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Multilingual education: between language learning and translanguaging

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... Traditionally, the three languages have been taught separately and the possible benefits of using the whole linguistic repertoire to establish links between the languages had not been acknowledged. New trends in multilingual education focusing on the whole linguistic repertoire and translanguaging have provided opportunities to change traditional approaches to teaching and to explore the potential advantages of translanguaging (May, 2013;Cenoz & Gorter, 2015). In this study, a group of teachers from different trilingual schools were provided with theoretical and practical information about translanguaging and were asked to implement pedagogical translanguaging in their own class. ...
... In many cases the curriculum includes different languages, which can be both local and international, and the school aims at developing competencies in several languages. These situations call for pedagogies that promote flexibility between languages and the use of resources across those languages (May, 2013;Cenoz & Gorter, 2015). ...
... The three examples of pedagogical translanguaging share a common theme in that the whole linguistic repertoire is valued and used, not only the designated language of the class, which was English. Students are multilingual speakers who can use their multilingual resources to understand and complete different tasks (García & Li, 2014;Lin, 2015;Cenoz & Gorter, 2015). In this way, students not only understand better but 24 also see that their multilingualism is valued. ...
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This article reports on a study of primary and secondary school teachers in Basque schools where Basque, Spanish and English are included in the curriculum. Traditionally, the three languages have been taught separately and the possible benefits of using the whole linguistic repertoire to establish links between the languages had not been acknowledged. New trends in multilingual education focusing on the whole linguistic repertoire and translanguaging have provided opportunities to change traditional approaches to teaching and to explore the potential advantages of translanguaging (May, 2013; Cenoz & Gorter, 2015). In this study, a group of teachers from different trilingual schools were provided with theoretical and practical information about translanguaging and were asked to implement pedagogical translanguaging in their own class. Teachers were given a guideline for the implementation and were asked to prepare a lesson plan including activities that involved the use of two or more languages for pedagogical purposes. Then, the teachers taking part in this study used translanguaging for at least one lesson, received feedback from their students and reflected on the implementation. The results of this study show that pedagogical translanguaging can provide new opportunities for language learning and language awareness in the context of multilingual education.
... 141). Research on plurilingualism and multilingualism also calls into question the view that languages and cultures are bounded systems (Cenoz & Gorter, 2015) and suggests that people living in multilingual contexts engage in translanguaging practices (García & Li Wei, 2014), conceptualized as fluid communicative moves and mixings of multiple languages and modes of expression. ...
... In Francophone minority communities and schools, however, normative and bounded views of language persist as teachers, parents and children are strongly encouraged to communicate exclusively in French. As in minority language communities elsewhere, translanguaging is not necessarily viewed in a positive light by those who assume that multilingualism and contact with a dominant language like English undermine the maintenance of the minority language (Cenoz & Gorter, 2015). Research on Francophone minority communities has shown how discourses about monolingualism weigh on teachers, parents and children in multilingual settings and impact on their linguistic and educational practices (Brisson, 2017;Dagenais, 2017;Forte, 2015;Levasseur, 2017). ...
... (Council of Europe, 2001, p. 4) Studies of interaction in the foreign language classroom have shown the potential pedagogical benefits of using students' full linguistic repertoires to facilitate their learning and use of the target language (e.g., St. John, 2010). The concept of translanguaging is growing steadily popular among language educators as a way to talk about the strategic use of students' multilingual resources in the language classroom (e.g., Cenoz & Gorter, 2015;García & Kleyn, 2016;MacSwan, 2017). Language teachers, then, are in the position of making practical language policy decisions about which languages may be used in their classrooms and how the established norms will be policed by teachers and among peers during lessons (e.g., Amir & Musk, 2014). ...
Article
Language policy has developed into a major area of research that continues to expand and develop. This article examines potential directions for cross-pollination between the fields of language policy and foreign language education. First, publication trends are examined. Database searches were conducted for the journals Foreign Language Annals, Modern Language Journal, Current Issues in Language Planning, Language Policy, and Language Problems and Language Planning. It is found that there is a dearth of studies on language policy in the foreign language–oriented journals and on foreign languages in language policy–oriented journals. Next, with these findings as a springboard, Spolsky's three-component model of language policy—practices, beliefs, and management—is used to guide discussion about future research directions at the confluence of language policy and foreign language education. Finally, implications for political engagement with language education issues are raised, and it is suggested that professional associations might learn from the strategies of successful political action groups.
... What is it in the ESUK learning environment that made these successes possible? From my observations it appeared to be these: seeing their teachers and fellow-pupils as role models of bilinguals, thus giving status to the bilingual process ; engaging in motivating content in a second language so the language itself is simply a vehicle for their learning (Genesee, 1994;Smyth, 2003); normalising multiple languages, so that speaking, hearing, and studying in two languages is the familiar culture (Hall, 2002); learning best when able to move between first and second languages freely when needed (Cenoz & Gorter, 2015). ...
Chapter
Schools that are situated internationally but adhere to a national curriculum face unique challenges in delivering a national curriculum replete with language and culture expectations and delivered primarily by monolingual/monocultural teachers to the linguistically and culturally heterogeneous populations in their classrooms. The British School of Amsterdam is no exception to this paradigm, but has chosen to embrace and support their students’ other languages rather than taking the all-too-common “English-only” pathway. They embarked on a multiyear journey to understand the needs of their language learners and support in both home language and school language growth. This chapter showcases their journey.
... Developing such a plurilingual vision is challenging as it requires rethinking in both teachers and learners, the role of the first language (and other languages they may have acquired) in learning the target language. Despite numerous studies ( Cummins 1984, García and Kleifgen 2010, Cenoz and Gorter 2015, Cook 2016) that show the value and necessity of drawing on learners' existing knowledge of other languages, monolingual practices still prevail in language education ( Lee andOxelson 2006, Scarino, 2014). Secondly, although 'bilingual Immigrant and Refugee Women's Resourcefulness in English Language Classrooms: Emerging possibilities through plurilingualism Literacy and Numeracy Studies: An international journal in the education and training of adults, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2017 support' and 'bilingual resources' (usually referring to the need for teaching assistants who speak learners' first languages), have traditionally been encouraged with adult immigrant and refugee learners in Australia (AMEP Research Centre 2007), focusing solely on the inclusion of learners' first language is inadequate in understanding the complex semiotic resources learners need to draw on to learn a new language. ...
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Reports on refugee and migrant women in Australia show these women have low literacy in their first language, limited English language abilities, and minimal formal schooling. With major funding cuts to the adult migrant education sector and persistent public ‘deficit views’ of immigrant and refugee’s levels of literacy, approaches to teaching and learning in this sector require flexible views of language that embrace plurilingualism as a valuable resource within and outside of the socially-orientated ESL classroom. In this article, we present and discuss our findings from a study in which we co-taught English to immigrant and refugee women in a housing estate in Melbourne, Australia, and investigated the effects of a plurilingual view on the women’s English language learning experience and communication skills. Drawing on recorded classroom dialogues, observation notes, and worksheets produced by the women, we demonstrate the extraordinary plurilingual resourcefulness immigrant and refugee women bring to the challenge of learning to communicate in English. Our aim is not to promote a particular teaching approach, but to suggest the value of ongoing critical reflection on the underpinning ideas of plurilingualism for immigrant and refugee learner groups such as those we experienced in our own classroom interactions.
... One of the key developments has been the steady growth of bilingual and multilingual education. Certainly, there have been long-standing bilingual education programs of various types around the world and interest in establishing bilingual and multilingual education programs only continues to grow (Cenoz & Gorter, 2015). ...
Article
Despite recent recognition of the value of the L1 in the L2 classroom, a previous tacit ban on L1 use has led to limited investigation of questions such as whether translated versions of texts can aid L2 learners’ L2 reading and, if so, what type of translation might be most helpful for them. Accordingly, this study investigated the effect of exposure to two different types of text translations on EFL learners’ reading comprehension and which translation version they preferred. Using a within-subjects design, participants read an L1 only, parallel translation and interlinear translation versions of the same text at the beginning, middle and conclusion of the semester. Participants also completed a reading comprehension assessment with each version and indicated which text type they preferred. Results showed that learners largely comprehended the L1 only version better than either the parallel or interlinear translated versions. Lower level learners in particular experienced difficulty understanding texts with parallel translations more than the interlinear translated text. Somewhat in contrast with previous research findings, learners had no clear preference for either translated text type.
... Extending this to learning, more broadly, the differential ways in which Maestra Gabriela's students could leverage their home language in the classroom might contribute to students not seeing their peers as having expertise and, therefore, as less capable partners in learning tasks. Additionally, the local 'sociolinguistic environment' ( Cenoz and Gorter 2015) in which this dual language program is embedded needs to be taken into account. DLI in an urban setting in New York or California, for example, looks very different than that same program in a midsized city in the Midwest. ...
Article
This article examines the role of translanguaging practices and pedagogies in two-way dual language classrooms. Much of the recent expansion of dual language programs across the US has occurred in mid-sized cities and rural communities where English monolingualism is the norm; however, the extant literature on flexible language practices in bilingual learning spaces has largely ignored the implications of translanguaging in these contexts. This case study of a Midwestern dual language classroom provides evidence that flexible language practices can both bolster and hinder the aims of two-way programs. Drawing from these findings, I argue for the creation of a critical translanguaging space, a sociolinguistic learning environment that interrogates micro- and macro-level power flows in the classroom and establishes strategic spaces for language use.
... They include creating a language-friendly environment within which pupils' languages other than English are valued (Elsner 2015), initiating explicit language comparisons on morphological, lexical and syntactic levels to have pupils uncover similarities and differences between languages and, ultimately, to strengthen the cognitive dimension of their language awareness (Schnuch 2015), engaging in inter-as well as intralingual prospective and retrospective language transfer, and transfer of language learning strategies (Meißner 2004), and encouraging pupils to employ their first language(s) as a "base of reference" when learning English (Butzkamm 2003). Further options include providing pupils opportunities to negotiate language meaning, form and subject content in "multilingual discourse" (Cenoz & Gorter 2015), especially to avoid simplifications (Gibbons 2006) which might occur due to the fact that pupils' linguistic abilities in the target language often have not (yet) developed to such an extent as to allow for discussions about complex topics and phenomena, as well as more practical things such as having pupils' who share similar language backgrounds but are heterogeneous in terms of their target language competence (Schmelter 2005) work together in groups. Needless to say that teaching and learning scenarios like this put high demands on both, teachers and learners alike, especially since they are frequently accompanied by teacher and learner roles which differ to a considerable extent from their traditional conception: If a multilingual approach to EFL teaching and learning is taken seriously, it is the pupils, not the teachers who act as "language experts" (at least in those phases where their L1s are explicitly included). ...
Article
The present study addresses a major concern in current German pre-service EFL teacher education: The development of prospective teachers’ multilingual-sensitive professional action competence that is their ability to make use of their future pupils’ multilingual resources to enhance EFL teaching and learning processes with a lexical focus. To this end, two identical teacher training classes held at Goethe University Frankfurt/Main, Germany are presented, the primary aims of which were to raise students’ awareness of multilingual-sensitive teaching approaches on the one, and to enable them to design multilingual-sensitive EFL lessons with a lexical focus on the other hand. Given insights from earlier research, namely that teachers’ beliefs and (prior) experiences “interact differently with the theoretical knowledge they gain in lectures” (Ellis 2006: 7), and to gain holistic insights into the development of participants’ competence, their beliefs about quality criteria of EFL teaching and learning processes with a lexical focus as well as the sources of these beliefs were addressed in classes. Not surprisingly, results show that students’ beliefs at the onset of classes were firmly rooted in their personal Language Learning Biographies and heavily shaped by mono-, rather than multilingual teaching and learning approaches. However, it could also be shown that students’ beliefs changed throughout the training, a finding which bears important implications for future teacher training classes.
... Translanguaging has been generalised from school to street, from pedagogical practices to everyday cognitive processing, from classroom lessons to all contexts of a bilingual's life (Cenoz & Gorter, 2015;Lewis et al., 2012a). Lewis et al. (2012a) distinguish between classroom and universal translanguaging wherein (a) classroom translanguaging (planned and serendipitous) has a pedagogic emphasis and (b) universal translanguaging has cognitive, contextual, and cultural aspects. ...
Article
This article examines the use of translanguaging as a pedagogical tool to support learning within bilingual classrooms in schools in Wales. Translanguaging is considered within non-pedagogic and pedagogic school contexts; hence, a distinction is made between universal and classroom translanguaging. Translanguaging has evoked debate surrounding the needed protection of the minoritized language; for example, in some designated Welsh-medium schools in predominantly English-speaking areas of Wales, there is a growing concern among teachers that allowing the use of majority language texts for translanguaging purposes might be a stepping-stone for increasing the use of English. This article asserts that bilingual education for the empowerment of minoritized languages, such as Welsh, must protect a space for the minoritized language, while simultaneously creating a bilingual space in which Welsh can interact with English. Hence, this article argues for the benefits of translanguaging in Welsh bilingual education and demonstrates instances in which this occurs.
... What is it in the ESUK learning environment that made these successes possible? From my observations it appeared to be these: seeing their teachers and fellow-pupils as role models of bilinguals, thus giving status to the bilingual process ; engaging in motivating content in a second language so the language itself is simply a vehicle for their learning (Genesee, 1994;Smyth, 2003); normalising multiple languages, so that speaking, hearing, and studying in two languages is the familiar culture (Hall, 2002); learning best when able to move between first and second languages freely when needed (Cenoz & Gorter, 2015). ...
Book
This book presents case studies of five schools engaged in radical change in order to engage with children’s home languages and cultures in a more multilingual and inclusive way. Located around the globe, from Hawaii to Kenya, the case studies are informed by both researchers and professionals on the ground.
... Strategy instruction supported self-control mechanisms, helping students become more aware of the reading process and, eventually more strategic readers. Furthermore, we also found that if students actively take part in the learning process, they can eventually become more independent learners, capable of controlling their own learning with the linguistic repertoires they possess, which is desirable in multilingual education (Cenoz & Gorter, 2015). ...
Article
This article contrasts two studies that focus on language learning strategies (Study 1) and strategy instruction (Study 2) in CLIL programs. Drawing from the literature on language learning strategies and strategy instruction, we propose a theoretical framework that takes into account metacognitive awareness as a useful concept to capture the interrelatedness of teaching, learning and using language learningstrategies in CLIL. We approach metacognitive awareness from two positions: 1) as a concept that describes self-regulated learning in students and constitutes one of the important areas of language learning strategies (metacognitive strategies), and 2) as a key concept when describing the decisions teachers make in their pedagogical planning and implementation, including when deciding on which language learning strategies to single out for instruction, and how to instruct these. We understand these two positions as interrelated and “speaking to each other”, scaffolding the learning processes through focused attention to vocabulary and language structures needed for content message and understanding. For future research, we propose a focus on CLIL teachers’ reflective cycles that take into account students’ prior knowledge (e.g., cognates, language learning strategies learnt in mainstream language classes, understanding of subject-specific concepts in native language), to build up a repertoire of language learning strategies and strategy instruction that supports the processes when integrating language and content learning.
... Pedagogical translanguaging or translanguaging education alludes to the "intentional instructional strategies that integrate two or more languages and aim at the development of the multilingual repertoire as well as metalinguistic and language awareness" (Cenoz & Gorter, 2020, p. 300), thus "a translanguaging classroom is any classroom in which students may deploy their full linguistic repertoires, and not just the particular language(s) that are officially used for instructional purposes in that space" (García, Ibarra Johnson, & Seltzer, 2017, p. 2). Consequently, the principles of pedagogical translanguaging can be applied to any classroom, at any level, and on any subject where more than one language is proactively being used (see examples in Cenoz & Gorter, 2015;García et al., 2017;Mazak & Carroll, 2016). ...
Chapter
The Innovative Language Pedagogy Report presents new and emerging approaches to language teaching, learning, and assessment in school, further education, and higher education settings. Researchers and practitioners provide 22 research-informed, short articles on their chosen pedagogy, with examples and resources. The report is jargon-free, written in a readable format, and covers, among others, gamification, open badges, comparative judgement, translanguaging, translation, learning without a teacher, and dialogue facilitation. It also includes technologies such as chatbots, augmented reality, automatic speech recognition, digital corpora, and LMOOCs, as well as pedagogical innovations around virtual exchange, digital storytelling, technology-facilitated oral homework, and TeachMeets.
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Although today's educational environments are to a great extend multilingual, large-scale foreign language examinations test heterogeneous groups with homogeneous examination practices, without taking all ecolinguistic parameters into consideration. Trying to minimize this limitation by calibrating examinations to the sociolinguistic and intercultural competence definitions of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), secures to an extend construct validity. However, the question still arises, if “one test fits all”. This paper focuses on oral foreign language assessment discourses, where discursive coconstruction and social nature of performance prevail. Adopting the ecolinguistic approach (Fill, 1996) the paper investigates the notion of symbolic competence (Kramsch & Whiteside, 2008) in the context of oral language examinations. By analyzing oral data the paper seeks to address, how ecolinguistic parameters concur in examination discourses and to what extend this effects the validity of measurement.
Article
The Swedish educational policy for upper secondary English, which took effect in 2011 and adopts a globalised perspective on language, is explored with respect to how skills and awareness related to local, national, and international roles of English are represented in policy documents. A discourse analytic approach to language policy is used to offer a critical reading of the national syllabus for English, the accompanying guide and commentary on the syllabus, and the general upper secondary curriculum. Analysis, informed by the work of Robert Phillipson, shows how English is represented with respect to the specific functions it serves as a lingua cultura (a language indexing socially situated value systems), a lingua emotiva (a language of popular culture and entertainment), a lingua academica (a language of research, teaching, and learning), a lingua economica (a language of market forces and globalisation), and a lingua tyrannosaura (a language of power or threat). The findings show that sociocultural and sociopolitical dimensions are identified in the syllabus for English to a greater extent than academic and professional/vocational dimensions of English which are treated in more detail in the general upper secondary curriculum and that the relationship between plurilingualism and English is minimally addressed but nascent.
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Since Cen Williams first used the Welsh term trawsieithu in 1994 to refer to a pedagogical practice where students in bilingual Welsh/English classrooms are asked to alternate languages for the purposes of receptive or productive use, the term translanguaging has been increasingly used in the scholarly literature to refer to both the complex and fluid language practices of bilinguals, as well as the pedagogical approaches that leverage those practices. This chapter reviews the growing scholarly literature that takes up the term translanguaging and discusses the ways in which the term is contested. We focus here on the potential and the challenges that a translanguaging theory provides for bilingual education. After a review of the scholarship, we discuss two of the problems that the scholarship on translanguaging and bilingual education makes evident – (1) that there are two competing theories of translanguaging, one which upholds national languages and calls for a softening of those boundaries in bilingual education and a second “strong” version which posits a single linguistic repertoire for bilingual speakers and thus an essential feature of bilingual education, and (2) the fear that translanguaging in bilingual education would threaten the minority language. In this light, we consider how translanguaging theory impacts issues of language allocation and pedagogy in bilingual education.
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By tradition, L2 motivation research has a monolingual bias, the motivational systems of a learner’s different languages conceptualized as separate entities rather than as cognitively interconnected. At a time when multilingualism has become a new world order (Douglas Fir Group, 2016) and where there is evidence of powerful identity experiences connected to speaking several languages (Pavlenko, 2006) this is unfortunate. In alignment with the multilingual and dynamic turns in SLA (de Bot, 2015; May, 2014), and adopting a complexity thought modeling approach (Larsen-Freeman & Cameron, 2008), this article explores multilingual learners’ L2 motivation. It is suggested that the motivational systems of a multilingual learner’s different languages can be understood as constituting a higher-level multilingual motivational self system that is part of an ecology of interconnected and interpenetrating systems. This system contains multilingual self-guides, one of which is the ideal multilingual self. Drawing on construal level theory (Liberman & Trope, 2010), the manner and effects of mental representations of an ideal multilingual self are assessed. Finally, it is suggested that motivation deriving from a broader identity which encompasses but in important ways transcends a multilingual person’s language-specific identities has a central role to play in a multilingual education.
Article
The study examines early multilingual formulaic speech with a focus on the English classroom. We have followed a discourse-pragmatic approach in the analysis of our data, which comprises transcripts from eight 45-minute sessions. Transcripts from these sessions involved 184 participants from two different age ranges. In this analysis, we have considered formulas produced in three languages: Catalan, Spanish, and English. Our goal is to provide further evidence for the inherent dynamism and complexity of early multilingual pragmatic development, and in so doing, to acknowledge the role of the educational level and the language program adopted in the school. Findings are partly in line with (a) previous studies dealing with the identification of pragmatic functions in the EFL classroom (Llinares & Pastrana, 2013), and (b) the peculiarities of early third language learners (Portolés, 2015). Finally, we tackle the importance of adopting multilingual perspectives in the analyses of multilingual students. http://www.jbe-platform.com/content/journals/10.1075/jicb.4.2.04saf
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Since Cen Williams first used the Welsh term trawsieithu in 1994 to refer to a pedagogical practice where students in bilingual Welsh/English classrooms are asked to alternate languages for the purposes of receptive or productive use, the term translanguaging has been increasingly used in the scholarly literature to refer to both the complex and fluid language practices of bilinguals, as well as the pedagogical approaches that leverage those practices. This chapter reviews the growing scholarly literature that takes up the term translanguaging and discusses the ways in which the term is contested. We focus here on the potential and the challenges that a translanguaging theory provides for bilingual education. After a review of the scholarship, we discuss two of the problems that the scholarship on translanguaging and bilingual education makes evident – (1) that there are two competing theories of translanguaging, one which upholds national languages and calls for a softening of those boundaries in bilingual education and a second “strong” version which posits a single linguistic repertoire for bilingual speakers and thus an essential feature of bilingual education, and (2) the fear that translanguaging in bilingual education would threaten the minority language. In this light, we consider how translanguaging theory impacts issues of language allocation and pedagogy in bilingual education.
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Dr. Jasone Cenoz is Professor of Applied Linguistics in the Department of Research Methods at the University of the Basque Country. Her research interests include multilingual education, the acquisition of English as a third language, language learning in school contexts and minority languages. The interview published in this issue was conducted in the autumn of 2015 as part of the meetings held with regard to the author’s doctoral thesis and research interests during a brief stay in Donostia (Spain).
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The term ‘translanguaging’ not only has appeared in the field of Applied Linguistics, but also, it entered in the field of Multilingual/Multicultural Education in early childhood classrooms. Translanguaging is mostly seen as an opportunity to build on emergent bilingual speakers’ full language repertoires in order to scaffold language learning; however, it also provides an opportunity for young learners to gain intercultural competence. The authors observed translanguaging practices during play time in the AraNY János Hungarian Kindergarten and School in New York City (USA) to understand how different languages and cultures presented in the class might contribute to shaping an anti-biased mind-set towards social and cultural diversity. The overarching aim of this study was to reveal some of the translanguaging practices both students and teachers used in a diverse ethnic community of Hungarian descendants living in New York City.
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In many urban settings across the globe, English for Academic Purposes (EAP) classes are inherently multilingual and provide unique possibilities to explore a wealth of languages and cultures as well as the interactions among them. Although the field of applied linguistics has historically followed monolingual ideologies, a plurilingual approach in EAP can provide insights into language practices that are situated, creative and contextualized. Raising students’ awareness of their own plurilingual and pluricultural repertoire is key to preparing them to make mindful decisions about culture and language use in real-life situations; plurilingual instruction includes translanguaging, validating plurilingual identities, as well as understanding pluriculturalism, all of which can open up possibilities for creativity in culture and language use. While research shows plurilingual-inspired pedagogies can benefit language learning, little is known about the extent to which they can enhance creative representations of language and culture. This article reports results from a study on the effects of plurilingual instruction on creativity in an EAP program. Seven EAP instructors delivered plurilingual tasks to adult students at a Canadian university. Data from demographic questionnaires, Language Portraits, student diaries (N=28), and classroom observations (N=21) were qualitatively analyzed and triangulated. Results suggest that the use of plurilingual tasks afforded a heightened awareness of plurilingual/pluricultural identity and validated the creative use of linguistic and cultural resources, including translanguaging. Suggestions for the inclusion of creative data collection instruments and plurilingual instruction in applied linguistics classroom research are made.
Chapter
The term ‘translanguaging’ has been widespread in the field of Applied Linguistics in a short period of time, and just as quickly, it infiltrated in the field of Multilingual Education. Translanguaging is mostly seen as an opportunity to build on multilingual speakers’ full language repertoire in the classroom in order to make sense of the world around them. At the same time, translanguaging might be seen as a threat for minority language survival because minority languages are forced to immerse in the majority language(s). The authors observed pedagogical translanguaging practices over a period of six months in the AraNY János Hungarian Kindergarten and School in New York City (USA) to understand how the mainstream language (English) was used in teaching the heritage language (Hungarian) and to discover how bridging existing language gaps between Hungarian and English speakers worked in the practices of Hungarian-English bilingual pedagogues. The overarching aim of this study was to reveal some of the pedagogical translanguaging strategies used in the above-mentioned bilingual immersion program to deal with occurring language gaps.
Chapter
The term ‘translanguaging' has been widespread in the field of Applied Linguistics in a short period of time, and just as quickly, it infiltrated in the field of Multilingual Education. Translanguaging is mostly seen as an opportunity to build on multilingual speakers' full language repertoire in the classroom in order to make sense of the world around them. At the same time, translanguaging might be seen as a threat for heritage language survival because heritage languages are forced to immerse in the mainstream language(s). The authors observed pedagogical translanguaging practices in the AraNY János Hungarian Kindergarten and School (USA) to understand how English was used in teaching the heritage language and to discover how bridging existing language gaps between speakers worked in the practices of bilingual pedagogues. The overarching aim of this study was to reveal some of the pedagogical translanguaging strategies used to deal with occurring language gaps.
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Teaching English has traditionally been associated with a monolingual bias and the exclusive use of English in the classroom is highly recommended in different countries. Nowadays English is widely used to teach academic content and this strict separation of languages can be problematic because it prevents students from using resources they have previously acquired in other languages (Cenoz & Gorter, 2015; Kubota, 2018). In this article we discuss ‘pedagogical translanguaging’ understood as intentional instructional strategies that integrate two or more languages and aim at the development of the multilingual repertoire as well as metalinguistic and language awareness. Pedagogical translanguaging considers learners as emergent multilinguals who can use English and other languages depending on the social context. Their linguistic resources are valued and learners are not seen as deficient users of English but as multilingual speakers.
Article
Using ethnographic approaches, we document encounters of humans and materials in environments where a digital tool was used to create multilingual and multimodal stories. Thinking with theories of the sociomaterial and concepts of agencement and becoming (Deleuze & Guattari, 1987), we reflect on identity construction as a collective process of coming into being. To do so, we examine relationships formed among young children, adults, digital devices and platforms, language and literacy norms, as well as discourses about monolingualism, multilingualism and literacy instruction to better understand how they converge during story creation. Inspirées par une approche ethnographique, nous documentons les rencontres humaines et matérielles lorsqu'un outil numérique est utilisé pour créer des histoires plurilingues et multimodales. En nous appuyant sur les théories sociomatérielles et les concepts d'agencement et de devenir (Deleuze & Guattari, 1987), nous redéfinissons la construction identitaire comme processus collectif émergent. Ainsi, nous examinons les relations entre enfants, adultes, outils numériques, normes linguistiques et de littératies et discours sur le monolinguisme, le plurilinguisme et l'enseignement des littératies pour mieux comprendre comment tout ceci converge dans la création des histoires.
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Der vorliegende Band vereint Beiträge aus dem Bereich der Interkomprehension, einer spezifischen mehrsprachigen Kommunikationsform, die in den letzten Jahren und Jahrzehnten Forschungsgegenstand zahlreicher Projekte war, zuletzt im Erasmus+-Projekt Évaluation des compétences en intercompréhension (EVAL-IC, 2016–2019). Im Zentrum des Bandes, der sich sowohl an Forschende als auch Lehrende und Studierende richtet, stehen die Beschreibung und die Evaluation der für die Interkomprehension spezifischen Kompetenzen. (siehe: https://www.waxmann.com/waxmann-buecher/?no_cache=1&tx_p2waxmann_pi2%5Bbuch%5D=BUC127134&tx_p2waxmann_pi2%5Baction%5D=show&tx_p2waxmann_pi2%5Bcontroller%5D=Buch&cHash=85ea9e98459434d7a85d8d2c95142a8d)
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en In the past decade, the content‐based instruction (CBI) has become increasingly popular in university English as a Foreign Language (EFL) contexts. After reviewing the concepts of CBI and translanguaging, the present study employs the mixed methods to explore the translanguaging practices in a Chinese university context. To achieve the overall aim of this study, 200 subjects were asked to complete questionnaire surveys. Five content specialists as teachers of CBI classes were observed twice for a collection of translanguaging practices. The conclusion draws on the discussion of the data that translanguaging practices have paramount potentials in CBI programs, which should be clearly aware. 抽象 zh 摘要:近十年来, 基于内容的教学(CBI)在中国大学日益流行。本文以一所中国大学为样本就CBI课堂上的超语现象进行了案例研究。在 回顾CBI和超语 两个术语之后, 本文介绍了混合研究范式。具体来讲, 为了达成本研究目标, 研究者对200名CBI学习者进行了问卷调 查, 对5位CBI教师的课堂教学进行了课堂观察。这样做旨在能比较全面地收集到CBI课堂教学过程出现的超语现象, 为理性地分析及诠 释这些超语现象的成因提供坚实基础。本研究认为:在CBI实施过程中, 超语现象不可避免, 且师生双方的超语实践都助推了CBI教学的成功实施。
Article
Learning French grammar spelling (GS) is particularly difficult for first-and second-language students, including in Quebec. However, certain teaching practices, such as integrated approach and metacognitive dictations, have shown positive effects on students ’ GS. In this study, we designed a teaching method inspired by these practices, integrating plurilingual pedagogy as well to include the bi/plurilingual profiles of students in French Quebec schools. We then tested a “plurilingual method” with Grade 7 students ( n = 79) and compared its effects with those of a “monolingual method” ( n = 70) and traditional GS teaching practices ( n = 46). Using a dictation and a written production for pretest, immediate and delayed posttest, we found that both the plurilingual and monolingual methods contribute significantly more to the development of GS than traditional teaching practices, especially the plurilingual method over time.
Book
https://www.routledge.com/Critical-Literacy-with-Adolescent-English-Language-Learners-Exploring-Policy/Alford/p/book/9781032005966 This book examines critical literacy within language and literacy learning, with a particular focus on English as an Additional Language learners in schools who traditionally are not given the same exposure to critical literacy as native-English speakers. An important and innovative addition to extant literature, this book explains how English language teachers understand critical literacy and enact it in classrooms with adolescent English language learners from highly diverse language backgrounds. This book brings together the study of two intersecting phenomena: how critical literacy is constructed in English language education policy for adolescent English language learners internationally and how critical literacy is understood and enacted by teachers amid the so-called ‘literacy crisis’ in neoliberal eduscapes. The work traces the ways critical literacy has been represented in English language education policy for adolescents in five contexts: Australia, England, Sweden, Canada and the United States. Drawing on case study research, it provides a comparative analysis of how policy in these countries constructs critical literacy, and how this then positions critical engagement as a focus for teachers of English language learners. Empirically based and accessibly written, this timely book will be of interest to a wide range of academics in the fields of adolescent literacy education, English language learning and teaching, education policy analysis, and critical discourse studies. It will also appeal to teachers, post-graduate students and language education policy makers.
Article
The premise of the present paper is that an intercultural approach to multilingualism in schools generates inclusion and a construction of cultural and linguistic identity that respects the diversity of society and classrooms. Students, teachers, and families participated in an action research project conducted in four schools with the presence of varied home languages. One of the objectives of the project is to foster intercultural education by introducing home languages in the school through identity texts. The process was documented through questionnaires, interviews with families and educators, and classroom observations. Results show that the texts and the curricular activities designed around them have provided spaces for the recognition and valuation of diversity. The self-esteem of alloglot students has improved and the collaborative relationship between school and families has increased. Conclusions point at the potential of multilingualism as a way to enrich the curriculum and to promote equality from diversity in the school context.
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Increasing migration-induced language diversity is putting pressure on the teaching of regional and minority languages in official bi-or multilingual regions. This study presents an in-depth analysis of teachers' and teacher trainers' beliefs and views towards language awareness and translanguaging approaches as possible ways to enhance pupils' language attitudes and motivation to learn a minority language, such as Frisian in the Netherlands. The study applies a qualitative design, based on the analysis of interviews with eight teachers and three teacher trainers, representing experts in their field. Through a thematic analysis, we provided an overview of the most salient themes within the data. Interviews revealed that teachers held positive beliefs about the value of language awareness and translanguaging approaches for minority language teaching. However, when it came to actual teaching practices, they favoured immersion-based approaches in order to enhance exposure to the minority language. This study offers a contribution to the field of language teaching in minority areas by arguing for teacher professionalisation to empower teachers in applying language awareness and translanguaging approaches without feeling anxious about causing language attrition of minority languages.
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Classroom code-switching refers to the alternating use of more than one linguistic code in the classroom by any of the classroom participants. This chapter provides a review of the historical development of the different research paradigms and approaches adopted in various studies. The difficulties and problems faced by this field of studies and critical reflections on how this field might move forward in the future are discussed.
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By extending the notion of metroethnicity, this paper proposes the notion of metrolingualism, creative linguistic practices across borders of culture, history and politics. Metrolingualism gives us a way to move beyond current terms such as ‘multilingualism’ and ‘multiculturalism’. It is a product of modern and often urban interaction, describing the ways in which people of different and mixed backgrounds use, play with and negotiate identities through language. The focus is not so much on language systems as on languages as emergent from contexts of interaction. Looking at data from workplaces where metrolingual language use is common, we show how the use of both fixed and fluid linguistic and cultural identities is part of the process of language use. The notion of metrolingualism gives us ways of moving beyond common frameworks of language, providing insights into contemporary, urban language practices, and accommodating both fixity and fluidity in its approach to language use.
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Embedded in ongoing debates about multiculturalism in nation-states such as the UK are frequent references to bilingualism. These references range from negative assessments of the phenomenon to more positive views. In this paper, I present and critique four assumptions that are often made about bilinguals and bilingualism, not only by the lay public but also by academics. I conclude with some thoughts on how my discussion of bilingualism might be relevant to the readers of Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching.
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The paper critically discusses key theoretical concepts and definitions attached to the notion of a ‘plurilingual social actor’, and assesses their impact and implications for European language policies and for the development of plurilingualism and citizenship in schools.
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This paper focuses on the advantages that bilinguals have over monolinguals when acquiring an additional language. Bilinguals are more experienced language learners and have potentially developed learning strategies to a larger extent than monolinguals. They also have a larger linguistic and intercultural repertoire at their disposal. In this paper the methodology and results of studies on the influence of bilingualism on third language acquisition (TLA) will be reviewed and their contribution to the study of multilingualism discussed. A new perspective, focus on multilingualism , is presented as a more appropriate way to analyse the effect of bilingualism on TLA. This perspective is holistic and focuses on multilingual speakers and their linguistic repertoires, including the interaction between their languages.
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In this article, we analyze the relationship between studies in second language acquisition and studies in bilingualism as areas that have been traditionally ignored but which share some common perspectives. Then we look at new trends in both areas that are compatible with a holistic perspective in the study of multilingualism. Based on these trends, we propose “Focus on Multilingualism,” an approach that looks at the whole linguistic repertoire of multilingual speakers and language learners and at the relationships between the languages when conducting research, teaching, or assessing different languages. In the second part of the article, we report on the results of an exploratory study on the development of writing skills in three languages: Basque, Spanish, and English. We explore different ways to look at the three languages and their interaction by focusing on the multilingual speaker and his or her languages rather than each of the specific languages in isolation. The results indicate that the languages are related to each other in different ways and that multilingual speakers develop their creativity in these language practices. We argue that by focusing on the different languages, we can gain new insights about the way languages are learned and used.
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Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a) the target language (TL) should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students? first language (L1); (b) translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c) within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. Research evidence provides minimal support for these assumptions and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, a set of bilingual instructional strategies are proposed and concrete examples are provided to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.
Book
This book offers a new perspective for research in the field of bilingual education by proposing an integrated approach to the study of bilingualism in minority and majority settings. Programmes for indigenous groups, for national minorities and for migrants are analysed together with programmes aimed at dominant language groups, by well-known scholars from eight different countries in Europe and the Americas. Each contribution seeks to go beyond the traditional dichotomy between policy, practice and research into bilingual education programmes for majority language speakers, and modalities offered for minority language speakers. Thus, the book argues for the construction of a shared discourse for research into bilingualism and bilingual education and for the adoption of an ecological perspective on language education. © Christine Hélot, Anne-Marie de Mejía and the authors of individual chapters. All rights reserved.
Book
Code Choice in the Language Classroom argues that the foreign language classroom is and should be regarded as a multilingual community of practice rather than as a perpetually deficient imitator of an exclusive second-language environment. From a sociocultural and ecological perspective, Levine guides the reader through a theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical treatment of the important roles of the first language, and of code-switching practices, in the language classroom. Intended for SLA researchers, language teachers, language program directors, and graduate students of foreign languages and literatures, the book develops a framework for thinking about all aspects of code choice in the language classroom and offers concrete proposals for designing and carrying out instruction in a multilingual classroom community of practice.
Chapter
For a long time, linguists found it difficult to account for the use of two or more ‘languages’ within one utterance by the same speaker. It was acknowledged of course (from the nineteenth century onwards, at the latest) that languages can ‘borrow’ structures from other languages without ever returning them to the ‘owners’ (to stick to this somewhat problematic metaphorical field). No doubt languages such as German or, even more so, English had massively copied lexical and — to a lesser extent — grammatical elements (above all derivational affixes) from other languages, such as Latin or French. However, these borrowings were exclusively analysed post factum, i.e. after they had become fully incorporated into the borrowing language. Few linguists were interested in languages whose status was unstable and ambiguous; among them was the Austrian Hugo Schuchardt who investigated ‘mixed’ languages such as creoles and Romani varieties as early as 1884 and came to the conclusion ‘dass eine Sprache A ganz allmählich, durch fortgesetzte Mischung, in eine von ihr sehr verschiedene B übergehen kann’ [‘that a language A can transform slowly but steadily, by constant mixture, into a language B which is very different from it’]. He continued on a somewhat fatalistic note: ‘Für die Beantwortung der Frage aber ob sie an einem bestimmten Entwickelungspunkt noch A oder schon B zu nennen sind, fehlte es uns gänzlich an Kriterien’ [‘However, we would lack all criteria to answer the question whether they can still be called still A or already B at a certain point of development’] (1884: 10).
Chapter
“Focus on Multilingualism” is a holistic approach to the study of multilingualism in educational contexts. This approach can be characterized by focusing on the following three elements: the multilingual speaker, the whole linguistic repertoire and the context. Multilingual speakers use languages as a resource to communicate successfully and to develop their own identities through multilingual practices. In this chapter, “Focus on Multilingualism” is illustrated with examples from multilingual education in the Basque Country.
Book
Multilingualism in the English-Speaking World: Pedigree of Nations explores the consequences of English as a global language and multilingualism as a social phenomenon. Written accessibly, it explores the extent of diversity in 'inner circle' English speaking countries (the UK, the USA, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand) and examines language in the home, school, and the wider community. Considers the perspectives of English as a global language as well as multilingualism as a social phenomenon. Written in an accessible style that draws on contemporary real life examples. Examines the everyday realities of people living in 'inner circle' English-speaking countries, such as the UK, USA, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Discusses the theoretical issues that underpin current debates, drawing on research literature on societal multilingualism, language maintenance and shift, language policy, language and power, and language and identity.
Article
The study of teenagers in the classroom, and how they interact with one another and their teachers, can tell us a great deal about late-modern society. In this revealing account, Ben Rampton presents the extensive sociolinguistic research he carried out in an inner-city high school. Through his vivid analysis of classroom talk, he offers answers to some important questions: does social class still count for young people, or is it in demise? Are traditional authority relationships in schools being undermined? How is this affected by popular media culture? His study, which provides numerous transcripts and three extensive case studies, introduces a way of perceiving established ideas in sociolinguistics, such as identity, insecurity, the orderliness of classroom talk, and the experience of learning at school. In doing so, Rampton shows how work in sociolinguistics can contribute to some major debates in sociology, anthropology, cultural studies and education.
Article
Currently, heritage language teaching to school-aged students is carried out both within public schools (e.g., in foreign language classes and bilingual/dual language programs) and in community-supported out-of-school programs. In all of these settings, the teaching of heritage languages is marginalized with respect to funding provisions, number of languages involved, and number of students who participate. For example, only a handful of languages are taught in foreign language classes or in bilingual/dual language programs. Within the mainstream classroom, students' knowledge of additional languages has typically been viewed as either irrelevant or as an impediment to the learning of English and overall academic achievement. Many students continue to be actively discouraged from using or maintaining their home languages. Not surprisingly, there is massive attrition of students' heritage language competence over the course of schooling. This paper articulates some directions for challenging the squandering of personal, community, and national linguistic and intellectual resources within the main stream classroom.
Article
Sociolinguists have long recognized that language is a social construct, and have found elusive any firm definition of what constitutes a language in relation to overlapping varieties. On the other hand, it is long established that language is recruited by nations, communities and individuals for its symbolic value and distinctiveness. Whereas the first of these positions views language as fluid and changing, with permeable boundaries, the second stresses the fixed, rigid nature of language. This paper describes how these two positions are played out in the multilingual contexts of four English cities, in complementary schools where young students learn Bengali, Cantonese, Gujarati, Mandarin, and Turkish. In the research reported here we observed a broad range of multilingual practices across a variety of settings in schools, and at the boundaries of school and home. From these practices we identify two seemingly contradictory positions in relation to participants’ bilingualism: an ideology which argues for ‘language separation’ and one in which ‘flexible bilingualism’ flourishes as a practice. These two positions can be said to illustrate the dynamic tension described in sociolinguistic research, which has often viewed language as fluid and overlapping, while at the same time acknowledging language as a social construct which demarcates and reifies identities. The paper looks at how students and teachers simultaneously lived both ‘separate’ and ‘flexible’ positions, and navigated between them interactively and discursively. Our analysis suggests that relations between ‘language’ and ‘ideology’ are far from straightforward for the young people and teachers in complementary schools. The heteroglossic reality of multilingual practice, with its flexible movement across and between ‘languages’, is underpinned by the social structures of which such interactions are a part.
Article
Translanguaging is both going between different linguistic structures and systems and going beyond them. It includes the full range of linguistic performances of multilingual language users for purposes that transcend the combination of structures, the alternation between systems, the transmission of information and the representation of values, identities and relationships. Translanguaing space is a space for the act of translanguaging as well as a space created through translanguaging. It is a space where the process of what Bhabha calls “cultural translation” between traditions takes place. The notion of translanguaging space embraces the concepts of creativity and criticality, which are fundamental but hitherto under-explored dimensions of multilingual practices. Using a combination of observation of multilingual practices and metalanguage commentaries by three Chinese youths in Britain, the article retells their experiences of growing up in a society which is dominated by a variety of monolingual ideologies, their multilingual practices and the creativity and criticality shown through such practices, the identity positions they construct and present for themselves, and the social spaces they create and occupy within the wider space they find themselves in. It examines the following themes: fun with words, from weekend bilingualism to flexible multilingualism, creating space and cultivating relationships, and transnational space. In examining these themes, a method, called Moment Analysis, is proposed, which aims to capture what appears to be spur-of-the-moment actions that are semiotically highly significant to the actors and their subsequent actions, what prompted such actions and the consequences of such moments including the reactions by other people.
Article
This paper draws on complexity theory and post-modern sociolinguistics to explore how an ecological approach to language data can illuminate aspects of language use in multilingual environments. We first examine transcripts of exchanges taking place among multilingual individuals in multicultural settings. We briefly review what conversation and discourse analysis can explain about these exchanges. We then build on these analyses, using insights from complexity theory and interactional sociolinguistics. We finally outline the components of a competence in multilingual encounters that has not been sufficiently taken into consideration by applied linguists and that we call 'symbolic competence'.
Article
The term ‘multi‐competence’ is used to define an individual's knowledge of a native language and a second language, that is L1 linguistic competence plus L2 interlanguage. The paper discusses the persistent tendency in L2 pedagogy, from the 1920s to the present, to make fallacious comparisons between multi‐competent L2 learners and monoglot speakers of the target language. The fallacy is perpetuated by many formal models of language acquisition, such as Universal Grammar, which is opposed to any notion of multiple competences. The paper lists and describes the principal elements of multi‐competence and presents a number of their implications for the construction of syllabi and examinations and the development of teaching methods.
Article
The present study was carried out in French immersion classrooms in an urban Quebec school board that is increasingly characterised by the heterogeneity of its French-dominant, English-dominant, and French/English bilingual student population. The study explored the extent to which a bilingual read-aloud project would (1) raise teachers' awareness of the bilingual resources of their students, (2) encourage students' cross-linguistic collaboration, and (3) promote teachers' cross-curricular and cross-linguistic collaboration. The participants were three English and three French teachers of three classes of six- to eight-year-old children. The French and English teachers of each class read aloud to their students from the same storybooks over four months, alternating the reading of one chapter in the French class and another in the English class. The data consist of (1) video recordings of the read-aloud sessions and discussion about the stories, (2) interviews and stimulated-recall sessions with the teachers, and (3) student focus-group interviews as well as a student questionnaire administered at the end of the project. Results are reported in terms of the enthusiasm of both students and teachers for the project, the opportunities it created for teachers and students to focus on both language and content, and the extent to which teachers collaborated to do so.
Article
A particular view of bilingualism — the monolingual (or fractional) view — has been given far too much importance in the study of bilinguals. According to it, the bilingual is (or should be) two monolinguals in one person. In this paper, the monolingual view is spelled out, and the negative consequences it has had on various areas of bilingual research are discussed. A bilingual (or wholistic) view is then proposed. According to it, the bilingual is not the sum of two complete or incomplete monolinguals; rather, he or she has a unique and specific linguistic configuration. This view is described and four areas, of research are discussed in its light: comparing monolinguals and bilinguals, language learning and language forgetting, the bilingual's speech modes, the bilingual child and ‘semilingualism’.
Article
The uniquely human capacity of using arbitrary signs to transfer concept and experience over great distances in time and place is what we call language. We use language with a purpose, and we use whatever features are at our disposal to achieve our ends, regardless of the fact that some speakers think that certain features should be held together and not used in combination with certain other features. The phenomenon of language is not necessarily a construction, and while all individual languages are constructed, it is not possible to clearly delimit them from each other. The crucial phenomenon is language, not any specific language. While some Some speakers think languages should be kept apart, others combine three, four, or more different sets of features (i.e. so-called ‘languages’) in their linguistic production. This is characteristic of polylingualism (where multilingualism is characterised by the knowledge of several separate languages). These speakers do not choose their features randomly. Particularly in late-modern urban youth groups the simultaneous use of features from many different sources is frequent.
Article
Using a sociocultural theoretical lens, this study examines the nature of student interactions in a dual immersion school to analyze affordances for bilingual language learning, language exchange, and co-construction of language expertise. This article focuses on data from audio- and video-recorded interactions of fifth-grade students engaged in joint writing activities (in Spanish and English). A qualitative analysis of discourse found that students seized opportunities to use two languages simultaneously, which multiplied opportunities for metalinguistic analysis and bridged understanding across interlocutors. Findings suggest that language learning affordances could be fostered in linguistically diverse classrooms by allowing interplay between languages and by creating activities that encourage learners to co-construct text. This study contributes to the expansion and reconceptualization of the field of language education research by attending to bilingual language learners, or first language/second language users, whose reciprocal language learning experiences show how concepts from the fields of second language acquisition and bilingualism are necessarily linked. This study also contributes to language learning research using a sociocultural perspective by revealing the ways that two languages can simultaneously become mediational tools and objects of analyses within bilingual interactional spaces.
Article
Bilingual classrooms most often have strict language arrangements about when and who should speak what language to whom. This practice responds to diglossic arrangements and models of bilingualism developed in the 20th century. However, in the 21st century, heteroglossic bilingual conceptualizations are needed in which the complex discursive practices of multilingual students, their translanguagings, are used in sense-making and in tending to the singularities in the pluralities that make up multilingual classrooms today. Examining the case of a network of U.S. secondary schools for newcomer immigrants, the International High Schools, this article looks at how students’ plurilingual abilities are built through seven principles that support dynamic plurilingual practices in instruction—heterogeneity, collaboration, learner-centeredness, language and content integration, language use from students up, experiential learning, and local autonomy and responsibility. As a result, students become not only more knowledgeable and academically successful but also more confident users of academic English, better at translanguaging, and more plurilingual-proficient. The article presents translanguaging in education as the constant adaptation of linguistic resources in the service of meaning-making and in tending to the singularities in the pluralities that make up multilingual classrooms today.
Article
The term multicompetence describes “the compound state of a mind with two grammars” (Cook, 1991a, p. 112). This paper reviews evidence addressing two questions: 1. Do people who know two languages differ from people who know only one in other respects than simply knowledge of an L2? L2 users differ from monolinguals in L1 knowledge; advanced L2 users differ from monolinguals in L2 knowledge; L2 usershave a different metalinguistic awareness from monolinguals; L2 users have different cognitive processes. These subtle differences consistently suggest that people with multicompetence are not simply equivalent to two monolinguals but are a unique combination. 2. Do people who know two languages have a merged language system rather than two separate systems? The L1 and L2 share the same mentallexicon; L2 users codeswitch readily; L2 processing cannot be cut off from LI; both languages are stored in the same areas of the brain; L2 proficiency relates to L1 proficiency. This evidence suggests merged systems at some level in some areas, even if some of it is open to other interpretations. A final section discusses more general issues. Much SLA research is biased by adopting the monolingual as a norm rather than the multicompetent speaker. Multicompetence distinguishes diachronic transfer during the learner's acquisition from synchronic transfer between the two languages at a single moment of time. Multicompetence starts when there is systematic knowledge of an L2 that is not assimilated to the L1. Holistic multicompetence is seen as an offshoot of polylectal grammar theory applied to monolinguals. Language teaching should try to produce multicompetent individuals not ersatz native speakers.
Article
This article reports on research that questions commonsense understandings of a bilingual pedagogy predicated on what Cummins (2005, 2008) refers to as the “two solitudes” assumption (2008, p. 65). It sets out to describe a flexible bilingual approach to language teaching and learning in Chinese and Gujarati community language schools in the United Kingdom. We argue for a release from monolingual instructional approaches and advocate teaching bilingual children by means of bilingual instructional strategies, in which two or more languages are used alongside each other. In developing this argument, the article takes a language ecology perspective and seeks to describe the interdependence of skills and knowledge across languages.
Article
Firth and Wagner (1997) questioned the dichotomies nonnative versus native speaker, learner versus user, and interlanguage versus target language, which reflect a bias toward innateness, cognition, and form in language acquisition. Research on lingua franca English (LFE) not only affirms this questioning, but reveals what multilingual communities have known all along: Language learning and use succeed through performance strategies, situational resources, and social negotiations in fluid communicative contexts. Proficiency is therefore practice-based, adaptive, and emergent. These findings compel us to theorize language acquisition as multimodal, multisensory, multilateral, and, therefore, multidimensional. The previously dominant constructs such as form, cognition, and the individual are not ignored; they get redefined as hybrid, fluid, and situated in a more socially embedded, ecologically sensitive, and interactionally open model.
Article
In 3 experiments, a total of 151 monolingual and bilingual 6-year-old children performed similarly on measures of language and cognitive ability; however, bilinguals solved the global-local and trail-making tasks more rapidly than monolinguals. This bilingual advantage was found not only for the traditionally demanding conditions (incongruent global-local trials and Trails B) but also for the conditions not usually considered to be cognitively demanding (congruent global-local trials and Trails A). All the children performed similarly when congruent trials were presented in a single block or when perceptually simple stimuli were used, ruling out speed differences between the groups. The results demonstrate a bilingual advantage in processing complex stimuli in tasks that require executive processing components for conflict resolution, including switching and updating, even when no inhibition appears to be involved. They also suggest that simple conditions of the trail-making and global-local tasks involve some level of effortful processing for young children. Finally, the bilingual advantage in the trail-making task suggests that the interpretation of standardized measures of executive control needs to be reconsidered for children with specific experiences, such as bilingualism.
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