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The Effects of Analogical and Metaphorical Reasoning on Design Thinking

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Abstract

This research sought to examine whether analogical and metaphorical reasoning could be taught as a teaching strategy to enhance students’ creative thinking in the design process. To investigate the effects of analogical and metaphorical reasoning in design thinking, research was conducted with second year university students majoring in interior architecture. First, a pilot study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of analogical and metaphorical reasoning in supporting design thinking. Based on the results of the pilot study, a curriculum was developed and implemented in a studio course for one semester that encouraged students to engage in analogical and metaphorical reasoning. A further experiment was conducted to validate the effects of the curriculum on students’ design thinking processes. The overall results suggested that a teaching strategy that emphasises the use of analogical and metaphorical reasoning could enhance students’ design thinking and lead to more creative design processes.

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... The importance of nurturing students' creative thinking in design education has been emphasized by many researchers and educators because creativity is a crucial part of architectural design. Critical design thinking can be a powerful way to motivate various design ideas by allowing an interactive understanding of an ill-defined design problem; thus, researchers have tried to find effective methods to stimulate students' creative thinking [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. Design education has generally been delivered to students via teachers' subjective teaching methods rather than through a systematic academic approach [9]. ...
... Design education is related to the teaching methods that educate students to acquire relevant knowledge or skills. Students are generally educated to develop logical and convergent thinking for correct answers; therefore, they tend to adopt linear thinking even when solving ill-defined design problems in architectural design [2,6]. Most students follow a routine order of 1) site analysis, 2) planning, 3) basic design, and 4) creating a working drawing in the architectural design studios of universities in Korea. ...
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Representing visual experiences is an essential part of architectural design education for creativity. The representation of creative ideas relates to the ability to communicate spatial design concepts. This study examined whether filmic spaces could function as visual communication to enhance students’ creative thinking in architecture. It explored how creativity can be supported throughout an architectural design studio with a conceptual tool that translates filmic spaces into spatial design. To investigate the ways to translate filmic space into spatial design tools for creative thinking, we conducted a design studio with first-year university students. Focusing on using various elements of film, including movement, frame, montage, light, and color, and scene changes to represent architectural languages, a curriculum was developed and implemented in a Visual Communication Design Studio for one semester, stimulating students to engage in expressing their ideas in three-dimensional spaces. The overall results suggested that the design education method that used the filmic space as a stimulating tool for creative thinking, emphasizing the role of visual communication, could enhance students’ creative thinking, leading to improved creative design processes.
... The importance of nurturing students' creative thinking in design education has been emphasized by many researchers and educators because creativity is a crucial part of architectural design. Critical design thinking can be a powerful way to motivate various design ideas by allowing an interactive understanding of an ill-defined design problem; thus, researchers have tried to find effective methods to stimulate students' creative thinking [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. Design education has generally been delivered to students via teachers' subjective teaching methods rather than through a systematic academic approach [9]. ...
... Design education is related to the teaching methods that educate students to acquire relevant knowledge or skills. Students are generally educated to develop logical and convergent thinking for correct answers; therefore, they tend to adopt linear thinking even when solving ill-defined design problems in architectural design [2,6]. Most students follow a routine order of (1) site analysis, (2) planning, (3) basic design, and (4) creating a working drawing in the architectural design studios of universities in Korea. ...
Article
Full-text available
Representing visual experiences is an essential part of architectural design education for creativity. The representation of creative ideas relates to the ability to communicate spatial design concepts. This study examined whether filmic spaces could function as visual communication to enhance students’ creative thinking in architecture. It explored how creativity can be supported throughout an architectural design studio with a conceptual tool that translates filmic spaces into spatial design. To investigate the ways to translate filmic space into spatial design tools for creative thinking, we conducted a design studio with first-year university students. Focusing on using various elements of film, including movement, frame, montage, light, and color, and scene changes to represent architectural languages, a curriculum was developed and implemented in a Visual Communication Design Studio for one semester, stimulating students to engage in expressing their ideas in three-dimensional spaces. The overall results suggested that the design education method that used the filmic space as a stimulating tool for creative thinking, emphasizing the role of visual communication, could enhance students’ creative thinking, leading to improved creative design processes.
... Expertise is perceived in, and has evolved within, a learning context, that is, expertise is assumed to be learned (Syer et al. 2003). As Han and Mi (2017) concluded that design education is concerned with teaching methods or strategies by which students are educated to obtain the relevant knowledge or skills. At present work, through eye movements analysis, we can have clear insight into advanced students' strategies using analogical reasoning and find the deficiencies of beginning students' strategies, which can support beginning students grow to maturity by learning advanced students' strategies and thus makes an improvement in their design strategies during the early stage of design process. ...
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In existing studies about analogical reasoning during idea generation in design, there is lack in quantitative and objective evidences showing the relationship between expertise and the analogy distance. To advance such a state, in this study 43 participants (beginning and advanced students) took part in a design task and their eye movements such as fixation time and saccades were compared. Besides, quantitative analysis of sketches and retrospective interviews were conducted to further explore the relationship between the analogy distance, the fixation level and expertise. The results showed that: (1) compared to advanced students who equally distributed their attention among the three analogy domains, beginning students fixed significantly more on distant domain, although they both used more near and medium analogies in their solutions; (2) beginning students markedly outperformed advanced students in both between-domain and within-domain saccades; (3) beginning students create more ideas and get into high-level design fixation, contrary to advanced students who create a small number of alternative ideas and perform a low level of design fixation. The results clearly offer more accurate and objective evidences showing significant relationships between the cognitive activities of analogical reasoning and expertise and analogy distance, which will bring greater clarity in using analogy in design and teaching analogical reasoning in design education.
... Glen et al. (2014) recommended design thinking approach to the MBA teaching-learning process because future managers have to develop exploratory skills and apply to messy ill-structured contexts. Choi and Kim (2017) recommended that teaching-learning strategies should emphasize analogical and metaphorical reasoning to harness design thinking skills among students. Kimbell (2011) analyzed how and why there is growing attention to design thinking beyond the domain of design science. ...
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Design Thinking has been a subject of teaching, research and real-life application in almost every domain and area of education, research and industrial endeavor for the past many years. This paper explains how to recognize the tenets of constructivist learning theory (constructivist principles) within the teaching-learning of the Design Thinking process. The research, established an integrative approach to theory, method, and practice by developing a taxonomy of constructivist principles to map the process and activities of design thinking. The paper further picks up the thread of developing and fine-tuning a Design Thinking course by presenting, what we call as the “constructivism tenets-design thinking dashboard” which, while being suitable for business schools (Master of Business Administration), is generic enough to be used with minimal modifications for any other domains where customer experience is important, which is the case for all human endeavours.
... It is expected to enhance the quality of domestic preschool education and promote children's healthy growth. Choi & Kim (2017) regarded just world belief as an individual believing that they were living in a just world. The belief in the world being just allowed an individual believing that the physical and social environment was stable and well-organized. ...
... • Problem-solving by analogy involves the adoption or adaption of solutions developed for analogous situations, treating these situations as a body of knowledge to draw on. This approach is common in both traditional and computational design processes (Choi and Kim 2017;Gero 2000;Rosenman and Gero 1993). • Heuristic problem-solving uses self-discovery or pragmatic "rules of thumb" to identify obvious or pragmatic solutions (Wang and Chiew 2010). ...
Chapter
This chapter uses the results of two studies to develop an understanding of different types of design strategies and their connection to creativity in design. Two sets of experimental data are used to capture these strategies and then correlate them to readings of novice or expert practices, and the production of conventional or creative designs. The first study identifies three effective design strategies during the conceptual design stage: drawing-reflection, graphical-goal forwarding and textual-goal forwarding. The second study identifies two generative strategies in parametric design for developing creative solutions and products: problem-forwarding and solution-reflecting. The chapter explains these strategies and links them to past research about design cognition and creativity.
... Metaphors shift the interpretation from one conceptual understanding to a new point of view, a so-called "ontological shift", while analogy is a cognitive process referring to conceptual parallels. Choi and Kim (2017) also suggest that analogical and metaphorical reasoning can be used to develop creative design thinking in tertiary education. This set of theories and the other cognitive models mentioned in this section have facilitated formal studies on creativity across multiple disciplines. ...
Chapter
This chapter provides a background to the concept of “design thinking”, as it is defined and used in the field of design research. Thereafter, the chapter introduces three themes in design thinking—creativity, collaboration and culture—which have become increasingly important in the last decade. It briefly describes the content and structure of the present book, which includes detailed explanations, explorations and developments of design thinking in terms of creativity, collaboration and culture. In addition, throughout this book, empirical studies of these themes are typically presented using data derived from protocol analyses of experiments, sometimes coupled with expert assessment. Thus, this chapter also outlines these methods and their capacity to support exploration of design cognition, processes and activities.
... Divergent thinking represents the potential for creative thinking and problem solving (Runco, 1999) and it enables our minds to go far from the pre-constructed patterns of thinking. As well as it's relation with pretense, divergent thinking is generally associated with the design process (Pereira, 1999;Lawson, 2005;Liikkanen, 2010;Choi & Kim, 2017). Since there may be more than one optimal solution to a design problem (Lawson, 2005) divergent thinking is used to see alternative ways to produce a wide range of different ideas. ...
... This method assumes that people can generate new ideas more effectively if they have experienced, or have associations with, similar problems (Kim & Park, 2017). This is followed by incubation, which allows the unconscious mind to process information and is a significant next step toward allowing people who are fixated on certain ideas to move forward (Choi & Kim, 2017). ...
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Background: This study investigated the effectiveness of a modified hybrid brainstorming (MHB) program against conventional brainstorming (CB) to achieve idea generation during innovation initiatives in nursing. Method: Pretest and posttest outcomes comparing the two brainstorming methods were tested during a training exercise (N = 56). The MHB group (n = 29) was trained to apply CB for problem identification and MHB for idea generation. The CB group (n = 27) was trained to apply only CB. Results: The MHB method significantly enhanced idea fluency, flexibility, and originality from pretest to posttest (p < .05) and increased idea fluency and originality to a greater extent than the CB method. Conclusion: The MHB learning program can enhance nurses' innovative idea generation by promoting idea fluency and originality. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2021;52(2):72-78.].
... Divergent thinking represents the potential for creative thinking and problem solving (Runco, 1999) and it enables our minds to go far from the pre-constructed patterns of thinking. As well as it's relation with pretense, divergent thinking is generally associated with the design process (Pereira, 1999;Lawson, 2005;Liikkanen, 2010;Choi & Kim, 2017). Since there may be more than one optimal solution to a design problem (Lawson, 2005) divergent thinking is used to see alternative ways to produce a wide range of different ideas. ...
... There are several elements such as models, procedures, and techniques of teaching that can promote critical thinking and problem-solving skills of the learners. Moreover, it is important that information technology and computer technology be applied and utilized to support and promote learning in an effective manner [6]. ...
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Purpose New product development (NPD) is increasingly being delegated to consumers, yet little research has investigated consumer-centric factors that may influence this delegation. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to uniquely combine regulatory focus and analogical reasoning to investigate new product ideation and downstream consumer-brand responses. Design/methodology/approach A series of experiments were undertaken. Findings Study 1 revealed that promotion-focused consumers (as opposed to prevention-focused consumers) have significantly greater purchase intentions if given an analogical reasoning task before engaging in new product ideation due to their cognitive flexibility. Study 2 tested the effects of near vs far analogies and found that promotion-focused consumers use analogical thinking to a greater extent and have significantly higher purchase intentions if primed with far analogies because regulatory fit is enhanced. However, analogical thinking and purchase intentions significantly drop if primed with near analogies. In contrast, prevention-focused consumers use analogical thinking to a greater extent and have significantly higher purchase intentions if shown near analogies, compared to far analogies, because of improved regulatory fit. Both studies confirm a serial mediation chain involving task engagement, self-brand connection, and brand sincerity. Research limitations/implications This research extends current understanding regarding the role of creative tasks within consumer NPD. It also uniquely links regulatory focus and consumer task engagement in NPD to increase favorable brand responses. Practical implications Findings offer managerial insights that can positively increase consumer-brand outcomes during NPD. Originality/value This is one of the first studies to demonstrate the importance of analogical thinking and consumer-centric factors (i.e., regulatory focus) during the NPD process. This avenue of research is important, as most studies have neglected ways in which to increase consumer NPD task engagement, leaving resources unutilized.
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In the last few years, "Design Thinking" has gained popularity—it is now seen as an exciting new paradigm for dealing with problems in sectors as a far afield as IT, Business, Education and Medicine. This potential success challenges the design research community to provide clear and unambiguous answers to two key questions: "What is the nature of design think-ing?" and "What could it bring to other professions?". In this paper we sketch a provisional answer to these questions by first considering the reasoning pattern behind design thinking, and then enriching this picture by linking in key concepts from models of design activity and design thinking that have emerged over the last twenty years of design research.
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Analogy and similarity are often assumed to be distinct psychological processes. In contrast to this position, the authors suggest that both similarity and analogy involve a process of structural alignment and mapping, that is, that similarity is like analogy. In this article, the authors first describe the structure-mapping process as it has been worked out for analogy. Then, this view is extended to similarity, where it is used to generate new predictions. Finally, the authors explore broader implications of structural alignment for psychological processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A wide range of formal methods have been devised and used for idea generation in conceptual design. Experimental evidence is needed to support claims regarding the effectiveness of these methods in promoting idea generation in engineering design. Towards that goal this paper presents a set of effectiveness metrics experimental methods, data collection and analysis techniques. Statistically based Design of Experiments (DOE) principles were used in developing the guidelines. Four classes of operating variables were considered to characterize the design problem and the environment. The effectiveness metrics proposed are based on outcome and consists of the quantity, quality, novelty, and variety of ideas generated. Two experimental approaches have been developed. In the Direct Method. the influence of the! type of design problem and various parameters related to the procedure of an idea generation method is measured by using the method in its entirety. In the Indirect Method each idea generation method is decomposed into key components and its overall effectiveness is predicted by experimentally studying the effectiveness of its components and their mutual interactions. [S1050-0472(00)02004-3].
Article
We tested 462 primary students (244 boys and 218 girls) in Grades 1, 2, and 3 from 20 primary schools in Hong Kong. Their ideationalfluency was assessed by using 2 items each on 3 types of verbal tasks (instances, uses, and similarities) and 2 types of figural tasks (pattern meanings and line meanings) from the Wallach-Kogan tests. On the average, students generated about 20 instances, gave 9 alternative uses of a common object, listed 11 possible similarities between a pair of named objects, and gave 13 and 15 possible meanings for visual patterns and lines, respectively. Although boys scored consistently higher in ideational fluency than girls on verbal tasks, significant gender differences did not emerge for figural tasks. Significantly higher scores on ideational fluency were evident for students in higher grades especially for verbal tasks. The use of the Wallach-Kogan tests in the assessment of divergent thinking ability and creativity for Chinese children is discussed.
Article
Increasingly, perches for laying hens are being made from metals and plastics. There is nothing in the literature regarding how easily birds jump between perches of different materials, or how their ability to do so changes with faecal contamination of the perches. Forty-four medium hybrid brown hens negotiated perches of wood (5 cm × 5 cm, rounded edges), metal (half-round section, diameter 4 cm) or poly-vinyl-chloride (PVC: circular section, diameter 4 cm), which were either clean or dirty (poultry manure 0.5-1.0 cm deep). The time to jump to the destination perch (0.75 m from the start perch), number of squats (pre-jumping behaviour), slips, failures to jump (in 300 s) and crashes were recorded. Compared to wood and metal perches, birds took significantly longer to jump from PVC perches when they were clean, but there was no difference when the perches were dirty. Birds slipped significantly more on clean metal or PVC perches compared to clean wood perches. The birds took significantly longer to jump from metal or wooden perches when they were dirty compared to when they were clean. These data may suggest that PVC is not a suitable material for perches. Slipperiness is important. The birds apparently found the metal and PVC perch more slippery than the wooden perch, although the metal perch did not cause the birds to delay jumping. A slippery perch may deter the birds from attempting to jump. Manure on the perches reduced the slipperiness of the metal and PVC perches. Once perches become dirty, any welfare issues concerning the risk of injury from slippery perches cease to be as important as the potential slipperiness of the manure itself.
Article
REPORTS ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE STUDY OF CREATIVITY. BEGINNING WITH GALTON'S STUDIES ON THE IMPACT OF HEREDITY UPON GENIUS, GUILFORD POINTS OUT THAT RELATIVELY FEW PSYCHOLOGISTS HAVE TURNED THEIR ATTENTION TO THIS PROBLEM. ONLY THOSE WHO HAVE A PARTICULAR INTEREST IN THE MEASUREMENT OF INTELLECTUAL CAPACITY HAVE BEEN UNABLE TO AVOID CONTACT WITH THE CREATIVE ASPECT OF MAN BUT THE HISTORY OF THE INTELLIGENCE TEST MOVEMENT SHOWS THAT IN ITS EARLY DEVELOPMENT IT HAS BEEN SINGULARLY DEVOID OF CONTACT WITH MEASURES OF INGENUITY, INNOVATIVE CAPACITY, OR INVENTIVENESS. SOME NONPSYCHOLOGICAL ATTEMPTS AT ATTACKING THE PROBLEM OF CREATIVITY ARE DISCUSSED. SINCE 1950 EFFORTS TO ESTABLISH THE NATURE OF CREATIVITY HAVE BEEN SOMEWHAT MORE FRUITFUL AND THE PROMISE OF MORE EFFECTIVE BASIC RESEARCH ON CREATIVE THINKING IS DISCUSSED. (32 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The gestalt psychologists proposed that restructuring ( Umstrukturierung) is an essential process in thinking. This concept has not been integrated into the information-processing theory of problem solving. As a preparation for such an integration, the gestalt writings about restructuring in problem solving are summarized in a set of principles. Critical scrutiny shows that some gestalt principles are overstated; others have very weak empirical support. But the psychological reality of restructuring is not in doubt, in spite of the recent crtiticism by R. W. Weisberg and J. W. Alba (see record 1982-02568-001). A unified theory of thinking should interpret restructuring in information-processing terms and explain the relation between restructuring and search. (40 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
consider the growth of evidence showing intelligence testing to offer but a limited window on giftedness / describe the rise of creativity testing as an alternative that is expected to help elucidate giftedness where intelligence testing has shown itself to be limited / discussion of some widespread but dubious practices in the use of creativity tests that have arisen in the wake of their recent popularity suggest that a shift from creativity and intelligence testing toward discipline-centered or field-specific approaches for facilitating giftedness is currently taking place (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In the last few years, “Design Thinking” has gained popularity – it is now seen as an exciting new paradigm for dealing with problems in sectors as far a field as IT, Business, Education and Medicine. This potential success challenges the design research community to provide unambiguous answers to two key questions: “What is the core of Design Thinking?” and “What could it bring to practitioners and organisations in other fields?”. We sketch a partial answer by considering the fundamental reasoning pattern behind design, and then looking at the core design practices of framing and frame creation. The paper ends with an exploration of the way in which these core design practices can be adopted for organisational problem solving and innovation.Highlights► Analysing design reasoning in terms of abduction. ► Presenting a framework for the description of design practices. ► Investigating the creation of new frames as a key design practice. ► Describing the different levels on which design (framing) practices can impact organisations.
Article
There is a feeling among many design educators today that the discipline has reached a crisis in its development, and that change is needed immediately in the way that design educators articulate their epistemology and their methodology. The architectural studio can be seen as the model for design education, and its culture is exemplary. Donald Schön has often argued that the professional education of architectural students – and other design students – should be aimed at making them into ‘reflective practitioners’. At the core of his argument is the idea that design education must sacrifice intellectual rigour in order to achieve social relevance, yet critics have argued that this trade-off has caused design education to be marginalised in relation to the university model of education. Design is focused on subjective creativity, but the positivist university paradigm is focused on objective rationality. In order for design education to become more rigorous – and more academically respectable – it must either become more rational or it must embrace a new paradigm that values creative experience. This article argues that the emerging paradigm of complexity offers design education the rigour it has been lacking, for this paradigm constructs studio projects not as problems with rational solutions but as systems that need to be explored in order to discover their relational meanings and values – precisely what creativity, balanced with rationality, can accomplish in both Western nations and rapidly developing East Asian nations such as China.
Article
In this paper a ‘creative design process’ is proposed, based on an integration between a modernised consensus view of both the design process from engineering design and the creative process from cognitive psychology. In addition, a composite definition of a creative design output is also formed, taking elements from the different design types proposed in engineering design and the creative outputs proposed in psychology. This integrated process and the composite definition are further linked, thus providing a descriptive model the different design operations are linked to the types of design output produced.
Article
This paper aims to further an understanding of the nature and function of analogising and mental simulation in design through an analysis of the transcripts of two engineering design meetings. Analogies were coded for ‘purpose’ and in terms of whether they were within-domain or between-domain. Mental simulations were coded for ‘focus’: technical/functional or end-user. All expressions of uncertainty were also identified. Analogies were found to be typically between-domain (indicative of innovative reasoning) and were evenly distributed across solution generation, function finding and explanation. Mental simulations were predominantly technical/functional. Our most striking observation was that analogies and mental simulations were associated with conditions of uncertainty. We propose that analogising and mental simulation are strategies deployed to resolve uncertainty – a claim that is supported by the fact that uncertainty levels returned to baseline values at the end of analogising and simulation episodes.
Article
Data from protocol studies of nine experienced industrial designers, performing the same task, were analysed to develop an expertise model of the product design process. The protocol data and the expertise model were used to identify four different cognitive strategies employed by the designers: problem driven, solution driven, information driven, and knowledge driven design strategies. These strategies were then related to task outcomes such as solution quality and creativity, and to process aspects such as iterative activity. The different strategies appear not to be related to overall solution quality in any straightforward manner. Designers using a solution driven strategy tended to have lower overall solution quality scores but higher creativity scores. Designers using a problem driven design strategy tended to produce the best results in terms of the balance of both overall solution quality and creativity.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate divergent thinking and evaluative skill as important processes in the development of creative thinking in elementary schoolchildren. Children from the 3rd, 4th, and 5th grades (N = 117) received divergent thinking tasks and measures of evaluative accuracy. The latter indicated how well they liked various ideas (i.e., their preferences) and the degree to which the children believed those ideas to be original. Results indicated that the accuracy of their originality judgments increased significantly with age, as did the preference for appropriate ideas. Unlike previous research, evaluative scores were not related to divergent thinking test scores. Also somewhat surprising, given earlier research, was the lack of a "4th-grade slump." In fact, there was a significant peak, rather than slump, in the divergent thinking of 4th-grade children, at least in the raw fluency scores. When fluency ratio scores were compared, there were still some incidents of a 4th-grade peak, but there was also a significant decline with grade in the proportions of 1 index of highly appropriate ideas. Although a relation was not found between evaluative skill and divergent thinking raw fluency scores, an increasing preference for appropriate square ideas was found to contribute significantly to the prediction of decreases in the proportion of high-quality round ideas given. Possible explanations are given to account for this unexpected finding, including differences in interpersonal and intrapersonal evaluative skills, and the distinction between the ability to accurately identify original or appropriate ideas and choosing to selectively express such ideas.
Article
Analogy was studied in real-world engineering design, using the in vivo method. Analogizing was found to occur frequently, entailing a roughly equal amount of within- and between-domain analogies. In partial support for theories of unconscious plagiarism (Brown & Murphy, 1989; Marsh, Landau, & Hicks, 1996) and Ward's (1994) path-of-least-resistance model, it was found that the reference to exemplars (in the form of prototypes) significantly reduced the number of between-domain analogies between source and target, as compared with using sketches or no external representational systems. Analogy served three functions in relation to novel design concepts: identifying problems, solving problems, and explaining concepts. Problem identifying analogies were mainly within domain, explanatory analogies were mainly between domain, and problem-solving analogies were a mixture of within- and between-domain analogies.