ArticleLiterature Review

Adsorptive removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solution: A review

Authors:
  • Lappeenranta – Lahti University of Technology LUT Mikkeli
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Abstract

Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are an important class of emerging contaminants that have been detected (and are still being detected) in aquatic environments such as surface waters, groundwater, wastewater, runoff, and landfill leachates. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known endocrine disruptor that is acutely toxic to the living organisms. BPA has been widely used in the manufacture of sunscreen lotions, nail polish, body wash/lotions, bar soaps, shampoo, conditioners, shaving creams, and face lotions/cleanser, besides its other industrial applications. In the present review, an overview of the recent research studies dealing with the BPA removal from water by adsorption method is presented. We have reviewed various conventional and non-conventional adsorbents which have been used for BPA removal from water. It is evident from the literature reviewed that modified adsorbents and composite materials have shown promising results for BPA removal from water. Literature has been extensively discussed in terms of adsorption capacities, fitted isotherm and kinetic models and thermodynamic aspects.

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... For all these reasons and the health effects above mentioned, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient and rapid technology for the removal of BPA from the aquatic environment. Numerous methods have been applied to remove BPA from water and wastewater, including adsorption [16,17], ozonation [18], biological treatment [19], nanofiltration [20], photocatalytic degradation and catalytic method [21]. Since most of these methods have some drawbacks such as high cost, the formation of harmful secondary components, low efficiency, the adsorption process stands as one of the best available methods for effective and easy removal of BPA with economic viability [16,22]. ...
... Numerous methods have been applied to remove BPA from water and wastewater, including adsorption [16,17], ozonation [18], biological treatment [19], nanofiltration [20], photocatalytic degradation and catalytic method [21]. Since most of these methods have some drawbacks such as high cost, the formation of harmful secondary components, low efficiency, the adsorption process stands as one of the best available methods for effective and easy removal of BPA with economic viability [16,22]. ...
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The potential use of sewage sludge as a precursor for the production of activated carbon was explored in this paper. After chemical activation with ZnCl2, three activated carbons were used to decontaminate synthetic solutions containing Bisphenol A and the results were compared with a commercial activated carbon. The effect of the impregnation ratio (activating agent/precursor) and the use of CO2 during the second carbonisation on the textural properties and Bisphenol A adsorption performance of the activated carbons were studied. The highest specific surface area achieved was 730 m2/g, obtained with an impregnation ratio of 2:1 with the use of CO2.The kinetics of Bisphenol A adsorption were successfully described by both pseudo-second-order and Elovich models, while the adsorption isotherms were well fitted to the Freundlich model. The prepared activated carbon had excellent adsorption efficiency toward Bisphenol A with a maximum adsorption of 285.8 mg/g which was closer to the retention amount of the commercial one. The best adsorption conditions for Bisphenol A removal were obtained by applying response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with Box-Behnken design (BBD) onto AC-Industrial2. Under these conditions, 657.76 mg/g can be reached. Thus, these optimum conditions were therefore applied for bisphenol A removal from real effluents and the obtained results are very promising.
... Due to increasing BPA usage, it is ubiquitous in the environment, including domestic wastewater [10,12]. BPA is categorized as an endocrine disruptor compound (EDC), which is toxic to living things [13]. BPA acts as an estrogen mimic [14][15][16]. ...
... Examples of ammonia removal technologies include adsorption [22], air stripping [23], biological treatment, chlorination [24], biofiltration [25], chemical precipitation [26], ion exchange [27], and supercritical water oxidation [29]. The removal technologies for BPA include adsorption [13], biological treatment [30], advanced oxidation [31], photocatalytic [32], ultrafiltration [33] and phytoremediation [34].Some reports mentioned that biological treatment for ammonia removal is cheaper than chemical treatment [35]. Nonetheless, all these technologies have both advantages and disadvantages. ...
Article
Ammonia-nitrogen (NH 3 − N) is one of the most frequent pollutants in wastewater which utilizes dissolved oxygen in water and produces eutrophication in water bodies, while Bisphenol A (BPA) is an emerging pollutant that disrupt endocrine hormones and system operation even at extremely low doses. This review discusses the levels of ammonia and BPA in domestic wastewater and their effects. The treatment of these contaminants through a biological process is emphasized. The removal mechanisms are explained, and a new 'co-biofilm' treatment is introduced to remove ammonia and BPA simultaneously. Co-biofilm treatment is a hybrid technology of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and water hyacinth for wastewater treatment. This hybrid technology provides co-biofilm treatment between biocarriers in MBBR and the roots of water hyacinth. In this technology, the extensive of aeration used in the MBBR and the slowness of water hyacinth's capability in removing contaminants could be improved. Further studies are suggested to optimize the performance of this environmentally friendly system.
... Even if present in low concentrations, EDCs are known to pose a serious risk to human health by affecting the body's endocrine functions (Zoeller et al. 2012;Tarafdar et al. 2022). A well-known EDC is bisphenol A (BPA), a phenolic plasticizer used in the production of various industrial (epoxy resins) and personal care products (lotions, soaps and shampoos) as well as certain infant products (baby bottles and toys) (Bhatnagar and Anastopoulos 2017;Liu et al. 2021). As a result of the increasing demand, it is forecasted that BPA global market will reach a value of 30.6 billion USD by 2026 (Hahladakis et al. 2023). ...
... Several technologies were exploited for BPA removal from aquatic environments such as adsorption (Bhatnagar and Anastopoulos 2017), biodegradation (Klečka et al. 2001), chemical processes (ozonation and photo-Fenton) (Jhones dos Santos et al. 2021) and photocatalytic degradation (Tang et al. 2020). Among them, TiO 2 -based photocatalysis emerged as an eco-friendly, efficient and promising approach for BPA complete degradation with the final products being CO 2 and H 2 O Da Silva et al. 2014;Reddy et al. 2018;Fu et al. 2022). ...
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Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) was investigated using commercial TiO2 P25 nanoparticles supported on natural zeolite clinoptilolite (Cli). Employing ultrasound assisted solid-state dispersion method hybrid photocatalyst containing 20 wt% of TiO2, marked TCli-20, was prepared. The structural, morphological and surface properties, and particle size distribution of TCli-20 were studied by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Brunner-Emmet-Teller method and laser diffraction. The results revealed a successful loading of TiO2 P25 nanoparticles on Cli surface and the preservation of both zeolitic structure and optical properties of TiO2. The influence of catalyst dose, pH value and the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was evaluated. The optimal reaction conditions were 2 g/L of catalyst at near-neutral conditions (pH = 6.4) for complete BPA (5 mg/L) photodegradation after 180 min of exposure to simulated solar light. The addition of H2O2 was beneficial for the degradation process and led to the removal of BPA after 120 min of irradiation. BPA removal (60% for 180 min of irradiation) was reduced when TCli-20 was tested in bottled drinking water due to the presence of bicarbonate ions which acted as scavengers for hydroxyl radicals. Even though the photocatalytic activity of TCli-20 decreased after several cycles of usage, 70% of BPA was still successfully degraded during the fourth cycle. The reusability study showed easy separation, stability and good photocatalytic ability of investigated cost-effective hybrid photocatalyst.
... It causes imbalances and disturbances in the endocrine system of organisms and even induces a risk of cancer when it accumulates in wild organisms and humans [78]. BPA can be effectively removed from wastewater using adsorption, Fenton oxidation, electrochemistry, photodegradation, and biofilm filtration [79][80][81]. However, these conventional methods struggle to eliminate trace BPA and easily cause secondary damage to the ecological environment. ...
... degradation, and biofilm filtration [79][80][81]. However, these conventional methods struggle to eliminate trace BPA and easily cause secondary damage to the ecological environment. ...
Article
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Laccase belongs to the superfamily of multicopper oxidases and has been widely investigated in recent decades. Due to its mild and efficient oxidation of substrates, laccase has been successfully applied in organic catalytic synthesis, the degradation of harmful substances, and other green catalytic fields. Nevertheless, there are few reports on the green catalysis with laccase. This review focuses on reporting and collating some of the latest interesting laccase-catalyzed bond formation and breakage research. This is discussed with a focus on the effects of the medium system on the laccase-catalyzed reaction, as well as the formation and the breakage of C–N, C–C, and C–O bonds catalyzed by laccase. It provides abundant references and novel insights for furthering the industrial applications of laccase.
... Dyes and pigments used in many industries pose a significant environmental threat by being released into wastewater. The effluent from these industries is highly colored, primarily due to different types of dyes, including anionic, cationic, and non-ionic dyes [1][2][3][4]. Acid dyes, for example, are commonly used with specific types of fibers and consist of organic sulfonic acids available as sodium salts. However, wastewater containing acid dyes can negatively impact aquatic life and human health due to its highly colored effluent [3]. ...
... This approach holds considerable promise for fighting water pollution as these raw materials can be transformed into valuable adsorbents for removing pollutants from aqueous systems. Using agricultural waste for this purpose can facilitate the development of a sustainable and environmentally friendly solution for effectively eliminating contaminants from water sources [4,5]. ...
Article
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The present study deals with the preparation and characterization of porous activated carbon from Cassia fistula seed shell (CFSS), an agriculture solid waste (byproducts) for the removal synthetic anionic Acid Violet (AV17) dye by batch adsorption technique, and the results were compared with commercial activated carbon (CAC). BET surface area and point zero charge of the CFSSC is 485.5 m²/g and 6.5. The as prepared CFSSC structural and morphological features were confirmed using XRD, FITR, TGA, and SEM analysis. The effect of diverse experimental parameters such as dosage of adsorbent, contact time, initial concentration of AV17 dye, and pH on the removal of dye by adsorption using the adsorbents (CFSSC and CAC) has been studied in room temperature. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied. The adsorption capacities of the CAC and CFSSC on AV17 dye was found to be 290.90 and 132.45 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption kinetics initiates to be first order with respect to intra-particle diffusion as rate determining step. The process of removal of dyes by adsorption on CAC and CFSSC was found to be highly pH dependent. The maximum adsorption observed at pH 2. The result in the present study indicates that CFSSC could be used as a cost-effective alternative adsorbent for the removal of dilute acidic dyes from wastewater instead of CAC.
... Bisphenol A (BPA), 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane is a chemical compound that forms part of many everyday objects, such as electrical equipment, auto parts, glazing, roofing, medical equipment, sunglasses, baby bottles, beverage cans, cans, including boxes of milk powder for babies [1]. A monomer widely utilized in the industrial manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins via polymerization. ...
... When the Freundlich model is applied, we find a K F value of 0.0539 mg 1-1/n ·mL 1/n ·g for bentonite and 0.1393 mg 1-1/n ·m-L 1/n ·g for modified bentonite. For example, the adsorption coefficients K F for BPA on natural sodium bentonite from Wyoming are from 5.68 to 6.27 mg 1-1/n ·mL 1/n ·g [1,21,35,36]. Table 3 shows comparison data for the removal capacity of BPA by several adsorbents, such as montmorillonite modified with DDDMA, thermo-responsive powdered activated carbon, Iron nanoparticle-doped magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon, organo-montmorillonite and barley husk [15]. Although the maximum adsorption capacity (q m ) of BPA by the activated bentonite obtained by the Langmuir equation was relatively great than that by barley husk and montmorillonite, it is of the same order at that of heat-sensitive thermo-responsive powdered activated carbon and iron nanoparticle-doped magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon. ...
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Batch measurements were conducted to assess the adsorption performance of raw and acid-activated bentonite with various operating conditions, including pH, initial Bisphenol A (BPA) concentration , contact time, and temperature. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the structure and morphology of bentonite. On a laboratory scale, isotherm experiments were carried out, and the results were compared to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir model fits the equilibrium data well. The optimum conditions for the removal of BPA within the experiment range of variables studies were 1 g/L of initial BPA concentration, pH value of 3, 0.25 g/100 mL of adsorbent dose and 180 min of contact time. The maximum removal efficiency was 51.8% under these conditions. The experimental results indicate that the adsorption was degraded by increasing the pH. The decrease of adsor-bent characteristics with increasing temperature from 25°C to 65°C was observed in this work, indicating exothermic and chemical adsorption in nature.
... As a result, we may conclude that chemisorption and physisorption both influence the adsorption process on energetically homogenous sites. 1/n values less than one and R L values close to zero indicate that the adsorption process is favorable [44] . Furthermore, as we move from the retention of individual MG and BY 28 dyes to the mixture, the values of the heat constant B decrease, implying that the surface coverage of the NSC increases with increasing sorption energy, which can be explained by the presence of an infinite number of dye molecules on the clay surface [ 41 , 43 ]. ...
... t K 2 : pseudo second order rate constant (h −1 ), Q e2 : adsorption capacity of the material at saturation (mg.g −1 ), Q t : Amount of substance adsorbed (mg.g −1 ) by the material at time t, h : which corresponds to K 2 .Qe is the initial rate of adsorption (mg.g −1 .h −1 ) [44] . ...
Article
Adsorption of the most suitable dyes on locally available clay minerals is considered the most promising, efficient, and inexpensive approach. Indeed, the main objective of this study was to explain the selectivity of an adsorbing surface between the two dyes in a mixture of a solution, using a density functional theory (DFT) calculation based on the global electrophilic index ω of the evaluated cationic dyes. Thus, to study the effect of adsorption of these two dyes, Basic Yellow 28 (BY28) and Malachite Green (MG), in a mixture, and separated by a kind of natural clay from the city of Safi, composed mainly of Kaolinite, determined using structural and textual analysis DRX., FTIR., XRF., SEM., EDX., pHZPC. Subsequently, the study of the effect of different parameters, such as the dose of adsorbent, concentration, pH, and the temperature of the work, allows for optimizing working conditions. The experimental data were analyzed using the isothermal, Langmuir, Temkin, and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model obtained the best fit with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 28.41 mg.g⁻¹ for basic yellow 28, and 23.75 mg.g⁻¹ for the malachite green in the mixture. The adsorption of the mix was found to be of a different nature (ΔH°BY28.mixt = -13.37 KJ.mol⁻¹, ΔH°MG.mixt = 9,82 KJ.mol⁻¹), while the positive value for MG.mixt of entropy 66.7 J.mol⁻¹.K⁻¹ indicated increased randomness at the solid/liquid interface. The adsorption kinetics data were correctly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Local Parr functions were used to accurately describe the most reactive adsorption sites, and the most selective dye was then assessed.
... The overuse of some pharmaceuticals has led to the release of large amounts of wastewater containing their residue into the environment, which causes serious pollution (Focazio et al., 2008). Several technologies are used to remove organic pollutants from water, which, despite their advantages in removing pollutants, have disadvantages such as secondary pollution, high energy consumption, instability to moisture, degradation over time, and high cost of materials (Melvin and Leusch, 2016;Sharma et al., 2016;Bhatnagar and Anastopoulos, 2017;Racar et al., 2017;Tran and Gin, 2017;Wang et al., 2022;Yu et al., 2023). The advanced oxidation process (AOP) is gaining popularity due to its easy implementation and potential to degrade antibiotics or transform them into harmless mineral materials (Cheng et al., 2016;D. ...
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A photocatalytic adsorbent composed of carbon dots (CD) embedded in a metal-organic framework (MOF) of MIL-88 B(Fe) was prepared by solvothermal technique. The synthesized CD@MIL-88 B(Fe) was characterized by different X-ray-based microscopic and spectroscopic methods, as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, UV–Vis, FT-IR, DRS, TGA, and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. The prepared adsorbent showed a remarkable photocatalytic activity for eliminating amphotericin B (AmB) and naproxen (Nap) from aqueous solutions under visible light, reaching up to 92% and 90% removal, respectively, with an RSD value of around 5%. The parameters affecting the degradation process of pharmaceuticals were investigated. The optimal conditions for the degradation process were determined, including pH values (3 and 4 for AmB and Nap), photocatalyst concentration (0.2 g L−1), and H2O2 concentration (40–50 mM). Reactive oxidative species were also identified (·OH, ·O2) by examination of different scavengers. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies reveal that the synthesized photocatalyst exhibits dual functionality as an effective adsorbent (with maximum adsorption capacities of 42.5 and 121.5 mg g−1 for AmB and Nap) and a photocatalytic agent for removal purposes.
... They found that BPA is difficult to be treated with conventional wastewater treatment methods, because of its structure, which allows molecules to escape primary and secondary treatment facilities. Thus, there is a need to use advanced BPA removal techniques, which include physicochemical or enzymatic methods, adsorption [6,7], advanced oxidation [8,9], photocatalysis [10,11], ultrasonic degradation [12,13], photodegradation [14]. ...
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Bisphenol A is a remarkable chemical compound for its many applications mainly in the plastics industry, but also for its toxic effects on the environment and human health. BPA (4,4-isopropylidenediphenol) is an anthropogenic compound, moderately soluble in water (120 – 300 mg/l) at room temperature, and highly soluble in alkaline solutions, ethanol and acetone. BPA can bioconcentrate, bioaccumulate and biomagnify through food webs until it reaches humans. To prevent this, effective strategies are sought to allow its removal from the environment, through physico-chemical or enzymatic methods, advanced oxidation, adsorption and biodegradation, ultrasonic degradation. This article shows a comparative study regarding adsorption of BPA on Active carbon and zeolitic tuff, ZTC. In this paper, the characterization of the zeolitic tuff Rupea adsorbent, was carried out from an elemental and mineralogical point of view, pore size and elemental distribution, using SEM, EDAX, and XRD analysis. The pore size varies from 30 nm to 10 µm, atomic ratio Si/Al≥4, and the 80 % of mineralogical composition represent Ca Clinoptilolite zeolites Ca Clinoptilolite zeolite ((Na1.32K1.28Ca1.72Mg0.52)(Al6.77Si29.23O72)(H2O)26.84). Also, a comparative study of the adsorbtion capacity of bisphenol A from synthetic solutions on activated carbon type - Norit GAC 830 W, GAC, as well as on Clinoptilolite-type zeolitic tuff, ZTC, Rupea, was carried out. The experiments were carried out at a temperature of 20 ºC, a pH of 4.11; 6.98 and 8.12, and ionic strength being assured using KCl of 0.01 M, and 0.1 M. The adsorption capacities of GAC and ZTC tend to 115 mg/g and 50 mg/g respectively, at 8.12 pH and ionic strength of 0 M. The Langmuir mathematical model most faithfully describes the adsorption equilibrium of BPA. The maximum adsorption capacity for both adsorbents increases with increasing pH, and decreases with increasing ionic strength.
... This suggests that PEI and dopamine hydrochloride (DA) can be incorporated into TPU NFMs as modifying monomers to enhance the adsorption of anionic dyes. Some of the wastewatertreatment methods developed to date are predominantly effective for the adsorption of monomeric dyes or BPA [16,17]; however, a few studies have considered more complex contamination systems, especially for dye-BPA binary complexes. Therefore, obtaining an adsorbent that can simultaneously treat BPA and dyes in composite wastewater and exploring its adsorption mechanism for dye-BPA binary composite wastewater systems is not only of theoretical importance but also provides experimental and data support for practical application. ...
Article
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Dye wastewater containing bisphenol A (BPA) and dyes as pollutants has not been adequately studied. Our previous study revealed that thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofiber membranes (NFMs) modified by the addition of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and polydopamine (PDA) satisfactorily adsorb dyes. Herein, we first optimized the synthesis conditions for such membranes, noting a PEI/PDA monomer ratio of 2:2 and a deposition time of 48 h to be optimal. Experiments using these membranes revealed that binary systems containing BPA and the dyes (Congo red (CR), Eosin yellow (EY), or sunset yellow (SY)) exhibit three adsorption behaviors. CR and BPA compete with each other for adsorption sites, decreasing the maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) for CR 208.3 mg/g (in a monomeric system) to 182.4 mg/g. The adsorption rates for CR and BPA decreased from 0.002 min−1 and 0.331 min−1 in the monomeric systems to 8.37 × 10−4 min−1 and 0.072 min−1, respectively, in the binary CR–BPA system, exhibiting antagonistic effects. When EY and BPA coexisted, Qmax for EY increased from 60.0 (monomeric) to 71.9 mg/g, whereas that for BPA increased from 35.6 to 43.2 mg/g, showing a synergistic effect due to the possible bridging effect. The adsorption sites for SY and BPA are independent of each other. The novelty of this study is the finding that PDA/PEI-TPU NFMS exhibited high adsorption capacity for dyes and BPA in binary composite systems and PDA/PEI-TPU NFMs showed different adsorption patterns for three dye–BPA binary composite systems. The preparation of PDA/PEI-TPU NFMs and the investigation of the adsorption mechanism for dye–BPA binary composite systems are not only of theoretical importance but also provide experimental and data support for practical applications.
... At present, technologies for BPA degradation have included biological degradation, physical adsorption and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), etc. Conventional biological (Zielin'ska et al., 2016;Ferro Orozco et al., 2013;Schröder, 2006) as well as physical-chemical treatment techniques (Bhatnagar and Anastopoulos, 2016) cannot satisfactorily remove BPA from water as well as reduce the biological toxicity. In order to conquer the limitations of conventional processes, a lot of AOPs have been developed, such as ozonation (Ahmad et al., 2015), photocatalysis (Reddy et al., 2018;Gao et al., 2020;Luo et al., 2022), photoelectrocatalysis , Fenton/photo-Fenton (Xiao et al., 2019) and persulfates or sulfite based oxidation . ...
... This suggests that PEI and dopamine hydrochloride (DA) can be incorporated into TPU NFMs as modifying monomers to enhance the adsorption of anionic dyes. Some of the wastewater-treatment methods developed to date are predominantly effective for the adsorption of monomeric dyes or BPA [15,16]; however, a few studies have considered more complex contamination systems, especially for dye-BPA binary complexes. Therefore, our aim was to develop a highly efficient adsorbent with a high adsorption capacity for BPA-dye composite wastewater and to clarify its adsorption mechanism. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Dye wastewater containing bisphenol A (BPA) and dyes as pollutants have not been adequately studied. Our previous study revealed that thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofiber membranes (NFMs) modified by the addition of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and polydopamine (PDA) satisfactorily adsorb dyes. Herein, we first optimized the synthesis conditions for such membranes, noting a PEI:PDA monomer ratio of 2:2 and a deposition time of 48 h to be optimal. Experiments using these membranes revealed that binary systems containing BPA and the dyes (Congo red (CR), Eosin yellow (EY), or sunset yellow (SY)) exhibit three adsorption behaviors. CR and BPA compete with each other for adsorption sites, decreasing the maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) for CR 208.3 mg/g (in a monomeric system) to 182.4 mg/g, whereas for BPA, it decreased from 26.7 to 22.8 mg/g. The adsorption rates for CR and BPA decreased from 0.002 min−1 and 0.331 min−1 in the monomeric systems to 8.37 × 10−4 min−1 and 0.072 min−1, respectively, in the binary CR–BPA system, exhibiting antagonistic effects. When EY and BPA coexist, Qmax for EY increased from 60.0 (monomeric) to 71.9 mg/g, whereas that for BPA increased from 35.6 to 43.2 mg/g, showing a synergistic effect due to the possible bridging effect. The adsorption sites for SY and BPA are independent of each other. Thus, PDA/PEI TPU NFMs exhibit the potential for removal of dye–BPA composites, whereas binary systems containing BPA with different dyes are adsorbed differently.
... Researchers have investigated membrane separation (Zhao et al. 2021;Yang et al. 2021;Rana et al. 2014;Chen et al. 2020), photocatalytic degradation (Wang et al. 2021b;Kim et al. 2022;Han et al. 2021), and adsorption (Mpatani et al. 2020;Lv et al. 2021;Jiang et al. 2021) to remove BPA from aqueous solutions. Due to its simplicity, efficiency, and eco-friendliness, adsorption is considered a highly effective contaminant removal method, and adsorbents usually dominate in adsorption process (Heo et al. 2019;Bhatnagar and Anastopoulos 2017). Various adsorbents could remove EDCs from aqueous environments, such as porous resins (Xu et al. 2019;Yuan et al. 2022), metal-organic-frameworks (Khan et al. 2013;Han et al. 2022), silica (Xiao et al. 2015;Pellicer-Castell et al. 2022;Kittappa et al. 2020), and porous carbon (Zhang et al. 2018;Wang et al. 2022;Qu et al. 2022;Mpatani et al. 2021;Cheng et al. 2019). ...
Article
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Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are increasingly polluting water, making it of practical value to develop novel desirable adsorbents for removing these pollutants from wastewater. Here, a simple cross-linking strategy combined with gentle chemical activation was demonstrated to prepare starch polyurethane-activated carbon (STPU-AC) for adsorbing BPA in water. The adsorbents were characterized by various techniques such as FTIR, XPS, Raman, BET, SEM, and zeta potential, and their adsorption properties were investigated comprehensively. Results show that STPU-AC possesses a large surface area (1862.55 m²·g⁻¹) and an abundance of functional groups, which exhibited superior adsorption capacity for BPA (543.4 mg·g⁻¹) and favorable regenerative abilities. The adsorption of BPA by STPU-AC follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and a Freundlich isotherm model. The effect of aqueous solution chemistry (pH and ionic strength) and the presence of other contaminants (phenol, heavy metals, and dyes) on BPA adsorption was also analyzed. Moreover, theoretical studies further demonstrate that hydroxyl oxygen and pyrrole nitrogen are the primary adsorption sites. We found that the efficient recovery of BPA was associated with pore filling, hydrogen-bonding interaction, hydrophobic effects, and π-π stacking. These findings demonstrate the promising practical application of STPU-AC and provide a basis for the rational design of starch-derived porous carbon.
... Moreover, climate change, the increasing intensity of precipitation and violent storms contribute to water pollution through overland runoff [262]. The disadvantages of traditional pollution treatment methods include high costs, no specificity and the generation of secondary pollutants [265,274,275]. Bio-logical methods are more environmentally friendly and can remove most pollutants from wastewater [263,264]. ...
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The rapid growth of the human population in recent decades has resulted in the intensive development of various industries, the development of urban agglomerations and increased production of medicines for animals and humans, plant protection products and fertilizers on an unprecedented scale. Intensive agriculture, expanding urban areas and newly established industrial plants release huge amounts of pollutants into the environment, which, in nature, are very slowly degraded or not decomposed, which leads to their accumulation in water and terrestrial ecosystems. Researchers are scouring extremely contaminated environments to identify organisms that have the ability to degrade resistant xenobiotics, such as PAHs, some pharmaceuticals, plasticizers and dyes. These organisms are a potential source of enzymes that could be used in the bioremediation of industrial and municipal wastewater. Great hopes are pinned on oxidoreductases, including laccase, called by some a green biocatalyst because the end product of the oxidation of a wide range of substrates by this enzyme is water and other compounds, most often including dimers, trimers and polymers. Laccase immobilization techniques and their use in systems together with adsorption or separation have found application in the enzymatic bioremediation of wastewater.
... The sorption amounts of BPA on GO, Soil, Sediment, and MPs showed a decreased trend with the increase in solution pH ( Fig. 5a and 5b), which may be ascribed to that 1) the neutral BPA molecules speciated into anions at pH > 9.56 (pK a of BPA = 9.56) (Berhane et al., 2016). Bhatnagar and Anastopoulos (2017) also pointed out that BPA molecules would be deprotonated and mostly ionized to mono-or divalent anions at relatively high pH, resulting in weakening of H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions between BPA and materials (especially for GO); 2) the surface charges of materials are responsible for sorption behavior of BPA. The negative surface charges of materials increased as solution pH increased, leading to an increasing electrostatic repulsion between negative charges of materials and BPA anions for those H-bonds dominating materials, thus reducing the sorption capacity. ...
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Microplastics (MPs) have been proven to be a vector for the migration of hydrophobic organic pollutants in the water system. However, the potential environmental risks of MPs compared with typical environmental materials are still unknown. In this work, the potential risks of MPs (high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polyamide (PA)), engineered carbonous materials (active carbon (AC), graphene oxide (GO), and multi-walled nanotubes (MWCNTs)), and natural media (Soil and Sediment) were evaluated by comparing their interfacial behaviors to bisphenol A (BPA) under various environmental conditions. The maximum sorption capacities of BPA on those materials followed the order of AC (179 mg/g) > MWCNTs (73.5 mg/g) > PA (69.0 mg/g) > GO (44.1 mg/g) > Soil (0.601 mg/g) > Sediment (0.164 mg/g) ≈ HDPE (0.163 mg/g). The main sorption mechanisms of BPA on GO were H-bonds and π-π interactions, while those on AC and MWCNTs were π-π interactions. Hydrophobic interaction played a dominant role in the sorption of BPA on Soil, Sediment, and HDPE, whereas PA bound to BPA primarily through H-bonds. Density functional theory (DFT) simulation also confirmed the predominant mechanism of hydrophobic interaction (-6.01 kcal/mol) between BPA and HDPE as well as H-bonds (-8.43 kcal/mol) between BPA and PA. Besides, solution pH, humic acid (HA), salinity, water matrices, and coexisting 17β-Estradiol (E2) played roles in the sorption of BPA. Based on the current abundance of carbonous materials and MPs in real environments, the calculated relative desorbed capacity (RDC) of BPA suggested that the predicted environmental risk of MPs was similar to that of engineered carbonaceous materials but much lower than that of natural media. Our findings highlight that the sorption behaviors and potential risks of MPs in real environments highly depend on the structural properties of MPs, in which surface functional groups are particularly important.
... 2013). Traditional biological treatment methods involved in waste water treatment plants exhibit limited degradation effect on BPA (Bhatnagar and Anastopoulos 2017). Therefore, efficient BPA degradation methods are need to be established in urgent. ...
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... BPA is formed by combining two phenol molecules bonded through a methyl bridge and two methyl groups (Careghini et al. 2015). Due to its good strength and hardness, thermal stability, and resistance to acids and oils (Ma et al. 2019), BPA has been widely used in the manufacture of various consumer products such as dental sealants, plastic bottles, baby bottles, thermal paper, and canned food (Bhatnagar and Anastopoulos 2017). The global demand for BPA has been reported to be 3.2, 3.9, 5, and 8 million tons in 2003, 2006, respectively (Careghini et al. 2015Hercog et al. 2019). ...
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... The economic value of these wastes is relatively low as they are often burnt or discarded, leading to environmental problems (Tapia-Orozco et al., 2016). Many researchers, therefore, have explored the potency of these low-cost agro-wastes for the sequestration of a wide range of pollutants (Bhatnagar and Anastopoulos, 2016). The adsorption process can be described as a process where molecules (gas or liquid) adhere to the adsorbents' surfaces through the formation of chemical or physical bonds (Bello et al., 2017). ...
... The economic value of these wastes is relatively low as they are often burnt or discarded, leading to environmental problems (Tapia-Orozco et al., 2016). Many researchers, therefore, have explored the potency of these low-cost agro-wastes for the sequestration of a wide range of pollutants (Bhatnagar and Anastopoulos, 2016). The adsorption process can be described as a process where molecules (gas or liquid) adhere to the adsorbents' surfaces through the formation of chemical or physical bonds (Bello et al., 2017). ...
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... Bisphenol A or 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane, commonly known as bisphenol A (BPA), is a symmetrical organic compound composed of two phenol rings linked by a methyl bridge. The abbreviation "A" in bisphenol A comes from "Acetone" since this compound was used in manufacturing to produce BPA (Bhatnagar and Anastopoulos 2017;Chung et al. 2021). Figure 1 shows the structure of BPA. ...
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Conventional treatment methods such as chlorination and ozonation have been proven not to be effective in eliminating and degrading contaminants such as Bisphenol A (BPA) from wastewater. Hence, the degradation of BPA using a photocatalytic reactor has received a lot of attention recently. In this study, a model-based approach using a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) coupled with back-propagation, as well as support vector machine regression coupled with cubic kernel function (CSVMR) and Gaussian process regression (EQGPR) coupled with exponential quadratic kernel function, were employed to model the relationship between the textural properties such as pore volume (Vp), pore diameter (Vd), crystallite size, and specific surface area (SBET) of erbium- and iron-modified TiO2 photocatalysts in degrading BPA. Parametric analysis revealed that effective degradation of the Bisphenol up to 90% could be achieved using photocatalysts having textural properties of 150 m2/g, 8 nm, 7 nm, and 0.36 cm3/g for SBET, crystallite size, particle diameter, and pore volume, respectively. Fifteen architectures of the MPLNN models were tested to determine the best in terms of predictability of BPA degradation. The performance of each of the MLPNN models was measured using the coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean squared errors (RMSE). The MLPNN architecture comprised of 4 input layers, 14 hidden neurons, and 3 output layers displayed the best performance with R2 of 0.902 and 0.996 for training and testing. The 4-14-3 MLPNN robustly predicted the BPA degradation with an R2 of 0.921 and RMSE of 4.02, which is an indication that a nonlinear relationship exists between the textural properties of the modified TiO2 and the degradation of the BPA. The CSVRM did not show impressive performance as indicated by the R2 of 0.397. Therefore, appropriately modifying the textural properties of the TiO2 will significantly influence the BPA degradability.
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Light-driven magnetic MXene-based microrobots (MXeBOTs) have been developed as an active motile platform for efficiently removing and degrading bisphenol A (BPA). Light-driven MXeBOTs are facilitated with the second control engine, i.e., embedded Fe2 O3 nanoparticles (NPs) for magnetic propulsion. The grafted bismuth NPs act as cocatalysts. The effect of the BPA concentration and the chemical composition of the swimming environment on the stability and reusability of the MXeBOTs are studied. The MAXBOTs, a developed motile water remediation platform, demonstrate the ability to remove/degrade approximately 60% of BPA within just 10 min and achieve near-complete removal/degradation (≈100%) within 1 h. Above 86% of BPA is mineralized within 1 h. The photocatalytic degradation of BPA using Bi/Fe/MXeBOTs demonstrates a significant advantage in the mineralization of BPA to CO2 and H2 O.
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Using metal-free catalysts is widely recognized as a promising approach toward wastewater remediation because of the absence of metal leaching. However, the oxidation products involved in the oxidation process and the corresponding mechanisms are still not clear. In this work, N-doped carbocatalysts (CN) were fabricated using as-prepared g-C3N4 and glucose solution, and the reactivity of the as-prepared catalysts was optimized by controlling calcination temperature. Correspondingly, increasing the calcination temperature promotes the catalytic oxidation of BPA. The positive correlations between the contents of pyridinic-N and graphitic-N and the kobs values of BPA oxidation, as well as XPS analysis indicate the important roles of pyridinic-N and graphitic-N in BPA oxidation. According to the series of characterizations of the oxidation products and Raman analysis of the reaction process, the moderately activated persulfate (PS) on the CN catalyst is the predominant species in BPA oxidation and BPA can be oxidized to BPA polymers with high selectivity by H-abstraction under alkaline conditions. This work highlights the important role of the moderate activation of PS in the polymerization of phenolic contaminants under alkaline conditions, which enriches our understanding of the oxidation of aromatic contaminants by PS under alkaline conditions.
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Background In order to propose a destination for the bottom ash generated from biomass burning, its morphology, functional groups and mineral phases were studied. Dipyrone has been extensively used as an antipyretic, increased due to cases of COVID‐19, and due to excretion by urine, incorrect disposal and industrial effluents has been destined to wastewater, being harmful to human and animal life. The present study proposes using biomass ash for the adsorption of dipyrone. Results The characterization of biomass ash shows a sufficient surface area size for adsorption, and a mainly amorphous structure with some peaks of quartz, calcite and other mineral phases. The results show that the kinetic model which best describes the adsorption is the pseudo‐first‐order model. The Langmuir model best fits at 25 °C, and the Freundlich model best describes the adsorption at 35 and 45 °C. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the process is endothermic with a maximum adsorptive capacity of 65.27 mg g ⁻¹ . In addition, the adsorption is spontaneous, disordered and chemical. The ionic strength study reveals that the adsorbent is promising for real effluent treatment and there is evidence that electrostatic interaction is not the primary adsorptive mechanism, agreeing with the result obtained from pH testing. The proposed mechanism for dipyrone removal involves hydrogen bonds, π bonds and electron donor–acceptor complex. Conclusions The results are promising in comparison with recent literature and solve two environmental problems: biomass bottom ash disposal and pharmaceutical removal in aqueous medium. The ash may be regarded as a low‐cost and environmentally friendly adsorbent. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry (SCI).
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Iron-based single-atom catalysts (SACs) have exhibited remarkable performance for persistent pollutants removal through activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the broad practical application of SACs has...
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Currently, functional materials-based soil remediation focused on the stabilization of heavy metals and organics to inhibit their migration, however, the possible second release of these pollutants caused by soil condition variation attracts broad attention. Herein, β-cyclodextrin functionalized magnetic sodium alginate microspheres (MSA-CDMW) were fast and facilely synthesized through microwave-assisted one-pot method for synchronous detachment of Pb and BPA from contaminated soil. The obtained MSA-CDMW presented wide pH adaptability and fast capture for Pb(II)/BPA with superior adsorption capacity of 369.03/165.37 mg/g. Furthermore, the effects of material dosage and soil pH on the remediation ability of MSA-CDMW were explored in detail. After adding 5% MSA-CDMW into the contaminated soil for 3-round successive remediation (12 h for each round), the amount of extractable Pb and total BPA was simultaneously decreased by 56.30 and 0.78 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the quantity of exchangeable and carbonate bound Pb was significantly decreased to 7.13% with transformation into relatively stable fractions. A series of characterizations revealed that ion exchange, pore filling, complexation, and electrostatic attraction were responsible for Pb binding, while MSA-CDMW could capture BPA through host-guest interaction by the hydrophobic cavity of β-cyclodextrin. Additionally, recovery and floatation results revealed that the MSA-CDMW could be easily separated from the soil using magnets even at extreme drying and wetting conditions, thus providing a novel, fast, and eco-friendly strategy for effective remediation of heavy metals and organics contaminated soil.
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Computationally and spectroscopically assisted analytical comparative investigation into extraction of bisphenol A using three cyclodextrins i.e. α, β, and γ respectively, were performed. A simple, self‐tailored μ‐solid phase extraction podium was used to extract bisphenol A from water samples, and HPLC‐UV was used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of bisphenol A. Density functional theory first principle calculations, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy data supports the analytical selection of β‐cyclodextrin as the adsorbent for bisphenol A extraction. Analytical optimization of various parameters including sample volume, sample pH, eluting solvent and its volume was performed to discover the most proper conditions for maximum extraction. Under the optimized conditions, a limit of detection value of 0.70 ng/mL and a limit of quantification value of 2.31 ng/mL was achieved with β‐cyclodextrin, with recovery (%) values over 98.40‐102.50 in real source water samples. Overall, well assisted by comprehensive computational and spectroscopic studies, a novel, simple, sensitive and economic analytical method was developed for the extraction of bisphenol A from source water using cyclodextrin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Chapter
Endocrine disrupting phenols have gotten a lot of attention in recent years because of their severe harmful effects on humans and wildlife through influencing their endocrine systems. Phenols mainly 3-aminophenol, nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and many others have been found in a variety of aquatic settings, including surface waters, groundwater, wastewater, runoff, and landfill leachates, as an important group of developing pollutants. Their removal from water resources has become an increasing worry as the world’s population grows and fresh water resources become scarce. Conventional methods were proved to be not efficient for the removal of endocrine phenols. To overcome the drawbacks of conventional methods, nanomaterials are widely used in different form for the complete abetment of these toxic phenols. Nanomaterials have showed potential in pesticide degradation via adsorption and photocatalytic mechanisms due to their distinctive features (precised shape, texture, abundance, crystallinity, and surface area). Photocatalysis proved to be much efficient over other methodology due to complete conversion of toxic pollutant into safer metabolites. For the treatment of various types of phenols, titanium oxides, zinc oxides, copper oxides, noble metals (Ag, Au, and Pt), and iron-based nanomaterials are widely used. In addition, source and occurrence of phenols are also discussed with their adverse impacts on living beings. Moreover, comprehensive information on recently attracting nanomaterials has also been quarantined.
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The widespread use of chemicals has brought serious water pollution threatening human health and environment, which requires green, fast and low‐cost purification urgently. Here we build up a novel material family of sky‐parking like 3D structured graphene oxides (SP‐GOs) with adjustable interlayer‐space of 0.8~1.7 nm via the insertion of different sized diamine compounds as support pillars between GO layers. The assembled 3D SP‐GOs exhibit superior adsorption capacity and short removal time for various aromatic organic compounds in water, achieving record‐breaking maximum adsorption capacity of 535.79 mg/g toward the most common water‐pollutant bisphenol A (BPA) at ambient conditions as well as significantly improved removal of other organic pollutants including sulfapyridine, carbamazepine, ketoprofen and 2‐naphthol. The construction of SP‐GO provides a simple approach for evolving the GO material from 2D to 3D and a new avenue for the decontamination of pollutants in environmental remediation.
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The occurrence of emerging pollutants in water bodies is a pressing issue of modern society and identifying materials to remove them is the main target of current research. In this work, we prepared and characterized supramolecular gels of 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene-d-sorbitol (DBS) in ionic liquids differing for the anion and the aliphatic or aromatic nature of the cation. We characterized our gels for their thermal stability and mechanical properties. We also found that all gels self-heal in 24 h after being cut by a razor blade. We then used our gels as sorbents to remove bisphenol A, an endocrine disruptor compound, from aqueous solutions. All gels adsorb BPA with high removal efficiencies, and those obtained in aliphatic ionic liquids act faster than their aromatic counterparts. The highest observed adsorption capacity was 314 mg/g. Gels were reused without loss in performance and need for intermediate washing, and the gel obtained in [bmpip][NTf2] could be reused 37 times, maintaining a removal efficiency higher than 96%. It was loaded in a sequential system of syringes to treat flowing aqueous phases, removing 60% of BPA in 30 min. We also embedded the gel in the dialysis membrane and observed a removal efficiency of 85% after 48 h.
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Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that is difficult to completely remove from wastewater by conventional biological methods. Increased post-treatment BPA removal with ceramic membranes is worth investigating because of these membranes’ mechanical and chemical stability and lifespan. To determine the effectiveness of ceramic membranes for post-treatment of biologically treated BPA-contaminated wastewater, microfiltration (MF) and nanofiltration (NF) were conducted. Both processes removed BPA completely at an initial BPA concentration of 0.3 ± 0.14 mg/L. Increased concentration of 0.7 ± 0.29 mg/L decreased BPA removal. MF removed at least 24 % of BPA, presumably because BPA was adsorbed on particulate matter, which was retained by the membrane, or adsorbed on its surface. NF removed up to thrice more BPA. MF and NF completely removed suspended solids and 40–60 % COD. Filtration capacity decreased with time due to fouling but did not depend on initial BPA concentration. BPA concentrations in municipal wastewater are typically lower than the lowest concentration tested, where MF completely removed BPA. Hence, MF ceramic membranes appear a promising solution for post-treatment of BPA-containing wastewater. MF can be used at a much lower transmembrane pressure than NF, requiring less energy to pump wastewater through the membrane, thus reducing costs.
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In this study, surfactant-modified natural zeolite was used to remove Bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the adsorption kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics between the adsorbent surfaces and BPA. The adsorption process was in good agreement with the Temkin isotherm rather than the Langmuir Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The pseudo-second order kinetic model fitted better than the pseudo-first order model. Taguchi’s robust design approach was used to optimize adsorption of BPA. Experimentation was planned as per Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array. Tests were conducted with different adsorbate amount, pH, time, initial concentration of BPA, temperature and agitation speed. The optimum levels of control factors for maximum total organic carbon (TOC) removal were defined (adsorbate amount at 0.25 g, pH at 7, time at 30 min, initial concentration of BPA at 50 mg/L, temperature at 30°C and agitation speed at 200 rpm). The ANOVA analysis shown that the the most effective control factor is adsorbent dosage, its contribution is 56.4%. Contribution of pH and mixing rate are 7.5% and 7.6%, respectively. A confirmation experiment was conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the optimal combination. The observed value of S/N (ηobs=39) ratio is compared with that of the predicted value (ηopt =48). The prediction error, i.e., ηopt - ηobs =9, is within CI value.
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A surfactant structure-directing agent was used to synthesize a hydrophobic mesoporous material (MCM-41-d) at room temperature. As-prepared materials were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, N2 adsorption–desorption isotherm analysis, and thermogravimetry (TG). The properties of the samples for adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) from water were also investigated in detail. The results revealed that pH affected BPA adsorption. Equilibrium and kinetic data were consistent with the Langmuir adsorption and second-order kinetic model, respectively. The adsorption capacity of MCM-41-d was considerably higher than that of MCM-41-c because of its higher hydrophobicity and more abundant adsorption sites. The maximum adsorption capacity of MCM-41-d was as high as 416.7 mg/g, indicating that MCM-41-d can serve as an efficient adsorbent to remove BPA from water.
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Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has become one of the most common environmental chemical exposures in humans. There is growing evidence regarding an association between BPA exposure, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). If BPA exposure is indeed associated with raised blood pressure and CVD, it would be a major public health problem. Therefore, we reviewed the epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical trial evidence for an association between BPA exposure, CVD, and hypertension, and discussed the possible mechanisms in this article. Cross-sectional studies in various ethnicities suggested a possible association between BPA exposure and hypertension; this association was supported by a panel study and a randomized clinical trial. Despite the discordance among cross-sectional studies about an association between BPA exposure and CVD, a longitudinal study shows that BPA exposure is a risk factor for CVD. The effects of BPA exposure such as endocrinal disturbance, induction of oxidative stress and inflammation, epigenetic change, and links with other chronic diseases may highlight a possible mechanism between BPA exposure, CVD, and hypertension. To clarify the causal relationship, well-designed studies are needed in the future.
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Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), represented by steroidal estrogens (estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estradiol (E3), and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and xenoestrogens (bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP)), are pollutants with estrogenic activity at very low concentrations and are emerging as a major concern for water quality. They enter into aqueous environment mainly through discharge of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The paper completely reviews recent studies on the occurrence of the six categories of EDCs in different aqueous environment, namely surface water, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater in WWTPs all over the world. Furthermore, due to the high bioactivity, ubiquitous distribution, potential ecological effects, and persistence of the six categories of EDCs, the work summarizes current knowledge of their bacterial biodegradation, which is considered to be an efficient and promising method of removing EDCs. A wide range of bacteria isolated from various environments and affiliated to all kinds of genera with different degradation powers for EDCs are collected in this review in order to select specific strains adapting well to local conditions for bioremediation of freshwater, seawater, soil, sediment with low or high levels of EDCs. Finally, it emphasizes the need for further research and summarizes the future tasks that emerge from the data gathered here.
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Present study was performed so as to compare adsorptive removal efficiencies of low-cost adsorbent rice husk ash (RHA) and commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) for the removal of bisphenol-A (BPA), an endocrine disrupting chemical, from aqueous solution. Effect of variables such as initial concentration (C0), adsorbent dose (m), temperature (T), pH, and time (t) were studied. Optimized values at C0 = 100 mg/L were found to be: m = 30 g/L, t = 3 h for RHA whereas for GAC, optimum values were: m = 20 g/L and t = 2 h. Pseudo-second-order model best represented the adsorption kinetic data; and Freundlich and Temkin models best fitted the isotherm data. The adsorption of BPA onto GAC and RHA was found to be endothermic in nature. Value of change in entropy and enthalpy for BPA adsorption onto RHA was found to be: 21.38 J/mol K and 0.335 kJ/mol, respectively. Respective values for BPA adsorption onto GAC were found to be: 29.6 J/mol K and 4.03 kJ/mol, respectively.
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Herein we have synthesized a novel hydrophobic magnetic montmorillonite composite for the extraction of bisphenol A (BPA) from environmental water samples. The prepared sorbent is benefited by the advantages of eco-friendly montmorillonite, quick isolation of magnetic nanoparticles and hydrophobicity of C16 functional groups. The composite material was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of adsorption were studied by using direct fluorescence spectrophotometry. The kinetics and isotherm data can be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity (qm) of hydrophobic magnetic montmorillonite for BPA obtained from a Langmuir isotherm was 59.17 mg/g at 298.15 K. The magnetic solid-phase extraction of bisphenol A was performed, and the analyte extracted was quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Experimental parameters such as sorbent dosage, temperature, type and volume of desorption solvent, and adsorption and desorption time were evaluated. The linearity range of the method was between 0.5–200 μg L−1 with a determination coefficient (R2) higher than 0.999. Relative standard deviations at two different concentration levels (50 and 200 μg.L−1) were in the range of 2.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.15 μg L−1 and the limit of quantitation 0.35 μg L−1. Relative recoveries higher than 95% with RSDs in the range of 2.7–3.8% were achieved in the analysis of four different environmental water samples.
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Adsorption and desorption studies of the endocrine-disrupting compound, bisphenol A (BPA), and the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) with palygorskite-montmorillonite (Pal-Mt) granules (0.3–0.6 mm, 1.7–2.0 mm and ≈ 2.8 mm), were done as a function of solution chemistry, temperature, and particle size. The data best fit the Langmuir adsorption model with the smallest and the largest granule sizes, respectively, exhibiting the highest (in mg kg− 1, qm = 77.3 for BPA; qm = 107,000 for CIP) and the lowest (qm = 41.0 for BPA; qm = 81,000 for CIP) adsorption capacities. CIP adsorption was strongly pH dependent, while BPA adsorption was slightly pH and ionic strength dependent. Thermodynamic parameters indicated BPA and CIP adsorption were spontaneous. Net-adsorption-desorption hysteresis were indicative of irreversible adsorption. FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data corroborate the mechanisms and the level of adsorption for CIP but not for BPA. The smallest and the medium granule sizes, respectively, are appropriate for potential BPA and CIP removal.
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Bisphenol A (2,2-bis[4-hydroxyphenyl]propane, BPA), the monomer used to produce polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, is weakly estrogenic and therefore of environmental and human health interest. Due to the high production volumes and disposal of products made from BPA, polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, BPA has entered terrestrial and aquatic environments. In the presence of oxygen, diverse taxa of bacteria, fungi, algae and even higher plants metabolize BPA, but anaerobic microbial degradation has not been documented. Recent reports demonstrated that abiotic processes mediate BPA transformation and mineralization in the absence of oxygen, indicating that BPA is susceptible to degradation under anoxic conditions. This review summarizes biological and non-biological processes that lead to BPA transformation and degradation, and identifies research needs to advance predictive understanding of the longevity of BPA and its transformation products in environmental systems.
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The removal of bisphenol-A (BPA) from aqueous solutions, where it can interact with natural organic matter (NOM), is of great concern to researchers. In this study, the preparation of goethite iron oxide particles impregnated activated carbon composite (GPAC) has been discussed. The goal of developing an advanced material was to remove BPA in the presence of NOM. Characterizations of the GPAC were carried out by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), the Fourier transfer infra-red (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and their physical characteristics were studied. The adsorption characteristics of GPAC were evaluated by batch adsorption studies. The adsorption kinetics of BPA on GPAC followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms models were applied to determine the BPA removal capacity by GPAC. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm was considered to be more suitable than the Langmuir isotherm for the adsorption of BPA. It was also noted that the adsorption capacity of BPA on GPAC increased with an increase in the iron oxide concentration in GPAC. The obtained results were also compared with those of goethite and bare PAC. The effects of NOM on the BPA removal characteristics were also studied, indicating that the BPA adsorption capacity was enhanced in the presence of NOM.
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The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of barley husk biomass as an alternative adsorbent for bisphenol A (BPA) removal from aqueous solution. Effect of various parameters such as Contact time, pH, temperature, initial BPA concentration and adsorbent dosage has been carried out in this study. Isotherm studies were conducted on a laboratory scale and the data evaluated for compliance with Langmuir, Freundlich, Tekmin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model. The optimum conditions for the removal of BPA within the experiment range of variables studies were 10 mg/L of initial BPA concentration, 5 g/L of adsorbent dose, pH value of 3 and 90 min of contact time. Under these conditions the maximum removal efficiency was 98.9%. The Pseudo-first order, pseudo second order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetic data. The data were best fitted with pseudo second order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated and it was found to be spontaneous, endothermic and physical adsorption in nature.
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Rare earth elements (REEs) have gained considerable attention due to their unique properties and their use in huge range of industrial applications. They are widely used in different sectors such as, nuclear energy, metallurgy, medicine, chemical engineering, electronics, and computer manufacturing. As a result, the recovery of REEs is a significant issue that needs appropriate attention. There are many methods to recover REEs such as precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction etc. but these methods are not economically attractive. Among the available methods, adsorption has gained wider attention because of its simplicity, high efficiency and low cost. This review article presents the recently published literature (after 2013) regarding the removal of rare earth metals from aqueous solution by different low cost adsorbents. For this purpose, best applying model (isotherm, kinetic), thermodynamic studies and other factors which influence the adsorption process (such as the effect of solution pH, contact time, temperature and adsorbent's dose) are also discussed.
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Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC’s) disturb the endocrine system functionality causing negative effects on health in an organism and its progeny. Many studies have reported presence of potential EDC’s in wastewater and groundwater, indoor and outdoor air, agricultural soils and food. Epidemiological studies suggest that endocrine disruptors are associated to many worldwide increasing human diseases such as obesity, reproductive abnormalities, cancer, metabolic disorders, cardiovascular risk, autism, and epigenetic alterations.
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Batik industries generate large amounts of effluents with high chromaticity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, and salinity. The present study aims to recycle batik effluent using nanofiltration (NF) membranes. The effects of various operating conditions on the performances of three NF membranes (NF6, NF2A, and NF3A) were examined in terms of the removal rate of salt, COD, and chromaticity, together with permeate flux. Membrane fouling and cleaning strategies were also investigated. Results showed that the NF3A membrane outperformed the other membranes under the following optimal operating conditions: operating pressure, 1 MPa; operating temperature, 20°C; and cross-flow velocity, 5 m/s. A pilot-scale test was conducted by screening a NF membrane combination, including one NF membrane with high permeate fluxes and a poor water quality and another NF membrane placed on the opposite side, to satisfy reuse requirements and to reduce investment costs. Compared with NF3A membranes alone, the combination of NF2A and NF3A membranes could reduce COD and chromaticity to satisfy the reuse requirement and to enhance water fluxes. Through chemical cleaning with 3.5 ppm EDTA-2Na and 400 ppm NaOH, the performance of the NF membranes could be effectively restored. A feasible NF coupling process was confirmed in batik wastewater reclamation.
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The Cynoglossus semilaevis (half-smooth tongue sole) is a marine flatfish of great commercial value for fisheries and aquaculture in China. It has a female heterogametic sex determination system (ZW/ZZ) and environmental factors can induce sex-reversal of females to phenotypic males, suggesting that it is a promising model for the study of sex determination mechanisms. Additionally, females grow much faster than males and it is feasible to improve the aquaculture production through sex control techniques. This paper reviews the progress in research on sex determination mechanisms research in our laboratory. We have completed whole-genome sequencing and revealed the genome organization and sex chromosome evolution of C. semilaevis. A putative male determining gene dmrt1 was identified and DNA methylation was verified as having a crucial role in the sex reversal process. Genetic maps and sex-specific biomarkers have been used in a marker-assisted selection breeding program and for differentiation of the fish sex. Development and improvement of sex control technologies, including artificial gynogenesis and production of breeding fry with high proportion of females, is also reviewed. These research advances have provided insight into the regulation of sex determination and enabled efficient sex management in artificial culturing of C. semilaevis.
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Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most abundant synthetic chemicals in the world due to its uses in plastics. Its widespread exposure vis-a-vis low dose effects led to a reduction in its safety dose and imposition of ban on its use in infant feeding bottles. This restriction paved the way for the gradual market entry of its analogues. However, their structural similarity to BPA has put them under surveillance for endocrine disrupting potential. The application of these analogues is increasing and so are the studies reporting their toxicity. This review highlights the reasons which led to the ban of BPA and also reports the exposure and toxicological data available on its analogues. Hence, this compilation is expected to answer in a better way whether the replacement of BPA by these analogues is safer or more harmful?
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Iron oxide nanocrystals synthesized by a co-precipitation method were decorated with an aminopropyl functionalized silica layer and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Surface area of nanocrystals was measured using the N2 adsorption–desorption Brunauer-Emmet-Teller procedure. Large surface area (208.0 m2/g) of nanocrystals confirmed their potential for adsorption of organic/inorganic material. So the nanocrystals were used for adsorption of Bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solutions. As a continuation, the influence of different parameters including adsorbent dosage, pH, temperature, and ionic strength on the removal efficiency of BPA was studied. The experimental data were fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.99). The adsorption isotherm was described well by the Freundlich isotherm.
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This paper concerns with the adsorption of bisphenol-A (BPA) by modified zeolites which were prepared using an orthogonal experimental design. The preparation process was optimized by the defined conditions, i.e. that 10% of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide was used as the optimal modifier and processing time and temperature were 36 h and 25°C, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium of BPA onto the modified zeolite fits the Freundlich isotherm with a high correlation coefficient 0.996 and was defined by a second-order rate constant (Kv) of 1.07 g (mg h)−1. Furthermore, the effects of solution chemical properties on the adsorption of BPA by modified zeolites were examined. The result reveals that the best adsorption temperature was 25°C, and the optimal pH ranged from 5.0 to 10.0. In addition, the adsorption capacity of BPA increased with concentrations of (Formula presented.) and decreased with increasing in concentrations of (Formula presented.), OH−, and Al3+ in the test solution.
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Pillared clay based composites containing transition metals and a surfactant, namely MAlOr-NaBt (Bt=bentonite; Or=surfactant; M=Ni(2+), Cu(2+)or Co(2+)), were prepared to study selectivity and capacity toward single and multiple-component adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and 2,4-diclorophenol (DCP) from water. Tests were also performed to account for the presence of natural organic matter in the form of humic acid (HA). Equilibrium adsorption capacities for single components increased as follows: NaBt<Al-NaBt<AlOr-NaBt<MAlOr-NaBt. The observed equilibrium loadings were ca. 5 and 3mgg(-1) for BPA and DCP, respectively, at neutral pH conditions and ambient temperature, representing an ordered of magnitude increase over the unmodified pillared clay capacities. Inclusion of the transition metal brought an increase of nearly two-fold in adsorption capacity over the materials modified only with surfactant. The MAlOr-NaBt adsorbents displayed remarkable selectivity for BPA. Multi-component fixed-bed tests, however, revealed competition between the adsorbates, with the exception of the CuAlOr-NaBt beds. Inclusion of HA, surprisingly, enhanced the phenols adsorption capacity. Preliminary regeneration tests suggested that the adsorbent capacity can be recovered via thermal treatment or by washing with alkaline solutions. The former strategy, however, requires surfactant replenishment. More complex schemes would be needed to deal with absorbed HA.
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The novel photoresponsive molecularly imprinted polymers (P-MIPs) based on mesoporous carriers were developed for selective recognition and intelligent separation of bisphenol A from the complex samples. P-MIPs were prepared using an azobenzene-containing monomer as the photosensitive monomer by a facile free radical polymerization, combining the stimuli responsive mechanism and imprinting technology. The physical property and structure of newly synthesized materials have been characterized, and their photoisomerization properties were studied. P-MIPs displayed a superior photoresponsive property. Interestingly enough, the template molecules can be easily bound in the recognition sites and released back into the solution under the alternating irradiation. Binding properties of P-MIPs were also further evaluated by batch adsorption experiments. They possessed specific recognition sites and higher affinity for BPA, and the maximal adsorption capacity was 27.06 μmol g-1. Subsequently, the materials were also successfully applied to photocontrolled separation of BPA in real water sample with good recovery, indicating great applicability for selective removal specific analytes from complex environment. The present work mainly provided the deep analysis and useful insights concerning the feasibility of using stimuli responsive imprinted materials in intelligent separation system, which shows tremendous potential to establish a sustainable environment.
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Graphite oxide (GO) was reduced to different reduction degrees by using hydrazine hydrate and finally to graphene using NH4OH. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption (BET), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and potentiometric titration measurements. Their adsorption performance for bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated taking into account pH, ionic strength, kinetics initial ion concentration and thermodynamics of adsorption. The adsorption capacities were increased with increasing the reduction degree of GO with the maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax = 94.06 mg/g) to be presented by Graphene that was the result of the optimum reduction degree. The adsorption followed pseudo-second order kinetics and the thermodynamic analysis indicated that it was spontaneous and endothermic. The increase in the degree of GO reduction reduced the amount of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of reduced samples, resulting to the increase of the π–π interaction between sorbent-adsorbate and to linear increase of adsorption capacity.
Article
The aim of this study is to prepare bisphenol A (BPA) imprinted polymers, which can be used for the selective removal of BPA from aqueous medium. The BPA-imprinted (MIP) and non-imprinted (NIP) microbeads were synthesized, and characterized by Zeta-sizer, FTIR, SEM and BET method. Bisphenol A was determined in solutions using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). The effect of initial concentration of BPA, the adsorption rate and the pH of the medium on the capacity of BPA-imprinting polymer were studied. Adsorption capacity of BPA was affected by the amount of the incorporated functional monomer in the polymer network. BPA adsorption capacity of MIP-3 and NIP microbeads from aqueous medium was estimated as 76.7 and 59.9 mg g(-1), respectively. The binding efficiencies of BPA-MIP-3 microbeads for different phenolic compounds (i.e., BPA with p-toluidine, 4-aminophenol or 2-naphthol) were explored at binary solutions, and the binding capacities of BPA-imprinted microbeads were found to be 2.79 × 10(-1), 2.39 × 10(-1), 7.59 × 10(-2) and 5.48 × 10(-2) mmol g(-1) microbeads, respectively. The satisfactory results demonstrated that the obtained BPA-MIP microbeads showed an appreciable binding specificity toward BPA than similar structural compounds in the aqueous medium. Moreover, the reusability of BPA-MIP-3 microbeads was tested for several times and no significant loss in adsorption capacity was observed. Finally, the binary and multi-component systems results show that MIP-3 microbeads have special recognition selectivity and excellent binding affinity for template molecule "BPA".
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A novel design of PP-g-DMAEMA/PM composite fiber as an efficient adsorbent was demonstrated by combining graft polymerization of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) with self-assembled modification of porous microspheres (PM) on the surface of polypropylene (PP) fiber. The structure and composition of the adsorbent was characterized by BET, XPS, FTIR, DSC, FESEM, and water angle. The kinetics and isotherm data indicated that the adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) could be well-fitted by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm, respectively. The thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous and exothermic process. Because of the π-π interactions and hydrogen bonds between BPA and PP-g-DMAEMA/PM, the resulting fiber obtained a higher adsorption amount (44.43 mg/g) of BPA. The presence of NaCl in the solution could facilitate the adsorption process, whereas the strong acid or strong alkali conditions and higher temperature of the solution were unfavorable. Besides, the obtained fiber reusability without obviously deterioration in performance was demonstrated by at least seven repeated cycles.