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Citation: Kashyap D, Tuli HS, Sharma AK. Cordyceps: A Natural Himalayan Viagra with Promising Aphrodisiac
Potential. Austin Andrology. 2016; 1(2): 1010.
Austin Andrology - Volume 1 Issue 2 - 2016
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Tuli et al. © All rights are reserved
Austin Andrology
Open Access
treatment of cordycepin, an active ingredient of Cordyceps extract,
in an experiment upon Male Sprague-Dawley rats have shown dose-
dependent elevation in epididymal weight, sperm motility, and
movement, well-arranged spermatogonia, densely packed cellular
material, along with increased number of mature spermatozoa in
the seminiferous lumen [23]. e results further demonstrate that
supplementation of Cordyceps mycelium improves sperm quality as
well as quantity in subfertile boars which further supports the role
of Cordyceps in the enhancement of aphrodisiac properties [24]. In
another study, Cordyceps extract has been noticed to strengthen the
accessory genital glands of mice along with modulation of androgen
secretion [25]. is genus has also been suggested to positively
inuence the reproductive functions in yang vacuity of kidney
mice model by improving adenine-induced testis morphology. e
mice, when treated with Cordyceps which were receiving adenine
at the same time, have shown improved testis morphology along
with improvement in the rate and time of their matched female’s
pregnancy. In addition to this, numbers as well as the average body
weight of their newborn mice were also found to be increased [26].
is mushroom also lightened the BPA-induced reproductive
damage by activating the antioxidant defense system which involves
testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase
(GSH-PX), and glutathione (GSH), along with a reduction in serum
malondialdehyde (MDA). is medicinal fungus was further found
to elevate the levels of serum luteinizing hormone and testosterone in
comparison to the BPA-treated group [27]. In conclusion, the genus
of this sac fungus has the potential to modulate reproductive activity
and restore the impaired reproductive function by directly aecting
the release of sexual hormones such as testosterone from Leydig cells
and estrogen and progesterone from granulosa or theca cells. As the
cumulative observations from literature support the therapeutic role
of Cordyceps, therefore, this fungus with medicinal importance could
be introduced to improve sex or reproductive impairment.
1. Kashyap D, Mondal R, Tuli HS, Kumar G, Sharma AK. Molecular targets of
gambogic acid in cancer: recent trends and advancements. Tumor Biol. 2016;
3: 208–215.
2. Kashyap D, Tuli HS, Sharma AK. Ursolic acid (UA): A metabolite with
promising therapeutic potential. Life Sci. 2016; 146: 201-213.
3. Dharambir Kashyap HST, Sharma A, Kumar M, Sak K. Molecular targets of
natural metabolites in cancer: recent trends and advancements. J Biol Chem
Sci. 2016; 3: 208–215.
4. Kashyap D, Mittal S, Sak K, Singhal P, Tuli HS. Molecular mechanisms of
action of quercetin in cancer: recent advances. Tumor Biol. 2016.
5. Tuli HS, Kashyap D, Sharma AK, Sandhu SS. Molecular aspects of melatonin
(MLT)-mediated therapeutic effects. Life Sci. 2015; 135: 147–157.
6. Kashyap D, Sharma A, Tuli HS, Punia S, Sharma AK. Ursolic Acid and
Oleanolic Acid: Pentacyclic Terpenoids with Promising Anti-Inammatory
Activities. Recent Pat Inamm Allergy Drug Discov. (2016).
Natural dietary supplements with promising therapeutic eects
are emerging collaterally as decisive agents against multiple clinical
and pathological manifestations [1–3]. Findings from several studies
on phytochemicals, contributing to their remarkable role in prevention
and cure of cancer, cardiovascular, neuro-degeneration, and sex or
reproduction-related disorders without or with minimal side eects
[4–7]. Cordyceps is among the category of such medicinally important
genus of ascomycete fungi (sac fungi) having worldwide distribution
of approximately 400 species, that parasitizes on the insects and
other arthropods mainly from Lepidoptera order, thus called
entomopathogenic fungi [8–13]. Firstly this mushroom came into
limelight during 1993 sports championship, when few of the winner
athlete’s committed that they were utilizing Cordyceps mushroom
based ingredients in their diet. Its life cycle starts with infection to
the insect, mainly in the early months of winter thereaer, fungus
emerges out from the insect’s body in March-April which justies its
name i.e. winter worm summer grass [14]. In the last few decades,
the pharmacological potential of this fungus has been extensively
implicated in the treatment of various lethal diseases including
diabetes, and cancer [11]. In addition to the above mentioned
medicinal values, Cordyceps genus is also known as Himalayan
Viagra due to its positive eects on sexual stamina enhancement [15].
It has been traditionally being practiced as nutritious food for the
enhancement of sexual performance and the restitution of impairment
in sexual function amongst Chinese population [16]. Proved in the
study using normal mouse Leydig cells, that Cordyceps treatment
stimulated the steroidogenesis in a dose-dependent relationship and
at a concentration of 3 mg/ml, signicantly stimulated testosterone
production determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) (p >0.05) [17–
19]. Further results indicated that Cordyceps signicantly elevated
plasma testosterone levels both in immature and mature mice aer
3 and/or 7 days of treatment (p < 0.05) [20]. Also, in MA-10 mouse
Leydig tumor cells, Cordyceps stimulated steroidogenesis through
both PKA and PKC signal transduction pathways, therefore could be
utilized to modulate sexual ecacy [21,22]. Moreover, utilizing the
Cordyceps: A Natural Himalayan Viagra with Promising
Aphrodisiac Potential
Kashyap D1, Tuli HS2*, Sharma AK2
1Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of
Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh,
Punjab, 160012, India
2Department of Biotechnology, Maharishi
Markandeshwar University, Mullana-Ambala, Haryana,
133207, India
*Corresponding author: Hardeep Singh Tuli,
Assistant Professor, Department of Biotechnology,
Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana
(Ambala), Haryana, India
Received: October 15, 2016; Accepted: October 21,
2016; Published: October 24, 2016
Austin Andrology 1(2): id1010 (2016) - Page - 02
Tuli HS Austin Publishing Group
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7. Cordyceps Species - Cordyceps Trusted Reviews. http://cordycepsreviews.
8. Tuli HS, Kumar G, Sandhu SS, Sharma AK, Kashyap D. Apoptotic effect of
cordycepin on A549 human lung cancer cell line. Turkish J Biol. 2015; 39:
9. Tuli HS, Sandhu SS, Sharma AK, Gandhi P. Anti-angiogenic activity of the
extracted fermentation broth of an entomopathogenic fungus, Cordyceps
militaris 3936. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014; 6.
10. Tuli HS, Sandhu SS, Sharma AK. Pharmacological and therapeutic potential
of Cordyceps with special reference to Cordycepin. 3 Biotech. 2013; 4: 1–12.
11. Tuli HS, Sandhu SS, Sharma AK, Kashyap D. Cordycepin: A bioactive
metabolite with therapeutic potential. Life Sci. 2013; 93: 863–869.
12. Tuli HS, Sharma AK, Kashyap D. Cordycepin: A Cordyceps Metabolite with
Promising Therapeutic Potential, in: Fungal Metab. Springer International
Publishing Cham. 2015: 1–22.
13. Sung GH, Hywel-Jones NL, Sung JM, Luangsa-ard JJ, Shrestha B, Spatafora
JW. Phylogenetic classication of Cordyceps and the clavicipitaceous fungi.
Stud Mycol. 2007; 57: 5–59.
14. Mongkolsamrit S, Kobmoo N, Tasanathai K, Khonsanit A, Noisripoom
W, Srikitikulchai p, et al. Life cycle, host range and temporal variation of
Ophiocordyceps unilateralis/Hirsutella formicarum on Formicine ants, J.
Invertebr Pathol. 2012; 111: 217–224.
15. Tuli HS, Sandhu SS, Sharma AK. Pharmacological and therapeutic potential
of Cordyceps with special reference to Cordycepin. 3 Biotech. 2013; 4: 1–12.
16. Sharma A, Tuli HS, Sharma SS. Optimization of Extraction Conditions and
Antimicrobial Potential of A Bioactive Metabolite, Cordycepin from Cordyceps
Militaris 3936. 2014.
17. Huang BM, Hsu CC, Tsai SJ, Sheu CC, Leu SF. Effects of Cordyceps
sinensis on testosterone production in normal mouse Leydig cells. Life Sci.
2001; 69: 2593–2602.
18. Hsu CC, Huang YL, Tsai SJ, Sheu CC, Huang BM. In vivo and in vitro
stimulatory effects of Cordyceps sinensis on testosterone production in
mouse Leydig cells. Life Sci. 2003; 73: 2127–2136.
19. Wong KL, So EC, Chen CC, Wu RSC, Huang BM. Regulation of
steroidogenesis by Cordyceps sinensis mycelium extracted fractions with
(hCG) treatment in mouse Leydig cells. Arch Androl. 2007; 53: 75–77.
20. Huang YL, Leu SF, Liu BC, Sheu CC, Huang BM. In vivo stimulatory effect
of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium and its fractions on reproductive functions in
male mouse. Life Sci. 2004; 75: 1051–1062.
21. Chen YC, Huang YL, Huang BM. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium activates
PKA and PKC signal pathways to stimulate steroidogenesis in MA-10 mouse
Leydig tumor cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2005; 37: 214–223.
22. Hsu CC, Tsai SJ, Huang YL, Huang BM. Regulatory mechanism of Cordyceps
sinensis mycelium on mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis. FEBS Lett. 2003;
543: 140–143.
23. Sohn SH, Lee SC, Hwang SY, Kim SW, Kim IW, Ye MB, et al. Effect of
long-term administration of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris on testicular
function in middle-aged rats. Planta Med. 2012; 78: 1620–1625.
24. Lin WH, Tsai MT, Chen YS, Hou RCW, Hung HF, Li CH, et al. Improvement of
sperm production in subfertile boars by Cordyceps militaris supplement. Am J
Chin Med. 2007; 35: 631–641.
25. Yan LC. Hong-Jun W, Yan-Fang L, Ke-Yan S, Bo-Ping Z, Li-Qiang W.
Experimental Study on the Effects of Cordyceps Militaris Extract on the
Accessory Genital Glands and Serum Testosterone in Anamorph Mice.
Pharmaceutical J Chinese People’s Lib Army. 2009.
26. Hong-lan J, Rui-xin G. Inuence of Cordyceps Sinensis on Reproduction and
Testis Morphology in Mice. Shenzhen J Integr Trad Chinese Western Med.
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27. Wang J, Chen C, Jiang Z, Wang M, Jiang H, Zhang X. Protective effect
of Cordyceps militaris extract against bisphenol A induced reproductive
damage. Syst Biol Reprod Med 6368. 2016. 1–9.
Citation: Kashyap D, Tuli HS, Sharma AK. Cordyceps: A Natural Himalayan Viagra with Promising Aphrodisiac
Potential. Austin Andrology. 2016; 1(2): 1010.
Austin Andrology - Volume 1 Issue 2 - 2016
Submit your Manuscript |
Tuli et al. © All rights are reserved
... mushroom began to be in the spotlight in 1993, when some world athletics champions revealed part of their strategy for success, including a diet based on Cordyceps spp. ingredients (Kashyap et al., 2016). It works by an increase in cellular ATP increasing bioenergy and thus facilitating efficient oxygen utilization (Geng et al., 2017). ...
... Because Cordyceps spp. is a benchmark for a highly energetic source, its applications as a sexual stimulant and in sexual dysfunction are attractive (Zhu et al., 1998;Tuli et al., 2013a;Chen et al., 2017), even popularly known as the Himalayan Viagra (Kashyap et al., 2016). Cordyceps spp. ...
... In particular, the administration of cordycepin can increase the weight of the epididymis, sperm motility, and movement, and the number of mature sperm (Kashyap et al., 2016), namely, the quality and quantity of the sperm. Wang et al. (1998) demonstrate that PKC may be responsible for the C. sinensis-induced steroidogenesis in primary rat adrenal cell cultures. ...
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In recent decades, interest in the Cordyceps genus has amplified due to its immunostimulatory potential. Cordyceps species, its extracts, and bioactive constituents have been related with cytokine production such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, phagocytosis stimulation of immune cells, nitric oxide production by increasing inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, and stimulation of inflammatory response via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Other pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-cancer, antihyperlipidemic, anti-diabetic, anti-fatigue, anti-aging, hypocholesterolemic, hypotensive, vasorelaxation, anti-depressant, aphrodisiac, and kidney protection, has been reported in pre-clinical studies. These biological activities are correlated with the bioactive compounds present in Cordyceps including nucleosides, sterols, flavonoids, cyclic peptides, phenolic, bioxanthracenes, polyketides, and alkaloids, being the cyclic peptides compounds the most studied. An organized review of the existing literature was executed by surveying several databanks like PubMed, Scopus, etc. using keywords like Cordyceps , cordycepin, immune system, immunostimulation, immunomodulatory, pharmacology, anti-cancer, anti-viral, clinical trials, ethnomedicine, pharmacology, phytochemical analysis, and different species names. This review collects and analyzes state-of-the-art about the properties of Cordyceps species along with ethnopharmacological properties, application in food, chemical compounds, extraction of bioactive compounds, and various pharmacological properties with a special focus on the stimulatory properties of immunity.
... It is usually called DongChongXiaCao (DCXC), means winter worm-summer grass. DCXC has over 30 bioactivities for the enhancement of endurance capacity and treatment of diabetes, liver cancer and kidney cancer, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, antiosteoporotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities through a variety of unique functional ingredients Lo et al., 2013;Kashyap et al., 2016;Wu et al., 2018). It is considered a beneficial traditional Chinese medicine. ...
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The fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis is endemic to the vast region of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP). The unique and complex geographical environmental conditions have led to the “sky island” distribution structure of O. sinensis. Due to limited and unbalanced sample collections, the previous data on O. sinensis regarding its genetic diversity and spatial structure have been deemed insufficient. In this study, we analyzed the diversity and phylogeographic structures of O. sinensis using internally transcribed spacer region (ITS) and 5-locus datasets by a large-scale sampling. A total of 111 haplotypes of ITS sequences were identified from 948 samples data of the fungus O. sinensis, with representing high genetic diversity, and 8 phylogenetic clades were recognized in O. sinensis. Both the southeastern Tibet and the northwestern Yunnan were the centers of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of the fungus, and they were inferred as the glacial refugia in the Quaternary. Three distribution patterns were identified to correspond to the 8 clades, including but not limited to the coexistence of widely and specific local distributive structures. It also revealed that the differentiation pattern of O. sinensis did not fit for the isolation-by-distance model. The differentiation into the 8 clades occurred between 1.56 Myr and 6.62 Myr. The ancestor of O. sinensis most likely originated in the late Miocene (6.62 Myr) in the northwestern Yunnan, and the Scene A–C of the Qinghai–Tibetan movements may have played an important role in the differentiation of O. sinensis during the late Miocene–Pliocene periods. Our current results provide a much clearer and detailed understanding of the genetic diversity and geographical spatial distribution of the endemic alpine fungus O. sinensis. It also revealed that the geochronology resulting from paleogeology could be cross-examined with biomolecular clock at a finer scale.
... Recently aphrodisiac activity has been reported in O. sinensis, and termed as Himalayan Viagra (Kashyap et al., 2016). Wang et al. (1998) reported that O. sinensis contains a factor that stimulates corticosteroid production in animal model. ...
Medicinal mushrooms with therapeutic importance are being utilized for the treatment of a variety of severe manifestations. Particularly, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, a genus of ascomycete fungi, which parasitize mainly on insects and other arthropods, has been intensively studied in various disease models. This fungus is found naturally in the Tibetan Plateau and neighboring regions, including China, Nepal, Tibet, and India. The presence of nucleosides, polysaccharides, sterols, steroids, and other bioactive compounds of O. sinensis make its use in replenish kidney and treatment of fatigue, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyposexualities, renal failure, arrhythmias, and other heart diseases, and liver disorders. The fungus has also given the reliable results in different organ malfunctioning by controlling the cytokines, chemokines, and oxidative stress induced proteins level which are involved in several human malignancies. This chapter highlights the multiple therapeutic roles of O. sinensis as dietary supplements with possible in vitro and in vivo clinical evidence and interactions/toxicity.
... A variety of phytochemicals with promising antitumor potential has been tested against the various human cancer as well as associated malignancies. [9][10][11][12][13][14][15] Among these, ursolic acid (UA) and Quercetin (Quer), possessing widespread pharmacological importance, especially studied more intensively for anticancer properties. [16][17][18] UA, also called 3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic-acid, is a pentacyclic triterpenoid [ Figure 1a], which has been reported from numerous classes of medicinal plants, such as Ligustrum lucidum, Glechoma riobotrya japonica, Rosmarinus offıcinalis, Hedyotis diffusa, hederacea, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Rhododendron hymenanthes Makino, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Calluna vulgaris, Ocimum sanctum, and Eugenia jambolana and also present in wax coating of many fruits including apples, prunes, and pears. ...
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Despite of available treatments, the incidence of the cancer is increasing and known to be a major cause of mortality worldwide. Plant derived terpenoids and flavonoids are considered as promising therapeutic molecules possessing a range of medicinal properties. These phytochemical have been used as useful agents for the treatment of the various chronic infections.Terpenpoid and flavonoid particularly ursolic acid and quercetinrespectively are emerging as effective anti-tumour molecules with minimal cytotoxic effects on the normal body tissues. In the different experiments the regulatory role of these molecules in apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion or metastasis has been documented. Angiogenesis and metastasis the two important hallmarks for the survival oftumourand responsible for 50% mortality in the cancerpatients. Tumour angiogenesis and metastasis has been found to be significantly inhibited in the presence of Ursolic acid and Querceitn. Evidence suggested that these phytochemical inhibits the initiator and progressive cytokines, chemokine and growth factors such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) involved in Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling during tumour metastasis. Also angiogenesis associated factors like HiF-α and VEGF/VEGFR have been down-regulated by UA and Quer. In the present review, molecular targets of UA and Quer in tumourmetastasis and angiogenesis have been summarized.
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During COVID, global wide peoples realized the importance of natural food sources and their pharmacological values and now it has been used widely. It retained the previous decades of healthy human livelihood and attention created on conventional foods and medicines. From human evolution, mushrooms played a most unique role in food and medicine. Among them, C. sinensis is a temperate loving entomopathogenic fungus at altitudes of 3000 to 14,000 MSL. It is used as energy-sourced food and medicinal uses, via. Antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antiviral, antiaging, antidepressant, antifatigue, hypocholesterolemic, hypotensive, vasorelaxation, aphrodisiac, chronic urinal regulators, neuroregulators, anticancer, glycemic regulators, antimicrobial, immune modulators, and functional modifiers (FMs) to better live from their production of bioactive compounds. So, this fungal source drastically reduced overexploitation, climate change, mutations, and reduction of host population rate (ghost moth). These situations are pushed into artificial cultivation by complete and seminatural systems with extended times. Thus, simplification of cultivation progress will yield a better outcome in C. sinensis productions and new generation medicines in future when accompanied with scientific approaches with knowledgeable skilled persons in mushroom technology for human livelihood.KeywordsAphrodisiacAntifatigue C. sinensis CordycepinHypocholesterolemic
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Background: Plant derived products are not only served as dietary components but also used to treat and prevent the inflammatory associated diseases like cancer. Among the natural products pentacyclic terpenoids including ursolic acid and oleanolic acid are considered as the promising anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents. Objectives: The current review extensively discusses the anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential of these pentacyclic moieties along with their proposed mechanisms of action. Furthermore, the relevant patents have also been listed to present the health benefits of these promising therapeutic agents to pin down the inflammatory diseases. Expert opinion: Pentacyclic terpenoids are known to negatively down-regulate a variety of extracellular and intracellular molecular targets associated with disease progression. The major anti-inflammatory effects of these molecules have been found to be mediated via inactivation of NFкβ, STAT3/6, Akt/mTOR pathways. A number of patents on UA & OA based moieties have been reported between 2010 and 2016. Still there have been only a few compounds which meet the need of sufficient hydro solubility and bioavailability along with higher anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, it has been essential to develop novel derivatives of terpenpoids which may not only overcome the solubility issues but also may improve their therapeutic effects. In addition, scientific community may utilize nanotechnology based drug delivery systems so as to increase the bio-availability, selectivity and dosages related problems.
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Plants are known to be an assortment of bioactive metabolites that are being utilized to cure different life undermining and ceaseless sicknesses. The evaluation of therapeutic activity of such bioactive phytochemicals may leads to new paths for the researchers to create or enhance novel restorative ways to deal with disorders, for example, cancer growth, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Cordycepin, isothiocyanate, melatonin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and gambogic acids are some among the classifications of such plant-based remedial metabolites with broad spectrum of various biological activities. These metabolites are known to interact negatively with a variety of cellular signalling pathways and events that are found to be associated with cancer progression including programmed cell death (apoptosis), movement of cancer cells through blood to various organs of the body (invasion), attachment and grow as a new cancer (metastasis), formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) and inflammation. Studies recommend that these moieties could be utilized to build up the effective therapies towards the treatment and prevention of life threatening diseases. This mini review highlights the recent trends and future prospective about these wonderful moieties.
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For thousands of years, natural products from medicinal mushroom are being used for the cure of different lethal diseases. Among the huge category of medicinal herbs, the genus Cordyceps is gaining special attention due to its broad spectrum of biological activity. Cordycepin, a nucleoside analogue, is the main bioactive ingredient of Cordyceps and known to mediate a variety of pharmacological effects. Many chemically modified cordycepin derivatives have been reported which have shown more potential therapeutic effects. With the advancement in fermentation techniques, it has been possible to produce the higher cordycepin product. The modern techniques enabled the researchers for an easy detection and extraction of cordycepin from fermentation medium. Being a nucleoside analogue, cordycepin can interfere with the DNA/RNA biosynthesis and acts as a potential candidate for the treatment of the dreadful diseases such as cancer. Besides, cordycepin have also been known to modulate a variety of signaling pathways involved in apoptosis, proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and inflammation. This chapter will describe the chemistry, production, detection, and extraction strategies of cordycepin. In addition, variety of therapeutic applications of cordycepin with all possible molecular mechanisms of actions have also been summarized.
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Cordycepin, an active ingredient in the insect fungus Cordyceps militaris, is in a category of compounds that exhibit significant therapeutic activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cordycepin on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle in A549 human lung cancer cells. MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of cordycepin on A549 cell growth. Apoptotic effect was observed using cell morphology, DAPI staining, and DNA fragmentation studies. Flow cytometry (FCM) analysis was used to analyze cell cycle status after cordycepin treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis was assayed using annexin V-Alexa Fluor 488. Results of MTT assay showed that cordycepin significantly inhibited cell proliferation with an IC50 value of 64 µg/mL. The number of rounding-up cells increased with cordycepin treatment and changes in cellular morphology were seen. In DNA fragmentation studies, a typical ladder pattern was observed on agarose gel and formation of apoptotic bodies was further confirmed using DAPI staining. The FCM analysis of cordycepin-treated cells showed that apoptosis rate increased with the increase in dosage. In conclusion, cordycepin induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cell line and could be a potential therapeutic candidate for lung cancer treatment
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Objective: Cordyceps militaris is an entomopathogen and known to exhibit significant therapeutic potential. In the present study, we aimed to extract various fractions (aqueous; hexane; chloroform & butanol) including active ingredient cordycepin from fermented broth of Cordyceps militaris followed by their evaluation as anti-angiogenic agents. Methods: The bioactive metabolite, cordycepin and various Cordyceps derived fractions were isolated from liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris using solvent-solvent extraction method followed by purification on silica gel column chromatography. Furthermore anti-angiogenic properties of extracted fermentation broth were also investigated using chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Results: Butanolic fractions, demonstrated the highest anti-angiogenic activity followed by chloroform, hexane and aqueous fractions of extracted fermentation broth. Anti-angiogenic studies for extracted cordycepin showed that 40 µg/egg dosage of cordycepin was sufficient to inhibit the branching of blood vessels significantly (~50%) in a CAM assay. Conclusion: It is concluded that butanolic extract/cordycepin from fermented broth of Cordyceps militaris potentially inhibits the angiogenesis and suggests that the inhibition of angiogenesis is one of the mechanisms by which Cordyceps militaris can mediate an anti-cancer effect.
Unlabelled: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) against reproductive damage induced by bisphenol A (BPA). Rats were administrated 200 mg/kg BPA for 4 weeks and treated with C. militaris (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight/day). By the end of the fourth week, the level of oxidative damage, sperm parameters, hormone levels, and histopathological changes were examined. In the group that only received BPA, there was a significant decrease in body weight compared with the normal control (NC) group. C. militaris significantly alleviated the BPA-induced reproductive damage by increasing testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and glutathione (GSH); as well as by reducing serum malondialdehyde (MDA). C. militaris not only obviously enhanced the levels of serum LH and T, but it also improved the sperm count and motility compared to the BPA-treated group. These results suggest that C. militaris could be used as a potential natural substance for preventing BPA induced reproductive damage. Abbreviations BPA: bisphenol A; SOD: superoxide dismutase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; ROS: reactive oxygen species; T: testosterone; LH: luteinizing hormone; FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone; UPLC: ultra performance liquid chromatography; RIA: radioimmunoassay; q Rt-pcr: quantitative real time PCR; NC: normal control group; BPA: 200 mg/kg BPA administered group; H: 800 mg/kg C. militaris extract administered group; LB, MB, and HB: 200 mg/kg BPA + 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 800 mg/kg C. militaris administered group, respectively; VeB: 200 mg/kg BPA + 300 mg/kg Vitamin E administered group; Star: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 3β-HSD: 3beta-hydroxyl-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase; CYP11A1: cytochrome P 450 family 11 subfamily A member 1; CYP17A1: cytochrome P 450 family 17 subfamily A member 1.
In the last few decades, the scientific community has discovered an immense potential of natural compounds in the treatment of dreadful diseases such as cancer. Besides the availability of a variety of natural bioactive molecules, efficacious cancer therapy still needs to be developed. So, to design an efficacious cancer treatment strategy, it is essential to understand the interactions of natural molecules with their respective cellular targets. Quercetin (Quer) is a naturally occurring flavonol present in many commonly consumed food items. It governs numerous intracellular targets, including the proteins involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, detoxification, antioxidant replication, and angiogenesis. The weight of available synergistic studies vigorously fortifies the utilization of Quer as a chemoprevention drug. This extensive review covers various therapeutic interactions of Quer with their recognized cellular targets involved in cancer treatment.
Natural compounds have been known as biosafety agents for their significant clinical and biological activity against dreadful diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative disorders. Gambogic acid (GA), a naturally occurring xanthone-based moiety, reported from Garcinia hanburyi tree, is known to perform numerous intracellular and extracellular actions, including programmed cell death, autophagy, cell cycle arrest, antiangiogenesis, antimetastatic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In addition, GA-based synergistic approaches have been proven to enhance the healing strength of existing chemotherapeutic agents along with lesser side effects. The present review uncovers the bio-therapeutic potential of gambogic acid along with the possible mechanistic interactions of GA with its recognized cellular targets.
Plants are known to produce a variety of bioactive metabolites which are being used to cure various life threatening and chronic diseases. The molecular mechanism of action of such bioactive molecules, may open up new avenues for the scientific community to develop or improve novel therapeutic approaches to tackle dreadful diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Ursolic acid (UA) is one among the categories of such plant-based therapeutic metabolites having multiple intracellular and extracellular targets that play role in apoptosis, metastasis, angiogenesis and inflammatory processes. Moreover, the synthetic derivatives of UA have also been seen to be involved in a range of pharmacological applications, which are associated with prevention of diseases. Evidences suggest that UA could be used as a potential candidate to develop a comprehensive competent strategy towards the treatment and prevention of health disorders. The review article herein describes the possible therapeutic effects of UA along with putative mechanism of action.
Hormones are a class of molecules, which mediate their effects by regulating a variety of signalling pathways. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a pineal gland hormone, is one among the categories of compounds having various therapeutic and pharmacological effects. Melatonin has many intracellular as well as extracellular targets including apoptosis, metastasis, angiogenesis and inflammatory pathways. Gene-profile studies have further established its antagonist effect on the various genes involved in the tumour progression, neurodegeneration and ageing. It has also been known to reduce the toxicity induced by chemotherapeutic agents in advanced stages of tumour. The present review extensively describes the molecular interactions of melatonin with various recognized cellular targets, which may lead the scientific community to propose novel therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.