules. However, accumulating data from multiple lines of evidence suggest that dietary fatty acids are linked not only to health promotion but also to disease pathogenesis. Metabolism in humans is regulated by complex hormonal signals and substrate interactions. For many years, the clinical focus has centered on a wide metabolic picture after an overnight fast. Nonetheless, the postprandial state (i.e., "the period that comprises and follows a meal") is an important one, and silent disturbances in this period are involved in the genesis of numerous pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis. In this review article, we present an overview of the evidence demonstrating the relevance of oleic acid in olive oil on different nutrition-related issues. We also discuss the impact of oleic acid in olive oil and its clinical relevance to major risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the context of the postprandial state and with regard to other dietary fatty acids.
Article
Background: The nature of dietary fats affects the postprandial activation of the hemostatic system. Objective: We investigated whether the ratio of oleic to palmitic acid [and that of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acids (MUFA:SFA)] in the diet affects postprandial concentrations of triacylglycerols, tissue factor (TF), fibrinogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). Design: We studied the effects of diets enriched in olive oil (ROO), high-palmitic sunflower oil (HPSO), butter, or a mixture of vegetable and fish oils (VEFO) on circulating concentrations of the aforementioned factors in 14 healthy men. The fats had ratios of oleic to palmitic acid (MUFA:SFA) of 6.83 (5.43), 2.36 (2.42), 0.82 (0.48), and 13.81 (7.08). Results: The largest and longest-lasting postprandial changes in plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were found with the butter-based diet (all P < 0.05). No correlation was observed between the net incremental area under the curve (netAUC) for triacylglycerol and the ratio of oleic to palmitic acid (or MUFA:SFA) in the dietary fats. The netAUCs for TF and PAI-1, however, were inversely related to the ratio of oleic to palmitic acid (and MUFA:SFA) in ROO, HPSO, butter, and VEFO. Similar results were found for the fibrinogen netAUC when VEFO was omitted from the analysis. The netAUC for t-PA was inversely correlated with postprandial concentrations of triacylglycerol. Conclusions: Postprandial concentrations of TF, fibrinogen, and PAI-1 are associated with the ratio of oleic to palmitic acid (MUFA:SFA) in dietary fats. The postprandial t-PA response is related to postprandial concentrations of triacylglycerol.
Article
Available online A B S T R A C T We aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat low-cholesterol diets rich in saturated fatty acids (HFLCD-SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (HFLCD-MUFAs) or MUFAs + omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (HFLCD-PUFAs) in combination with niacin (NA) on atherosclerotic plaque characteristics in a mouse model (Lep ob/ob LDLR −/−) of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Compared to a low-fat low-cholesterol diet (LFLCD), HFLCDs increased body weight, triglycerides, insulin, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and circulating monocytes, contributing the HFLCD-SFAs to a predominance of a classical pro-inflammatory Ly6C hi population, whereas HFLCD-MUFAs and HFLCD-PUFAs to a non-classical patrolling Ly6C lo population. HFLCDs promoted atherosclerosis in the aortic roots of animals but the plaque size, collagen, and macro-phage content were higher with the HFLCD-SFAs than with the HFLCD-MUFAs or HFLCD-PUFAs. Furthermore, HFLCD-SFAs promoted the intra-plaque accumulation of M1 macrophages, whereas HFLCD-MUFAs and HFLCD-PUFAs favoured the accumulation of M2 macrophages. These data suggest that dietary MUFAs had advantage over SFAs to prevent atheroscle-rotic events in the NA-treated MetS.
Article
Scope: Postprandial state is directly linked with chronic diseases. We hypothesized that dietary fats may have acute effects on health status by modulating osteoclast differentiation and activation in a fatty acid-dependent manner. Methods and results: In healthy subjects, a fat-enriched meal increased plasma levels of the RANKL/OPG ratio (SFAs > MUFAs = PUFAs) in the postprandial state. Postprandial TRL-SFAs enhanced TRAP activity and the expression of osteoclast marker genes (TRAP, OSCAR, RANK, and CATHK) while downregulated the expression of OPG gene in human monocyte-derived osteoclasts. These effects were not observed with MUFA-enriched postprandial TRLs. Moreover, postprandial TRL-SFAs increased the release of osteoclastogenic cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) meanwhile TRL-MUFAs and TRL-PUFAs increased the release of anti-osteoclastogenic cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in the medium of human monocyte-derived osteoclasts. Conclusion: For the first time we show that postprandial TRLs are metabolic entities with osteoclastogenic activity and that this property is related to the type of dietary fatty acid in the meal. The osteoclastogenic potency was as follows: SFAs > MUFAs = PUFAs. These exciting findings open opportunities for developing nutritional strategies with olive oil as the principal dietary source of MUFAs, notably oleic acid, to prevent development and progression of osteoclast-related diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with obesity, dyslipemia, type 2 diabetes and chronic low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of high-fat low-cholesterol diets (HFLCDs) rich in SFAs (HFLCD-SFAs), MUFAs (HFLCD-MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain PUFAs (HFLCD-PUFAs) on polarisation and inflammatory potential in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from niacin (NA)-treated Lep(ob/ob)LDLR(-/-) mice. Animals fed with HFLCD-SFAs had increased weight and serum triglycerides, and their BMDMs accumulated triglycerides over the animals fed with HFLCD-MUFAs or -PUFAs. Furthermore, BMDMs from animals fed with HFLCD-SFAs were polarised towards the M1 phenotype with functional competence to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas BMDMs from animals fed with HFLCD-MUFAs or -PUFAs were skewed to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. These findings open opportunities for developing novel nutritional strategies with olive oil as the most important dietary source of MUFAs (notably oleic acid) to prevent development and progression of metabolic complications in the NA-treated MetS.
Article
The well-known changes in modern lifestyle habits including over nutrition and physical inactivity have led to striking adverse effects on public health (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome) over recent decades. One noticeable consequence is exaggerated and prolonged states of postprandial hyperlipemia due to the ingestion of multiple fat-enriched meals during the course of a day. Postprandial (non-fasting) hyperlipemia is characterized by increased blood levels of exogenous triglycerides (TG) in the form of apolipoprotein (apo) B48-containing TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL), which have a causal role in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cardiovascular benefits of lifestyle modification (healthy diet and exercise) and conventional lipid-lowering therapies (e.g., statins, fibrates, and niacin) could involve their favourable effects on postprandial metabolism. Pharmacologically, niacin has been used as an athero-protective drug for five decades. Studies have since shown that niacin may decrease fasting levels of plasma very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and lipoprotein [a] (Lp[a]), while may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Herein, the purpose of this review was to provide an update on effects and mechanisms related to the pharmacological actions of niacin on acute hyperlipemia.
Article
Postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) lead to a complex series of events potentially oxidative and inflammatory. The main goal of this study was to characterize the influence of postprandial TRLs with different fatty acid composition (mainly SFAs, MUFAs or MUFAs plus omega-3 PUFAs) on oxidative and inflammatory markers in RPE cells, which plays a pivotal role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Compared to TRL-SFAs, TRL-MUFAs and TRL-MUFAs plus omega-3 PUFAs decreased the production of ROS and nitrite, and the gene expression and secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFNγ and VEGF. For the first time we show that postprandial TRLs are metabolic entities able to induce RPE oxidative stress and inflammation in a fatty acid-dependent manner, TRL-SFAs >>> TRL-MUFAs = TRL-MUFAs plus omega-3 PUFAs. These exciting findings open new opportunities for developing novel nutritional strategies with olive oil as the principal dietary source of oleic acid to prevent development and progression of AMD.
Article
The incidence of high blood pressure (BP) along with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on human health has been studied for many years. These studies have proven a link between unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle with the onset of hypertension, which is a hallmark of CV and cerebrovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet, declared by the UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage since 2013, is rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits and virgin olive oil. Thanks to its many beneficial effects, including those with regard to lowering BP, the Mediterranean diet may help people from modern countries to achieve a lower occurrence of CV disease. Data from human and animal studies have shown that the consumption of virgin olive oil shares most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is the only edible fat that can be consumed as a natural fruit product with no additives or preservatives, and contains a unique constellation of bioactive entities, namely oleic acid and minor constituents. In this review, we summarize what is known about the effects of virgin olive oil on hypertension.
Article
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), also an adipokine known as visfatin, acts via enzymatic activity to synthesize nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and then to maintain homeostasis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), which plays a dual role in energy metabolism and biological signaling. Of note, the NAMPT metabolic pathway connects NAD-dependent sirtuin (SIRT) signaling, constituting a strong intrinsic defense system against various stresses. Most recently, studies have demonstrated several mechanisms by which NAMPT might serve as a therapeutic target against ischemic stroke, including cerebroprotection in the acute phase as well as vascular repair and neurogenesis in the chronic phase. The molecular mechanisms underlying these benefits have been explored in vivo and in vitro for neural cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and neural stem cells. Therapeutic interventions using NMN, NAMPT activators, and ischemic conditioning are promising for stroke salvage and rehabilitation. This review discusses the current NAMPT data in the context of translational efforts for stroke treatment.
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-wk ketogenic diet (KD) on inflammatory status, adipose tissue activity biomarkers, and abdominal visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous fat (SAT) in children affected by glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome GLUT1 DS. We carried out a short-term longitudinal study on 10 children (mean age: 8.4 y, range 3.3-12 y, 5 girls, 5 boys) to determine fasting serum proinflammatory cytokines (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α interleukin-6), adipocyte-derived chemokines (leptin and adiponectin), lipid profile, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity index (QUICKI), anthropometric measurements, and VAT and SAT (by ultrasonography). Children showed no significant changes in inflammatory and adipose tissue activity biomarkers, blood glucose, lipid profile, anthropometric measurements, VAT, and SAT. Fasting insulin decreased (6 ± 3.2 μU/mL versus 3 ± 2 μU/mL; P = 0.001), and both HOMA-IR and QUICKI indexes were significantly modified (1.2 ± 0.6 versus 0.6 ± 0.4; P = 0.002; 0.38 ± 0.03 versus 0.44 ± 0.05; P = 0.002, respectively). Only HOMA-IR and QUICKI indexes changed after 12 wk on a KD, suggesting that over a short period of time KD does not affect inflammatory cytokines production and abdominal fat distribution despite being a high-fat diet. Long-term studies are needed to provide answers concerning adaptive metabolic changes during KD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
The lipid droplet (LD) is a phylogenetically conserved organelle. In eukaryotes, it is born from the endoplasmic reticulum, but unlike its parent organelle, LDs are the only known cytosolic organelles that are micellar in structure. LDs are implicated in numerous physiological and pathophysiological functions. Many aspects of the LD has captured the attention of diverse scientists alike and has recently led to an explosion in information on the LD biogenesis, expansion and fusion, identification of LD proteomes and diseases associated with LD biology. This review will provide a brief history of this fascinating organelle and provide some contemporary views of unanswered questions in LD biogenesis.
Article
Abstract High levels of fasting circulating triglycerides (TG) represent an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In western countries ,however people spend most time in postprandial conditions, with continuous fluctuation of the lipemia due to increased levels of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), including chylomicrons (CM), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), and their remnants. Several factors contribute to postprandial lipid metabolism, including dietary, physiological, pathological and genetic factors. The presence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and obesity is associated with higher postprandial TG levels compared with healthy conditions, also in subjects with normal fasting TG levels. Increasing evidence indicates that impaired metabolism of postprandial lipoproteins contributes to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, suggesting that lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological approaches aimed at reducing postprandial TG levels might help to decrease the cardiovascular risk.
Article
Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is now established as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This metabolic abnormality is principally initiated by overproduction and/or decreased catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and is a consequence of predisposing genetic variations and medical conditions such as obesity and insulin resistance. Accumulation of TRLs in the postprandial state promotes the retention of remnant particles in the artery wall. Because of their size, most remnant particles cannot cross the endothelium as efficiently as smaller low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. However, since each remnant particle contains approximately 40 times more cholesterol compared with LDL, elevated levels of remnants may lead to accelerated atherosclerosis and CVD. The recognition of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in the clinical setting has been severely hampered by technical difficulties and the lack of established clinical protocols for investigating postprandial lipemia. In addition, there are currently no internationally agreed management guidelines for this type of dyslipidemia. Here we review the mechanism for and consequences of excessive postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, epidemiological evidence in support of high triglycerides and remnant particles as risk factors for CVD, the definition of hypertriglyceridemia, methods to measure postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and apolipoproteins and, finally, current and future treatment opportunities.
Article
Cytokines receptors exist in membrane bound and soluble form. A soluble form of the human IL-6R is generated by limited proteolysis and alternative splicing. The complex of IL-6 and soluble IL-6R stimulates target cells not stimulated by IL-6 alone, since they do not express the membrane bound IL-6R. We have named this process trans-signaling. Soluble gp130 is the natural inhibitor of IL-6/soluble IL-6R complex responses. Recombinant soluble gp130 protein is a molecular tool to discriminate between gp130 responses via membrane bound and soluble IL-6R responses. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for global blockade of IL-6 signaling and the sgp130Fc protein for selective blockade of IL-6 trans-signaling have been used in several animal models of human diseases. Using the sgp130Fc protein or sgp130Fc transgenic mice we demonstrate in models of inflammatory bowel disease, peritonitis, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis pancreatitis, colon cancer, ovarian cancer and pancreatic cancer, that IL-6 trans-signaling via the soluble IL-6R is the crucial step in the development and the progression of the disease. Therefore, sgp130Fc is a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer and it undergoes phase I clinical trials as an anti-inflammatory drug since June 2013.
Article
Introducción y objetivos Actualizar la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico en España y su riesgo coronario asociado, empleando la definición armonizada y la nueva propuesta de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (síndrome metabólico premórbido), que excluye diabetes mellitus y enfermedad cardiovascular. Métodos Análisis agrupado con datos individuales de 11 estudios, incluyendo a 24.670 individuos de 10 comunidades autónomas con edad 35-74 años. El riesgo coronario se estimó con la función REGICOR. Resultados La prevalencia de síndrome metabólico fue del 31% (mujeres, 29%; intervalo de confianza del 95%, 25-33%; varones, 32%; intervalo de confianza del 95%, 29-35%). Entre los varones con síndrome metabólico, fueron más frecuentes la elevación de glucemia (p = 0,019) y triglicéridos (p < 0,001); por contra, entre las mujeres predominaron obesidad abdominal (p < 0,001) y colesterol unido a las lipoproteínas de alta densidad bajo (p = 0,001). Las personas con síndrome metabólico mostraron riesgo coronario moderado (varones, 8%; mujeres, 5%), pero mayor (p < 0,001) que la población sin síndrome metabólico (varones, 4%; mujeres, 2%). El incremento de riesgo coronario asociado al síndrome metabólico fue mayor en mujeres que en varones (2,5 frente a 2 veces, respectivamente; p < 0,001). La prevalencia de síndrome metabólico premórbido fue del 24% y su riesgo coronario asociado también aumentó más en las mujeres que en los varones (2 frente a 1,5; p < 0,001). Conclusiones La prevalencia de síndrome metabólico es del 31%; el síndrome metabólico premórbido la rebaja al 24% y delimita la población para prevención primaria. El incremento de riesgo coronario es proporcionalmente mayor en las mujeres, tanto en síndrome metabólico como en síndrome metabólico premórbido.
Article
Different lipid fractions in humans have characteristic fatty acid profiles and these are maintained partly through diet and to a lesser extent through endogenous synthesis. The enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD; EC 1.14.99.5) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids such as palmitoleic acid (16:1 n-7) and oleic acid (18:1 n-9). These are the two most abundant monounsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipids, membranes and adipose tissue. Although in quantitative terms, the endogenous synthesis of fatty acids in humans is not great in most circumstances, it is becoming increasingly evident that SCD plays important structural and metabolic roles. In addition, 16:1 n-7 has been purported to act as a beneficial ‘lipokine’ in an animal model. Research in humans has relied on indirect measurements of SCD1 activity and therefore, much of our understanding has come from work on animal models. However, results have been somewhat counterintuitive and confusing, so the purpose of this review is to try to summarise our current understanding of this fascinating enzyme.
Article
Hypertriglyceridaemia (typical triglyceride level 1.7-5.0 mmol/l) is caused by interactions between many genetic and nongenetic factors, and is a common risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with hypertriglyceridaemia usually present with obesity, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, ectopic fat deposition, and diabetes mellitus. Hypertriglyceridaemia reflects the accumulation in plasma of proatherogenic lipoproteins, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) remnants, and small, dense LDL particles. Mendelian randomization studies and research on inherited dyslipidaemias, such as type III dysbetalipoproteinaemia, testify that TRLs are causally related to atherosclerotic CVD. Extreme hypertriglyceridaemia (a triglyceride level >20 mmol/l) is rare, often monogenic in aetiology, and frequently causes pancreatitis. Treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia relies on correcting secondary factors and unhealthy lifestyle habits, particularly poor diet and lack of exercise. Pharmacotherapy is indicated for patients with established CVD or individuals at moderate-to-high risk of CVD, primarily those with metabolic syndrome or diabetes. Statins are the cornerstone of treatment, followed by fibrates and n-3 fatty acids, to achieve recommended therapeutic levels of plasma LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein (apo) B-100. The case for using niacin has been weakened by the results of clinical trials, but needs further investigation. Extreme hypertriglyceridaemia requires strict dietary measures, and patients with a diagnosis of genetic lipoprotein lipase deficiency might benefit from LPL gene replacement therapy. Several therapies for regulating TRL metabolism, including inhibitors of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, and apoC-III antisense oligonucleotides, merit further investigation in patients with hypertriglyceridaemia.
Article
ABSTRACT This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive-oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from by-products with food ingredient applications.
Article
All organisms use fatty acids (FAs) for energy substrates and as precursors for membrane and signaling lipids. The most efficient way to transport and store FAs is in the form of triglycerides (TGs); however, TGs are not capable of traversing biological membranes and therefore need to be cleaved by TG hydrolases ("lipases") before moving in or out of cells. This biochemical process is generally called "lipolysis." Intravascular lipolysis degrades lipoprotein-associated TGs to FAs for their subsequent uptake by parenchymal cells, whereas intracellular lipolysis generates FAs and glycerol for their release (in the case of white adipose tissue) or use by cells (in the case of other tissues). Although the importance of lipolysis has been recognized for decades, many of the key proteins involved in lipolysis have been uncovered only recently. Important new developments include the discovery of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), the molecule that moves lipoprotein lipase from the interstitial spaces to the capillary lumen, and the discovery of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) as crucial molecules in the hydrolysis of TGs within cells. This review summarizes current views of lipolysis and highlights the relevance of this process to human disease.
Article
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol is a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease independent of reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. BACKGROUND: Elevated remnant cholesterol is associated with elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and with reduced HDL cholesterol, and all are associated with ischemic heart disease. METHODS: A total of 73,513 subjects from Copenhagen were genotyped, of whom 11,984 had ischemic heart disease diagnosed between 1976 and 2010. Fifteen genetic variants were selected, affecting: 1) nonfasting remnant cholesterol alone; 2) nonfasting remnant cholesterol and HDL cholesterol combined; 3) HDL cholesterol alone; or 4) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol alone as a positive control. The variants were used in a Mendelian randomization design. RESULTS: The causal odds ratio for a 1 mmol/l (39 mg/dl) genetic increase of nonfasting remnant cholesterol was 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9 to 4.2), with a corresponding observational hazard ratio of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3 to 1.5). For the ratio of nonfasting remnant cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, corresponding values were 2.9 (95% CI: 1.9 to 4.6) causal and 1.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.3) observational for a 1-unit increase. However, for HDL cholesterol, corresponding values were 0.7 (95% CI: 0.4 to 1.4) causal and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4 to 1.7) observational for a 1 mmol/l (39 mg/dl) decrease. Finally, for LDL cholesterol, corresponding values were 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6) causal and 1.1 (95% CI: 1.1 to 1.2) observational for a 1 mmol/l (39 mg/dl) increase. CONCLUSIONS: A nonfasting remnant cholesterol increase of 1 mmol/l (39 mg/dl) is associated with a 2.8-fold causal risk for ischemic heart disease, independent of reduced HDL cholesterol. This implies that elevated cholesterol content of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles causes ischemic heart disease. However, because pleiotropic effects of the genetic variants studied cannot be totally excluded, these findings need to be confirmed using additional genetic variants and/or randomized intervention trials.
Article
LR: 20061115; JID: 7501160; 0 (Antilipemic Agents); 0 (Cholesterol, HDL); 0 (Cholesterol, LDL); 57-88-5 (Cholesterol); CIN: JAMA. 2001 Nov 21;286(19):2401; author reply 2401-2. PMID: 11712930; CIN: JAMA. 2001 Nov 21;286(19):2400-1; author reply 2401-2. PMID: 11712929; CIN: JAMA. 2001 Nov 21;286(19):2400; author reply 2401-2. PMID: 11712928; CIN: JAMA. 2001 Nov 21;286(19):2400; author reply 2401-2. PMID: 11712927; CIN: JAMA. 2001 May 16;285(19):2508-9. PMID: 11368705; CIN: JAMA. 2003 Apr 16;289(15):1928; author reply 1929. PMID: 12697793; CIN: JAMA. 2001 Aug 1;286(5):533-5. PMID: 11476650; CIN: JAMA. 2001 Nov 21;286(19):2401-2. PMID: 11712931; ppublish
Article
Elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may contribute to endothelial dysfunction in obese diabetic subjects. We investigated the association between plasma concentrations of chylomicron-related particles and endothelial function, and the corresponding responses to fenofibrate treatment. Plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 and remnant-like particle (RLP)-cholesterol concentrations were measured in 28 obese subjects with T2DM. Flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation (FMD) and glyceryl-trinitrate mediated dilatation (GTNMD) in the brachial artery during reactive hyperaemia were examined by high-resolution ultrasound technique. In univariate analysis, plasma apoB-48 and RLP-cholesterol concentrations were inversely associated with brachial artery FMD (r = -0.425 and -0.423, respectively, P<0.05), but not with GTNMD. In regression models including BMI and HOMA score, plasma apoB-48 was an independent predictors (P<0.05) of brachial artery FMD (β coefficient = -0.384). Replacing HOMA-IR score with plasma triglyceride, adiponectin or CRP concentrations did not alter the findings. The subjects were then randomized to a 12-week treatment period of either 200mg micronized fenofibrate or matching placebo. Compared with the placebo group, fenofibrate treatment (200mg daily for 12 weeks) achieved significant increase in FMD (+34%) and reduction in plasma triglyceride (-42%), apoB-48 (-52%) and RLP-cholesterol (-51%) concentrations. The increase in FMD with fenofibrate was significantly associated with the corresponding decrease in plasma apoB-48 (r = -0.644, P<0.02) concentrations. Our findings demonstrate an association between changes in lipid metabolism and improvement in endothelial function in patients with diabetic dyslipidaemia treated with fenofibrate that may involve the effect of apoB-48 on endothelium-dependent vasodilator function.
Article
To update the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated coronary risk in Spain, using the harmonized definition and the new World Health Organization proposal (metabolic premorbid syndrome), which excludes diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Individual data pooled analysis study of 24,670 individuals from 10 autonomous communities aged 35 to 74 years. Coronary risk was estimated using the REGICOR function. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 31% (women 29% [95% confidence interval, 25%-33%], men 32% [95% confidence interval, 29%-35%]). High blood glucose (P=.019) and triglycerides (P<.001) were more frequent in men with metabolic syndrome, but abdominal obesity (P<.001) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=.001) predominated in women. Individuals with metabolic syndrome showed moderate coronary risk (8% men, 5% women), although values were higher (P<.001) than in the population without the syndrome (4% men, 2% women). Women and men with metabolic syndrome had 2.5 and 2 times higher levels of coronary risk, respectively (P<.001). Prevalence of metabolic premorbid syndrome was 24% and the increase in coronary risk was also proportionately larger in women than in men (2 vs 1.5, respectively; P<.001). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 31%; metabolic premorbid syndrome lowers this prevalence to 24% and delimits the population for primary prevention. The increase in coronary risk is proportionally larger in women, in both metabolic syndrome and metabolic premorbid syndrome.
Article
This scientific statement reviews the pivotal role of triglycerides in lipid metabolism and reaffirms that triglyceride is not directly atherogenic but represents an important biomarker of CVD risk because of its association with atherogenic remnant particles and apo CIII. Although some familial disorders of triglyceride metabolism are associated with increased risk for pancreatitis when fasting triglyceride level exceeds 1000 mg/dL, others are associated with increased atherosclerotic risk. Moreover, IR, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle can all lead to or aggravate metabolic syndrome risk factors, which should urgently prompt clinicians to focus first on improving the patient's lifestyle. Knowledge of the metabolic pathways of triglyceride-rich particles and the consequences of hypertriglyceridemia is crucial in understanding the characteristic lipid alterations in DM, lipodystrophic disorders including those seen with HIV, and chronic renal disease. Measurements of non-HDL-C, apo B, or both may be especially useful in those with prominent triglyceride/ HDL abnormalities in which LDL-C measurements may underestimate true atherosclerotic vascular risk.
Article
Currently, nutrition therapy, in addition to their dietary support, can exert therapeutic effects without the undesirable effects that accompany the classical pharmacotherapy. In the last years, it has been highlighted that consumption of some foods as well as a nutritive function, has a profound influence on health outcomes. Importantly, recent research has suggested that dietary patterns such as the traditional Mediterranean diet of countries that surround the Mediterranean Sea, may confer protection from certain chronic diseases related to oxidative stress, inflammation and the immune system. Mediterranean diet is characterised by large amounts of foods naturally derived, such as vegetables, fruits, nuts, fish and grains and, in opposition to all other healthy diets, has a high content of total fat as its most distinctive feature. This is because of the usual high intake of olive oil, from olive tree, Olea europaea, the characteristic culinary fat of the Mediterranean area. In this respect, recent epidemiological studies have confirmed that habitual consumption of olive oil is effective in the prevention and treatment of certain pathologies especially, cardiovascular, neurodegeneration and aging, obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, and diverse types of cancer principally breast colorectal cancer, lung, stomach, but also endometrium, ovary, and prostate [1-3]. The monounsaturated oleic acid, the more ubiquitous monounsaturated fat, is the main component of olive oil, accounting up to 80% of the total lipidic composition. The other major fatty acids present are the polyunsaturated linoleic acid (2.5-20%) and the saturated palmitic acid (10-20%). Olive oil also contains multiple minor components, present in a small amount (about 2 % of oil weight) with important biological properties. They are classified into two types: the unsaponifiable fraction, defined as the fraction extracted with solvents after the saponification of the oil and the soluble fraction. Together contain more than 230 chemical compounds such as aliphatic and triterpenic alcohols, sterols, hydrocarbons, vitamins such as α- and γ-tocopherols (around 200 ppm) and β-carotene, phytosterols and pigments, volatile compounds and polyphenols including, simple phenols (hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol), aldehydic secoiridoids, flavonoids and lignans acetoxypinoresinol, pinoresinol) among others. In fact, the phenolic fraction is in part, responsible for olive oil oxidative stability and sensory attributes, and it is considered an important parameter in the evaluation of virgin olive oil quality [4] The content of the minor components of an olive oil varies, depending on the cultivar, climate, ripeness of the olives at harvesting, and the processing system employed to produce the types of olive oil currently present on the market: extra-virgin, virgin, olive oil or pomace. Virgin olive oil (VOO) is that one obtained from the fruit of the olive tree solely by mechanical or other physical means under conditions that do not lead to alteration in the oil. It has not undergone any treatment other than washing, decantation, centrifugation or filtration. Extra-VOOs are VOOs with a free acidity, expressed as g of oleic acid/100 g of olive oil, less than 0.8 g. Certain VOOs in agreement with the International Olive Oil Council Regulation are submitted to a refining process in which some components, mainly phenolic compounds, and to a lesser degree squalene, are lost. By mixing virgin and refined olive oil an ordinary olive oil (olive oil) is produced and marketed. After VOO production, the rest of the olive drupe and seed is processed and submitted to a refining process, resulting in pomace olive oil, to which a certain quantity of VOO is added before marketing [5]. Traditionally the beneficial effects of VOO have been attributed to its high monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content (oleic acid) as it protects lipoproteins and cellular membranes, from oxidative damage. There is likewise good evidence that the high proportion of oleic acid plays a protective role in cardiovascular diseases [6]. Besides, in most case-control and cohort studies have shown that oleic acid is associated with a reduction in the risk of cancer (mainly breast as it prevents the overexpression of HER2 (Her-2/neu, erB-2), a well-characterized oncogene that plays a key role in etiology, progression and response to chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, in approximately 20% of breast carcinomas [7] but also colorectal and prostate cancer [8,9]. In addition to MUFA evidences have accumulated on the favourable properties of minor though highly bioactive components of VOOs, particularly the phenolic compounds, which have shown a broad spectrum of bioactive properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, antiarrhythmic, platelet antiaggregant and vasodilatory effects [10-13]. Nevertheless, dietary intervention trials, observational studies or in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that the health benefit of VOO is attributable to the combined properties of all its constituents, namely MUFA and minor polar and non-polar compounds. Actually, it has been shown significant effects on the lipid profile with a decrease in LDL-cholesterol, and higher HDL/total cholesterol ratio versus saturated fatty acids and a reduction of LDL oxidizability. In the same way, it has been confirmed olive oil consumption is accompanied by a recovery of endothelial function and blood pressure control in addition to a promotion a reduction in thrombogenesis, both by a decrease of coagulation factors and platelet aggregation [14] In normal subjects and patients with type-2 diabetes it has been observed an improvement of glucose metabolism. Also there is experimental evidence concerning the favourable influence of olive oil on chronic inflammatory diseases such as gastric ulcer and inflammatory bowel disease [15,16]. Besides, studies in human cell lines and experimental models suggest a potential protective effect of VOO on the initiation, promotion and progression of carcinogenesis. Such protective action on cancer may be mediated through several mechanisms, mainly, changes in the composition and structure of tumour cells membranes, changes in eicosanoid biosynthesis or intracellular signaling pathways, modulation of gene expression, reduced cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage, and modulation of the immune system and hormonal balance in hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast and prostate [12]. Furthermore, recent studies have brought new insights of the favourable effects olive oil effects on obesity enhancing fat oxidation and optimizing energy metabolism in obesity conditions. On the other hand, recent reports suggest that VOO diets protects in age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease [9,12]. The purpose of this issue is intended to provide the reader an up-date of the beneficial activity of olive oil its bioactive constituents and the plausible molecular mechanisms of action.