ArticlePDF Available

Floristic composition and biogeography of tropical montane rain forest in southern Yunnan of China

Authors:
Garden’s Bulletin Singapore 58 (2006) 81-132 81
Species Composition and Biogeography of Tropical
Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
ZHU H., WANG H., LI B.-G.
Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, The Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Kunming 650223, P. R. China (mail address: Xue Fu Road 88, Kunming 650223,
Yunnan, P. R. China; e-mail: zhuh@xtbg.ac.cn)
Abstract
The species composition, physiognomy and biogeography of tropical montane rain forest
in southern Yunnan, SW China, have been studied based on data from 10 sampling plots
and a complete floristic inventory. Two separate communities are recognized: a Mastixia
euonymoides-Phoebe megacalyx forest and a Parakmeria yunnanensis-Gymnanthes
remota forest based mainly on species composition and forest structures. The tropical
montane rain forest is characterized by evergreen meso-phanerophytes and micro-
phanerophytes with simple, leathery and entire mesophyllous leaves, more or less
frequent woody lianas and epiphytes, abundant herbaceous phanerophytes. However, it
has few buttresses or cauliflory in physiognomy. The montane rain forest has similar
species diversity to the lowland seasonal rain forest in the region. This indicates that
species richness is not necessarily reduced with increasing altitude. We suggest this rain
forest is a type of lower montane rain forest based mainly on its physiognomy, structure
and floristics, but one that occurs at a higher altitude than those in equatorial SE Asia.
The montane rain forest is dominated, in terms of species richness, by Lauraceae,
Euphorbiaceae, Fagaceae, Theaceae, Rubiaceae and Papilionaceae, but by Lauraceae,
Magnoliaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fagaceae, Mastixiaceae and Nyssaceae in terms of
phytosociological importance. In floristic composition, a total of 623 native species in
327 genera and 115 families of seed plants were recorded from the montane rain forest,
of which recognizably 'tropical' elements contributed about 78.9% at the generic level
and more than 80% at the specific level. Plants of tropical Asian distribution contribute
63.7% of the total sum of species. We conclude that the montane rain forest has strong
tropical Asian affinities floristically even though it occurs at the northern margin of
mainland SE Asia and at a higher altitude.
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 82
Introduction
Southern Yunnan in southwestern China is exceptionally interesting to botanists because of its
diversified biota and unique geological-biogeographical history. The region is the most species
rich and has the largest tropical-subtropical forest cover in southern China. The region is at a
transitional zone between tropical Southeast Asia and subtropical East Asia geographically, and is
also supposed to be a conjunction area between the Shan-Tai fragment of Gondwanaland and the
southeastern margin of the Asian continent geologically (Fortey et al., 1998, Metcalfe, 1998).
Accordingly southern Yunnan is a key area in biogeography as well as being a global 'hot spot'
for biodiversity (Myers, 1998).
The vegetation of southern Yunnan was mentioned, albeit briefly, for the first time by
C.W. Wang in 1939 (Wang, 1939), but little was known until late 1950s because of poor access.
Studies on the tropical forests in southern Yunnan have been done although little has been
published in English (Zhu, 1992, 1993; Wu, 1987; Jin, 1997; Cao, 1996; Cao & Zhang, 1997;
Zhu, 1997; Zhu et al., 1998a, 1998b, 2003, 2004; Zhu & Roos, 2004). Previous work on the forest
in southern Yunnan has been restricted, largely, to the tropical rain forests at lowland sites below
900 m above sea level. The tropical montane rain forests are still poorly known (but see the
descriptive works of Wu, 1987; Wang et al., 2001; Zhu et al., 2004).
Pristine montane rain forests were discovered recently at Mengsong in southern Yunnan,
in the border between Myanmar and Yunnan (Wang et al., 2001). The montane rain forests occur
in valleys and on some mountain slopes between 1500-1800 m and are a type of 'lower montane
rain forest' according to Ashton's (2003) categorization of altitudinal forest zonation in
Southeastern Asia.
Montane forests and their altitudinal zonation in tropical southeastern Asia have been
studied by a great many authors since Brown (1919). The more important of these include
Steenis (1935, 1984), Whitmore & Burnham (1969), Whitmore (1984), Ohsawa et al. (1985),
Ohsawa (1991, 1993,1995), Kitayama (1992), Nakashizuka (1992), Pendry & Proctor (1996),
Aiba & Kitayama (1999), Buot & Okitsu (1999) and Ashton (2003). It has been accepted,
commonly, that there is an ecotone between the tropical lowland forest and lower montane forest
with changes in physiognomic, structural and floristic attributes, occurring usually between 900-
1200 m altitude. The montane rain forest in southern Yunnan occurs at much higher altitudes on
the northern margin of tropical Southeast Asia. Its physiognomy, floristics and biogeography are
accordingly of special interest.
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
83
Site Description
Southern Yunnan is located in the southernmost part of Mainland China (Figure 1). It borders
Myanmar and Laos, and has a mountainous topography with the mountain ridges running in a
north-south direction and becoming lower in elevation southward. Altitude ranges from 480 m at
the bottom of the lowest valley in the south (Mekong River) to 2429.5 m at the top of the highest
mountain in the north. The Mekong River traverses the region from northwest to southeast (Xu &
Jiang, 1987).
Mengsong is an administrative district in the west of southern Yunnan occupied by Hani
people, an indigenous ethnic group. It is located in the border between Myanmar and Yunnan.
Topographically it is a high basin surrounded by mountains, and varies in altitude from 1557 m
within the basin to 2100 m at the top of the surrounding mountains. The region has a monsoon
climate. From our climatic observation at 1600 m elevation, the mean annual temperature is 16.7
°C; the extreme minimum air temperature is 1.7 °C, the maximum air temperature 28.5 °C, and
the annual temperature accumulation (the sum of daily temperature means of > 10 ºC) 6083 °C.
The mean annual precipitation is between 1800 and 2379 mm. More than 80% of the precipitation
falls during the rainy season between May and the end of October, and the annual mean relative
humility is 83.4%.
Myanmar (Burma)
China
Vietnam
Laos
Thailand
Yunnan
#
Mengsong
Figure 1 Map showing the location of Mengsong region in Xishuangbanna, southern
Yunnan.
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 84
Methodology
The study was conducted in two stages: First, there was a general, landscape-scale, floristic
inventory of the tropical montane rain forest in Mengsong, in which all plant species in the forest
were recorded and specimens collected whenever possible. When habitat-related floristic
variation had been identified, a systematic plot-based study was carried out. Five sampling plots
each 25 × 20 m in size were established in each assemblage in order to characterize floristic
variation. All trees in these plots were identified and their d.b.h. (minimum 5 cm), height and
crown cover measured. In each plot, five 5×5 m sub-plots were established to facilitate floristic
survey of the understorey. In these sub-plots, saplings, shrubs and herbaceous plants were
counted. Lianas in these plots were identified and their abundance estimated. The importance
value index (IVI) suggested by Curtis and McIntosh (1951) was calculated. Physiognomy (life
forms and leaf sizes) was analyzed using Raunkiaer’s criteria (1934) as revised by Mueller-
Dombois and Ellenberg (1974). Webb (1959) split off the lower end of Raunkiaer’ big mesophyll
class (2025 –18225 mm2) as notophylls (2025-4500 mm2), which is to be preferred for detailed
categorization of leaf size spectrum. Nevertheless, Chinese botanists and their local audiences are
familiar with Raunkiaer’ big mesophyll class. Accordingly we retain the big mesophyll class of
Raunkiaer in this analysis.
Based on intensive floristic inventory of the forest, a more or less complete species list
has been compiled, from which the floristics and geographical elements have been analyzed.
Physiognomic comparisons between the montane rain forest and lowland rain forests in southern
Yunnan and the equatorial tropics, and other montane rain forests in southeastern Asia have been
made to demonstrate further the characteristics of the Yunnan montane rain forests. Specimens
were identified and voucher material is lodged in the herbarium of Xishuangbanna Tropical
Botanical Garden (HITBC). Species authorities follow “Flora of China”
Results
The vegetation
Based mainly on their habitats, species composition and forest profiles, we have
divided the vegetation of the montane rain forest into two distinct assemblages which we
name based on their dominant and subdominant species, viz.:
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
85
1 Mastixia euonymoides- Phoebe megacalyx forest
2 Parakmeria yunnanensis- Gymnanthes remota forest
Mastixia euonymoides- Phoebe megacalyx forest ('ME-PM')
The ME-PM forest occurs mainly in wetter montane valleys. The forest has usually two
tree layers. The upper layer is up to 35 m high with a crown cover of 70-80%, and is dominated
by M. euonymoidos, Manglietia hookeri, Michelia cavaleriei and Nyssa wenshanensis var.
longipedunculata. In some sites M. euonymoides grew sufficiently tall as to be considered as
emergents. The lower tree layer was further divided into two sub-layers in some sites. The upper
sub-layer was 10-20 m high with a crown cover of 60-70%, and was dominated by Phoebe
megacalyx, Syzygium brachythyrsum and Dysoxylum binectariferum. The lower sub-layer is 5-10
m high with a cover of 40-50%. The most frequent species are Ardisia thyrsiflora,
Cylindrokelupha kerrii, Ostodes kuangii and Brassaiopsis lepidota (see Appended Table 1).
The shrub layer is up to 1-5 m high and is dominated by juvenile trees. The most frequent
shrub species are Psychotria symplocifolia, Brassaiopsis fatsioides, Mycetia gracilis, Brachytome
hirtellata var. glabrescens and Oxyspora vagans.
The herbaceous layer is well developed with a cover of 50-70%. Frequent species are
Ophiorrhiziphyllum macrobotryum, Allantodia dilatata, Ctenitopsis sp., Microsorum dilatatum,
Porandra scandens, Rhynchotechum obovatum and Strobilanthes sp.
There are a few lianas but some big woody individuals belonging to species such as
Epigynum auritum, Bousigonia angustifolia, Calamus nambariensis, and Gnetum montanum are
present.
Epiphytes are abundant. They include Pothos chinensis, Neottopteris nidus,
Rhaphidophora hongkongensis, Aeschynanthus bracteatus, Pholidota imbricata and Asplenium
normale.
Parakmeria yunnanensis- Gymnanthes remota forest (PY-GR)
The PY-GR forest occurs on shady slopes and the tops of hills. The forest is 25-30 m high with a
very even canopy. It also has two tree layers. The upper layer with a crown cover of 80%, is
dominated by P. yunnanensis, Nyssa wenshanensis, Cinnamomum javanicum and Calophyllum
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 86
polyanthum. The lower layer is at 5-20 m with a cover of 70-80%, and is dominated by G. remota,
Syzygium brachythyrsum, Xanthophyllum yunnanensis and Wendlandia pingpiensis (see
Appended Table 2).
Appended Table 1. Importance values Index (IVI) of tree species in Mastixia euonymoides- Phoebe
megacalyx forest.
Altitude: 1650-1780 m
Plot number and size: 5 (25×20) = 2500 m2
Slope degree: 10-35
Height of canopy: 35 (m)
Coverage: > 90%
No. of sp. (>5 cm dbh): 62
No. of stems: 263
Species name RA RF RD IVI*
Mastixia euonymoides 0.76 1.64 23.46 25.86
Phoebe megacalyx 9.13 4.1 6.00 19.22
Syzygium brachythyrsum 9.51 4.1 3.01 16.62
Dysoxylum binectariferum 9.51 4.1 2.35 15.95
Manglietia hookeri 0.38 0.82 14.14 15.34
Michelia cavaleriei 1.9 2.46 8.73 13.09
Nyssa wenshanensis var. longipedunculata 1.52 2.46 7.12 11.10
Linociera insignis 4.94 3.28 1.66 9.88
Ardisia thyrsiflora 4.56 4.1 0.87 9.53
Cinnamomum javanicum 2.66 3.28 3.21 9.15
Helicia pyrrhobotrya 4.18 3.28 0.58 8.05
Calophyllum polyanthum 2.66 3.28 1.72 7.66
Ostodes kuangii 3.8 2.46 1.38 7.64
Xanthophyllum yunnanensis 3.42 3.28 0.88 7.58
Brassaiopsis lepidota 2.28 2.46 1.90 6.64
Cylindrokelupha kerrii 3.8 2.46 0.29 6.55
Cryptocarya rolletii 3.04 3.28 0.17 6.49
Alcimandra cathcartii 1.52 2.46 2.29 6.27
Litsea vang var. lobata 1.52 3.28 0.13 4.93
Litsea lancifolia var. pedicellata 2.28 2.46 0.12 4.86
Randia sp. 2.66 1.64 0.52 4.82
Michelia hedyosperma 1.14 1.64 1.93 4.71
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
87
Drypetes salicifolia 0.76 1.64 2.30 4.70
Hovenia acerba var. kiukiangensis 0.76 0.82 2.82 4.40
Lithocarpus hancei 0.76 0.82 2.56 4.14
Litsea verticillata 1.52 1.64 0.03 3.19
Mastixia pentandra var.chinensis 1.14 1.64 0.28 3.06
Reevesia thyrsoidea 1.14 1.64 0.26 3.04
Randia wallichii 1.14 1.64 0.25 3.03
Dimocarpus yunnanensis 0.76 1.64 0.45 2.85
Macaranga henryi 1.52 0.82 0.17 2.51
Machilus shweliensis 0.38 0.82 1.27 2.47
Alseodaphne andersonii 0.38 0.82 0.91 2.11
Litsea lancifolia 0.76 0.82 0.39 1.97
Walsura yunnanensis 0.38 0.82 0.73 1.93
Cinnamomum tamala 0.76 0.82 0.27 1.85
Elaeocarpus glabripetalus var. alata 0.38 0.82 0.61 1.81
Rhododendron moulmainensis 0.76 0.82 0.22 1.80
Alsophila costularis 0.76 0.82 0.18 1.76
Beilschmiedia roxburghiana 0.38 0.82 0.45 1.65
Alphonsea tsangyuanensis 0.38 0.82 0.43 1.63
Cyclobalanopsis chrysocalyx 0.38 0.82 0.38 1.58
Meliosma simplicifolia 0.38 0.82 0.33 1.53
Tapiscia yunnanensis 0.38 0.82 0.28 1.48
Alseodaphne pectiolaris 0.38 0.82 0.27 1.47
Eriobotrya bengalensis var. angustifolia 0.38 0.82 0.27 1.47
Gymnanthes remota 0.38 0.82 0.26 1.46
Michelia floribunda 0.38 0.82 0.19 1.39
Diospyros kaki var. sylvestris 0.38 0.82 0.18 1.38
Laurocerasus jenkinsii 0.38 0.82 0.15 1.35
Nyssa wenshanensis 0.38 0.82 0.14 1.34
Beilschmiedia linocieroidea 0.38 0.82 0.12 1.31
Ficus auriculata 0.38 0.82 0.09 1.29
Walsura robusta 0.38 0.82 0.08 1.28
Artocarpus nitidus 0.38 0.82 0.08 1.28
Lithocarpus pseudoreinwardtii 0.38 0.82 0.04 1.24
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 88
Lindera latifolia 0.38 0.82 0.03 1.23
Oxyspora vagans 0.38 0.82 0.03 1.23
Litsea garretii 0.38 0.82 0.02 1.22
Castanopsis argyrophylla 0.38 0.82 0.01 1.21
Microtropis tetragona 0.38 0.82 0.00 1.20
Gymnosphaera gigantea 0.38 0.82 0.00 1.20
Total (62 species) 263 stems 100 100 100.00 300.00
* RA: Relative abundance; RD: Relative dominance; RF: Relative frequency: IVI: Importance value index (Curtis &
McIntosh, 1951)
Appended Table 2. Importance values Index (IVI) of tree species in Parakmeria yunnanensis-
Gymnanthes remota forest.
Altitude: 1650-1700 m
Plot number and size: 5 (25×20) = 2500 m2
Slope degree: 5-30
Height of canopy: (m)
Coverage: > 90%
No. of sp. (>5 cm dbh): 70
No. of stems: 293
Species name RA RF RD IVI*
Gymnanthes remota 15.36 4.20 3.97 23.53
Parakmeria yunnanensis 1.02 2.52 11.08 14.62
Xanthophyllum yunnanensis 7.17 3.36 2.22 12.75
Syzygium brachythyrsum 7.17 3.36 1.65 12.18
Wendlandia pingpiensis 6.83 3.36 1.19 11.38
Nyssa wenshanensis 1.02 1.68 8.13 10.84
Cinnamomum javanicum 3.07 3.36 3.83 10.26
Calophyllum polyanthum 3.41 3.36 3.38 10.15
Nyssa wenshanensis var. longipedunculata 2.05 1.68 5.93 9.66
Mastixia pentandra subsp. chinensis 4.10 1.68 3.72 9.49
Cyclobalanopsis chapensis 3.42 2.52 3.29 9.23
Manglietia insignis 0.68 0.84 6.17 7.70
Acer decandrum 2.05 3.36 2.26 7.67
Ostodes kuangii 4.44 0.84 0.53 5.80
Cyclobalanopsis chrysocalyx 0.34 0.84 3.97 5.16
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
89
Machilus shweliensis 1.37 2.52 1.11 5.00
Engelhardtia spicata 0.34 0.84 3.78 4.96
Alcimandra cathcartii 0.68 1.68 2.58 4.94
Michelia floribunda 1.37 1.68 1.79 4.83
Podocarpus neriifolius 0.68 0.84 3.22 4.75
Craibiodendron stellatum 1.02 0.84 2.55 4.42
Lithocarpus gagnepainianus 1.71 0.84 1.85 4.40
Dimocarpus yunnanensis 2.05 1.68 0.55 4.28
Gomphandra tetrandra 2.73 0.84 0.69 4.26
Cinnamomum bejolghota 1.37 2.52 0.28 4.17
Lithocarpus pseudoreinwardtii 2.05 1.68 0.24 3.96
Linociera ramiflora 0.68 1.68 1.16 3.52
Castanopsis hystrix 0.34 0.84 2.24 3.43
Litsea lancifolia 0.34 0.84 2.21 3.39
Lindera metcalfiana var. dictyophylla 1.37 1.68 0.23 3.27
Castanopsis argyrophylla 0.68 0.84 1.47 2.99
Lithocarpus fohaiensis 0.34 1.68 0.90 2.92
Reevesia thyrsoidea 0.68 1.68 0.52 2.88
Ardisia thyrsiflora 1.02 1.68 0.15 2.86
Randia griffithii 0.68 1.68 0.47 2.84
Schima wallichii 0.68 0.84 1.27 2.80
Symplocos wikstroemiifolia 1.02 1.68 0.07 2.77
Dysoxylum binectariferum 1.02 1.68 0.06 2.76
Pygeum henryi 0.68 1.68 0.33 2.69
Litsea euosma 0.34 0.84 1.26 2.44
Cylindrokelupha kerrii 0.68 1.68 0.06 2.43
Eurya aurea 0.68 1.68 0.06 2.42
Linociera insignis 0.68 1.68 0.04 2.40
Eriobotrya obovata 0.68 0.84 0.84 2.37
Rhododendron moulmainensis 1.02 0.84 0.44 2.30
Acer huianum 0.34 0.84 1.03 2.21
Alangium chinensis 0.34 0.84 0.92 2.10
Elaeocarpus howii 0.34 0.84 0.77 1.95
Machilus rufipes 0.34 0.84 0.61 1.79
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 90
Ternstroemia gymnanthera 0.34 0.84 0.54 1.72
Itea macrophylla 0.68 0.84 0.16 1.68
Beilschmiedia robusta 0.34 0.84 0.39 1.57
Lithocarpus truncatus 0.34 0.84 0.38 1.56
Pittosporum kerrii 0.34 0.84 0.26 1.45
Laurocerasus jenkinsii 0.34 0.84 0.23 1.41
Helicia tsaii 0.34 0.84 0.17 1.35
Tricalysia fruticosa 0.34 0.84 0.17 1.35
Styrax grandiflora 0.34 0.84 0.16 1.34
Bruinsmia polysperma 0.34 0.84 0.15 1.33
Garcinia cowa 0.34 0.84 0.08 1.27
Eurya prunifolia 0.34 0.84 0.06 1.24
Casearia velutina 0.34 0.84 0.04 1.22
Carallia lanceaefolia 0.34 0.84 0.03 1.21
Sarcosperma griffithii 0.34 0.84 0.02 1.20
Oxyspora vagans 0.34 0.84 0.02 1.20
Platea latifolia 0.34 0.84 0.02 1.20
Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia 0.34 0.84 0.01 1.20
Amoora yunnanensis 0.34 0.84 0.01 1.19
Paramichelia baillonii 0.34 0.84 0.01 1.19
Anneslea fragrans 0.34 0.84 0.01 1.19
Total (70 species) 293 stems 100.00 100.00 100.00 300.00
* See Appended Table 1.
The shrub layer is 1-5 m high with a cover of 30%-40%, and is dominated by juvenile
trees. Frequent shrub species are Euodia lepta, Fargesia plurisetosa, Lasianthus lucidus,
Psychotria symplocifolia, Oxyspora vagans and Lasianthus inodorus.
The herbaceous layer is usually less developed than in the preceding forest type. Frequent
species are Davallia mairesii, Pteris insignis, Ophiopogon graminifolia, Colysis pothifolia and
Strobilanthes sp.
Lianas are fewer but there are some big woody lianas such as Connarus paniculatus,
Celastrus monospermum, Epigeum auritum, Bousigonia angustifolia, Gnetum montanum and
Alyxia balansae.
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
91
Epiphytes are fewer than in the ME-PM forests.
We have analyzed forest physiognomy based on 261 vascular species from the 10 plots of
these two montane rain forest types. Both forests are dominated by phanerophytes, which make
up 79.3% of all species (Table 1). In terms of the spectrum of leaf sizes, the plants with
mesophyllous leaves contribute up to 68.2% of the total species, and 76.4% of tree species (Table
2). Woody plants with simple leaves contribute up to 90.6% and those with entire leaf margins,
up to 76.5% (Table 3).
The flora
623 native seed plant species (including varieties) in 327 genera and 115 families of seed plants
were recorded from the montane rain forest (see appendix). The families with highest species
richness included Lauraceae (51 species), Euphorbiaceae (36), Rubiaceae (23), Fagaceae (20),
Liliaceae (20), Rosaceae (19), Araceae (18), Theaceae (17) and Papilionaceae (16).
Table 1. Life form spectrum of the tropical montane rain forest in southern Yunnan.
Life form* Number of species %
Megaphanerophyte 12 4.6
Trees Mesophanerophyte 61 23.4
Microphanerophyte 54 20.7
(All trees) (127) (48.7)
Shrubs Nanophanerophyte 22 8.4
Herbaceous phanerophyte 24 9.2
Herbaceous Geophyte 5 1.9
plants Chamaephyte 25 9.6
(All herbs) (54) (20.7)
Liana Liana phanerophyte 34 13.0
Epiphyte Epiphyte 24 9.2
Total species 261 100
* Raunkiaer’s criteria (1934) revised by Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg (1974):
Megaphanerophyte (perennials over 30 m high); Mesophanerophyte (perennials 8 to 30
m high); Microphanerophyte (perennials 2 to 8 m high); Nanophanerophyte (perennials
0.25 to 2 m high); Herbaceous phanerophyte (herbaceous perennials over 0.25 m high);
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 92
Chamaephytes (perennials less than 0.25 m high above ground); Geophyte (perennials,
dying back above ground).
Table 2. Leaf sizes of the tropical montane rain forest in southern Yunnan.
Macrophyll
18226-164025
mm2
Mesophyll
2026-18225
mm2
Microphyll
226-2025
mm2
Total
Number of species 1 97 29 Trees
% 0.8 76.4 22.8
127
Number of species 9 13 Shrubs
% — 40.8 59.1
22
Number of species 9 32 13 Herbs
% 16.7 59.2 24.1
54
Number of species 1 28 5 Lianas
% 3.0 82.4 14.7
34
Number of species 4 12 8 Epiphytes
% 16.7 50.0 33.3
24
Number of species 15 198 48 Total species
% 5.7 68.2 26.1
261
Table 3. Leaf types, leaf textures and leaf margins of the tropical montane rain forest in
southern Yunnan.
Leaf type Leaf texture Leaf margin
S C P L E N
Number of
species 113 14 51 76 97 30 127
Trees
% 89.0 11.0 40.2 59.8 76.4 23.6
Number of
species
21 1 17 5 17 5 22
Shrubs
% 95.4 4.6 77.3 22.7 77.3 22.7
Number of
species 134 15 68 81 114 35 149
All woody
plants
species % 90.6 9.4 45.6 54.4 76.5 23.5
S: Simple; C: Compound; P: Papery; L: Leathery; E: Entire; N: non-entire.
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
93
The various types of geographic distributions of seed plants from China at the generic
level have been documented by Z.Y. Wu (1991). Using Wu’s documentation, we have quantified
the distribution types of the flora of the montane forest at the generic level and these are
summarized in Table 4.
Distributions described as 'tropical Asian', such as Mastixia, Pterospermum and Knema,
represent up to 27.5% of total genera of the flora. 'Pantropic' distributions, such as those of
Gnetum, Piper, Lasianthus and Bauhinia, contribute up to 26 %. 'Old World Tropical'
distributions, such as those of Thunbergia, Pandanus and Carallia are the next most abundant.
These tropical distributions (Types 2-7) compose 78.9% of the total genera. This indicates that
the flora of the montane rain forest in southern Yunnan is of tropical nature and has strong
tropical Asiatic affinity.
At the specific level, nine geographical elements (distribution types) were recognized
from 623 seed plant species of the montane forest (see Table 4). 'Tropical Asian' elements and
their subtypes contribute up to 63.7% of the total sum of species, including those of 'Indo-
Malesian' distribution, such as Garcinia cowa, Knema furfuracea and Gironniera subaequalis;
those of 'Southern Asian' to 'Mainland Southeast Asian' distribution, such as Alcimandra
cathcartii and Silvianthus bracteatus; and those of 'Mainland SE Asia' to 'SW and SE China'
distributions, such as Vaccinium exaristatum, Metadina trichotoma and Semecarpus reticulata.
The elements of 'Chinese Endemics' and subtypes, which were defined on availabe references,
contribute up to 26%, including those of 'SW to SE China' distribution, such as Lithocarpus
fordianus and Craspedolobium schochii; and the 'Yunnan Endemics', such as Lithocarpus
fohaiensis and Cryptocarya rolletii.
Comparison with the lowland rain forest in southern Yunnan and the equatorial tropics
and montane rain forests in SE Asia
Compared with the tropical montane rain forest in Java at similar altitude (Meijer, 1959), the
montane rain forest in southern Yunnan has fewer epiphytes (Figure 2), but a higher proportion
of woody phanerophytes.
Compared with the tropical seasonal rain forests at lower altitude in southern Yunnan
(Zhu et al., 1998a) and equatorial lowland rain forests (Beard, 1946; Paijmans, 1970; Givnish,
1978; Proctor et al., 1998), the montane rain forest has fewer mega-and meso-phanerophytes and
lianas, fewer plants with compound leaves, fewer plants with macrophyllous leaves, but more
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 94
abundant herbaceous plants and more plants with non-entire leaf margins (Figures 3 and 4).
The families with highest species richness in the montane rain forest are, to some extent, similar
to those in the seasonal rain forests at lower altitudes in the region, but there is greater species
richness in Fagaceae, Theaceae, Liliaceae, Rosaceae and Magnoliaceae (Figure 5). In terms of
phytosociological importance, most of the dominant families in the montane forest are also
dominant families in the lowland seasonal rain forests, but Magnoliaceae, Fagaceae, Mastixiaceae,
Nyssaceae and Polygalaceae are of greater importance (Figure 6).
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Tree Shrub Herb Liana Epiphyte
Life form
Species %
TMRF Yunnan
TMRF Java
Figure 2. Comparison of life form spectra between the tropical montane rain forest of
Mengsong in southern Yunnan and the tropical montane rain forest in Java, Indonesia.
TMRF Java: Montane rain forest at altitudes 1450-1500 m in Java (Meijer, 1959); TMRF
Yunnan: Tropical montane rain forest at altitudes 1500-1800 m in Mengsong, southern Yunnan.
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
95
Table 4. Geographical elements at generic and specific levels of the flora of the montane rain forest in Mengsong, southern Yunnan
Distribution types at generic level No. of
genera
% Distribution type at specific level
No. of
species
%
1. Cosmopolitan 10 3.1 1. Cosmopolitan 12 1.9
2. Pantropics 85 26.0 2. Pantropics 7 1.1
3. Tropical Asia & Tropical America disjuncted 13 4.0 3. Tropical Asia & Tropical America disjuncted 2 0.3
4. Old World Tropics 30 9.2 4. Old World Tropics 4 0.6
5. Tropical Asia to Tropical Australia 16 4.9 5. Tropical Asia to Tropical Australia 10 1.6
6. Tropical Asia to Tropical Africa 24 7.3 6. Tropical Asia to Tropical Africa 11 1.8
7. Tropical Asia (Indo-Malaysia ) 90 27.5 7. Tropical Asia and its subtypes (397) (63.7)
8. North Temperate 25 7.6 7-1. Indo-Malesia 120 19.3
9. E. Asia and N. America disjuncted 12 3.7 7-2. S Asia to Mainland SE Asia 130 20.9
10. Old World Temperate 2 0.6 7-3. Mainland SE Asia to SW and SE China 147 23.6
11. Mediterranean and W. Asia to C. Asia 2 0.6
8. Eastern Asia 18 2.9
14. E. Asia 14 4.3 9. Endemic to China and its subtypes (162) (26)
15. Endemic to China 4 1.2 9-1. SW to SE China 91 14.6
Total genera 327 100.0
9-2. Endemic to Yunnan 71 11.4
Total species 623 100.0
Garden’s Bulletin Singapore 58 (2006) 81-132 96
Figure 3. Comparison of life form spectra from the tropical montane rain forest in
Mengsong and seasonal rain forests in southern Yunnan.
LHSR: Lower hill seasonal rain forest;
RSR: Ravine seasonal rain forest;
TMRF: Tropical montane rain forest in Mengsong.
Ep=Epiphyte; Ch=Chamaephyte; G=Geophyte; Lph=Liana-phanerophyte
Hph=Herbaceous phanerophyte; Mega-Mesoph=Megaphanerophyte + Mesophanerophyte
Micro-Nanoph=Microphanerophyte + Nanophanerophyte
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Ep Lph Mega-
Mesoph Micro-
Nanoph Hph + Ch G
Life form
Species %
LHSR
RSR
TMRF
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
97
Figure 4. Comparison of leaf size spectra from the tropical montane rain forest in
Mengsong and the seasonal rain forests in southern Yunnan as well as the ones from the
equatorial lowland.
LHSR: Lower hill seasonal rain forest in southern Yunnan
RSR: Ravine seasonal rain forest in southern Yunnan
TMRF: Tropical montane rain forest in southern Yunnan
LRI: Lowland tropical evergreen rain forest in India2
SFT: Evergreen tropical seasonal forest in Trinidad1
Nano-Micro.: Nanophyll + Microphyll; Meso.: Mesophyll; Macro.: Macrophyll; Gigan.:
Gigantophyll
1 from Beard (1946); 2from Proctor et al. (1998)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Nano-Micro. Meso. Macro. Gigan.
Leaf size
Species %
LHSR
RSR
TMRF
LRI
SFT
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 98
TMRF
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0
Lauraceae
Euphorbiaceae
Rubiaceae
Fagaceae
Liliaceae
Rosaceae
Araceae
Theaceae
Papilionaceae
Verbenaceae
Moraceae
Myrsinaceae
Piperaceae
Meliaceae
Commelinaceae
Species %
LHSRF
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0
Rubiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Moraceae
Papilionaceae
Lauraceae
Rutaceae
Apocynaceae
Meliaceae
Acanthaceae
Annonaceae
My rsinaceae
Asclepiadaceae
Vitaceae
Rhamnaceae
Sapindaceae
Species %
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
99
Figure 5. Comparison of abundant families with most species richness between the
montane rain forest and seasonal rain forests at lower altitudes in the region.
TMRF: Tropical montane rain forest in southern Yunnan;
LHSR: Lower hill seasonal rain forest in southern Yunnan;
RSR: Ravine seasonal rain forest in southern Yunnan.
RSRF
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0
Rubiaceae
Lauraceae
Euphorbiaceae
Annonaceae
Moraceae
Orchidaceae
Meliaceae
Vitaceae
Apocynaceae
Urticaceae
Rutaceae
Fagaceae
Acanthaceae
Papilionaceae
Piperaceae
Species %
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 100
TMRF
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Lauraceae
Magnoliaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Fagaceae
Mastixiaceae
Nyssaceae
Myrtaceae
Rubiaceae
Meliaceae
Polygalaceae
Gutt iffe rae
Oleaceae
Myrsinaceae
Aceraceae
Proteaceae
IVI
RSRF
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Euphorbiaceae
Sapindaceae
Combretaceae
Moraceae
Anacardiaceae
Annonaceae
Lauraceae
Myristicaceae
Ebenaceae
Ulmaceae
Burseraceae
Sterculiaceae
Meliaceae
Bignoniaceae
Verbenaceae
IVI
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
101
Figure 6. Comparison of these families with the highest phytosociological importance
between the montane rain forest and seasonal rain forests at lower altitudes in the region.
TMRF: Tropical montane rain forest in southern Yunnan;
LHSR: Lower hill seasonal rain forest in southern Yunnan;
RSR: Ravine seasonal rain forest in southern Yunnan.
LHSRF
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Lauraceae
Moraceae
Ulmaceae
Annonaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Meliaceae
Sapindaceae
Barringtoniace
Rubiaceae
Guttiferae
Myristicaceae
Tetrameleacea
Papilionaceae
Myrtaceae
Rutaceae
IVI
Garden’s Bulletin Singapore 58 (2006) 81-132 102
Discussions
Altitudinal zonation of tropical forest
Montane vegetation zones in tropical America have been classified by Beard (1944, 1955) into
rain forest, lower montane rain forest, montane rain forest, montane thicket and elfin woodland
with increasing altitude. Similarly, Richards (1952) used the terms tropical rain forest,
submontane rain forest and montane rain forest for the vegetation zonation in tropical mountains.
In contrast, Grubb et al. (1963), Whitmore (1984, 1990) and Ashton (2003) prefer the terms of
lowland rain forest, lower montane rain forest and upper montane rain forest. The tropical
montane rain forest in southern Yunnan occurs at an altitude comparable with lower montane rain
forest zone as defined by Grubb et al. (1963), Whitmore (1984, 1990) and Ashton (2003).
Equatorial lower montane rain forests are 15-33 m tall and have two tree strata, few
emergent trees, few trees with buttresses and cauliflory, few big woody lianas, and fewer plants
with pinnate leaves. Plants with mesophyll (Grubb et al., 1963; Whitmore, 1984, 1990) or
notophyll leaves (Ashton, 2003) are dominant among the woody plants, and there are abundant
vascular epiphytes. Floristic zonation of forests in tropical mountains has been discussed by
Ashton (2003), who stresses the laurel-oak attributes of the floras of lower montane rain forests in
SE Asia.
The montane rain forest in southern Yunnan is similar to equatorial lower montane rain
forests in SE Asia in physiognomy, but differs in having fewer epiphytes and more tree species
with pinnate leaves (which contribute up to 11% of the sum of tree species).
The montane rain forest is dominated, in terms of species richness, by the families
Lauraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fagaceae, Rubiaceae, Papilionaceae and Theaceae. In terms of
phytosociological importance the dominant families are Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae, Euphorbiaceae,
Fagaceae, Mastixiaceae and Nyssaceae. The laurel-oak floristic attribute of the montane forest is
overshadowed by some dominant families such as Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Magnoliaceae
more commonly associated with lowland forests.
These differences may be due to the monsoonal climate (seasonal dryness) in southern
Yunnan and the so-called “Massenerhebung”, or 'mass elevation effect' (Whitmore, 1990). This
may reflect the fact that these montane forests in Yunnan have characteristics more usually
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
103
associated with lowland sites. The montane rain forests in Yunnan may represent a transition
between lowland and lower montane forest in physiognomy and floristics, but appears closer to
lower montane rain forest.
The physiognomic changes observed with increasing altitudes in southern Yunnan are
similar to those in tropical America (Grubb et al., 1963). Microphyllous leaves increased with
increasing altitudes.
Tropical montane rain forests in Yunnan were generally classified into a subtype of
tropical rain forest by Wu (1987) based on their floristic composition and physiognomy. They are
most similar to the lower montane rain forest in equatorial Asia, which was included under the
category of tropical rain forest by Whitmore (1990). We agree with Wu and Whitmore’s
classification that the montane rain forest in southern Yunnan is a type of lower montane rain
forest within the broader category of tropical rain forest.
Biogeographical affinity
The montane rain forest in southern Yunnan has strong tropical Asian affinities floristically even
though it occurs at the northern margin of mainland Southeast Asia and at a high altitude. The
tropical elements contribute about 78.9% at the generic level and more than 80 % at the specific
level of its total flora. Elements with 'tropical Asian' affinities contribute 63.7% of the total sum
of species.
Some species of particular biogeographical importance were encountered in these tropical
montane rain forests. Mastixia euonymoidos is a dominant and the biggest tree in the montane
rain forest. This species occurs only in the limited border area between Myanmar, Yunnan and
Thailand, but it was widely distributed in European and America Tertiary flora, which has even
been called the Mastixioidean European Flora (Mai, 1993; Eyde et al., 1990; Tiffney et al., 1996).
Its vicarious species, Mastixia octandra, occurs in mountains of central Sumatra in Indonesia
(Matthew, 1976) at similar altitude (1700-1800 m alt.).
Gymnanthes remota (Euphorbiaceae), a relic and dominant species in the lower tree layer
of the montane rain forest, occurs disjunctively in Mengsong in southern Yunnan and in Sumatra
(Zhu et al., 2000). The frequent shrub species Lasianthus inodorus (Rubiaceae), which is
distributed in mainland SE Asia and Sumatra as well as Java, has also occurs vicariously on Mt
Kinabalu in Borneo (Zhu, 2001). It is interesting that many taxa in the montane rain forest in
southern Yunnan have their vicarious species in Malesian montane forests, suggesting a special
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 104
biogeographical significance for the region. Further floristic and biogeographical studies on the
pristine montane rain forest in southern Yunnan are needed.
Acknowledgments
This project was funded by The National Natural Science Foundation of China (30570128).
Figure 1 was made by Dr. Hu Huabin. I thank Professor R. Kitching from Griffith University of
Australia for his English grammatical improvements in my manuscript. I also thank reviewers
very much for their important and constructive comments.
References
Aiba, S. & K. Kitayama. 1999. Structure, composition and species diversity in an altitude-
substrate matrix of rain forest tree communities on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Plant Ecology
140(2): 139-157.
Ashton, P.S. 2003. Floristic zonation of tree communities on wet tropical mountains revisited.
Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 6: 87-104.
Audley-Charles, M.G. 1987. Dispersal of Gondwanaland: relevance to evolution of the
Angiosperms. In: Whitmore, T.C. (ed.) Biogeographical Evolution of the Malay Archipelago.
Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Beard, J.S. 1944. Climax vegetation in tropical America. Ecology 25: 127-158.
Beard, J.S. 1955. The classification of tropical American vegetation types. Ecology 36: 359-412.
Brown, W.H. 1919. Vegetation of the Philippine Mountains. Bureau of Science, Manila,
Publication 13.
Buot, I.E.Jr. & S. Okitsu. 1999. Leaf size zonation pattern of woody species along an altitudinal
gradient on Mt. Pulog, Philippines. Plant Ecology 145(2): 197-208.
Curtis, J.T. & R.P. McIntosh. 1951. An upland forest continuum in the prairie-forest border
region of Wisconsin. Ecology 32: 467-496.
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
105
Eyde, R.H. & Q.Y. Xiang. 1990. Fossil Mastixioid (Cornaceae) alive in eastern Asia. American
Journal of Botany 77(5): 689-692.
Givnish, T.J. 1978. On the adaptive significance of compound leaves, with particular reference to
tropical trees. In: Tomlison, P.B. & M.H.Zimmerman. (eds.) Tropical trees as living systems.
pp.351-380. Cambridge Univ. Press, London.
Grubb, P.J., Lloyd, J.R., Pennington, T.D. & T.C. Whitmore. 1963. A comparison of montane
and lowland rain forest in Ecuador. I. The forest structure, physiognomy and floristics.
Journal of Ecology 51: 567-601.
Hall, R. & J.D. Holloway. 1998. Biogeography and Geological Evolution of SE Asia. Backbuys
Publishers, Leiden.
Kitayama, K. 1992. An altitudinal transect study of the vegetation on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo.
Vegetatio 102: 149-171.
Mai, D.H. 1993. On the extinct Mastixiaeae (Cornales) in Europe. Geophytology 23(1): 53-63.
Matthew, K. M. 1976. A revision of the genus Mastixia (Cornaceae). Blumea 23: 51-93.
Meijer, W. 1959. Plant sociological analysis of montane rain forest near Tjibodas, West Java.
Acta Botanica Neerlandica 8: 277-291.
Metcalfe, I. 1998. Paleozoic and Mesozoic geological evolution of the SE Asia region:
multidisciplinary constraints and implications for biogeography, pp. 25-41. In: Hall R. & J.D.
Holloway (eds.) Biogeography and Geological Evolution of SE Asia. Backbuys Publishers,
Leiden.
Morley, J.R. 1998. Palynological evidence for Tertiary plant dispersals in the SE Asian region in
relation to plate tectonics and climate, pp. 221-234. In: Hall, R. & J.D. Holloway. (eds.)
Biogeography and Geological Evolution of SE Asia. Backbuys Publishers, Leiden.
Mueller-Dombois, D. & H. Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John
Wiley & Sons.
Myers, N. 1998. Threatened biotas: “Hotspot” in tropical forests. Environmentalist 8: 1-20
Nakashizuka, T., Zulkifli, Y. & N. Rahim. 1992. Altitudinal zonation of forest communities in
Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical forest Science 4: 233-244.
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 106
Ohsawa, M., Nainggolan, P.H.J., Tanaka, N. & C. Anwar. 1985. Altitudinal zonation of forest
vegetation on Mount Kerinci, Sumatra: with comparisons to zonation in the temperate region
of east Asia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 1: 192-216.
Ohsawa, M. 1991. Structural comparison of tropical montane forests along latitudinal and
altitudinal gradients in south and east Asia. Vegetatio 97: 1-10.
Ohsawa, M. 1993. Latitudinal pattern of mountain vegetation zonation in southern and eastern
Asia. Journal of Vegetation Science 4: 13-18.
Ohsawa, M. 1995. Latitudinal comparison of altitudinal changes in forest structure, leaf types,
and species richness in humid monsoon Asia. Vegetatio 121: 3-10.
Paijmans, K. 1970. An analysis of four tropical rain forest sites in New Guinea. Journal of
Ecology 58 (1): 77-101.
Pendry C. & J. Proctor. 1996. Altitudinal zonation of rain forest on Bukit Belalong, Brunei: soils,
forest structure and floristics. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13: 221-241.
Proctor, J., Haridasan, K. & G.W. Smith. 1998. How far north does lowland evergreen tropical
rain forest go? Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 141-146.
Qu, Z.X. 1960. Nature reserves in Yunnan. Journal of Yunnan University (Natural Science) 1: 1-4
(in Chinese).
Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford University
Press, Oxford.
Richards, P.W. 1952. The tropical rain forest. Cambridge University Press, London.
Richards, P.W. 1996. The tropical rain forest, an ecological study. Second edition. Cambridge
University Press, London.
Steenis, C.G.G.J. van. 1935. On the origin of the Malaysian mountain flora. 2. Altitudinal zones,
general considerations, and renewed statement of the problem. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique
de Buitenzorg series 3, 13: 289-417.
Steenis, C.G.G.J. van. 1984. Floristic altitudinal zones in Malesia. Botanical Journal of the
Linnean Society 89: 289-292.
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
107
Tiffney, B.H. & K.K. Haggard. 1996. Fruits of Mastixioideae (Cornaceae) from the Paleogene of
western North America. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 92: 29-54.
Wang, H., Zhu, H. & B.G. Li. 2001. A study on the tropical montane rainforest in Mengsong,
Xishuangbanna, S. Yunnan. Guihaia 21: 303-314 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Whitmore, T.C. & C.P. Burnham. 1969. The altitudinal sequence of forests and soils on granite
near Kuala Lumpur. Malayan Natural Journal 22: 99-118.
Whitmore, T.C. 1984. Tropical rain forest of the far east. Second edition. Clarendon Press,
Oxford.
Whitmore, T.C. 1990. An introduction to tropical rain forests. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Wu, C.Y. 1987. Vegetation of Yunnan. pp. 143-163. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese).
Wu, C.Y. 1991. The areal-types of Chinese genera of seed plants. Acta Botanica Yunnanica Supp.
IV (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zhu, H. 1997. Ecological and biogeographical studies on the tropical rain forest of south Yunnan,
SW China with a special reference to its relation with rain forests of tropical Asia. Journal of
Biogeography 24: 647~662
Zhu, H., Wang, H. & B.G. Li. 1998a. Research on the tropical seasonal rainforest of
Xishuangbanna, South Yunnan. Guihaia 18: 371-384 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zhu, H., Wang, H. & B.G. Li. 1998b. The structure, species composition and diversity of the
limestone vegetation in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 50: 5-33.
Zhu, H., Wang, H. & B.G. Li. 2000. Gymnanthes Sw. (Euphorbiaceae), new to China and its
biogeographical implication. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 38: 462-463
Zhu, H. 2001. New Plants of Lasianthus Jack (Rubiaceae) from Kinabalu, Borneo and its
biogeographical implication. Blumea 46: 447-455.
Zhu, H., Wang, H., Li, B.G. & P. Sirirugsa. 2003. Biogeography and floristic affinity of the
Limestone flora in southern Yunnan, China. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 90:
444-46.
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 108
Zhu, H., Wang, H. & B.G. Li. 2004. Plant diversity and physiognomy of a tropical montane rain
forest in Mengsong, southern Yunnan, China. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica 28: 351-360.
Zhu, H. & M. C Roos. 2004. The tropical flora of S China and its affinity to Indo-Malesian flora.
Telopea 10: 639-648.
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
109
Appendix 3. Species checklist of the montane rain forest in Mengsong,
southern Yunnan.
ACANTHACEAE Lepidagathis incurva Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
ACANTHACEAE Mananthes patentiflora ((Hemsl.) Bremek.
ACANTHACEAE Phaulopsis imbricata (Forssk.) Sweet
ACANTHACEAE Phlogacanthus curviflorus (Wall.) Nees
ACANTHACEAE Pseuderanthemum malaccense (C.B. Clarke) Lindau
ACANTHACEAE Pteracanthus alatus (Wall.) Bremek.
ACANTHACEAE Rhaphidosperma vagabunda (R.Ben) C.Y.Wu ex Y.C.Tang
ACANTHACEAE Rungia pectinata (L.)Nees
ACERACEAE Acer decandrum Merr.
ACERACEAE Acer huianum W.P. Fang & C.K. Hsieh
ACERACEAE Acer jingdongense T.Z. Hsu
ALANGIACEAE Alangium barbatum (R. Br.) Baill.
ALANGIACEAE Alangium chinense (Lour.) Harms
ALANGIACEAE Alangium kurzii Craib
ALISMATACEAE Sagittaria trifolia L.
AMARANTHACEAE Achyranthes bidentata Blume
AMARANTHACEAE Aerva sanguinolenta (L.) Blume
AMARYLLIDACEAE Allium hookeri Thwaites
ANACARDIACEAE Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) B.L. Burtt & A.W. Hill
ANACARDIACEAE Pegia nitida Colobr.
ANACARDIACEAE Rhus chinensis Mill.
ANACARDIACEAE Semecarpus reticulata Lecomte
ANACARDIACEAE Spondias lakonensis var. hirsuta C.Y. Wu & T.L. Ming
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 110
ANACARDIACEAE Toxicodendron acuminatum (DC.) C. Y. Wu. T. L. Ming
ANACARDIACEAE Toxicodendron succedaneum (L.) Kuntze
ANNONACEAE Alphonsea boniana Finet & Gagnep.
ANNONACEAE Alphonsea monogyna Merr. & Chun
ANNONACEAE Alphonsea squamosa Finet & Gagnep.
ANNONACEAE Alphonsea tsangyuanensis P.T. Li
ANNONACEAE Fissistigma acuminatissimum Merr.
ANNONACEAE Fissistigma maclurei Merr.
ANNONACEAE Fissistigma polyanthum (Hook. f. & Thomson) Merr.
ANNONACEAE Mitrephora maingayi Hook. f. & Thomson
APOCYNACEAE Alstonia rostrata C.E.C. Fisch.
APOCYNACEAE Bousigonia angustifolia Pierre
APOCYNACEAE Epigynum auritum (C.K. Schneid.) Tsiang & P.T. Li
APOCYNACEAE Tabernaemontana corymbosa Roxb. ex Wall.
APOSTASIACEAE Apostasia odorata Blume
AQUIFOLIACEAE Ilex polyneura (Hand.-Mazz.) S.Y. Hu
AQUIFOLIACEAE Ilex tetramera var. glabra (C.Y. Wu) T.R. Dudley
ARACEAE Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) Schott
ARACEAE Amorphophallus bannanensis H. Li
ARACEAE Amorphophallus rivieri Durieu ex Carrière
ARACEAE Amorphophallus ximengensis H. Li
ARACEAE Arisaema austroyunnanense H. Li
ARACEAE Arisaema inkiangense H. Li
ARACEAE Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
ARACEAE Colocasia gigantea (Blume) Hook. f.
ARACEAE Gonatanthus pumilus (D. Don) Engl. & K. Krause
ARACEAE Pothos chinensis (Raf.) Merr.
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
111
ARACEAE Pothos scandens L.
ARACEAE Remusatia hookeriana Schott
ARACEAE Remusatia vivipara (Lodd.) Schott
ARACEAE Rhaphidophora crassicaulis Engl. & K. Krause
ARACEAE Rhaphidophora decursiva (Roxb.) Schott
ARACEAE Rhaphidophora hookeri Schott
ARACEAE Rhaphidophora lancifolia Schott
ARACEAE Rhaphidophora megaphylla H. Li
ARALIACEAE Aralia armata (Wall.) Seem.
ARALIACEAE Brassaiopsis producta (Dunn) C.B. Shang
ARALIACEAE Macropanax dispermus (Blume) Kuntze
ARALIACEAE Macropanax undulatus var. simplex H.L. Li
ARALIACEAE Schefflera chapana Harms
ARALIACEAE Schefflera octophylla (Lour.) Harms
ARALIACEAE Tupidanthus calyptratus Hook. & Thomson
ARISTOLOCHIACEAE Aristolochia cathcartii Hook. f.
ARISTOLOCHIACEAE Aristolochia fangchi Y.C. Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang
ARISTOLOCHIACEAE Aristolochia tagala Cham.
ASCLEPIADACEAE Hoya villosa Costantin
BALANOPHORACEAE Balanophora harlandii Hook. f.
BALSAMINACEAE Impatiens balansae Hook. f.
BALSAMINACEAE Impatiens mengtzeana Hook. f.
BEGONIACEAE Begonia augustinei Hemsl.
BEGONIACEAE Begonia crassirostris Irmsch.
BEGONIACEAE Begonia versicolor Irmsch.
BETULACEAE Alnus nepalensis D. Don
BETULACEAE Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 112
BETULACEAE Betula luminifera H.J.P. Winkl.
BIGNONIACEAE Mayodendron igneum (Kurz) Kurz
BURSERACEAE Canarium pimela Leenh.
BURSERACEAE Canarium strictum Roxb.
BURSERACEAE Canarium tonkinense (Leenh.) Engl.
CAESALPINIACEAE Bauhinia variegata L.
CAESALPINIACEAE Caesalpinia cucullata Roxb.
CAESALPINIACEAE Cassia agnes (De Wit) Brenen
CAESALPINIACEAE Gleditsia fera (Lour.) Merr.
CAPPARIDACEAE Capparis fohaiensis B.S. Sun
CAPRIFOLIACEAE Viburnum cylindricum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
CAPRIFOLIACEAE Viburnum punctatum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
CARLEMANNIACEAE Silvianthus bracteatus Hook. f.
CELASTRACEAE Celastrus angulata Maxim.
CELASTRACEAE Celastrus paniculata subsp. multiflorus (Roxb.) Hou
CELASTRACEAE Celastrus paniculatus Willd.
CELASTRACEAE Glyptopetalum sclerocarpum (Kurz) Lawson
CELASTRACEAE Microtropis discolor (Wallich) Arn.
CELASTRACEAE Microtropis tetragona Merr. & F.L. Freeman
CHLORANTHACEAE Sarcandra glabra subsp. brachystachys (Blume) Verdc.
COMMELINACEAE Amischotolype hispida (Less. & A. Rich.) D.Y. Hong
COMMELINACEAE Amischotolype hookeri (Hassk.) H. Hara
COMMELINACEAE Commelina paludosa Blume
COMMELINACEAE Cyanotis cristata (L.) D. Don
COMMELINACEAE Cyanotis vaga (Lour.) Roem. & Schult.
COMMELINACEAE Dictyospermum conspicuum (Blume) Hassk.
COMMELINACEAE Floscopa scandens Lour.
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
113
COMMELINACEAE Porandra scandens D.Y. Hong
COMMELINACEAE Rhopalephora scaberrima (Blume) Faden
COMPOSITAE Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot
COMPOSITAE Dichrocephala benthamii C.B. Clarke
COMPOSITAE Emilia prenanthoidea DC.
COMPOSITAE Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
COMPOSITAE Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.
CONNARACEAE Connarus paniculatus Roxb.
CORNACEAE Mastixia euonymoides Prain
CORNACEAE Mastixia pentandra subsp. chinensis (Merr.) K.M. Matthew
CORYLACEAE Carpinus londoniana H.J.P. Winkl.
CUCURBITACEAE Gynostemma laxum (Wall.) Cogn.
CUCURBITACEAE Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino
CUCURBITACEAE Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu
CYPERACEAE Carex baccans Nees
CYPERACEAE
Mariscus sumatrensis var. subcompositus (C.B. Clarke) S.
Karthikeyan
DIOSCOREACEAE Dioscorea bulbifera L.
DIOSCOREACEAE Dioscorea chingii Prain & Burkill
DIOSCOREACEAE Dioscorea esquirolii Prain & Burkill
DIOSCOREACEAE Dioscorea glabra Roxb.
EBENACEAE Diospyros kaki var. silvestris Makino
EBENACEAE Diospyros kerrii Craib
EBENACEAE Diospyros nigrocortex C.Y. Wu
EBENACEAE Diospyros yunnanensis Rehder & E.H. Wilson
ELAEAGNACEAE Elaeagnus conferta var. menghaiensis W.K. Hu & H.F. Chow
ELAEAGNACEAE Elaeagnus gonyanthes Benth.
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 114
ELAEAGNACEAE Elaeagnus macrantha Rehder
ELAEOCARPACEAE Elaeocarpus apiculatus Masters in Hook. f.
ELAEOCARPACEAE Elaeocarpus austroyunnanensis Hu
ELAEOCARPACEAE Elaeocarpus decipiens Hemsl.
ELAEOCARPACEAE Elaeocarpus glabripetalus Merr.
ELAEOCARPACEAE Elaeocarpus glabripetalus var. alatus (Kunth) Hung T. Chang
ELAEOCARPACEAE Elaeocarpus howii Merr. & Chun
ELAEOCARPACEAE Elaeocarpus petiolatus (Jack) Wall. ex Kurz
ELAEOCARPACEAE Sloanea mollis Gagnep.
ELAEOCARPACEAE Sloanea tomentosa (Benth.) Rehder & E.H. Wilson
ERICACEAE Craibiodendron stellatum (Pierre) W.W. Sm.
ERICACEAE Rhododendron moulmainense Hook.
ESCALLONIACEAE Itea macrophylla Wall.
EUPHORBIACEAE Antidesma fordii Hemsl.
EUPHORBIACEAE Antidesma montanum Blume
EUPHORBIACEAE Aporusa dioica (Roxb.) Müll. Arg.
EUPHORBIACEAE Aporusa villosa (Lindl.) Baill.
EUPHORBIACEAE Aporusa yunnanensis (Pax & K. Hoffm.) F.P. Metcalf
EUPHORBIACEAE Baccaurea ramiflora Lour.
EUPHORBIACEAE Baliospermum effusum Pax & Hoffm. in Engl.
EUPHORBIACEAE Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Müll. Arg.
EUPHORBIACEAE Bischofia javanica Blume
EUPHORBIACEAE Breynia fruticosa (L.) Hook. f.
EUPHORBIACEAE Bridelia tomentosa Blume
EUPHORBIACEAE Croton caudatus Geiseler
EUPHORBIACEAE Croton damayeshu Y.T. Chang
EUPHORBIACEAE Drypetes cumingii (Baill.) Pax & K. Hoffm.
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
115
EUPHORBIACEAE Drypetes salicifolia Gagnep.
EUPHORBIACEAE Glochidion assamicum (Müll. Arg.) Hook. f.
EUPHORBIACEAE Glochidion hirsutum (Roxb.) Voigt
EUPHORBIACEAE Glochidion khasicum (Müll. Arg.) Hook. f.
EUPHORBIACEAE Glochidion lanceolarium (Roxb.) Voigt
EUPHORBIACEAE Glochidion puberum (L.) Hutch.
EUPHORBIACEAE Gymnanthes remota (Steenis) Esser
EUPHORBIACEAE Macaranga denticulata (Blume) Müll. Arg.
EUPHORBIACEAE Macaranga henryi (Pax & K. Hoffm.) Rehder
EUPHORBIACEAE Macaranga indica Wight
EUPHORBIACEAE Macaranga kurzii (Kuntze) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl.
EUPHORBIACEAE Mallotus barbatus (Wall.) Müll. Arg.
EUPHORBIACEAE Mallotus macrostachyus (Miq.) Müll. Arg.
EUPHORBIACEAE Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.) Müll. Arg.
EUPHORBIACEAE Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Müll. Arg.
EUPHORBIACEAE Mallotus tetracoccus (Roxb.) Kurz
EUPHORBIACEAE Ostodes katharinae Pax
EUPHORBIACEAE Ostodes kuangii Y.T. Chang
EUPHORBIACEAE Ostodes paniculata Blume
EUPHORBIACEAE Phyllanthus emblica L.
EUPHORBIACEAE Sapium baccatum Roxb.
EUPHORBIACEAE Sapium discolor (Champ. ex Benth.) Müll. Arg.
FAGACEAE Castanopsis argyrophylla King ex Hook. f.
FAGACEAE Castanopsis calathiformis (Skan) Rehder & E.H. Wilson
FAGACEAE Castanopsis carlesii var. spinulosa W.C. Cheng & C.S. Chao
FAGACEAE Castanopsis ceratacantha Rehder & E.H. Wilson
FAGACEAE Castanopsis echidnocarpa Hook. f. & Thomson ex Miq.
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 116
FAGACEAE Castanopsis hystrix Miq.
FAGACEAE Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A. DC.
FAGACEAE Castanopsis mekongensis A. Camus
FAGACEAE Castanopsis tcheponensis Hickel & A. Camus
FAGACEAE Cyclobalanopsis kerrii (Craib) Hu
FAGACEAE Cyclobalanopsis myrsinifolia (Blume) Oerst.
FAGACEAE Lithocarpus fohaiensis (Hu) A. Camus
FAGACEAE Lithocarpus fordianus (Hemsl.) Chun
FAGACEAE Lithocarpus grandifolius (D. Don) S.N. Biswas
FAGACEAE Lithocarpus hancei (Benth.) Rehder
FAGACEAE Lithocarpus hypoglaucus (Hu) C.C. Huang
FAGACEAE Lithocarpus microspermus A.Camus
FAGACEAE Lithocarpus pseudoreinwardtii A. Camus
FAGACEAE Lithocarpus rhabdostachyus subsp. dakhaensis A. Camus
FAGACEAE Lithocarpus truncatus (King ex Hook. f.) Rehder & E.H. Wilson
FLACOURTIACEAE Xylosma congesta (Lour.) Merr.
FLACOURTIACEAE Xylosma longifolia Clos
FUMARIACEAE Corydalis balansae Prain
GENTIANACEAE Tripterospermum membranaceum (C. Marquand) Harry Sm.
GESNERIACEAE Rhynchotechum ellipticum (Wall. ex D. Dietr.) A. DC.
GNETACEAE
Gnetum montanum f. megalocarpum Markgr.
GNETACEAE Gnetum montanum Markgr.
GNETACEAE Gnetum pendulum C.Y. Cheng
GUTTIFERAE Calophyllum polyanthum Wall. ex Choisy
GUTTIFERAE Garcinia cowa Roxb.
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
117
HAMAMELIDACEAE Altingia excelsa Noronha
HAMAMELIDACEAE Distyliopsis yunnanensis (Hung T. Chang) C.Y. Wu
HYDRANGIACEAE Dichroa febrifuga Lour.
HYPERICACEAE Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour.) Blume
HYPPOCRATEACEAE Pristimera arborea (Roxb.) A.C. Sm.
ICACINACEAE Apodytes dimidiata E. Mey. ex Arn.
ICACINACEAE Gomphandra tetrandra (Wall.) Sleumer
ICACINACEAE Iodes ovalis Blume
ICACINACEAE Mappianthus iodoides Hand.-Mazz.
ICACINACEAE Natsiatopsis thunbergiaefolia Kurz
ICACINACEAE Nothapodytes collina C.Y. Wu
ICACINACEAE Platea latifolia Blume
JUGLANDACEAE Engelhardia roxburghiana Wall.
JUGLANDACEAE Engelhardia serrata Blume
JUGLANDACEAE Engelhardia spicata Lesch. ex Blume
JUGLANDACEAE Juglans sigillata Dode
LABIATAE Gomphostemma arbusculum C.Y. Wu
LABIATAE Gomphostemma crinitum Wall. ex Benth.
LABIATAE Gomphostemma stellatohirsutum C.Y. Wu
LABIATAE Leucosceptrum canum Sm.
LABIATAE Paraphlomis javanica (Blume) Prain
LABIATAE Pogostemon glaber Benth.
LARDIZABALACEAE Stauntonia brunoniana Wall. ex Hemsl.
LAURACEAE Actinodaphne henryi Gamble
LAURACEAE Actinodaphne obovata (Nees) Blume
LAURACEAE Alseodaphne andersonii (King ex Hook. f.) Kosterm.
LAURACEAE Alseodaphne petiolaris (Meisn.) Hook. f.
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 118
LAURACEAE Beilschmiedia linocieroides H.W. Li
LAURACEAE Beilschmiedia percoriacea C.K. Allen
LAURACEAE Beilschmiedia purpurascens H.W. Li
LAURACEAE Beilschmiedia robusta C.K. Allen
LAURACEAE Beilschmiedia roxburghiana Nees
LAURACEAE Beilschmiedia yunnanensis Hu
LAURACEAE Cassytha filiformis L.
LAURACEAE Cinnamomum austroyunnanense H.W. Li
LAURACEAE Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) Sweet
LAURACEAE Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall.) Nees
LAURACEAE Cinnamomum iners Reinw. ex Blume
LAURACEAE Cinnamomum mollifolium H.W. Li
LAURACEAE Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T. Nees & Eberm.
LAURACEAE Cinnamomum tenuipilis Kosterm.
LAURACEAE Cryptocarya brachythyrsa H.W. Li
LAURACEAE Cryptocarya calcicola H.W. Li
LAURACEAE Cryptocarya densiflora Blume
LAURACEAE Cryptocarya rolletii H. Wang & H. Zhu
LAURACEAE Iteadaphne caudata (Nees) H.W. Li
LAURACEAE Lindera latifolia Hook. f.
LAURACEAE Lindera menghaiensis H.W. Li
LAURACEAE Lindera metcalfiana var. dictyophylla (C.K. Allen) H.B. Cui
LAURACEAE Litsea atrata S.K. Lee
LAURACEAE Litsea balansae Lecomte
LAURACEAE Litsea baviensis Lecomte
LAURACEAE Litsea chinpingensis Y. C. Yang & P.H. Huang
LAURACEAE Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
119
LAURACEAE Litsea elongata (Nees) Benth. & Hook. f.
LAURACEAE Litsea euosma W.W. Sm.
LAURACEAE Litsea garrettii Gamble
LAURACEAE Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Rob.
LAURACEAE
Litsea lancifolia (Roxb. ex Nees in Wall.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex
Villar
LAURACEAE Litsea lancifolia var. ellipsoidea Y.C. Yang & P.H. Huang
LAURACEAE Litsea lancifolia var. pedicellata Hook. f.
LAURACEAE Litsea liyuyingi H. Liu
LAURACEAE Litsea longistaminata (H. Liu) Kosterm.
LAURACEAE Litsea magnoliifolia Y.C. Yang & P.H. Huang
LAURACEAE Litsea vang Lecomte var. lobata Lecomte
LAURACEAE Litsea verticillata Hance
LAURACEAE Machilus salicina Hance
LAURACEAE Persea robusta (W.W. Sm.) Kosterm.
LAURACEAE Persea rufipes (H.W. Li) Kosterm.
LAURACEAE Persea shweliensis (W.W. Sm.) Kosterm.
LAURACEAE Phoebe lanceolata (Nees) Nees
LAURACEAE Phoebe macrocarpa C.Y. Wu
LAURACEAE Phoebe puwenensis Cheng
LAURACEAE Phoebe rufescens H.W. Li
LILIACEAE Asparagus subscandens F.T. Wang & S.C. Chen
LILIACEAE Aspidistra typica Baill.
LILIACEAE
Campylandra chinensis (Baker) M.N. Tamura, S.Y. Liang &
Turland
LILIACEAE Chlorophytum malayense Ridl.
LILIACEAE Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC.
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 120
LILIACEAE Disporopsis longifolia Craib
LILIACEAE Disporum calcaratum D. Don
LILIACEAE Disporum cantoniense (Lour.) Merr.
LILIACEAE Liriope graminifolia (L.) Baker
LILIACEAE Ophiopogon tsaii F.T. Wang & Ts. Tang
LILIACEAE Peliosanthes sinica F.T. Wang & Ts. Tang
LILIACEAE Reineckea carnea (Andrews) Kunth
LILIACEAE Smilax hemsleyana Craib
LILIACEAE Smilax hypoglauca Benth.
LILIACEAE Smilax megacarpa A. DC.
LILIACEAE Smilax myrtillus A. DC.
LILIACEAE Smilax ocreata A. DC.
LILIACEAE Smilax perfoliata Lour.
LILIACEAE Smilax quadrata A. DC.
LILIACEAE Tupistra grandistigma F.T. Wang & S.Y. Liang
LOGANIACEAE Buddleja officinalis Maxim.
LYTHRACEAE Rotala rotundifolia (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Koehne
MAGNOLIACEAE Alcimandra cathcartii (Hook. f. & Thomson) Dandy
MAGNOLIACEAE Manglietia forrestii W.W. Sm.ex Dandy
MAGNOLIACEAE Manglietia garrettii Craib
MAGNOLIACEAE Manglietia insignis (Wall.) Blume
MAGNOLIACEAE Michelia cavaleriei Finet & Gagnep.
MAGNOLIACEAE Michelia floribunda Finet & Gagnep.
MAGNOLIACEAE Michelia hedyosperma Y.W. Law
MAGNOLIACEAE Parakmeria yunnanensis Hu
MAGNOLIACEAE Paramichelia baillonii (Pierre) Hu
MALVACEAE Hibiscus indicus (Burm. f.) Hochr.
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
121
MALVACEAE Kydia calycina Roxb.
MALVACEAE Kydia glabrescens var. intermedia S.Y. Hu
MALVACEAE Sida szechuensis Matsuda
MALVACEAE Urena lobata L.
MARANTACEAE Phrynium placentarium (Lour.) Merr.
MARANTACEAE Stachyphrynium sinense H. Li
MELASTOMACEAE Medinilla septentrionalis (W.W. Sm.) H.L. Li
MELASTOMACEAE Melastoma affine D. Don
MELASTOMACEAE Melastoma normale D. Don
MELASTOMACEAE Oxyspora vagans (Roxb.) Wall.
MELIACEAE Aglaia abbreviata C.Y. Wu
MELIACEAE Aglaia perviridis Hiern
MELIACEAE Amoora yunnanensis (H.L. Li) C.Y. Wu
MELIACEAE Dysoxylum binectariferum (Roxb.) Hook. f. ex Bedd.
MELIACEAE Dysoxylum lukii Merr.
MELIACEAE Melia toosendan Siebold & Zucc.
MELIACEAE Toona ciliata M. Roem.
MELIACEAE Toona sinensis (Juss.) Roem.
MELIACEAE Trichilia connaroides (Wight & Arn.) Bentv.
MELIACEAE Walsura yunnanensis C.Y. Wu
MENISPERMACEAE Cocculus laurifolius DC.
MENISPERMACEAE Stephania forsteri (DC.) A. Gray
MIMOSACEAE Albizia bracteata Dunn
MIMOSACEAE Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr.
MIMOSACEAE Albizia crassiramea Lace
MIMOSACEAE Albizia lucidior (Steud.) I.C. Nielsen
MIMOSACEAE Albizia odoratissima (Linn. f.) Benth.
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 122
MIMOSACEAE Cylindrokelupha kerrii (Gagnep.) T.L. Wu
MIMOSACEAE Pithecolobium clypearia Benth.
MORACEAE Artocarpus lakoocha Wall. ex Roxb.
MORACEAE Artocarpus nitidus subsp. griffithii (King) F.M. Jarrett
MORACEAE Artocarpus tonkinensis A. Chev.
MORACEAE Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent.
MORACEAE Ficus auriculata Lour.
MORACEAE Ficus cyrtophylla Wall. ex Miq.
MORACEAE Ficus esquiroliana H. Lév.
MORACEAE Ficus fistulosa Reinw. ex Blume
MORACEAE Ficus hookeriana Corner
MORACEAE Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.
MORACEAE Morus macroura Miq.
MUSACEAE Musa acuminata Colla
MYRICACEAE Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
MYRISTICACEAE Horsfieldia glabra (Reinw. ex Blume) Warb.
MYRISTICACEAE Horsfieldia tetratepala C.Y. Wu
MYRISTICACEAE Knema cinerea var. glauca (Blume) Y.H. Li
MYRISTICACEAE Knema erratica (Hook. f. & Thomson) J. Sincl.
MYRISTICACEAE Knema furfuracea (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb.
MYRISTICACEAE Knema globularia (Lam.) Warb.
MYRSINACEAE Ardisia corymbifera Mez
MYRSINACEAE Ardisia depressa C.B.Clarke
MYRSINACEAE Ardisia thyrsiflora D. Don
MYRSINACEAE Ardisia villosa Roxb.
MYRSINACEAE Ardisia virens Kurz
MYRSINACEAE Embelia laeta (L.) Mez
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
123
MYRSINACEAE Maesa indica (Roxb.) A. DC.
MYRSINACEAE Maesa macilentoides C. Chen
MYRSINACEAE Maesa perlaria (Lour.) Merr.
MYRSINACEAE Maesa permollis Kurz
MYRSINACEAE Myrsine seguinii H. Lév.
MYRTACEAE Decaspermum fruticosum J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.
MYRTACEAE Syzygium brachythyrsum Merr. & L.M. Perry
MYRTACEAE Syzygium cathayense Merr. & L.M. Perry
MYRTACEAE Syzygium polypetaloideum Merr. & L.M. Perry
MYRTACEAE Syzygium rockii Merr. & L.M. Perry
MYRTACEAE Syzygium tetragonum (Wight) Wall. ex Walp.
MYRTACEAE Syzygium thumra (Roxb.) Merr. & L.M. Perry
MYRTACEAE Syzygium yunnanense Merr. & L.M. Perry
NYSSACEAE Nyssa wenshanensis Fang & Soong
NYSSACEAE Nyssa wenshanensis var. longipedunculata W.P. Fang & Soong
NYSSACEAE Nyssa yunnanensis W. C. Yin
OLACACEAE Schoepfia fragrans Wall.
OLEACEAE Chionanthus ramiflorus Roxb.
OLEACEAE Fraxinus floribunda Wall.
OLEACEAE Jasminum attenuatum Roxb. ex G. Don
OLEACEAE Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb.
OLEACEAE Ligustrum sinense Lour.
OLEACEAE Linociera insignis C.B. Clarke
OLEACEAE Olea rosea Craib
OXALIDACEAE Oxalis corniculata L.
PAPILIONACEAE Craspedolobium schochii Harms
PAPILIONACEAE Dalbergia assamica Benth.
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 124
PAPILIONACEAE Dalbergia pinnata (Lour.) Prain
PAPILIONACEAE Dalbergia stipulacea Roxb.
PAPILIONACEAE Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk.) Merr.
PAPILIONACEAE Fordia cauliflora Hemsl.
PAPILIONACEAE Fordia microphylla Dunn ex Z. Wei
PAPILIONACEAE Millettia leptobotrya Dunn
PAPILIONACEAE Millettia pachycarpa Benth.
PAPILIONACEAE Millettia tetraptera Kurz
PAPILIONACEAE Millettia unijuga Gagnep.
PAPILIONACEAE Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.
PAPILIONACEAE Ormosia fordiana Oliv.
PAPILIONACEAE Ormosia olivacea L. Chen
PAPILIONACEAE Pycnospora lutescens (Poir.) Schindl.
PAPILIONACEAE Spatholobus pulcher Dunn
PASSIFLORACEAE Passiflora siamica Craib
PASSIFLORACEAE Passiflora wilsonii Hemsl.
PINACEAE Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon
PIPERACEAE Peperomia blanda (Jacq.) Kunth
PIPERACEAE Peperomia heyneana Miq.
PIPERACEAE Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth
PIPERACEAE Peperomia tetraphylla (G. Forst.) Hook. & Arn.
PIPERACEAE Piper chaudocanum C. DC.
PIPERACEAE Piper flaviflorum C. DC.
PIPERACEAE Piper longum L.
PIPERACEAE Piper macropodum C. DC.
PIPERACEAE Piper thomsonii (C. DC.) Hook. f.
PIPERACEAE Piper yunnanense Y.Q. Tseng
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
125
PITTOSPORACEAE Pittosporum kerrii Craib
PLANTAGINACEAE Plantago erosa Wall. ex Roxb.
PLANTAGINACEAE Plantago major L.
POACEAE Fargesia plurisetosa T.H. Wen
POACEAE Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.
POACEAE Microstegium ciliatum (Trin.) A. Camus
POACEAE Setaria palmifolia (J. König) Stapf
POACEAE Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze
PODOCARPACEAE Podocarpus neriifolius D. Don
POLYGALACEAE Polygala arillata Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
POLYGALACEAE Polygala glomerata Lour.
POLYGALACEAE Securidaca inappendiculata Hassk.
POLYGONACEAE Polygonum chinense L.
POLYGONACEAE Polygonum chinense var. hispidum Hook. f.
POLYGONACEAE Polygonum chinense var. ovalifolium Meisn.
POLYGONACEAE Polygonum hydropiper L.
POLYGONACEAE Polygonum lapathifolium L.
POLYGONACEAE Polygonum orientale L.
POLYGONACEAE Polygonum perfoliatum L.
PORTULACACEAE Portulaca oleracea L.
PROTEACEAE Helicia cochinchinensis Lour.
PROTEACEAE Helicia nilagirica Bedd.
PROTEACEAE Helicia pyrrhobotrya Kurz
PROTEACEAE Helicia reticulata W.T. Wang
PROTEACEAE Helicia shweliensis W.W. Sm.
PROTEACEAE Helicia silvicola W.W. Sm.
PROTEACEAE Helicia tsaii W.T. Wang
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 126
PROTEACEAE Heliciopsis terminalis (Kurz) Sleumer
RANUCULACEAE Clematis fulvicoma Rehder & E.H. Wilson
RANUCULACEAE Clematis peterae Hand.-Mazz.
RANUCULACEAE Clematis subumbellata Kurz
RHAMNACEAE Gouania leptostachya DC.
RHAMNACEAE
Hovenia acerba var. kiukiangensis (Hu & Cheng) C. Y. Wu ex Y.
L. Chen
RHAMNACEAE Rhamnus leptophylla C.K. Schneid.
RHAMNACEAE Ventilago calyculata Tul.
RHIZOPHORACEAE Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr.
RHIZOPHORACEAE Carallia diplopetala Hand.-Mazz.
ROSACEAE Cerasus cerasoides (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) S.Y. Sokolov
ROSACEAE Docynia delavayi (Franch.) C.K. Schneid.
ROSACEAE Duchesnea chrysantha (Zoll. & Moritzi) Miq.
ROSACEAE Eriobotrya bengalensis var. angustifolia Cardot
ROSACEAE Eriobotrya obovata W.W. Sm.
ROSACEAE Laurocerasus jenkinsii (Hook. f.) Browicz
ROSACEAE Laurocerasus menghaiensis T.T. Yu & L.T. Lu
ROSACEAE Laurocerasus zippeliana (Miq.) Yu et Lu
ROSACEAE Photinia glabra (Thunb.) Maxim.
ROSACEAE Potentilla kleiniana Wight & Arn.
ROSACEAE Pygeum arboretum (Bl.) C. Kalkman
ROSACEAE Pygeum topengii Merr.
ROSACEAE Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
ROSACEAE Rubus pirifolius Sm.
ROSACEAE Rubus poliophyllus Kuntze
ROSACEAE Rubus rufus var. palmatifidus Cardot
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
127
ROSACEAE Sorbus corymbifera (Miq.) Khep & Yakovlev
ROSACEAE Sorbus globosa T.T. Yu & Tsai
ROSACEAE Stranvaesia oblanceolata (Rehder & E.H. Wilson) Stapf
RUBIACEAE Aidia cochinchinensis Lour.
RUBIACEAE Brachytome hirtellata var. glabrescens W.C. Chen
RUBIACEAE Canthium parvifolium Roxb.
RUBIACEAE Discospermum fruticosum (Hemsl.) Kuntze
RUBIACEAE Geophila herbacea (Jacq.) K. Schum.
RUBIACEAE Hedyotis capitellata var. mollissima (Pit.) W.C. Ko
RUBIACEAE Hedyotis diffusa Willd.
RUBIACEAE Hedyotis scandens Roxb.
RUBIACEAE Lasianthus inodorus Bl.
RUBIACEAE Lasianthus lucidus Bl.
RUBIACEAE Lasianthus sikkimensis Hook.f.
RUBIACEAE Metadina trichotoma (Zoll. & Moritzi) Bakh. f.
RUBIACEAE Mussaenda hossei Craib
RUBIACEAE Mycetia gracilis Craib
RUBIACEAE Ophiorrhiza mungos L.
RUBIACEAE Oxyceros sinensis Lour.
RUBIACEAE Psychotria symplocifolia Kurz
RUBIACEAE Tarennoidea wallichii (Hook. f.) Tirveng. & Sastre
RUBIACEAE Uncaria laevigata Wall. ex G. Don
RUBIACEAE Uncaria sessilifructus Roxb.
RUBIACEAE Wendlandia pingpienensis F.C. How
RUBIACEAE Wendlandia scabra Kurz
RUBIACEAE Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb.) DC.
RUTACEAE Acronychia pedunculata (L.) Miq.
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 128
RUTACEAE Evodia austrosinensis Hand.-Mazz.
RUTACEAE Evodia glabrifolia (Champ. ex Benth.) C.C. Huang
RUTACEAE Evodia lepta (Spreng.) Merr.
RUTACEAE Evodia lepta var. cambodiana (Pierre) C.C. Huang
RUTACEAE Evodia simplicifolia Ridl.
RUTACEAE Evodia trichotoma (Lour.) Pierre
RUTACEAE Paramignya rectispina Craib
RUTACEAE Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.
SABIACEAE Meliosma simplicifolia (Roxb.) Walp.
SABIACEAE Meliosma velutina Rehder & E.H. Wilson
SALICACEAE Salix tetrasperma Roxb.
SAMYDACEAE Casearia balansae Gagnep.
SAMYDACEAE Casearia velutina Blume
SAPINDACEAE Dimocarpus yunnanensis (W.T. Wang) C.Y. Wu & T.L. Ming
SAPINDACEAE Nephelium chryseum Blume
SAPINDACEAE Sapindus rarak DC.
SAPOTACEAE Pouteria grandifolia (Wall.) Baehni
SAPOTACEAE Sarcosperma arboreum Buch.-Ham. ex C.B. Clarke
SAPOTACEAE Sarcosperma griffithii Hook. f. ex C.B. Clarke
SAPOTACEAE
Sarcosperma kachinense var. simondii (Gagnep.) H.J. Lam & P.
Royen
SAPOTACEAE Xantolis boniana var. rostrata (Merr.) P. Royen
SAPOTACEAE Xantolis stenosepala (Hu) P. Royen
SAPOTACEAE Xantolis stenosepala var. brevistylis C.Y. Wu
SAURAUIACEAE Saurauia cerea Griff. ex Dyer
SAURAUIACEAE Saurauia macrotricha Kurz ex Dyer
SAURAUIACEAE Saurauia miniata C.F. Liang & Y.S. Wang
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
129
SAURAUIACEAE Saurauia napaulensis DC.
SAURAUIACEAE Saurauia punduana Wall.
SAURAUIACEAE Saurauia yunnanensis C.F. Liang & Y.S. Wang
SCHIZANDRACEAE Kadsura ananosma Kerr
SCHIZANDRACEAE Kadsura angustifolia A.C.Smith
SCHIZANDRACEAE Schisandra henryi var. yunnanensis A.C. Sm.
SCHIZANDRACEAE Schisandra neglecta A.C. Sm.
SCHIZANDRACEAE Schisandra plena A.C. Sm.
SCROPHULARIACEAE Lindenbergia indica (L.) Vatke
SLADENIACEAE Sladenia celastrifolia Kurz
SOLANACEAE Lycianthes biflora (Lour.) Bitter
SOLANACEAE Lycianthes biflora var. subtusochracea Bitter
SOLANACEAE Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.
SOLANACEAE Solanum anguivi Lam.
SOLANACEAE Solanum erianthum D. Don
SOLANACEAE Solanum merrillianum Liou
SOLANACEAE Solanum spirale Roxb.
SOLANACEAE Solanum torvum Sw.
STAPHYLACEAE Tapiscia yunnanensis W.C. Cheng & C.D. Chu
STAPHYLACEAE Turpinia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.
STAPHYLACEAE Turpinia pomifera (Roxb.) DC.
STEMONACEAE Stemona tuberosa Lour.
STERCULIACEAE Pterospermum acerifolium Willd.
STERCULIACEAE Reevesia pubescens Mast.
STERCULIACEAE Reevesia thrsoidea Lindl.
STERCULIACEAE Sterculia lanceifolia Roxb.
STERCULIACEAE Sterculia lanceolata Cav.
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 130
STYRACACEAE Bruinsmia polysperma (Clarke) Steenis
STYRACACEAE Styrax grandiflorus Griff.
STYRACACEAE Styrax rugosus Kurz
STYRACACEAE Styrax tonkinensis (Pierre) Craib ex Hartwich
SYMPLOCACEAE Symplocos sulcata Kurz
SYMPLOCACEAE Symplocos wikstroemiifolia Hayata
TACCACEAE Tacca chantrieri André
THEACEAE Adinandra megaphylla Hu
THEACEAE Camellia sinensis var. assamica (J.W. Mast.) Kitam.
THEACEAE Camellia pachyandra Hu
THEACEAE Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze
THEACEAE Eurya aurea H.T. Chang
THEACEAE Eurya austroyunnanensis T.L. Ming & H. Chu
THEACEAE Eurya groffii Merr.
THEACEAE Eurya jintungensis Hu & L.K. Ling
THEACEAE Eurya persicaefolia Gagnep.
THEACEAE Eurya pseudocerasifera Kobuski
THEACEAE Gordonia chrysandra Cowan
THEACEAE Pyrenaria yunnanensis Hu
THEACEAE Schima argentea E. Pritz.
THEACEAE Schima khasiana Dyer
THEACEAE Schima wallichii Choisy
THEACEAE Ternstroemia gymnanthera (Wight & Arn.) Bedd.
THEACEAE Tutcheria pingpienensis Hung T. Chang
THYMELEACEAE Eriosolena composita (L. f.) Tiegh.
TILIACEAE Colona floribunda (Wall. ex Voigt) Craib
TILIACEAE Microcos chungii (Merr.) Chun
Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Southern Yunnan of China
131
TILIACEAE Microcos paniculata L.
ULMACEAE Celtis sinensis Pers.
ULMACEAE Celtis timorensis Span.
ULMACEAE Gironniera subaequalis Planch.
ULMACEAE Trema orientalis (L.) Blume
URTIACEAE Boehmeria macrophylla Hornem.
URTIACEAE Debregeasia libera Chien et C.J. Chen
URTIACEAE Debregeasia longifolia (Burm. f.) Wedd.
URTIACEAE Debregeasia squamata King ex Hook. f.
URTIACEAE Dendrocnide sinuata (Blume) Chew
URTIACEAE Oreocnide rubescens (Blume) Miq.
VACCINIACEAE Agapetes lobbii C.B. Clarke
VACCINIACEAE Agapetes mannii Hemsl.
VACCINIACEAE Vaccinium exaristatum Kurz
VERBENACEAE Callicarpa arborea Roxb.
VERBENACEAE Callicarpa bodinieri H. Lév.
VERBENACEAE Callicarpa cathayana H.T. Chang
VERBENACEAE Callicarpa giraldii Hesse ex Rehder
VERBENACEAE Callicarpa longifolia Lam.
VERBENACEAE Clerodendrum bungei Steud.
VERBENACEAE Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp.
VERBENACEAE Clerodendrum japonicum (Thunb.) Sweet
VERBENACEAE Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon
VERBENACEAE Clerodendrum serratum var. amplexifolium Moldenke
VERBENACEAE
Clerodendrum serratum var. herbaceum (Roxb. ex Schauer) C.Y.
Wu
VERBENACEAE Clerodendrum villosum Blume
Gard. Bull. Singapore 58 (2006) 132
VERBENACEAE Premna scandens Roxb.
VERBENACEAE Vitex quinata var. puberula (H.J. Lam) Moldenke
VIOLACEAE Viola diffusoides Ching J. Wang
VIOLACEAE Viola hossei W. Becker
VITACEAE Ampelopsis cantoniensis (Hook. & Arn.) Planch.
VITACEAE Cayratia timoriensis var. mekongensis (C.Y. Wu) C.L. Li
VITACEAE Tetrastigma obovatum (Lawson) Gagnep.
XANTHOPHYLLACEAE Xanthophyllum yunnanense C.Y. Wu
ZINGIBERACEAE Amomum koenigii J.F. Gmel.
ZINGIBERACEAE Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf.
ZINGIBERACEAE Globba barthei Gagnep.
ZINGIBERACEAE Globba racemosa Sm.
ZINGIBERACEAE Globba schomburgkii Hook. f.
ZINGIBERACEAE Rhynchanthus beesianus W.W. Sm.
... gibbosa (Bl.) Corner is a hemiepiphyte that is commonly found in the rainforests of Xishuangbanna (Zhu et al., 2006;Hao et al., 2010). Some individuals of F. tinctoria eventually form extensive coalescing root systems that are capable of self-support, although some fall down if the host tree dies and rots away (Todzia, 1986;Hao et al., 2011a). ...
Article
Based on the measurement of the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in soil, fog, rain, and plant non-photosynthetic tissues, as well as the gravimetric soil water content, soil water potential, and leaf water potential, this paper studied the water use strategy of F. tinctoria at its different life stages in Xishuangbanna of Southwestern China. The water potential in shallow soil layer ( 10-50 cm) had a greater change between hot-dry season and foggy season, whereas that in deeper soil layer (51-120 cm) had less change during the seasons. No significant difference was observed in the soil water content between foggy season and hot-dry season. The leaf water potential at predawn and midday varied with life stage. From the measurement of the stable isotope ratios and other parameters, it was found that shallow soil water was the main water source for F. tinctoria, and F. tinctoria had different water use strategy at its different life stages.
... A China-Russia expedition penetrated deep into southwestern China, including Yunnan, in the late 1950s, and some descriptive works on the tropical and subtropical forest vegetation of this part of China were published (Wang, 1961). More recently, there has been community level research on the forest vegetation and flora of southern Yunnan (Zhu, 1997(Zhu, , 2004(Zhu, , 2005(Zhu, , 2006(Zhu, , 2008b(Zhu, , c, 2011Zhu et al., 1998a, 1998b, 1998c, 2005, 2006a, 2006b, Cao & Zhang, 1997, central Yunnan (Jin & Peng, 1998;Shen et al., 2005;Yang, 2010), and northern Yunnan (Jin & Ou, 1981;Ou et al., 2006), although little has been published in English. Several comprehensive vegetation studies (Wu, 1987;Shimizu, 1991, Jin, 1979, 1992 have also been published. ...
Article
Full-text available
Yunnan of southwestern China supports an extremely rich biodiversity and various vegetation types dominated by evergreen broad-leaved forest. The floristic composition, species diversity, physiognomy and biogeography of three major types of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan were surveyed using 1-ha plots. The three forest types are very diverse in species composition, diversity, physiognomy and biogeography, although they are commonly dominated by species of the families Fagaceae, Theaceae and Lauraceae. The lower montane evergreen broad-leaved forest (LMEB) in southern Yunnan is extremely rich in species and is characterized by a tropical physiognomy and dominated by tropical Asian species, similar to the tropical lower montane evergreen forest commonly in southeast Asia. The semi-wet evergreen broad-leaved forest (SWEB) on plateaus and the upper montane evergreen broad-leaved forest (UMEB) in central and northern Yunnan are characterized by a subtropical physiognomy and are dominated by Sino-Himalayan and Chinese endemic species, and are unique in southwestern China. The SWEB and the UMEB should be given high conservation values due to their uniqueness and abundant Chinese endemic species. Especially, the SWEB should be given the highest protection because most remnants of this forest have lost due to heavily human disturbance.
... Around 400 tree species were found in the plots, and most abundant were trees of the Lauraceae and Fagaceae families (Zhu et al. 2005, Paudel et al. unpubl.). Th e canopy forming trees are 25 -35 m tall (Zhu et al. 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research found that phylogenetic clustering increased with disturbance for tropical trees, suggesting that community assembly is mainly influenced by abiotic factors during early succession. Lianas are an important additional component of tropical forests, but their phylogenetic community structure has never been investigated. Unlike tropical trees, liana abundance is often high in disturbed forests and diversity can peak in old secondary forest. Therefore, phylogenetic structure along a disturbance gradient might also differ from tropical tree communities. Here we determined phylogenetic community structure of lianas along a disturbance gradient in a tropical montane forest in China, using the net relatedness index (NRI) from 100 equivalent phylogenies with varying branch length that were constructed using DNA-barcode sequences. Three additional phylogenetic indices were also considered for comparison. When NRI was used as index phylogenetic clustering of liana communities decreased with decreasing tree basal area, suggesting that liana competitive interactions dominate during early succession, which is in contrast to the pattern reported for trees. Liana communities in mature forests, on the other hand, were phylogenetic overdispersed, which could be caused by dispersal limitation and/or environmental filtering. The three additional phylogenetic indices identified different, sometimes contradicting predictors of phylogenetic community structure, indicating that caution is needed when generalizing interpretations of studies based on a single phylogenetic community structure index. Our study provides a more nuanced picture of non-random assembly along disturbance gradients by focusing on a non-tree forest component.
... gibbosa (Bl.) Corner is a hemiepiphyte that is commonly found in the rainforests of Xishuangbanna (Zhu et al., 2006;Hao et al., 2010). Some individuals of F. tinctoria eventually form extensive coalescing root systems that are capable of self-support, although some fall down if the host tree dies and rots away (Todzia, 1986;Hao et al., 2011a). ...
Article
Despite continued studies on the ecology and physiology of strangling hemiepiphytes, there is little quantitative information about the variations in source-water uptake by these species under different growth phases. In this study, the water acquisition patterns of a hemiepiphyte, Ficus tinctoria, is investigated in relation to growth phase (epiphytic, transitional, and terrestrial) and season (foggy, hot-dry, and rainy). Stable isotope compositions of water in xylem, soil, canopy humus, fog, and rainfall were sampled on seasonally distinct dates, and soil water content and leaf carbon isotope composition were measured in order to determine the proportion of different water sources. Results indicated that F. tinctoria displayed a high degree of plasticity in source-water acquisition associated with the growth-phase transition from purely canopy-rooted epiphyte to transitional plant to terrestrial tree. During the foggy season and the hot-dry season, epiphytes utilized a combination of recently received rainwater (82–89%) and fog water (11–18%) present in canopy humus soil, whereas terrestrial trees exclusively depended on shallow and deep terrestrial soil water and exhibited marked flexibility in depth of soil water uptake. Transitional-phase plants relied predominantly on shallow soil water (79–86%) and extracted only a small fraction of canopy humus water (14–21%). During the rainy season, epiphytes relied almost exclusively on recent rainwater (96%) and had a negligible water uptake from fog, while trees extracted their water primarily from the shallow soil and less from the deep soil. Plants in transitional-phase drew a considerable fraction of water from canopy humus soil. This plasticity of source-water uptake to cope with radical changes in rooting environment is likely the key feature enabling hemiepiphytic species to thrive and successfully establish in the tropical rainforests. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
The Yunnan boast three broad-leaved forests, the semi-wet evergreen broad-leaved forest (SWEB) occurring in subtropical plateaus areas, the lower montane evergreen broad-leaved forest (LMEB) in tropical lower montane, and the upper montane evergreen broad-leaved forest (UMEB) in subtropical upper montane regions. Floristic composition and biogeography of these evergreen broad-leaved forests are studied and their diversification and divergence are revealed. I found similarities across the three forest types with species-rich families tending to have cosmopolitan distributions and families with less species exhibiting other distribution types. In biogeographical elements, the SWEB and the UMEB showed similar affinity in the proportion of tropical elements comprising total genera, specifically 45% and 44% respectively, and temperate elements totaling 46% and 48%, of all genera with northern temperate distribution comprising the highest ratio (18% in the SWEB and 20% in the UMEB ). LMEB tropical elements comprised 79% of the total genera, with tropical Asian distributed elements contributing the highest ratio (27%). While the three forest floras comprised of similar families, the same is not true at the genus and species levels. I suggest our results indicate divergence of the three forest floras, possibly from events in the geological history of Yunnan. From recent palaeobotanical studies, the diversification of floras of these evergreen broad-leaved forests in Yunnan occurred during the late Miocene with increased divergence with time in response not only to altitude changes and at the same time global cooling in Yunnan, but also the southeastward extrusion of Indochina geoblock influencing LMEB, and the Himalayan uplift affecting the floras of SWEB and UMEB.
Article
Full-text available
The vegetation of mainland Southeast Asia is less known to science. This article introduces the studies up to now on the vegetation of mainland Southeast Asia (Indochina peninsula), and describes the main forest vegetation types based on fragmentary information and field visits. Seven main terraneous and wet land forest vegetation types, including coniferous forest, coniferous-broad-leaved mixed forest, tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal moist forest, tropical monsoon forest, and dry thorny thickets/woodland (savanna), are recognized. Of them, the coniferous forest includes two subtypes: temperate coniferous forest and tropical coniferous forest; the coniferous-broad-leaved mixed forest includes also two subtypes: warm temperate and temperate coniferous-broad-leaved mixed forests; and the tropical rain forest includes four main vegetation subtypes: tropical lowland evergreen rain forest, tropical seasonal rain forest (tropical lowland semi-evergreen rain forest), tropical montane rain forest, and peat swamp forest. The study history of the vegetation in the region, its classification, physiognomic characteristics, and dominant species composition, are also concisely introduced.
Article
Full-text available
The Chinese tropical region has generally been recognized to be the area on the northern edge of tropical Asia, and includes southeastern Xizang (Tibet), southern Yunnan, southwestern Guangxi, southern Taiwan, and Hainan Island. Based on present floristic records and data from these tropical areas, 12,844 species of seed plants including 2,181 genera and 227 families, are recognized. The families that are distributed mainly in tropical areas but extended to the temperate zone contribute to the majority of the flora of tropical China, and genera with tropical distributions make up the most of the total flora, which indicate that the flora of tropical areas in China is - marginally tropical in nature. The genera with the tropical Asian distribution contributed to the highest portion among the various distribution types, which implies tropical Asian or In-do-Malaysia affinity of the tropical flora of China. The tropical flora of China has conspicuous variations in floristic composition and geographical elements from region to region due to different geological history and ecological environments, although the floristic similarities at the family and generic levels are more than 90% and 64%, respectively but lower than 50% at the specific level, among the compared regional floras from southwestern China and southeastern China. We found that there are more similar dominant families and genera, and also higher similarities between families and genera between southeastern Tibet (Xizang) and southeastern Yunnan. The floras of southern and southeastern Yunnan have a higher portion of the tropical Asian elements compared with other tropical floras in China, and although they have the highest similarity at specific level, the dominant families and genera have conspicuous differences between them. The flora of Hainan has the highest ratio of tropical elements, of which the pan-tropical element has the highest portion. Differences in characteristics and evolution in these tropical floras could be influenced mainly by historical events occurring with uplift of Himalayas, such as the southeastward extrusion of the Indochina geoblock, clockwise rotation and southeastward movement of Lanping-Simao geoblock, divergent geological histories between southern and southeastern Yunnan, and southeastward movement of Hainan Island.
Article
Full-text available
The upper montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan occurs mainly in the zone of persistent cloud and has a discontinuous, island-like, distribution. It is diverse, rich in endemic species, and likely to be sensitive to climate change. Six 1-ha sampling plots were established across the main distribution area of the upper montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan. All trees with d.b.h. >1 cm in each plot were identified. Patterns of seed plant distributions were quantified at the specific, generic and family levels. The forests are dominated by the families Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae and Magnoliaceae, but are very diverse with only a few species shared between sites. Floristic similarities at the family and generic level were high, but they were low at the specific level, with species complementarity between plots. Diversity varied greatly among sites, with greater species richness and more rare species in western Yunnan than central Yunnan. The flora is dominated by tropical biogeographical elements, mainly the pantropic and the tropical Asian distributions at the family and genus levels. In contrast, at the species level, the flora is dominated by the southwest or the southeast China distributions, including Yunnan endemics. This suggests that the flora of the upper montane forest in Yunnan could have a tropical floristic origin, and has adapted to cooler temperatures with the uplift of the Himalayas. Due to great sensitivity to climate, high endemism and species complementarity, as well as the discontinuous, island-like, distribution patterns of the upper montane forest in Yunnan, the regional conservation of the forest is especially needed.
Article
Full-text available
The upper montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan occurs mainly in the zone of persistent cloud and has a discontinuous, island-like, distribution. It is diverse, rich in endemic species, and likely to be sensitive to climate change. Six 1-ha sampling plots were established across the main distribution area of the upper montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan. All trees with d.b.h. >1 cm in each plot were identified. Patterns of seed plant distributions were quantified at the specific, generic and family levels. The forests are dominated by the families Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae and Magnoliaceae, but are very diverse with only a few species shared between sites. Floristic similarities at the family and generic level were high, but they were low at the specific level, with species complementarity between plots. Diversity varied greatly among sites, with greater species richness and more rare species in western Yunnan than central Yunnan. The flora is dominated by tropical biogeographical elements, mainly the pantropic and the tropical Asian distributions at the family and genus levels. In contrast, at the species level, the flora is dominated by the southwest or the southeast China distributions, including Yunnan endemics. This suggests that the flora of the upper montane forest in Yunnan could have a tropical floristic origin, and has adapted to cooler temperatures with the uplift of the Himalayas. Due to great sensitivity to climate, high endemism and species complementarity, as well as the discontinuous, island-like, distribution patterns of the upper montane forest in Yunnan, the regional conservation of the forest is especially needed.
Article
Full-text available
Two populations from Mount Kinabalu, Borneo, are recognised as two new subspecies of Lasianthus inodorus Blume (Rubiaceae), which occurs in montane habitats in mainland Southeast Asia, Sumatra and Java. The species and its subspecies are considered to compose a particular taxonomic group in the genus. Ecology and biogeography of the species group are discussed with the historical explanation of the tectonic history of Cenozoic Southeast Asia. The example strongly supports the concept of floristic connections between Malesia and mainland Southeast Asia.