Phytotaxa 284 (1): 041–050
Copyright © 2016 Magnolia Press Article PHYTOTAXA
ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)
ISSN 1179-3163 (online edition)
Accepted by Masoomeh Ghobad-Nejhad: 21 Oct. 2016; published: 9 Nov. 2016
Laccaria rubroalba sp. nov. (Hydnangiaceae, Agaricales) from Southwestern China
XIA LUO1,2,3,4, LEI YE1,2,3, JIE CHEN1, SAMANTHA C. KARUNARATHNA1,2,3, JIANCHU XU2,3, KEVIN D.
HYDE1,2,3 & PETER E. MORTIMER2,3*
1Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, 57100, Thailand
2Centre for Mountain Ecosystem Studies, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650201, Kunming, China
3World Agroforestry Centre, East and Central Asia Office, 132 Lanhei Road, Kunming 650201, China
4School of Biology and Food Engineering, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou, 239000, China
*Corresponding author: Peter E. Mortimer, email address: P.Mortimer@cgiar.org
The novel species Laccaria rubroalba is described from Southwestern China by using both morphological characteristics
and molecular data. It is characterized by small basidiomata; reddish white pileus when moist or young, white to pale when
dry; 4-spored basidia and globose to broadly ellipsoid, hyaline, moderately echinulate basidiospores. Phylogenetic relation-
ships inferred from ITS sequence data confirmed the separation of this new species from other closely related species in the
genus Laccaria. The new species is compared with similar taxa. A description, line drawings and colour photographs of the
new species, and phylogenetic tree to show the placement of the new species are provided.
Keywords: Mushrooms, Mycorrhizal fungi, Phylogeny, Taxonomy, Yunnan Province
Laccaria Berk. & Broome (Hydnangiaceae, Agaricales) is an ectomycorrhizal genus with a cosmopolitan distribution.
Species in this genus range from host-generalists to host-specialists (Giachini et al. 2004, Sheedy et al. 2013, Wilson
et al. 2013, Sheedy et al. 2015). Some Laccaria species, such as L. amethystine Cooke (Wilson et al. 2013) and L.
laccata (Scop.: Fr.) Cooke (Osmundson et al. 2005), are pioneers in harsh conditions (Wadud et al. 2014). Laccaria
species also have potential for high altitude land recovery (Osmundson et al. 2005). Species of Laccaria have been
used in experimental systems for studies of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes. Lately, several new species of Laccaria
have been described worldwide.
Laccaria is one of the most readily identifiable mushroom genera and is characterized by thick, widely spaced
lamellae, purple or orange to brown or flesh-coloured fruiting bodies with adnate to slightly decurrent gills and hyaline
and ornamented basidiospores in most species. Combined morphological and molecular characteristics can provide
useful data to identity Laccaria species (Gardes et al. 1990, Mueller 1991, Osmundson et al. 2005).
Yunnan Province, located in Southwestern China, is known to be one of the most important biodiversity hotspots
of the world (Xu et al. 2009, Popa et al. 2014). Six species have been recorded in Yunnan province, China, among the
39 known Laccaria species in the world. During the last decade, numerous new Laccaria species have been described
from this region, such as, L. alba Zhu L. Yang & L. Wang and L. angustilamella Zhu L. Yang & L. Wang (Wang et
al. 2004), L. fulvogrisea F. Popa, Rexer & G. Kost (Popa et al. 2014), L. aurantia F. Popa, Rexer & G. Kost and L.
yunnanensis F. Popa, Rexer & G. Kost (Popa et al. 2014). Our survey on macrofungi in Yunnan Province, China has
been carried out from 2012 (Guo et al. 2014, Li et al. 2014, Ye et al. 2014). Under the framework of this survey, we
studied four collections of Laccaria from Mengsong, Yunnan Province. The collections were identified as a new
species based on both morphological characteristics and molecular data. In this paper, we introduce L. rubroalba with
a full description, line drawings, colour photographs and a phylogenetic tree to show the placement and uniqueness of
the new species.
LUO ET AL.
42 • Phytotaxa 284 (1) © 2016 Magnolia Press
Materials and methods
Collection site and collections
Four collections of the new Laccaria species were found in mixed forest dominated by Fagaceae and other broad-leaf
trees between August and September of 2012 and 2013 in Mengsong, Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.
FIGURE 1. Basidiomata of Laccaria rubroalba A–C: KUN-HKA 90766, E–G: KUN-HKA 90753.
Each collection was photographed in situ, gathered, wrapped in aluminum foil, and placed in a collection box with
compartments in order to avoid mixing or crushing. The macro-morphological description of fresh samples was carried
out soon after returning from the field following the methodology described in Lodge et al. (2004) (fig. 1). Colour
coding was according to Kornerup and Wanscher (1978). Specimens were dried using an electric food dryer at 35
°C. Dry specimens are deposited at herbarium of Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Index
LACCARIA RUBROALBA SP. NOV. FROM CHINA Phytotaxa 284 (1) © 2016 Magnolia Press • 43
Fungorum (2016), Faces of fungi database (Jayasiri et al. 2015, Index Fungorum 2016) and MycoBank (Robert et
al. 2014) numbers are registered. Microscopic structures were examined from dry specimens following the protocols
of Largent and Thiers (1977) (fig. 2). Detailed measurements of at least 20 basidiospores, basidia and cystidia, were
taken from at least three collections. Basidiospore dimensions were given excluding ornamentation and the apiculus.
In addition, the length/wide ratio (Q) was calculated.
FIGURE 2. Line drawings of microstructures of Laccaria rubroalba. a. Pileipellis b. Hymenium with basidia c. Pleurocystidia d.
DNA extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing
DNA was extracted from dry basidiomata by using the Biospin Fungus Genomic DNA Extraction Kit (BSC14S1)
according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal
DNA (rDNA) were amplified using the primers ITS1-F (5‘CTTGGTCATTTAGAGGAAGTAA3’) and ITS4
(5‘TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC3’) following the studies of Gardes et al. (1990) and Popa et al. (2014). DNA
sequencing was performed at BGI Sequencer, Beijing, China.
LUO ET AL.
44 • Phytotaxa 284 (1) © 2016 Magnolia Press
Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses
Contig assembly for generating one consensus sequences from forward and reverse sequences was conducted using
SeqMan Pro (DNASTAR, Madison, WI). Sequences generated for this study plus those retrieved from GenBank
were initially aligned using the program MAFFT (Katoh & Standley 2013) with default settings, and then manually
adjusted in BioEdit v. 7.0.4. The ITS alignment was treated with Gblocks version 0.91 b (Castresana 2000), eliminating
poorly aligned positions and ambiguous regions. Maximum likelihood (ML) analysis was performed with RAxML-
HPC BlackBox (8.0.0) (Stamatakis 2006, Stamatakis et al. 2008) under GTRGAMMA model with one thousand
rapid bootstrap (BS) replicates. Bayesian analysis was performed with MrBayes 3.2 (Ronquist & Huelsenbeck 2003,
Ronquist et al. 2012) using GTR+I+G model selected by AIC in MrModeltest 2.2 (Nylander 2004). Bayesian analysis
included two independent runs of 5,000,000 generations with four nchains per run, a sampling frequency of 100 and
print frequency to 1000 generations. A burn-in of 10% with nst = 6, rates = invgamma, statefreqpr = dirichlet (1,1,1,1),
and, for other parameters, default settings were used. As a result, all compatible groups consensus tree from both
analyses was selected.
The expanded ITS dataset comprised 77 sequences and 646 positions. Four sequences were newly obtained for this
study and 73 sequences were retrieved from GeneBank (Benson et al. 2013). Mythicomyces corneipes was used as the
out group following Popa et al. (2016). Sequences for all known Laccaria species were retrieved from GenBank for
phylogenic analyses as in the studies of Popa et al. (2016) and Montoya et al. (2015). Table 1 shows an overview of all
sequences used in the phylogenetic analyses. Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses (BI) generated very
similar topologies, and thus only that from the ML analysis is presented along with the bootstrap statistics (BS) and
posterior probabilities (PP) values more than 60% and 0.8, respectively, at the nodes (fig. 3). Phylogenetic analyses
revealed that four newly sampled specimens formed a distinct lineage with strong support (97BS/1PP).
TABLE 1. Taxa information and GenBank accession numbers of Laccaria specimens used in the molecular phylogenetic analyses.
Taxon Location Voucher specimen Genbank accession no.
L. acanthospora TYPE China: Xizang - JX504102
L. acanthospora China: Tibet - JX504119
L. acanthospora China: Tibet - JX504161
L. affinis France GMM7619 KM067853
L. alba China - JX504131
L. alba China: Yunnan - JX504094
L. alba China - JX504126
L. amethysteo-occidentalis Canada f16573 FJ627031
L. amethysteo-occidentalis USA - JX504112
L. amethystina Denmark: Zealand MC01-520 AM113954
L. amethystina France - JX504150
L. anglica France - GQ406459
L. angustilamella China: Yunnan - JX504168
L. angustilamella China:Yunnan - JX504118
L. angustilamella China:Yunnan - JX504132
L. aurantia China: Yunnan MB-FB-001109 JQ681209
L. aurantia China: Yunnan MB-FB-001106 JQ670895
...Continued on next page
LACCARIA RUBROALBA SP. NOV. FROM CHINA Phytotaxa 284 (1) © 2016 Magnolia Press • 45
TABLE 1. (Continued)
Taxon Location Voucher specimen Genbank accession no.
L. bicolor China: Yunnan - JX504159
L. bicolor USA - JX504114
L. bicolor USA - JX504105
L. bicolor North America - JX504115
L. bullipellis TYPE China : Xizang - JX504100
L. canaliculata Australia: Victoria - JX504136
L. canaliculata Australia - JX504137
L. cf. canaliculata Australia MEL:2360196 JX270720
L. cf. lateritia Australia MEL:2359691 JX270695
L. cf. lateritia Australia MEL:2359692 JX270736
L. cf. masoniae Australia MEL:2359694 JX270741
L. fulvogrisea China: Yunnan MB-FB-001110 JQ681210
L. fulvogrisea China: Yunnan MB-FB-001101 JQ670896
L. glabripes New Zealand - JX504140
L. himalayensis TYPE China: Xizang - JX504101
L. himalayensis China: Xizang - JX504104
L. laccata France - JX504147
L. laccata Austria IB2004243 EF644110
L. laccata USA JMP0036 EU819477
L. lateritia Malaysia RBG Kew K(M) 166658 JN235950
L. lateritia India RBG Kew K(M) 166659 JN235949
L. lateritia Australia - FJ168596
L. masoniae Australia: Tasmania - JX504139
L. montana North America TENN 42885 DQ149866
L. montana North America TWO 319 DQ149862
L. murina Japan - AB211271
L. negrimarginata TYPE China: Tibet - JX504120
L. nobilis North America TENN 42527 DQ149861
L. nobilis North America CLC 1445 DQ149863
L. oblongospora France - GQ406466
L. ochropurpurea USA: Illinois - JX504169
L. ochropurpurea Canada - KM406966
L. ohiensis Europe - JX504106
L. proxima Europe C19 EC174 AY750156
L. proxima France - JX504152
L. proxima Germany FP-98555 DQ499641
L. proxima North America TENN 42922 DQ149852
L. pseudomontana North America Cripps 1771 DQ149870
...Continued on next page
LUO ET AL.
46 • Phytotaxa 284 (1) © 2016 Magnolia Press
TABLE 1. (Continued)
Taxon Location Voucher specimen Genbank accession no.
L. pseudomontana North America Cripps 1625 DQ149871
L. pumila North America CLC 1252 DQ149864
L. pumila North America TWO 501 DQ149873
L. roseoalbescens Mexico LM5099 KJ874328
L. roseoalbescens Mexico LM5042 KJ874327
L. rubroalba sp.nov. China: Yunnan KUN-HKA 90758 KX449357
L. rubroalba sp.nov. China: Yunnan KUN-HKA 90753 KX449358
L. rubroalba sp.nov. China: Yunnan KUN-HKA 90766 KX449359
L. rubroalba sp.nov. China: Yunnan KUN-HKA 90751 KX449360
L. salmonicolor TYPE China: Tibet - JX504143
L. stellata Panama SYC 207 KP877339
L. stellata Panama SYC 109 KP877340
L. tortilis Europe DBGH 20904 DQ149872
L. tortilis France GMM7635 KM067859
L. trichodermophora USA: Texas - JX504157
L. trullisata - - JX504170
L. vinaceoavellanea Japan TNS:A2984 JN942785
L. vinaceoavellanea Japan TNS:A0559 JN942803
L. yunnanensis China: Yunnan MB-FB-001108 JQ681208
L. yunnanensis China: Yunnan MB-FB-001107 JQ670897
Mythicomyces corneipes Germany ES11.10.2.A KC964108
Mythicomyces corneipes Germany AFTOL-ID 972 DQ404393
Laccaria rubroalba X. Luo, L. Ye, Mortimer & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.
Index Fungorum number: IF552302; Facesoffungi number: FoF 02078
Etymology:—The species epithet “rubroalba” refers to the pileus colour of the new species.
Diagnosis:—The new species differs from known species of Laccaria by medium sized basidiomata; pileus
22–40 mm in diameter, translucent-striate, reddish white when moist or young, becoming white to paler when dry;
lamellae distant, adnate; globose to subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, hyaline, moderately echinulate basidiospores (5)
6–9 (10) × 5–7 (8) μm, Q = 0.97–1.31; basidia, 4-spored, clavate. Pileipellis a cutis, 4–9 (13) μm diameter thickness.
Description:—Basidiomata medium size. Pileus 22–40 mm in diam., less than 1 mm thick at disc., hemispherical
to convex, flattened with age, centrally depressed to umbilicate, smooth with translucent-striate ridges, reddish white
(10A2) when moist or young, becoming white to paler when dry. Context soft. Lamellae up to 4 mm broad, distant,
adnate, ventricose to broadly ventricose, flesh-coloured. Stipe 20–31 × 2–4 mm, cylindrical with an enlarged base,
centrally inserted, fistulose, fleshy brown, becoming pale brownish with age, and with rhizomorphs.
Basidiospores (5) 6–9 (10) × 5–7 (8) μm, Q = 0.97–1.31, globose, to subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, hyaline,
moderately echinulate, 1.2–2.7 μm long, 0.73–0.96 μm broad at the base. Basidia 28–56 × 9–10 (11) μm, 4-spored,
some 2-spored, hyaline. Pleurocystidia (20) 25–40 (55) × 4–6 (7) μm, flexuous to narrowly-cylindrical. Cheilocystidia
rare, (11) 12–26 (26) × 5–9 μm, cylindrical to capitate; margin cell 18–33 × 3–6 μm, cylindric to clavate. Pileipellis
a cutis to interwoven, 4–9 (13) μm diam thickness, consisting of radiating interwoven hyphae, with rounded top and
thick-walls (up to 1.20 μm). Hyphae 3–6 μm diam, Clamp connections present.
LACCARIA RUBROALBA SP. NOV. FROM CHINA Phytotaxa 284 (1) © 2016 Magnolia Press • 47
FIGURE 3. Maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogram based on ITS rDNA sequence data showing the phylogenetic position of Laccaria
rubroalba with selected Laccaria species. The right number on the nodes denotes the bootstrap values ≥ 60%. The left number on the
nodes indicates the Bayesian analysis probability values ≥ 0.80 in percent.
LUO ET AL.
48 • Phytotaxa 284 (1) © 2016 Magnolia Press
Habitat and Distribution:—Scattered on a trunk of Castanopsis mekongensis in a tropical forest dominated by
mixed Fagaceae and broad-leaf trees in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China.
Material examined:—CHINA. Yunnan Province: Xishuangbanna, Mengsong village, elevation 1734 m, N21°
30’ 52”, E100° 28’ 44.76”, 18 August 2013, Xia Luo (KUN-HKA 90753, Holotype). CHINA. Yunnan Province:
Xishuangbanna, Mengsong village, elevation 1694 m, N21° 30’ 53”, E100° 28’ 49.1”, 5 September 2012, Xia Luo
(KUN-HKA 90758, Paratype). CHINA. Yunnan Province: Xishuangbanna, Mengsong village, elevation 1635 m, N21°
30’ 14.4”, E100° 29’ 22.5”, 12 October 2012, Xia Luo (KUN-HKA 90766, Paratype). CHINA. Yunnan Province:
Xishuangbanna, Mengsong village, elevation 1635 m, N21° 30’ 14.4”, E100° 29’ 22.5”, 20 September 2012, Xia Luo
(KUN-HKA F90751, Paratype).
Laccaria rubroalba is morphologically characterized by its medium sized basidiomata; reddish white to pale white
pileus (22–40 mm); globose to subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, hyaline, with moderately echinulate basidiospores; and
flesh-coloured distant lamellae.
Laccaria yunnanensis (Popa et al. 2014) resembles L. rubroalba, however, L. yunnanensis differs from the latter
in having bigger basidiomata, brownish to flesh-coloured basidiomata, convex to hemispherical, large, striate pileus
(60–100 mm), and large pleurocystidia, (50) 55–65 (70) × (10) 15–25(30) μm, and pileipellis consisting of radiating
interwoven thin-walled hyphae. Laccaria fulvogrisea (Popa et al. 2014) differs from L. rubroalba by having grey to
brownish basidiomata, large echinulate basidiospores and long cheilocystidia. Laccaria salmonicolor A.W. Wilson &
G.M. Muell. (Wilson et al. 2013) is morphologically similar to L. rubroalba, but differs from the latter by having reddish-
brown basidiomata with salmon-pink lamellae, smaller, globose, moderately echinulate basidiospores, and pileipellis
a cuits. Laccaria rubroalba is morphologically similar to L. laccata (Osmundson et al. 2005), but the basidiomata of
L. laccata convex or nearly omphaloid, pale orange, lamellae thick and broadly attached. Laccaria himalayensis A.W.
Wilson & G.M. Muell. (Wilson et al. 2013) differs from L. rubroalba by having the characteristics such as brown
at the disk to orange-pink at margin of the pileus, adnate to decurrent lamellae, orange-pink, moderately echinulate,
globose basidiospores, pileipellis cutis of cylindrical and irregularly inflated hyphae. Furthermore, L. acanthospora
A.W. Wilson & G.M. Muell. (Wilson et al. 2013) differs from L. rubroalba in having orange basidiomata, broad and
distant lamellae, pink-lavender hues on the stipe, longer and broad echinulate basidiospores.
According to our phylogenetic results (fig. 3), the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal
DNA of L. rubroalba differs from the corresponding sequences known form other Laccaria species. Laccaria
rubroalba is phylogenetically closely related to L. aurantia, but the latter differs from L. rubroalba at seven positions
in ITS sequence with strong support (82 BS/1 PP). Morphologically, L. aurantia (Popa et al. 2014) has broad and
orange lamellae, globose and balloon-like, large and short densely echinulate basidiospores, pileipellis semper hypha
intertextis, and short pleurocystidia.
We would like to thank CGIAR Research Program 6: Forest, Trees and Agroforestry, the Kunming Institute of Botany,
Chinese Academy of Science (CAS) and the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, under the 12th 5-year
National Key Technology Support Program (NKTSP) 2013BAB07B06 integration and comprehensive demonstration
of key technologies on Green Phosphate-mountain Construction for providing the financial support for this study.
Thailand Research Fund grant-Taxonomy, Phylogeny and biochemistry of Thai Basidiomycetes (BRG 5580009); the
National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT), projects-Taxonomy, Phylogeny and cultivation of Lentital species in
northern Thailand (NRCT/55201020007), Mae Fah Luang University project-Taxonomy, Phylogeny and cultivation
of Lentinula species in northern Thailand (MFU/54 1 01 02 00 48), and Thailand Research Fund grant-Taxonomy,
Phylogeny and biochemistry of Thai Basidiomycetes (BRG 5580009) are also thanked for supporting this study.
Kevin D. Hyde thanks the Chinese Academy of Sciences, project number 2013T2S0030, for the award of Visiting
Professorship for Senior International Scientists at Kunming Institute of Botany. We wish to thanks Molecular biology
experiment platform at Kunming institute of botany, Chinese Academy of science for providing DNA extraction and
extensions. The authors also would like to thank Jiayu Guo, Huili Li, and Fu Gao for the contribution of fieldwork.
LACCARIA RUBROALBA SP. NOV. FROM CHINA Phytotaxa 284 (1) © 2016 Magnolia Press • 49
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