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Abstract

Mining industry, has been a topic of increasing attention in the last few decades. The disasters of the past years due to different causes push for a moment of reflexivity about learning from accidents. The increased interest in improving the safety at workplace has been driven mainly by a series of recent mining disasters that have occurred in India as well as in the rest of the world. Disasters in Indian coal mines have caused havoc in the past. In recent times also, there had been 7 disasters since the year 2000 killing 144 persons. The worst disaster ever in Indian mining history is the Chasnala disaster due to inundation in 1975, killing 375 persons. But unfortunately we have learnt very little from these past disasters. The authors in this paper had tried to identify the thrust area along with the gaps in our learning system, which need more attention for maintaining safety by analysing the past three disasters due to inrush of water in Indian coal mines including Chasnala coal mine disaster, greatest disaster of India mining industry and tried to highlight the weaknesses in the system and key lessons learnt from them.

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... Kesseru (1995) proposed and verified a new method to distinguish the occurrence of water and sand inrush by mine experiments and by the experience of undermining. By analysing the coal mines in India where water inrush occurred, Dash et al. (2016) summarized the preconditions for the occurrence of water inrush. Based on the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model, Yang et al. (2019b) developed a water and sand inrush model and discussed the characteristics of water and sand inrush in crack channels. ...
... Based on previous studies on the formation conditions and mechanism of water sand inrush (Dash et al. 2016;Yang et al. 2019a, b;Zhang and Hou 2005;Castro et al. 2017;Cochard and Ancey 2009;Fan et al. 2018;), this article studied the limit equilibrium conditions of water and sand inrush under different loose clay conditions by establishing a sand body inrush model. Meanwhile, the micromechanism and the clay components were analysed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and spectrometry (with an Oxford device), respectively. ...
Article
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Water and sand inrush is one of the many disasters in mining operations in Western China and is closely linked to the characteristics of loose layers. Therefore, it is very important to study the mechanism of water and sand inrush under different loose layer conditions for recognizing and preventing water and sand inrush. In this article, a mechanical model of water and sand inrush was established, and the limit equilibrium conditions of water and sand inrush under different clay contents in the loose layer were studied. On this basis, physical experiments of water and sand inrush through loose layers with different clay contents were carried out. The results showed that both the 5 and 10% clay contents in the loose layer promoted the occurrence of water and sand inrush. However, compared with that of the 5% clay content, the possibility of water and sand inrush was weakened under the condition of 10% clay content. When the clay content was 20%, the sand body remained stable, inhibiting the occurrence of water and sand inrush. After the test, “collapse pits” were observed on the upper surfaces of the loose layers with 0, 5 and 10% clay contents. However, the upper surface of the loose layer with 20% clay content had only a small depression, and no collapse pit was observed. The results of this study provide experimental guidance for research on water and sand inrush of mining-induced cracks in loose layers with different clay contents.
... Ferrada et al. (2016b) introduced the concept of lessons-learning in the discipline of construction management and suggested that construction companies can better understand the possible problems in committing future projects by learning previous lessons. There are still some other studies investigating the effectiveness of foreseeing potential problems by employing previous lessons (Drupsteen and Hasle, 2014;Labib and Harris, 2015;Eken et al., 2015;Labib and Read, 2015;Ferrada et al., 2016a;Love et al., 2016;Dash et al., 2016;Eric Stemna et al., 2017;Kim and Rhee, 2017;Suraji, 2003). ...
... Lessons are often defined as valid knowledge which is learnt from problems or failures (Dash et al., 2016;Pittman et al., 2014). There are two typical approaches to learn lessons from problems: by applying a quantitative lessons learning model (Reason, 2000;Duffield and Whitty, 2015;Labib and Read, 2015), or by creating a lessons-case database (Eken et al., 2015). ...
... Das, Bhattacharjee, and Paul highlighted that engineering, design, and maintenance flaws are the major reasons for such a disaster [49]. The provisions under the Coal Mine Regulation 2017 mandates a 60 m wide pillar for protective barriers [50]. ...
Article
A reliable design of protective water barrier pillars is critically essential for safe operation in underground mine workings. Different approaches are applied for the design of such barrier pillars, but none of them have ever evolved as a standard. This paper presents the outcome of a literature review covering various aspects of protective water barrier pillar design, including its hydro-mechanical modeling. Width/height (w/h) ratio, cover depth, water head, permeability, and discontinuities have been identified as the critical parameters influencing the performance of such protective pillars. For a given water head and the depth of cover, a lower w/h ratio of the pillar can result in an increased seepage from the pillars and inundation hazard in the worst condition. The review shows that in-depth research is required for an improved understanding of the mechanism of water flow and the failure of such pillars. This will not only help in assessing the adequacy of existing pillars but also in forming guidelines for the design of new protective pillars based on an updated knowledge base and improved understanding of the subject.
... There are lingering misconceptions between climate change work being focused on the environment, and the future, and disaster work being focused on response and the past [19]. The lessons learned will not be effective, had the cause been identified by root cause analysis but not brought into the recommendation and implemented accordingly [20]. ...
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This study focused on the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management of Tarlac City. The city disaster risk reduction and management structure; the identified hazards and evacuation areas; the Tarlac City DRRM Plan in four thematic areas as identified in the NDRRM Plan; the CDRRMO vehicles, equipment, and resources; and the community based responders are presented in this paper. The following conclusions are reached based on the gathered information and data. The CDRRMC and CDRRMO are established and functioning as to their mandate, based on the certificate of recognition given by DILG to the City Government of Tarlac regarding disaster preparedness. The structure of the CDRRMO is approved by the city council but lacks funding for filling up the identified positions. The CDRRMO has a hazard map with identified barangays prone to flooding, lahar flow, and earthquake. The thematic action plans of the City Government are aligned with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. This is evident in the list of programs and projects in their action plans. The existence of community based responders shows that the City Government is extending support to the barangay level by training local officials on how to respond in times of disaster.
... During the last decades the mining industry has been mainly considered for the environmental problems associated to Raw Materials (RMs) exploitation and Extractive Waste (EW) facilities management, rather than for the fundamental role that RMs perform in developed society. The legislation and the actions associated to mining sectors have brought to a general negative opinion; moreover, the common thought that mining industry represents a risk for the environment has been facilitated and disseminated thanks to accidents that occurred at EW facilities (Guerrero et al., 2008;Luino & De Graff, 2012;Dash et al., 2016;Petticrew et al., 2016). This approach is clearly visible when observing the quantitiy of researches connected to environmental issues compared to those connected to EW recovery (Rybicka, 1996;Banks et al., 1997;Fields, 2003;Samecka-Cymerman & Kempers, 2004;Talavera et al., 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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The present research is within the framework of Smart Ground project (G.A. 641988), which intends to foster resource recovery from different types of waste deposits by improving the availability and the accessibility of data and information on secondary raw materials (SRM) in the EU. The evaluation of the SRM potential requires the estimation of a number of factors which must include technical, economic and environmental considerations. A first factor is a thorough characterization of the waste material, that can be performed with different methodologies, depending on the waste typology. This issue has been addressed, within the project, on a number of pilot sites which include municipal solid waste landfills, industrial landfills and waste deposits related to the extractive industry. The present study shows the methodologies adopted for waste characterisation (sampling protocols and analysis), with the aim of evaluating the secondary raw materials potentiality from extractive waste facilities. In particular the study has been carried out on the extractive waste facilities of the Campello Monti Ni+Cu (±Co±PGE) mining site (Western Alps, Italy).
... It is important to have an effective monitoring system to ensure that the controls against the identified hazards are effectively maintained. Monitoring effectiveness is essential element of safety management system (Dash, Bhattacharjee, & Paul, 2016). ...
Article
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Dams constitute a potential hazard to downstream life and property. Therefore, it is necessary to detect any signs of abnormal behaviour in structural safety. Monitoring of an embankment dam plays a key role to increase dam safety and to prove performances. Appropriate instrument selection is one of the most important steps of a monitoring plan. Inappropriate instruments may cause irreparable damages in critical situations. The lack of a method to analyse the instruments, and to select an appropriate one is one of the shortages of a monitoring plan. Nowadays, decision-making methods have been widely used to optimise the selection process. In addition, due to uncertainty in decisions, fuzzy methods are applied. The present study aims to establish an integrated decision model based on FAHP-FTOPSIS methods, by taking into account 9 influential criteria and 42 alternatives as geotechnical instruments. The model has been applied for a clay core embankment dam. Results showed that group decision-making can reliably be used to prioritise the instruments. For instance, the best instrument for monitoring stresses was hydraulic pressure cell while its closeness coefficient was .55. The possible choices were reliably selected and prioritised due to their adjacency to the ideal solution.
... In general, the reduction of native vegetation and the thinning of natural soils related to urbanization reduces the infiltration and storage of water (Jacobson, 2011), leading to increasing runoff rates and volumes and ultimately increasing the hy-draulic load for urban drainage systems (Kim et al., 2015). However, increased surface runoff, faster runoff concentration, and higher peak flow rates can exceed an urban system's drainage capacity and cause inundation, resulting in traffic interruption, economic loss, pollution, and health issues (Dash et al., 2016). Improving the drainage capacity in rapidly urbanizing areas is a straightforward method for reducing inundation risk, and a significant improvement can be achieved in most cases (Pochwa et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Urban inundation is a serious challenge that increasingly confronts the residents of many cities, as well as policymakers, in the context of rapid urbanization and climate change worldwide. In recent years, source control measures (SCMs) such as green roofs, permeable pavements, rain gardens, and vegetative swales have been implemented to address flood inundation in urban settings, and proven to be cost-effective and sustainable. In order to investigate the ability of SCMs on reducing inundation in a community-scale urban drainage system, a dynamic rainfall-runoff model of a community-scale urban drainage system was developed based on SWMM. SCMs implementing scenarios were modelled under six design rainstorm events with return period ranging from 2 to 100 years, and inundation risks of the drainage system were evaluated before and after the proposed implementation of SCMs, with a risk-evaluation method based on SWMM and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Results show that, SCMs implementation resulting in significantly reduction of hydrological indexes that related to inundation risks, range of reduction rates of average flow, peak flow, and total flooded volume of the drainage system were 28.1–72.1, 19.0–69.2, and 33.9–56.0 %, respectively, under six rainfall events with return periods ranging from 2 to 100 years. Corresponding, the inundation risks of the drainage system were significantly reduced after SCMs implementation, the risk values falling below 0.2 when the rainfall return period was less than 10 years. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of SCMs on mitigating inundation, and quantified the potential of SCMs on reducing inundation risks in the urban drainage system, which provided scientific references for implementing SCMs for inundation control of the study area.
... As a result, the mining industry continues to be associated with a high level of accidents, injuries, and illness. Major accidents and disasters in Indian mining industry are still continuing at some disturbing rate 2015-b;2016a;Bhattacharjee et al., 2014). All of us know that most accidents in the workplace result from unsafe work behavior. ...
Article
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Decision making is one of the important activities in every industry and it becomes more important in safety critical industry like mining, chemical, aviation etc. The success of an industry is critically linked with its effective decisions and decision-making process. In this paper, authors explain how a decision can be a disaster. One case study disaster due to the wrong decision in Indian scenario is analyzed and discussed. The gaps and weakness in the decision-making process are identified and lessons learned. Towards the end, a hybrid concept of decision making has been suggested in the hope of preventing similar future disasters.
... These findings highlight a close relationship between the water-resisting layer and water inrush. Besides, scholars examined the role of the relative water-resisting layer and devised the failure mechanism of the floor [11][12][13]. However, the hydrogeological conditions of deposits in China are far inferior to those abroad [14]. ...
Article
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Karst collapse columns (KCCs) are naturally formed geological structures that are widely observed in North China. Given their influence on normal mining operations and the progress of mining work, collapse columns pose a hidden danger in coal mining under the influence of manual mining. By communicating often with the aquifer, the water inrush from KCCs poses a serious threat to construction projects. This paper adopts three flow field models, namely, Darcy aquifer laminar flow, Forchheimer flow, and Navier–Stokes turbulent flow, based on the changes in the water inrush flow pattern in the aquifer and laneway, and uses COMSOL Multiphysics software to produce the numerical solutions of these models. As the water inrush flow velocity increases, the Forchheimer flow shows the effect of additional force (inertial resistance) on flow in KCCs, in addition to the effect of viscous resistance. After the joint action of viscous resistance and inertial resistance, the inertial resistance ultimately dominates and gradually changes the water inrush from the KCCs to fluid seepage. Forchheimer flow can comprehensively reflect the nonlinear flow process in the broken rock mass of KCCs, demonstrate the dynamic process from the Darcy aquifer to the final tunnel turbulence layer, and quantitatively show the changes in the flow patterns of the water inrush from KCCs.
... With the increase in depth of coal mining, groundwater pressure increases largely that leads to more random fractures and conduits connect coal bed and underneath rock formation [1][2][3]. e complexity of hydrological conditions increases the hazards of water inrush in deep coal mining, worldwide [4][5][6][7][8]. Specifically, 27% of coal reserves are threatened by water inrush disaster in China, and the economic loss due to water inrush in coal mining have reached 3 billion RMB since 1950 [9]. ...
Article
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With the increase in depth of coal mining, the hydrogeological complexity largely increases and water inrush accidents happen more frequently. For the safety of coal mining, horizontal directional drilling and grouting techniques have been implemented to detect and plug the fractures and conduits that deliver high-pressure groundwater to coal mine. Taking the grouting engineering performed at Xingdong coal mine at 980 m below sea level as an example, we collected the data of grouting quantity, the loss of drilling fluid, gamma value, water temperature, average water absorption, distance between grouting loss points, water pressure on coal seam floor, and aquifuge thickness at 90 boreholes in the mine to conduct grey relational analysis, first. The analysis showed that the grouting quantity was highly correlated with all other factors. Subsequently, grey system evaluation was used to evaluate the risk of water inrush from the coal seam floor. The results of risk analysis illustrated that three water inrushes from Ordovician limestone occurred in mining face 2127, 2125, and 2222 in the study area were all located in the area with a risk score higher than 65. Through grouting, the identified cracks were effectively blocked and waterproof layers beneath the coal seam floors were constructed to reduce the threat of water inrush. By comparing the risk assessment results with three water inrush cases before grouting operation, we found that water inrush areas were consistent with the area of higher risk.
... Supporting this fact, the 21st World Congress on Safety and Health at Work in Singapore in 2017 highlighted that Asia constitutes about two-thirds of global occupational accidents, and that China is the leading country, followed by India [22]. In India, past accidents like the Indian Oil Corporation Ltd (IOCL) fire in Jaipur [23], the Chasnala mining accident [24], the Korba chimney collapse [25] and the Bhopal gas tragedy [26] have claimed the lives of workers and affected the environment to a great extent [27]. During Table 1. ...
Article
The occurrence of occupational accidents and injuries has always been a major concern for industrial management. Such undesirable incidences are higher in developing countries, especially in India than in developed countries. This research aims to identify, analyze, and evaluate the faulty behavior risks (FBRs) that trigger occupational accidents and injuries. Using data triangulation strategy, this study identified 19 faulty behavior risk factors under five categories. An integrated approach comprised of the fuzzy Analytical Network Process (ANP) and Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory Model (DEMATEL) is proposed for assessing these FBRs. The five most prominent critical risk factors are the absence of continuous monitoring, defective equipment and maintenance, cognitive bias, proper signage, and adverse ambient working conditions. The study postulates some implications for industrial management to mitigate occupational accidents and injuries based on the outcomes.
... As a result, the phenomenon of groundwater flooding into mining areas occurs from time to time all over the world. Cases in Poland, Australia, Britain, Italy, China, India, and other places have been reported, and the reasons have been discussed [1][2][3][4][5]. Finally, in order to reduce their great harm, scholars from various countries put forward many effective methods [6][7][8]. ...
Article
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On 22 May 2017, a groundwater inrush accident occurred in the gob area of coal floor at Dongyu Coal Mine in Qingxu County, Shanxi Province, China. The water inrush accident caused great damage, among which six people died and the direct economic loss was about CNY 5.05 million. An elliptical permeable passage appeared at the floor of the water inrush point, and the lithology of the outburst is mainly fragmented sandy mudstone and siltstone of coal roof No.2 in the lower layer of coal seam No.3, which is currently being mined, with a peak inflow of 500 m3/h. The water inrush happened due to following reasons: There is an abandoned stagnant water-closed roadway in coal seam No.2, which is the lower mine group of coal seam No.3. The abandoned roadway of coal seam No.2 is an inclined roadway. The water level of the roadway far away from the accident point is higher than the floor elevation of coal seam No.3. Under the joint action of water pressure, mining disturbance, and weakening of goaf water immersion, the original equilibrium state was broken, resulting in the destruction of the only 7 m water-barrier rock pillar between coal seam No.3 and coal seam No.2. The water in the goaf led upward along the roof crack, gradually evolved from seepage to gushing water, and a large amount of goaf water poured into the roadway in the working face of the 03304 panel, finally leading to the occurrence of catastrophic water inrush. Technically, the miners did not implement the technical provisions of the coal mine water control regulations, leading to the accident. In addition, the failure to arrange evacuees to a safe location after apparent signs of water inrush also increased the catastrophic level of the accident.
... When one examines fire disasters in towers and the issues of cladding, and the "stayput" routine, it is clear that GTD demonstrates that the "unlearning from failures process" [105,106] has occurred here as well. According to a BBC documentary, "On 14 June 2017, televisions across the country showed a west London tower block burn. ...
Article
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We describe two well-established, practice-based Master’s programmes as examples of existing competence development opportunities for practitioners and how such links between theory and practice can be developed and taught within the Higher Education (HE) context. We hypothesise that learning from major failures is essential in linking theory with practice in both engineering and management education. We investigate how to train emergency response teams on coping with, and learning from, rare events; a major challenge to other practitioners in the fields of safety and risk management. Comparison is undertaken between two disasters—Hurricane Katrina in the USA and the relatively recent Grenfell Tower in the UK—using a balanced dual approach of paradoxes, a dichotomy. In this paper, we demonstrate the enhancement of both engineering and management education. This was achieved through using the two case studies to emphasize the relevance of incorporating advanced mental modelling approaches for root cause analysis in training and by comparing the two cases with respect to the black swan and black elephant concepts. It is recommended that future training has a balanced approach that encompasses the outlined features of dichotomies.
... As for the generation of water and sand inrush disasters, scholars at home and abroad have explored this issue in various aspects [13,14]. Based on the engineering case studies, Kesseru proposed and validated a new method to distinguish the occurrence of water and sand inrush by the mine tests and failure experience [15]; Zhang and Hou summarized the four necessary influencing factors for water and sand inrush hazard by analyzing the hydrological and engineering geological conditions of shallow buried coal seam mining [16]; Dash et al. concluded the prerequisites for the occurrence of sudden floods by analyzing coal mines in India [17]; Zhang and Lin put forward a calculation method applicable to the volume flux of quicksand disaster based on the case of Longde coal mine project in China [18]; according to the case study of Xiexin coal mine, Li et al. proposed a water and sand control system for the mining of extrathick coal seams under unconsolidated Cenozoic alluvium [6]. However, these methods are only regularity studies and not why. ...
Article
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In the western region of China, coal mining activities are prone to induce water and sand inrush disasters, which seriously threaten the safe production of the coal resources. In this paper, an experimental device was designed to simulate the process of water and sand inrush, and then, the control factors of the disasters in the broken rock mass in the goaf were investigated. Also, the seepage fracture channels in the broken rock mass were simplified by using the 3D printing technology, and the effects of fracture aperture and angle on the seepage characteristics of water-sand mixtures were analyzed. The experimental results showed that the porosity and skeleton structure of the broken rock mass were the key factors to control the water and sand inrush disasters. The smaller the initial porosity of the broken rock mass, the weaker its permeability, and the less probable to form a dominant channel for the water and sand inrush disasters. Conversely, the broken rock mass structure with larger size gradation was more likely to form the permeable channels, and the quality of the sand inrush was greater. In addition, it was also found that the angle of the fractures within the broken rock mass affected the seepage characteristics of water-sand mixture, and the permeability showed an exponential relationship with the fracture angle. Meanwhile, as the fracture aperture increased, the fracture angle generated greater influence on the permeability. Finally, we proposed the water and sand inrush prevention and control technology based on the experiment results. The results of this study can provide a reference for the control of water and sand inrush disasters in western China.
... Essas cartas são encaminhadas para CEMADEN/ MCTI e subsidiam os alertas, quando necessários, a serem emitidos pelo CENAD/MI. O conhecimento atualizado dos riscos por meio de um efetivo monitoramento é considerado fundamental por Dash et al. (2016). No entanto, para Manyena (2013), não basta que as informações sejam elaboradas pelas instituições nacionais, é necessário que estejam disponíveis e acessíveis, inclusive para que a população possa contribuir na tomada de decisão, condição ainda não alcançada pelo Brasil. ...
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A preocupação com o aumento dos desastres naturais de origem hidrológica tem crescido no mundo, levando à aprovação da Estratégia Internacional para a Redução de Desastres – EIRD pela Assembléia Geral da Organização das Nações Unidas, em dezembro de 1999. Esta estratégia está consolidada no Quadro de Ação de Hyogo 2005-2015 (QAH): construindo a resiliência das nações e comunidades a desastres. Considera-se que o QAH é importante para o Brasil enquanto país que vem sofrendo um processo de urbanização acelerado e demonstrado vulnerabilidade de suas cidades aos eventos hidrológicos. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o nível de implementação do QAH pelo Brasil sob o ponto de vista da valorização da prevenção de desastres nas políticas públicas. A metodologia usada foi predominantemente qualitativa, com análise de documentos e entrevistas, à luz de uma estrutura de indicadores de efetividade. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram o avanço obtido pelo país no âmbito da governança e da identificação dos riscos, mas evidenciam a necessidade de gerir o conhecimento adquirido, de reduzir os fatores de risco e de fortalecer a capacidade de resposta.
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On March 1, 2010, a disastrous groundwater inrush occurred at the Luotuoshan coalmine in Wuhai (Inner Mongolia, China). Great effort was taken during the post-accident rescue. However, triggered by a large amount of groundwater rushed in from the Ordovician limestone aquifer underlying the No.16 coal seam through the fractured sandy claystone and the karst collapse column, it caused great damage, including 32 deaths and direct economic losses of over 48 million yuan. The groundwater inrush originated from the floor heave in the air return gallery of the No.16 coal seam. The peak inflow rate was 60,036 m3/h. The gallery excavation under conditions caused by the incompletely recognized hydrogeological environment induced the accident. The unidentified spatial distribution of the karst collapse column triggered the accident directly. The high-pressure groundwater accumulated in the collapse column and the gallery excavation, which caused the redistribution of the in situ stress, contributing to progressive fractures in the floor of the No. 16 coal seam. Eventually, an intensive water-conductive passage consisting of the fractured floor and the karst collapse column formed. Administratively/technically, that mandatory regulations on gallery excavation were not carried out which contributed the accident. Moreover, the poor awareness about groundwater inrush recognition and quick remediation also contoirbuted to the disastrous extent of the accident.
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Mining is well known as a high-risk industry with high accident rates. However, there is a scarcity of material that aims to investigate and understand the research trends in mining accidents and the current scenarios related to this topic. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review was to investigate the research trends in mining accidents. By applying a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) review method, a systematic literature review (SLR) identified 57 studies related to mining accident issues from 2015 to 2019 from the ScienceDirect and Scopus databases. Based on these 57 studies, four main themes were developed: the main causes of mining accidents (46%), the prevention of mining accidents (20%), and the challenges of (17%) and impacts of post-mining accidents (17%). The four themes produced a total of 35 sub-themes. Mechanical failure was identified as the main cause of mining accidents and the application of software or safety models is essential to minimize the number of mining accidents. Mine owners have the responsibility to provide a safe working environment for mine workers, and face substantial challenges to achieve this. Moreover, the impact of post-mining accidents led to adverse impacts on the environment. This systematic review study aims to assist mine owners by providing a better understanding of mining accident issues. The study also addresses miners, government and policymakers so all groups can collectively target the reduction of mining accidents in the future.
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Workplace accidents are mostly the result of a combined effect of unsafe acts and unsafe conditions which cause ultimate failure of the existing defenses in the system. The unsafe act or unsafe conditions, task environment and task conditions are the product of some dormant, passive and latent causes generated from the organizational factors. But in accident prevention strategy at the workplace, the major thrust is often put on human behavior behind the unsafe acts. In this paper, an in-depth analysis of a mining disaster in India, as to “Why” and “How” the accident did happen has been carried out and the sequence of events was shown by an Event Sequence Diagram. In this article, efforts have been made to identify the root causes of this accident using an accident causation model like the Accident Causation Tree (ACT) and the Swiss Cheese Model, thereby improving the understanding of the mechanism of the accident. The most important aspect of accident analysis, i.e. the key lessons learned from this accident, has also been identified for the benefit of the industry.
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On May 18, 2006, a disastrous groundwater inrush occurred at the Xinjing coal mine in Datong, Shanxi province, China. Great effort was taken during the post-accident rescue. However, triggered by the accumulated water rushed from the nearby abandoned tunnels and goafs of the Yanzishan coal mine, which had been closed for tens of years, it caused great damage, including 56 deaths and direct economic loss of over 53 million yuan. The outburst groundwater was from the abandoned goafs in the No.14-1 coal seam of the neighbour Yanzishan coal mine. The passage formed in northeast part of the mining area in the No. 14-1 coal seam. The average inflow rate was 23,333.3 m³/h. Unidentified spatial distribution and water-filled degree of the abandoned tunnels and goafs of the Yanzishan coal mine are critical contributions to the accident. Illegal mining in the No.14-1 coal seam is an anthropogenic contribution. That mandatory regulations for excessive groundwater exploration and release were not carried out in the mining is the third fatal cause leading to the accident. Finally, the poor awareness on water inrush recognition and control of the miners also induced the accident to a disastrous extent.
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In the present mining scenario, disaster management is the foremost imperative issue which affects mine workers’ lives and socio economical condition significantly. Major disasters in mines mostly occurred due to fire, water-inrush and strata collapse etc. In this context, mine hazard alert system (MHAS) is an essential need for fast mitigation of the hazards to protect the life of miners. Present day alert systems are individually designed to detect single hazards separately; however, a composite alert system to cater major mine hazards such as Fire, water inrush and strata failure is not readily available for using in underground mine. In this paper, development of a hybrid type MHAS comprising audio-visual alarm and short message service (SMS) had been deliberated. The system framework is an amalgamation of wired and wireless segments, which is suitable for negotiating the adverse and hazardous environment inside the underground mine. In case of establishing alert and communication system, Arduino UNO and Global System of Mobile communication module have been used to establish an SMS dispensing alert system for communicating the chance of catastrophic happenings to mine operators, so that the mine key personnel can initiate the disaster management protocol at the earliest. The designed hybrid type MHAS was tested against the incidence of fire breakout, water inrush and strata failure by a prototype model made for this purpose and efficacy of the system was also examined in a underground hard rock mine.
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Safety culture is a promising solution to reduce mining accidents. However, the systematic review on influencing factors of safety culture in the mining industry is still lacking. The objective of the study is to investigate the influencing factors of safety culture in the mining industry. A systematic literature review (SLR) study by applying the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) review method has identified 33 articles on safety culture in mining from twelve countries: China, USA, India, Sweden, Brazil, Turkey, Kenya, South Africa, Mongolia, Russia, Taiwan, and Ghana. Qualitative studies used four main databases, such as Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science and SpringerLink databases. Three main themes have been developed; psychological, situational, and behavioural dimensions and produced 17 sub-themes. The study found that the behavioural dimension has the greatest influencing factor in constructing a positive safety culture (47%), followed by the situational dimension (29%) and psychological dimension (24%). Moreover, the management's commitment was the biggest contributor in constructing safety culture in the mining industry. In conclusion, a systematic review study could hopefully increase awareness among mine owners, miners, government, and policymakers in providing better understanding on safety culture to reduce mining accidents in the future.
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Mining is one of the most hazardous industries amongst where the rate of casualty is still very high from work place accidents. A large number of mobile mining equipment such as haul trucks, dumpers, tractors, tankers are used for different operation and such operations contribute significantly in causation of fatal and serious accidents. In this study, 33 years ‘fatal accident data from Indian coal mines were analyzed from 1980. The rate of fatal accident shows a significant reduction from 1980 to 2000 but it becomes almost flat for the last 13 years since 2000. Though all the accidents were investigated and recommendation were made for preventing recurrence, there is no further reduction in the rate in last 13 years which reflects the gaps in our investigation procedure or recommendation or implementation. An effort has been made in this paper to highlight the major gaps in the existing investigating procedure and thereby making useful recommendations to ensure effective control measures in place to reduce the risk to an acceptable level.
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This article concerns two Australian mine disasters which are superficially quite different. One involved an explosion (Moura) and the other an inrush of water (Gretley). However, sociological analysis reveals some striking similarities in the underlying causes. In particular, in both cases there was a culture of denial - a series of beliefs which led management to discount the possibility of disaster and to dismiss the warning signs of danger. The article discusses the significance of this similarity and draws policy inferences.
Article
Process safety, as well as the safe storage and transportation of hazardous or reactive chemicals, has been a topic of increasing interest in the last few decades. The increased interest in improving the safety of operations has been driven largely by a series of recent catastrophes that have occurred in the United States and the rest of the world. A continuous review of past incidents and disasters to look for common causes and lessons is an essential component to any process safety and loss prevention program. While analyzing the causes of an accident cannot prevent that accident from occurring, learning from it can help to prevent future incidents. The objective of this article is to review a selection of major incidents involving ammonium nitrate in the last century to identify common causes and lessons that can be gleaned from these incidents in the hopes of preventing future disasters. Ammonium nitrate has been involved in dozens of major incidents in the last century, so a subset of major incidents were chosen for discussion for the sake of brevity. Twelve incidents are reviewed and ten lessons from these incidents are discussed.
Article
How far will an ounce of prevention really go? While the answer to that question may never be truly known, Process Plants: A Handbook for Inherently Safer Design, Second Edition takes us several steps closer. The book demonstrates not just the importance of prevention, but the importance of designing with prevention in mind. It emphasizes the role of inherent safety in process safety management systems and in ensuring an appropriate process safety culture. Keeping the easy to understand style that made the first edition so popular, this book clearly delineates practical, everyday issues and complex technical ones. The second edition provides: Coverage of new inherent safety metrics and how to measure the degree or level of inherent safety New examples of application of the various principles of inherently safer design and 20 new figures New emphasis on the role of inherently safer design in process safety management systems and in ensuring an appropriate process safety culture Discussion of dust explosion risk reduction by means of inherently safer approaches New chapter on case study development, providing a comprehensive approach to the prevention and mitigation of process incidents by timely incorporation of inherently safer design This updated version of a classic text examines how to incorporate inherently safer design into process industry activities, revising and updating information based on recent research and developments. A how-to resource at its core, the book includes numerous examples that illustrate the principles of inherently safer design and how to apply them in practice. It explains how to measure the inherent safeness of a process, referencing metric tools that have been developed during the past decade and the tried and true methods that have become industry stand bys.
Article
Safety practices and preparations for limited emergencies are common activities in complex systems. In contrast, the vital task of planning for a crisis is usually poorly handled. This paper seeks to provide a better understanding of the prerequisites for successful learning processes to deal with crisis situations. It reveals the barriers that emerge during the process of developing satisfactory learning practices.The objectives of this paper are twofold. The first aim is operational: how can one develop adequate learning processes despite the challenges involved? The second aim is theoretical: what light do these efforts and the resistance they arouse shed on the debate between ‘High Reliability Theorists’ and ‘Normal Accident Theorists’, in which the status of learning processes is a key element. The author refers to his personal experience with crisis research and consultation.
Article
A model of experience feedback (the CHAIN model) that emphasizes the whole chain from initial reporting to preventive measures is used to identify important research needs in the field of learning from accidents. Based on the model, six quality criteria for experience feedback after an accident or incident are presented. Research on experience feedback from accidents is reviewed. The overall conclusion is that the discipline of experience feedback has not been sufficiently self-reflective. The process of experience feedback can and should be applied to experience feedback itself, but that is rarely done. Evaluation studies are needed that provide hard (evidence-based) information about the effects of various methodologies and organizational structures. Four types of studies are particularly important for the development of evidence-based accident investigation practices: (1) studies of the effects and the efficiency of different accident investigation methods, (2) studies of the dissemination of conclusions from accident investigation, (3) follow-up studies of the extent to which accident investigation reports give rise to actual preventive measures, and (4) studies of the integration of experience feedback systems into overall systems of risk management.
Article
Sumario: Organisations have no memory -- It must never happen again -- Accidents of the coming year -- How strong is a storage tank? -- Some other failures to learn from the past -- Why are we publishing fewer accident reports? -- What are the causes of change and innovation in safety? -- A note on asymptotes -- The management of safety -- A future accident report -- Train driver error -- A note on spark-resistant tools -- An anthology of accidents -- Changes in safety: a personal view -- Improving the corporate memory
Gap analysis of accident investigation methodology in the indian mining industry -an application of swiss cheese model and 5-why model
  • A K Dash
  • R M Bhattcharjee
  • P S Paul
A.K. Dash, R.M. Bhattcharjee, P.S. Paul, Gap analysis of accident investigation methodology in the indian mining industry -an application of swiss cheese model and 5-why model, IAMURE Int. J. Ecol. Conserv. Philippines, 2015.
Accident Analysis of Indian non-coal mines-need for change in focus of accident investigation, Indian Miner
  • A K Dash
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  • R M Bhattcharjee
A.K. Dash, P.S. Paul, R.M. Bhattcharjee, Accident Analysis of Indian non-coal mines-need for change in focus of accident investigation, Indian Miner. Ind. J. 2 (2014) 47-51 (No. 2/Q2).
Directorate General of Mines Safety
DGMS, Directorate General of Mines Safety, The Accident Investigation Report, 2011, Dhanbad, India, 2011.
Science and Art of Modern Accident and Incident Management System in Mining-Need For Change Focus in Mining Industry
  • R M Bhattacharjee
R.M. Bhattacharjee, Science and Art of Modern Accident and Incident Management System in Mining-Need For Change Focus in Mining Industry, in: Proceeding of International Conference on Safety & Health Management in Mining Industry Organized by Indian School of Mines Alumni Association, Kolkata Chapter, Kolkata, 2015, pp.321-333.
Lessons from accidents
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T. Kletz, Lessons from accidents, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1994.
Accident Analysis and Barrier Function (AEB) Method-Manual for A
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O.Svensson, Accident Analysis and Barrier Function (AEB) Method-Manual for A.K. Dash et al. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 20 (2016) 93-102
The Mines Act, Universal's Law Publishing Co
The Mines Act, Universal's Law Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1952.
  • A K Dash
A.K. Dash et al. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 20 (2016) 93-102
OSHA Academy course 702 study Guide, Effective Accident Investigation
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