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Taxonomic revision of the Spilomelinae (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae s. l.) of the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador

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ISSN 0035-418
INTRODUCTION
Beginning in 1989, I set out to make an inventory of
all of the Lepidoptera of the Galápagos Islands under
the umbrella of Stewart B. Peck’s larger project on the
insects of this iconic archipelago. In 1994, Lazaro Roque-
Albelo, also a lepidopterist, joined the staff of the Charles
Darwin Station and started to work on the butteries and
larger moths. Thus, I began to concentrate on the smaller
moths, which were largely unknown at the beginning
of my inventory. Here I present the most voluminous
single contribution to my programme dedicated to
documenting the Galápagos moth fauna and describing
the new taxa. Indeed, the Pyralidae Spilomelinae, with
44 species, forms the largest group of Lepidoptera of
subfamily rank on the Galápagos. It is in fact almost
as diverse as the Erebidae and Noctuidae with 46 and
45 species each, respectively (Roque-Albelo & Landry,
2015; unpublished data). In 2000 I was able to spend one
month at the Natural History Museum, London, U.K., to
sort out the species of micro-moths that I had collected
on the Galápagos, thanks to a grant from the Galápagos
Conservation Trust of England. After a slower period in
my Galápagos moths research endeavours, I decided in
2013 to nish my reviews of Galápagos moths, rst with
the Pyraustinae (Pyralidae) (Landry, 2015) and then this
project, for which I visited the BMNH again in 2014 to
complete the diagnoses of the new species.
The subfamily Spilomelinae is sometimes considered to
belong to the Crambidae (= Crambiformes of Munroe),
but it should continue to be considered a subgroup of
Pyralidae sensu lato in my opinion (see Regier et al.,
2012 for details). Spilomelinae are found the world over
and comprise 4026 species in 327 genera (Nuss et al.,
2016). The rich Neotropical region is represented by
1423 species in 171 genera (Nuss et al., 2016). Munroe
(1995) recorded 14 more species for the region, but since
1995 some taxa were excluded from the Spilomelinae,
for example Sufetula Walker, now in Lathrotelinae (see
Minet, 2015), and the coverage of species in Nuss et al.
(2016) may not be complete yet for Spilomelinae.
As mentioned in Regier et al. (2012) Minet (1982)
provided a combination of apomorphic features to dene
the Spilomelinae although some of these also occur in the
Revue suisse de Zoologie (September 2016) 123(2): 315-399
Taxonomic revision of the Spilomelinae (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae s. l.)
of the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador
Bernard Landry
Muséum d’histoire naturelle, C.P. 6434, CH-1211 Genève 6, Switzerland. E-mail: bernard.landry@ville-ge.ch
Abstract: The largest subfamily of Pyraloidea of the Galápagos fauna is reviewed. Forty-four species are recorded
and illustrated, including the male and female genitalia. Eleven species are described as new: Agathodes galapagensis
Landry sp. n., Desmia mordor Landry & Solis sp. n., Diaphania galapagensis Landry & Solis sp. n., Lineodes vulcanalis
Landry sp. n., L. corinnae Landry sp. n., Neoleucinodes galapagensis Landry sp. n., Samea coffea Landry sp. n., Samea
inconspicuella Landry sp. n., Sisyracera jacquelinae Landry sp. n., Udea galapagensis Landry sp. n., Udea sideralis
Landry sp. n. Asciodes quietalis (Walker, 1859), stat. n. and Samea castellalis Guenée, 1854, stat. n. are removed from
synonymy. Samea contortilinealis Hampson, 1895 is synonymized with Sisyracera inabsconsalis (Möschler, 1890).
Lectotypes are designated for Botys cambogialis Guenée, 1854, Phlyctaenia capsifera Meyrick, 1933, Phalaena costata
Fabricius, 1775, Botys creonalis Walker, 1859, Samea disertalis Walker, 1866, Asciodes gordialis Guenée, 1854, Diasemia
inabsconsalis Möschler, 1890, Samea jarbusalis Walker, 1859, Botys philealis Walker, 1859, and Scoparia quietalis
Walker, 1859. The known distribution and biology of each species are summarized. Cryptobotys zoilusalis (Walker,
1859) and Salbia haemorrhoidalis Guenée, 1854 are recorded from the Galápagos for the rst time. A host plant record is
mentioned for Penestola bufalis (Guenée, 1854) for the rst time. The binomen Patania silicalis (Guenée, 1854), comb.
n., is mentioned for the rst time.
Keywords: Crambidae - new species - host plants - morphology - endemic - native - introduced.
Manuscript accepted 29.08.2016
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.155309
316 B. Landry
Positioning System), and cardinal points, are spelled out
only once at rst encounter, and the collectors’ names and
collecting dates are omitted. Unless otherwise specied
information in meters refers to elevation data. Numerous
specimens have been collected at the Charles Darwin
Research Station on Santa Cruz Island and their labels
are in English, French, or Spanish, and the name of the
Station is variably abbreviated. To avoid repetition this
locality record is mentioned as ‘Charles Darwin Research
Station’ without square brackets if abbreviated, except in
lists of paratypes. The locality mentioned below as ‘Plaja
Ibbeston’ in some of the material examined sections is
correctly spelled ‘Playa Ibbetson’ and ‘Pto Baquarizo’
is correctly spelled ‘P[uer]to Baquerizo’. The host plant
nomenclature follows Jaramillo Diaz & Guézou (2015).
The specimen collecting months are given in the Biology
section although this reects the collecting efforts of the
entomologists involved. In this respect I suspect that
most species can be found throughout the year, except
perhaps in extreme La Niña years. The ecological zones
mentioned are presented in details for example in Peck
(2001).
In the descriptions of the new species only the exposed
side of the legs are generally mentioned. For the females
only character features that diverge from those of the
males are described. The wing vestiture is given in details
only in the case of Lineodes vulcanalis sp. n., where
the unique known specimen is unspread; otherwise it
is assumed that the illustrations provided speak for
themselves. With regard to the genitalia the descriptions
are based on several specimens and dissections kept in
lactic acid prior to slide mounting, when available. The
terminology follows Clavijo (1990), Solis & Gentili
(2000), and Solis & Maes (2003).
The diagnoses of the new species described herein
take into account the most closely related species or
at least the most similar in the characters used for the
descriptions as phylogenetic treatments are lacking for
the genera involved. The diagnoses of the other species
generally involve only the fauna of the Galápagos.
RESULTS
Remarks: The record of Samea ecclesialis Guenée,
1854 by Peck et al. (1998) was a misidentication for
S. castellalis Guenée, 1854 (see below). Polygrammodes
elevata (Fabricius, 1793) (see Schaus, 1923: 29, and
Linsley & Usinger, 1966: 162) is an invalid record as I
have never seen any specimen of this species collected
in the Galápagos, and no other species of moth in the
Galápagos even looks similar (see Patterson et al., 2015).
Zinckenia fascialis Cramer (see Schaus, 1923: 28) almost
certainly refers to Spoladea recurvalis (Fabricius, 1775)
as Phalaena Pyralis fascialis Stoll, in Cramer & Stoll
(1782), is a synonym of S. recurvalis.
Pyraustinae: chaetosema absent, males without subcostal
retinaculum, praecinctorium bilobed, fornix tympani
projecting, spinula pointed, males without gnathos, and
females lacking a rhomboid signum. Another diagnostic
character is the male valva with a clasper (= bula) in
some other conformation than in Pyraustinae (Munroe,
1976: 8).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The material forming the basis of this study is mostly
deposited in the Charles Darwin Research Station,
Santa Cruz Islands, Galápagos, Ecuador (CDRS),
Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids
and Nematodes, Ottawa, Canada (CNC), and Muséum
d’histoire naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland (MHNG). I
also studied older material from the American Museum
of Natural History, New York, USA (AMNH), Natural
History Museum, London, UK (BMNH), the California
Academy of Sciences, San Francisco (CAS), the Carnegie
Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
USA (CMNH, specimens of the late J. Garth),
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University,
Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (MCZ), Naturhistoriska
riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden (NHRS), Royal Ontario
Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (ROM), Museum für
Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany
(ZMHB), and Zoological Museum of the University of
Copenhagen, Denmark (ZMUC). The manner of giving
the label data of the holotypes and paratypes is presented
in Landry (2006) as are the methods used for specimen
collecting. Briey stated, most specimens were collected
at light either with a mercury-vapour light bulb placed
in front of a white sheet or a 15 W ultra-violet light tube
hung on a telescopic pole supporting a 2-m high cylinder
made of white gauze. Specimens were collected in tubes
and kept alive until usually the next morning to be killed
with ammonia vapours immediately before pinning
and spreading. For most species, including some of the
collected specimens of the larger ones, like Terastia
meticulosalis (Figs 67, 68), spreading was done in small
plastic boxes with a plastazote grooved bottom.
For each species the original binomen and reference is
mentioned as well as all Galápagos literature records.
The full synonymy and references to all taxon name
authorities may be found in Nuss et al. (2016). The
presentation of the material examined for the previously
described species mentions the primary types and
Galápagos material according to their sex. The specimens
of undetermined sex mentioned were returned to their
owner and their sex unrecorded. The distribution is given
in alphabetical order of islands and within each island
in increasing order of elevation as much as possible
(as some locality data are incomplete), the information
is recorded without indications of line changes, the
abbreviations, except for distances, ‘GPS’ (Global
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 317
Agathodes Guenée, 1854
A cosmopolitan genus of warmer locales containing
14 species (Nuss et al., 2016), with three species in the
Western Hemisphere (Munroe, 1995), including the new
species described below.
Agathodes designalis Guenée, 1854
Figs 1, 92, 138
Agathodes designalis Guenée, 1854: 209-210. ‒ Peck et al.,
1998: 227. ‒ Causton et al., 2006: 140. ‒ Roque-Albelo
& Landry, 2015.
Material examined:
Holotype: ♂, not dissected, with abdomen in gelatine
capsule (BMNH).
Other specimens: 9 ♂, 6 from the Galápagos Islands:
Fernandina: SW side, crater rim, GPS: 1341 m
elev[ation]., S 00° 21.910’, W 91° 34.034’. – Isabela:
3 km N S[an]to Tomas; 11 km N Puerto Villamil. – Santa
Cruz: Charles Darwin Research Station, Barranco, 20 m
elev.; transition zone, house of L[azaro]. Roque, GPS
elev. 137 m, S 00° 42.595’, W 90° 19.196’; Finca Vilema,
2 km W Bella Vista; Finca S[teve]. Devine; Media Luna,
pampa zone. – Santiago: Aguacate [camp], 520 m elev.
Deposited in CDRS, CNC, MHNG.
Diagnosis: The forewing colour, markings and
narrowness (Fig. 1) will readily separate this species
from any other in the Galápagos. The wingspan of the
Galápagos specimens is between 32 to 33.5 mm. There
are 13 other species in the genus, some of which look
similar to A. designalis, but only one, A. transiens
Munroe, described from Bolivia, occurs in South
America. However, this species is larger (holotype
male 39 mm), its forewing costal and basal areas are
purplish grey, the forewing reniform and orbicular spots
are fully developed, and in male genitalia the uncus is
more strongly developed than in A. designalis and other
species, the valva is broadly rounded, and the tegumen
lacks the paired posterolateral processes. The female of
A. transiens is unknown. With an average of 30 mm in
wingspan Agathodes monstralis Guenée, found in the
southern USA, Mexico and Central America is slightly
smaller than A. designalis, its hindwing dorsally differs
in the colouration, uniformly pale brown and slightly
pinkish toward apex, and the males lack the enlargement
at the base of the antennae [see Sourakov et al. (2016)
for more details].
Biology: Known host plants are mostly in the Fabaceae,
especially genus Erythrina (Robinson et al., 2014).
In the Galápagos the species has been found in highly
anthropized habitats (e.g. farms on Santa Cruz) to
pristine ones (e.g. on Fernandina) ranging from almost
sea level (20 m elevation) to the crater rim at 1341 m
in elevation on Fernandina and collecting dates are in
February to April.
Distribution: Described from Brazil, this species
is found from Central America south to Argentina
(Sourakov et al., 2016). In the Galápagos it has only
been found so far on the four islands mentioned above,
but it undoubtedly occurs more widely.
Remarks: Sourakov et al. (2016) showed that
Agathodes designalis and A. monstralis Guenée
are separate species. Thus, host plant records in the
literature (e.g. Robinson et al., 2014) may apply to
either one in the zone of contact in Central America.
Agathodes galapagensis sp. n.
Figs 2, 3, 81, 93, 139
Material examined:
Holotype: ♂, ‘ECU[ADOR]., GALAPAGOS | Santiago,
Bahía | Espumilla, 4.iv.1992 | M[ercury]V[apour]L[ight],
leg[it]. B. Landry’; ‘MHNG | ENTO ♂ | 00009033’;
‘HOLOTYPE | Agathodes | galapagensis | B. Landry’.
Deposited in MHNG.
Paratypes: 17 ♂, 90 ♀ from the Galápagos Islands.
Santa Cruz: 1 ♂ (slide PYR 365), 4 km N Puerto Ayora,
20.i.1989, M[ercury]V[apour]L[ight] (B. Landry);
3 ♀, Tortuga Res[erve]. W S[an]ta Rosa, 6.ii.1989,
MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀, Media Luna, pampa zone,
8.ii.1989, MVL (B. Landry); 3 ♀, Academy Bay, Darwin
Res[earch]. Sta[tion]., 8.ii.1964 (R. O. Schuster); 1 ♀,
idem except 9.ii.1964 (D. Q. Cavagnaro, R. O. Schuster);
4 ♀, 2 km W Bella Vista, 27.ii.1989, MVL (B. Landry);
1 ♂, Horneman Farm, 220 m, 5.iii.1964 (D. Q.
Cavagnaro); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, idem except 25.iii.1964; 3 ♂, 6 ♀,
idem except 5.iv.1964; 2 ♂, 1 ♀, idem except 6.iv.1964;
1 ♂, 1 ♀, idem except 3.vi.1964; 1 ♀, idem except
7.v.1964; 1 ♀, E[stacion].C[ientica].C[harles].D[arwin].,
7.iii.1992, U[ltra]V[iolet]L[ight] (B. Landry); 1 ♀,
transition zone, recently cut road, GPS: S 00°42.528’,
W 90°18.849’, 12.iii.2004, uvl (B. Landry, P. Schmitz);
1 ♀, low agriculture zone, GPS: S 00°42.132’, W 90°
19.156’, 13.iii.2004, uvl (B. Landry, P. Schmitz); 1 ♂,
4 ♀, Academy Bay, C. Darwin Res. Sta., alt. ± 5 m,
13.iii.1970, u.v. blacklight (R. Silberglied); 1 ♀, Finca
S[teve]. Devine, 17.iii.1989, MVL (B. Landry); 2 ♀ (one
dissected, slide MHNG-ENTO-8657), Finca Vilema,
2 km W Bella Vista, 1.iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♂,
grassland, 750 m, 6.iv.1964 (D. Q. Cavagnaro); 2 ♀,
C[harles] . D[arwin] . R[esearch] . S[tation]., Barranco,
20 m elev[ation]., 30.iv.2002, uvl (B. Landry); 3 ♀, Los
Gemelos, 27.v.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀, Horneman
Farm, 200 m, 24.vi.1965 (J. DeRoy); 4 ♀, idem except
25.vi.1965; 2 ♀, idem except 26.vi.1965; 1 ♀, idem
except 27.vi.1965; 2 ♀, idem except 28.vi.1965; 5 ♀,
[no precise locality], L70, ix.1969 (R. Perry, B.M.
1970-172); 12 ♀, Station Darwin, 1964/1965, lumière
(J. & N. Leleup); 4 ♂ (one dissected, slide MHNG-
ENTO-8658), 11 ♀, same locality and collectors except
x.1964; 3 ♂, 6 ♀, idem except x/xi.1964; 2 ♀, idem
318 B. Landry
except i.1965; 2 ♀, idem except xi.1964 and ‘Basse
altitude’. – Santiago: 2 ♀, same data as holotype; 1 ♀,
200 m elev., 5.iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀, Aguacate
[camp], 520 m elev., 6.iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1
(dissected, slide MHNG-ENTO-8659), Central [camp],
700 m elev., 9.iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀, Aguacate
[camp], 520 m elev., 12 iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀,
N side, GPS: 527 m elev., S 00°13.690’, W 090°44.135’,
5.iii.2005, uvl (P. Schmitz). Deposited in AMNH,
BMNH, CAS, CNC, MCZ, and MHNG.
Diagnosis: The dominant grey colouration of the
wings with black markings on the forewing (Figs
2, 3) is unique for Agathodes. The other species of
the genus are usually brown or buff with purple or
yellow markings and the forewing has a diagonal band
from the middle of the dorsum to 2/3 on costa and
often continuing to termen in the radial sector (see
A. designalis, Fig. 1). Agathodes minimalis Hampson,
1912, described from Nigeria, differs in having the
forewing mostly grey brown with a darker, black band,
apically edged with a white line, extending from costa
to termen, isolating the paler apex, and its hindwing
is white with a narrow grey brown edge with darker
scales along the veins from the edge for a short distance
toward the middle of the wing. In the Galápagos
Agathodes galapagensis is most similar in colour and
markings to Cheverella galapagensis Landry (see below
and Fig. 9), but the shorter (6.4-10.3 mm), wider, and
terminally more rounded forewing adorned with a black
costal spot medially will separate this species from
Agathodes galapagensis, especially when specimens
of the latter harbour a distinct terminal triangle in the
radial sector.
Etymology: The new name refers to the only known
area of occurrence of this species.
Description: Male (n=18) (Fig. 2). Head with frons
at, appressedly scaled, with straight frontoclypeal
margin, white laterally, with cream to greyish brown
band medially, greyish brown behind eyes with
longer scales projecting medially; antenna liform
but with rst dozen agellomeres widened and with
thicker coating of short, attened scales (2 rows per
agellomeres) and longer hair-like scales dorsally,
ciliation very short, colouration pale to dark greyish
brown, with white on scape ventrally; maxillary palpus
white to greyish brown, with apical scales directed
anteromedially; labial palpus with ventrally projecting
scales on rst and especially second segments forming
at, more or less oval shape with small third segment
bent ventrally and concealed, dark greyish brown
laterally with white ventrally on rst segment, and
pale greyish brown medially and on most of third
segment; haustellum white to pale greyish brown.
Thorax dorsally with black collar scales, with large
patches laterally on mesoscutellum also black, pale
greyish brown to black apically and laterally on longer
scales of tegulae, apicomedially on mesoscutellum,
as well as on metascutum medially and apicolaterally,
white elsewhere. Legs white except for greyish brown
on foreleg coxa medially, foreleg tibia medially before
apex, and midleg tibia laterally before apex. Forewing
length: 11.0-12.0 mm (holotype: 11.5 mm) (wingspan:
23.0-25.0 mm; holotype: 24.5 mm); vestiture white
to pale greyish brown with darker greyish brown
or black markings of variable size and intensity as
illustrated (Figs 2, 3). Abdomen dorsally on rst tergite
white along lateral and apical edges, blackish brown
elsewhere, tergites II-VI white, more or less densely
suffused with greyish brown scaling and with apical
margin distinctly dark greyish brown, tergite VII mostly
grey, medially at base with elongate white patch, with
apex of long hair-like scales over genitalia black;
ventrally white with apical edges of sternites IV and V
dark greyish brown. Segment VIII with sclerotization
pattern as shown (Fig. 81).
Male genitalia (n=1) (Fig. 93). Uncus very narrow,
about 2/3 length of subscaphium, with short circular
base, apically less thickly sclerotized and with a few
setae of medium length. Subscaphium long and narrow,
with short triangular base, apically pointed. Tegumen an
inverted Y, laterodorsally with plates supporting bunch
of long, thin scales projecting apically along edges of
subscaphium and almost reaching its tip. Gnathos a
narrow, U-shaped band with angles at 90°. Transtilla a
complete band of medium width and laterally enlarged.
Valva enlarged medially, narrowing toward narrowly
rounded apex, dorsal margin at base with more thickly
sclerotized band curving at 45° inward before middle;
with small, spine-like bula before middle, near ventral
edge, supported by narrow sclerotized band reaching
more thickly sclerotized dorsobasal region. Juxta a pair
of moderately sclerotized ‘rabbit ears’ fused from base
to middle. Vinculum with lateral sclerite supporting
large cluster of ne, long androconial hairs; saccus a
short triangular plate. Phallus of medium length, slightly
down curved toward apex and dorsoventrally attened,
apically blunt; vesica scobinated, without cornuti.
Female (n=90) (Fig. 3): Antenna liform, without
broadened rst dozen agellomeres. Forewing length:
11.0-13.0 mm (wingspan: 24.0-30.0 mm). Abdomen
terminal segment dorsally white to light greyish brown,
without markings.
Female genitalia (n=2) (Fig. 139). Papillae anales
narrow, setose surface enlarging to twice dorsal length
from dorsum to middle; sclerotized basal margin
narrow; posterior apophyses about 2/3 width of papillae
anales. Segment VIII with tergum medium sized,
parallel-margined to anterior apophyses, narrowing
ventrally to half dorsal length, with few short setae
mostly along apical margin; sternum forming two
lightly sclerotized lateral plates with short, anterior,
narrow extension; anterior apophyses almost 2X as
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 319
long as posterior apophyses, with distinct triangular
enlargement at 1/4. Membrane around ostium bursae
unmodied. Ductus bursae with rst section before
ductus seminalis narrow and about 1/10 of total length,
colliculum well sclerotized, about half as long as basal
section, rest of ductus bursae of equal narrow girth,
long, enlarging slightly before connecting with corpus
bursae. Corpus bursae elongate, about 2/5 of length of
ductus bursae, with short and circular accessory sac near
ductus bursae, also with oval section of scobinations
with longitudinal median crease below accessory sac.
Biology: The immatures and host plant are unknown.
The available specimens have been collected in all
months of the year except July, August, and December,
at elevations varying from sea level to the pampa zone
on Santa Cruz.
Distribution: Endemic to the Galápagos, this species
has been found on the islands of Santa Cruz and
Santiago only.
Remark: All described Agathodes species were
checked either from specimens in the BMNH or the
original descriptions to conclude that this species was
new.
Asciodes Guenée, 1854
A Western Hemisphere genus with ve species,
considering the revised status of one, as mentioned
below (Munroe, 1995; Nuss et al., 2016).
Asciodes quietalis (Walker, 1859), stat. rev.
Figs 4-6, 94, 140
Scoparia quietalis Walker, 1859: 825.
Sylepta gordialis (Guenée, 1854) (misidentication): Schaus,
1923: 29.
Asciodes gordialis Guenée, 1854 (misidentications): Linsley
& Usinger, 1966: 162. ‒ Peck et al., 1998: 227. ‒ Perry
& de Vries, 2003: 146.
Asciodes quietalis (Walker): Causton et al., 2006: 140.
Roque-Albelo & Landry, 2015.
Material examined
Type specimens: lectotype, 2 ♀ paralectotypes (see
Remarks below) (BMNH).
Other specimens: 31 ♂, 68 ♀, 198 of undetermined sex
from the Galápagos Islands: – Baltra: South Seymour
[no specic locality]. Fernandina: W side, 1100’ [feet];
SW side, crater rim, GPS: 1341 m elev[ation]., S 00°
21.910’, W 91° 34.034’. – Floreana: close to Loberia,
GPS: elev. 6 m, S 01° 17.002’, W 90° 29.460’. – Isabela:
Albermarle [no precise locality]; Albermarle, Cobea [?]
Settlement; Punta Albermarle, SW old US radar site;
Tagus Cove; Cartago Bay; ± 15 km N P[uer]to Villamil;
Alcedo, lado NE, low arid zone bosq[ue]. palo santo;
Alcedo, NE slope, GPS: 292 m elev.; S 00° 23.829’, W
91° 01.957’; V[olcan]. Darwin, 300 m elev.; 1 km W
Puerto Villamil; 2 km W Puerto Villamil; 8.5 km W Pto
Villamil; 11 km N Puerto Villamil; Albermarle, San[to]
Tomas, 1200 f[ee]t.; 3 km N Sto Tómas, Agr[iculture].
Zone; Sierra Negra, 1000 m alt[itude]. – Marchena: [no
specic locality]. – Pinta: plaja Ibbeston [sic]; arid zone;
± 50 m elev.; 200 m elev.; 372 m elev., N 00° 34.476’,
W 90° 45.102’; 400 m elev. – Pinzón: 280 m elev., S
00° 36.216’, W 90° 40.033’. – Plaza Sur: 18 m elev.,
S 00° 34.980’, W 90° 09.990’. – Rábida: tourist trail.
San Cristóbal: Chatham [no precise locality]; near
Loberia, sea level, GPS: S 00° 55.277’, W 89° 36.909’;
Pto Baquarizo [sic]; 2 km SW Pto Baquarizo; 4 km SE
Pto Baquarizo; 1 km S El Progreso; vic[inity]. El Junco,
crater lake, ca. 700 m; pampa zone. – Santa Cruz: on
ship; [no precise locality]; Indefatigable [no precise
locality]; Indefatigable, Conway Bay; Academy Bay;
Academy Bay, Charles Darwin Research Station; CDRS,
arid zone; transition zone, recently cut road, GPS: S
00° 42.528’, W 90° 18.849’; Finca Vilema, 2 km W
Bella Vista; Horneman Farm, 200 m; Horneman Farm,
220 m; agriculture zone, nca C. Troya, N Bella Vista,
GPS: 294 m elev., 00° 40.756’, W 90° 18.671’; Tortuga
Res[erve]. W S[an]ta Rosa; Los Gemelos; Media Luna,
pampa zone. – Santiago: Bahía Espumilla; James Bay, E
side n[ea]r lagoons; La Bomba, 6 m elev., S 00° 11.151’,
W 90° 42.052’; Cerro Inn; 200 m elev.; Aguacate [camp],
520 m elev.; Jaboncillo [camp], ± 850 m elev. – Seymour
Norte: [no specic locality]. Deposited in AMNH, CAS,
CDRS, CMNH, CNC, MCZ, MHNG, and ROM.
Diagnosis: Asciodes quietalis is close to A. gordialis
and several external characters cannot be compared on
the basis of the lectotypes as the lectotype of gordialis
(Fig. 79) has lost the antennae and legs. However, on
the basis of the lectotypes, the forewing of A. gordialis
appears less strongly suffused with dark scales with the
main darker markings being the postmedian line with
the most apparent spot on the costa, a median spot on
the dorsum, and a wide dash between the postmedian
line and the terminal row of dark spots in the median
(M1 and M2) sector. The hindwing of A. gordialis
also appears to be without markings except for a dark
terminal line widest at apex and gradually tapering
into separate smaller spots toward the anal angle. In
male genitalia, the most obvious differences are in the
two projections of the valva medially; in A. gordialis
(Fig. 136) the dorsal projection is thicker and slightly
longer than that of A. quietalis and the ventral projection
is shorter, about as long as the dorsal projection, thinner,
tubular, and apically tapering into a point and not
dentate, whereas the ventral projection of A. quietalis
(Fig. 94) is attened, ribbon-like, longer than that
of gordialis and than its own dorsal projection, and
apically dentate along the ventral edge. Compared to
that of A. quietalis, the phallus of A. gordialis has the
320 B. Landry
apex dorsally more thickly sclerotized and the trough-
like signum is smaller and more thickly sclerotized
only on one side. The female genitalia of A. gordialis
are unknown to me. In the Galápagos this species is
most similar to Psara chathamalis (Schaus) (Fig. 48)
externally, but the latter is usually more ochre brown,
the forewing markings are not as sharply contrasted
and more wavy than zigzag, the male doesn’t have
a projection on the basal 1/4 of the antennae, and
on the hindwing there are two transverse lines (sub-
and postmedially) instead of one (postmedially) in
A. quietalis.
Biology: A specimen from the CDRS has a label
indicating that food plants are Commicarpus tuberosus
(Lam.) Standl., Cryptocarpus pyriformis Kunth, and
Pisonia oribunda Hooker f. (Nyctaginaceae). Several
other host plants in the Cucurbitaceae, Oleaceae, and
Nyctaginaceae (Heppner, 2003; Robinson et al., 2014)
have been recorded for A. gordialis with A. quietalis
as synonym. Hence, the correct association of these
specic host records is not possible. In the Galápagos,
moths have been collected from sea level up to the rim
of the volcano on Fernandina at 1341 m in elevation, in
pristine to highly anthropized habitats, and from January
until May.
Distribution: Described from the Dominican Republic,
this species is found widely on the Galápagos
archipelago. On top of the islands recorded in the
Material examined section above, one specimen in
the CDRS has a label mentioning that the species
also occurs on Española, Gardner near Española, and
Genovesa.
Remarks: Asciodes quietalis (Walker, 1859) has in
the past been confused and considered a synonym
of Asciodes gordialis Guenée, 1854, for example by
Linsley & Usinger (1966), Peck et al. (1998), and
Munroe (1995). Scoparia quietalis Walker, 1859
was described from three specimens of both sexes. I
designate as lectotype a male with the following labels:
‘St. Dom. | 55.1’ [typed]; ‘Lecto | type’ [circular, dark
blue bordered, typed]; ‘B.M. Pyralidae | Genitalia slide |
♂ No. 21112’ [typed except male sign]; ‘LECTOTYPE |
Scoparia | quietalis Walker | Des[ignated by]. B. Landry,
2000’. The other two syntypes, both females, are also in
the BMNH and are labelled paralectotypes; they both
have the same rst label as the lectotype and were given
a circular, pale blue bordered paralectotype label. One
has lost the abdomen while the other was dissected and
bears B.M. Pyralidae slide No. 21111 ♀.
Asciodes gordialis Guenée, 1854 was described from
a male and a female from ‘Domingo’, probably Santo
Domingo, old name for the Dominican Republic. Both
of these are in the BMNH (Fig. 79) and I designate as
lectotype the male, which bears the following labels:
‘Cay | Bar [?]’ [hand written, circular]; ‘Lecto | type’
[circular, blue-bordered, typed]; ‘Cotype’ [orange,
typed]; ‘Guyane française | Cayenne | ex coll. Gn.’
[typed]; ‘Paravicini Coll. | B.M. 1937-383’ [typed];
‘B.M. Pyralidae | Genitalia slide | No. 21110’ [typed
except male sign]; ‘Asciodes Gn. | gordialis Gn. | 713.2
Typen’ [pale green, hand written]; ‘LECTOTYPE
| Asciodes | gordialis Guenée | Des[ignated by].
B. Landry, 2000’. This specimen has lost the legs and
antennae (Fig. 79). The other specimen, the female
paralectotype, has lost the head and legs, and its
abdomen is in a gelatine capsule. It can be noted that
Munroe (1995: 74) made a mistake in recording that
Asciodes scopulalis Guenée, 1854 was described
in Botys, because it was truly described in Asciodes
Guenée.
Beebea Schaus, 1923
A monotypic genus endemic to the Galápagos Islands.
Beebea guglielmi Schaus, 1923
Figs 7, 8, 95, 141
Beebea guglielmi Schaus, 1923: 46. ‒ Parkin et al., 1972: 105.
‒ Linsley & Usinger, 1966: 162. ‒ Linsley, 1977: 37. ‒
Perry & de Vries, 2003: 145, 146. Roque-Albelo &
Landry, 2015.
Material examined
Holotype: ♂ (USNM).
Other specimens: 7 ♀, 4 of undetermined sex from the
Galápagos Islands: – Isabela: Albermarle, Cawley [sic]
M[oun]t[ain] [= Alcedo volcano]. – Pinta: Abingdon
[no precise locality]. – Santa Cruz: Academy Bay;
Indefatigable, Charles Darwin Research Station; no
precise locality. – Santa Fé: no precise locality. Deposited
in AMNH, BMNH, CAS, CDRS, and MHNG.
Diagnosis: Unlike any other Spilomelinae species,
either from the Galápagos or the rest of the World,
by virtue of the large size [58 mm wingspan for the
holotype, 72 mm for the ‘largest female specimen’
(Williams, 1930)], brown wings with darker brown
waved transverse lines, labial palpi projecting forward
beyond head as much as length of head, and strongly
bipectinate male antennae (Figs 7, 8).
Biology: Williams (1930) reports that larvae feed on
Opuntia, a genus with 14 species in the Galápagos
(Jaramillo Díaz & Guézou, 2015). Williams (1930)
also offers a brief description of the solitary and boring
mature larva and states that when it is done feeding it
spins a cocoon some 33-35 mm long along one side of
the cactus plant, covering it with available material such
as cactus spines and lichens for camouage purposes.
Perry & de Vries (2003) report that larvae found feeding
on Opuntia insularis Stewart in the crater of Darwin
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 321
Biology: The larva is a borer in the stems of the
Galápagos endemic Tournefortia pubescens Hook. f.
(Boraginaceae) (Landry et al., 2011). Based on spe-
cimens collected, it is known to y between January and
May, as well as in August, October, and November in
variously pristine or anthropized habitats between the
littoral zone and as far up as the rim of the volcano on
Fernandina at 1341 m in elevation.
Distribution: A Galápagos endemic, this species has
been found on the islands of Fernandina, Isabela, San
Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, and Santiago.
Remarks: The host plant, a Galápagos endemic, occurs
on the islands on which Cheverella galapagensis has
been recorded, but also on Floreana, Pinzón, and Wolf
(Jaramillo Díaz & Guézou, 2015).
Cryptobotys Munroe, 1956
A Neotropical genus containing two species (Nuss et al.,
2016).
Cryptobotys zoilusalis (Walker, 1859)
Figs 10, 11, 97, 143
Botys zoilusalis Walker, 1859: 603.
Material examined:
Holotype: ♀ from Honduras, without abdomen (BMNH).
Other specimens: 1 ♂ from the Galápagos Islands: - San
Cristóbal: 1 ♂, antiguo botadero, ca. 4 km SE P[uer]to
Baquerizo, 169 m elev[ation]., S 00° 54.800’, W 89°
34.574’. Deposited in MHNG.
Diagnosis: In the Galápagos this 20 mm wingspan
species is most similar to Pilocrocis ramentalis
Lederer (Figs 46, 47) in wing colour and markings,
but P. ramentalis is slightly larger (21-29 mm) and its
forewing postmedian line usually doesn’t reach the
costa and is straight or slightly concave in the radial
sector; its discal spot, a small dash or lunule, is bordered
with black anteriorly whereas the discal spot of C.
zoilusalis is bigger, rounded, and with black dashes on
both sides but more conspicuously so posteriorly (Figs
10, 11). It resembles also Herpetogramma phaeopteralis
(Guenée) (Figs 20, 21) and Rhectocraspeda periusalis
(Walker) (Figs 49, 50) in size and wing background
colour, but the markings of these species are darker
when apparent, whereas those of C. zoilusalis are white
to cream. It is also similar to the most poorly marked
specimens of Hymenia perspectalis (Hübner, 1796)
(Figs 22, 23), but in the latter there is a distinctive white
band in the hindwing with a short bilobed projection
medially. Microthyris anormalis (Guenée) (Fig. 36) is
also similar, but this species is larger and its forewing
is apically pointed and with ve or six white spots along
volcano on Isabela Island were referable to this species.
Moths have been collected in January, February, April,
June, and September to December (Williams, 1930;
Perry & de Vries, 2003; museum specimens).
Distribution: Endemic to the Galápagos, it was
described from Chatham (= San Cristóbal), and apart
from the holotype I have examined specimens collected
on the islands of Isabela, Santa Cruz, and Santa Fe (see
also Perry & de Vries, 2003). Williams (1930) reports it
as well from Abingdon, Bindloe, Daphne Islet, Duncan,
James, and South Seymour islands, now respectively
called Pinta, Marchena, Daphne Minor (probably),
Pinzón, Santiago, and Baltra.
Remarks: I have not been able to collect this species
despite several months of work on the islands on which
it has been recorded in the past, although it comes to
light and that was my favoured method of collecting.
Hence, I suspect that it may have suffered a population
decline. The specimen examined from Albermarle (=
Isabela), Cawley [sic] Mountain, was collected by F.X.
Williams during the California Academy of Sciences
Expedition to the Galapagos Islands in 1905-06.
Williams (1930) refers to Cowley Mountain, on Isabela,
which is an older name for Alcedo volcano (see for
example http://www.galapagos.to/TEXTS/SLEVIN.
HTM). I suspect that the food plant of the larvae
reported by Williams (1930) as Opuntia, may also refer
to other Cactaceae, a family represented by 18 genera in
the Galápagos (Jaramillo Díaz & Guézou, 2015). The
male (Fig. 95) and female (Fig. 141) genitalia are shown
here for the rst time.
Cheverella Landry, 2011
Another monotypic genus endemic to the Galápagos
Islands.
Cheverella galapagensis Landry, 2011
Figs 9, 96, 142
Cheverella galapagensis Landry, in Landry et al., 2011: 645-
648.
Material examined: 27 ♂, 49 ♀, as mentioned in original
description, including the male holotype from Santa Cruz
Island (CNC).
Diagnosis: There are no known species of Spilomelinae
outside of Galápagos that have a similar wing pattern
and colour (Landry et al., 2011). However, in the
Galápagos Cheverella galapagensis (Fig. 9) is similar
in wing pattern and colour to Agathodes galapagensis
(Figs 2, 3), but Cheverella galapagensis is smaller (6.4-
10.3 mm, both sexes pooled), has a comparatively wider
forewing, and a lighter, white hindwing.
322 B. Landry
Figs 1-8. Galápagos specimens of Spilomelinae, size not to scale. (1) Agathodes designalis ♀, Isabela, Alcedo, cumbre, 1100 m,
17.iv.2002, MHNG. (2, 3) Agathodes galapagensis. (2) ♂ holotype, MHNG. (3) paratype, Santa Cruz, transition zone,
recently cut road, 12.iii.2004, MHNG. (4-6) Asciodes quietalis. (4) ♀, Alcedo, NE slope, 292 m, 30.iii.2004, MHNG. (5) ♀,
Santa Cruz, transition zone, recently cut road, 12.iii.2004, MHNG. (6) ♂, Santa Cruz, E.C.C.D., 4.iii.1992, MHNG. (7, 8)
Beebea guglielmi. (7) ♂, Santa Cruz, CDRS, 14.iv.1975, BMNH ©, the Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London. (8)
♀, Albermarle I., Cowley Mtn., 2.x.1906, CAS.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 323
the submedian (one spot on posterior side medially)
and postmedian (4-5 spots on anterior side in radial and
median sectors) dark lines.
Biology: Known hosts are Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
and Xanthium strumarium L. (Asteraceae) (Heppner,
2003). Neither of these plant species (or genera) are
known from the Galápagos (Jaramillo Díaz & Guézou,
2015). The species is not recorded in Robinson et al.
(2014). I collected the single available specimen from
the Galápagos on 22 February 2005 at a site where
garbage was dumped in the past.
Distribution: Described from Honduras, this species is
widely distributed in the West Indies as well as Central
and South America (BMNH and MHNG specimens).
Heppner (2003) records it from Florida and Texas
(USA) as well as Mexico.
Remarks: The only known Galápagos specimen was
determined by Alma Solis based on a photograph sent
to her. It is not illustrated here because of its poor
condition. The male genitalia illustrated here (Fig. 97)
are those of the Galápagos specimen, but Figs 10, 11,
and 143 are specimens collected in Brazil, Bahía,
Camacan, Reserva Serra Bonita. The species is recorded
here from the Galápagos for the rst time.
Desmia Westwood, 1832
Containing 92 species (Nuss et al., 2016), Desmia is
mostly Neotropical, with 82 species described from
the region (Munroe, 1995). Species of Desmia harbour
similar wing colour and pattern, white markings on a
black or dark background (see Figs 12, 13). The males and
females can exhibit sexual dimorphism in, for example,
wing pattern, antennae, and legs. This is a complicated
group that is being studied by MAS, and although several
genera within Desmia have been discovered, many
other new Desmia species have been discovered using
mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I sequences.
Desmia mordor B. Landry & M. A. Solis, sp. n.
Figs 12, 13, 82, 98, 144
Material examined
Holotype: ♀, ‘ECUADOR [sideways on left side] |
GALÁPAGOS | Sta Crúz, Media | Luna, Pampa Zone
| 8.II.1989, M[ercury]V[apour]L[ight] | B. Landry’.
‘HOLOTYPE | Desmia | mordor | Landry & Solis’.
Deposited in CNC.
Paratypes: 20 ♂, 19 ♀ from Ecuador, the Galápagos
Islands: – Fernandina: 1 ♂ (dissected, slide MHNG-
ENTO-8671), SW side, crater rim, GPS: 1341 m, S 00°
21.910’, W 091° 34.034’, 13.ii.2005, u[ltra]v[iolet]l[ight]
(B. Landry, P. Schmitz). – Isabela: 1 ♂, 3 km N S[an]to
Tómas, Agr[iculture]. Zone, M[ercury]V[apor]L[ight],
8.iii.1989 (B. Landry); 1 ♂, 2 ♀, Punta Albermarle, SW
of old U[nited]S[tates] radar site, Alt[itude]. ± 10 m,
27.iii.[19]70 (R. Silberglied); 1 ♂, V[olcan]. Darwin,
630 m elev[ation]., 17.v.1992, MVL (B. Landry);
1 ♀ (slide MHNG-ENTO-8980), ± 15 km N P[uer]
to Villamil, 25.v.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♂, Sierra
Negra, Alemania, xi.1974 (T.J. de Vries, B.M. 1976–58).
Pinta: 1 ♂, N 00° 34.591’, W 90° 45.137’, 421 m elev.,
17.iii.2006, uvl (P. Schmitz, L. Roque). – Santa Cruz:
2 ♂ (one dissected, slide CNC PYR 352), Los Gemelos,
31.i.1989, MVL (B. Landry); 2 ♀, Media Luna, pampa
zone, 8.ii.1989, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀, Horneman Farm,
220 m, 10.iii.1964 (D. Q. Cavagnaro); 1 ♂, idem except
5.iv.1964; 1 ♂, idem except 3.v.1964; 2 ♀ (slides MHNG-
ENTO-8670, 8978), Finca Vilema, 2 km W Bella Vista,
1.iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♂, no precise locality,
iv.1969 (R. Perry, Tj. de Vries, B.M. 1969-693); 1 ♂, 1 ♀,
Los Gemelos, 4.v.2002, uvl (B. Landry, L. Roque); 1 ♀,
Los Gemelos, 27.v.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 2 ♂, 1 ♀,
Horneman Farm, 200 m, 24.vi.1965 (J. DeRoy); 2 ♀,
idem except 26.vi.1965; 3 ♀, idem except 27.vi.1965;
3 ♂, 1 ♀, idem except 28.vi.1965. – Santiago: 1 ♀, NE
side, close to Caseta, GPS : 686 m elev., S 00°14.177’,
W 90°44.619’, 6.iii.2005, uvl (P. Schmitz); 3 ♂ (one
dissected, slide MHNG-ENTO-8668), Aguacate [camp],
520 m elev., 6.iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry ); 1 ♀, Central
[camp], 700 m elev., 9.iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry ); 1 ♀
(dissected, slide MHNG-ENTO-8667), Aguacate [camp],
520 m elev., 12.iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry). Deposited in
AMNH, BMNH, CAS, CNC, MCZ, MHNG, and USNM.
1 from Brazil: – Bahía: 1 (slide MHNG-
ENTO-8963), Camacan, Res[erva]. Serra Bonita, 800 m,
15°23’ S, 39°33’W, 24.xi.-2.xii.2013, u[ltra]v[iolet]
l[ight] (B. Landry, V. Becker). Deposited in MHNG.
28 ♂, 27 ♀, 3 of unknown sex from Costa Rica: –
Alajuela: 1 ♂, 12-SRNP-1518, Area de Conservacion
Guanacaste, Sector Rincon Rain Forest, Camino
Albergue Oscar, 560 m, Lat: 10.87741, Long: -85.32363,
15.iv.2012, eclosed 4.v.2012 from Psychotria panamensis
(E. Araya); 1 ♂, 12-SRNP-1517, idem except eclosed
5.v.2012 (E. Araya); 1 ?sex, 13-SRNP-475, idem except
26.i.2013, eclosed 16.ii.2013 (C. Cano); 1 ♂, 12-SRNP-
86729, Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Camino Rio
Francia, Sector Rincon Rain Forest, 410 m, Lat: 10.90425,
Long: -85.28651, 21.xi.2015, eclosed 21.xi.2012 from
Psychotria panamensis (A. Cordoba); 1 ♂, 13-SRNP-
3341, Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Finca San
Gabriel, Sector San Cristobal, 645 m, Lat: 10.87766,
Long: -85.39343, 26.vi.2013, eclosed 15.vii.2013 from
Psychotria panamensis (E. Araya); 1 ♂, 13-SRNP-
3640, idem except 12.vii.2013, eclosed 15.vii.2013
from Psychotria remota (O. Espinoza); 1 ♀, 13-SRNP-
4027, idem except 2.viii.2013, eclosed 21.viii.2013 from
Psychotria panamensis (E. Araya); 1 ♂, 12-SRNP-2294,
idem except 2.vi.2012, eclosed 2.vi.2012 from Psychotria
panamensis (E. Araya); 1 ♀, 12-SRNP-3247, idem
except 30.vii.2012, eclosed 27.viii.2012 from Psychotria
324 B. Landry
Figs 9-16. Specimens of Spilomelinae, size not to scale. (9) Cheverella galapagensis ♀, Galápagos, Santa Cruz, Los Gemelos,
27.v.1992, MHNG. (10, 11) Cryptobotys zoilusalis. (10) ♀, Brazil, Bahía, Camacan, Res. Serra Bonita, 800 m, 8.iv.2011,
MHNG. (11) ♂, same locality, 27.iii.2011, MHNG. (12, 13) Desmia mordor. (12) ♂ paratype, Galápagos, Santa Cruz, Los
Gemelos, 4.v.2002, MHNG. (13) ♀ holotype, CNC. (14) Diaphania galapagensis ♂ paratype, Galápagos, Isabela, NE
slope Alcedo, near pega-pega camp, 483 m, 31.iii.2004, MHNG. (15) Diaphania hyalinata ♂, Galápagos, Santa Cruz, Los
Gemelos, 4.v.2002, MHNG. (16) Diaphania indica ♂, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haut Katanga, Tshinkolobwe,
12.iii.1931, MHNG.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 325
graciliora (O. Espinoza); 1 ♀, 12-SRNP-3677, idem
except 30.viii.2012, eclosed 2.x.2012 from Psychotria
remota; 1 sex?, 12-SRNP-283, idem except 25.i.2012,
eclosed 21.ii.2012, from Psychotria panamensis; 1 ♂
(slide USNM 106,927), Finca San Gabriel, 16 km ENE
Queb[rada]. Grande, 650 m, 1-10.vii.1986 (I. Gauld &
J. Thompson); 1 ♀, idem except 11-15.vii.1986; 1 ♀,
13-SRNP-69246, Area de Conservacion Guanacaste,
Sector San Gabriel, Flecha, 491 m, Lat: 10.94741, Long:
-85.31501, 2.ii.2013, eclosed 28.ii.2013 from Psychotria
jimenezii (E. Apu); 1 ♀, 12-SRNP-82060, idem except
7.xii.2012, eclosed 29.xii.2012; 1 ♂, 12-SRNP-81734,
Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Rincon Rain
Forest, Jacobo, 461 m, Lat: 10.94076, Long: -85.3177,
4.x.2012, eclosed 2.xi.2012, from Psychotria panamensis
(E. Apu); 1 ♂, 12-SRNP-81556, idem except 20.ix.2012,
eclosed 18.x.2012, from Psychotria jimenezii; 1 ♂, 12-
SRNP-3539, Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector
Rincon Rain Forest, Sendero Albergue Crater, 980 m,
Lat: 10.84886, Long: -85.3281, 17.viii.2012, eclosed
5.ix.2012 from Psychotria panamensis (E. Araya); 1
♀, 12-SRNP-3955, Area de Conservacion Guanacaste,
Sector San Cristobal, Sendero Colegio, 520 m,
Lat: 10.89296, Long: -85.3788, 15.ix.2012, eclosed
10.x.2012 from Psychotria remota (C. Cano); 1 sex?,
12-SRNP-3947, idem except eclosed 6.x.2012 from
Psychotria panamensis (E. Araya); 1 ♀, 12-SRNP-723,
Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector San Cristobal,
Sendero Huerta, 527 m, Lat: 10.9305, Long: -85.37223,
25.ii.2013, eclosed 24.iii.2012 from Hamelia patens
(identication suspect) (G. Sihezar); 1 ♀, 13-SRNP-
1836, Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector San
Gabriel, Sendero Perdido, 620 m, Lat: 10.8794, Long:
-85.38607, 12.iv.2013, eclosed 1.v.2013 from Psychotria
remota (G. Sihezar); 1 ♀, 13-SRNP-1835, idem; 1 ♀,
13-SRNP-40840, Area de Conservacion Guanacaste,
Sector Rincon Rain Forest, Sendero Rincon, 430 m,
Lat: 10.8962, Long: -85.27769, 26.ii.2013, eclosed
30.iii.2013 from Psychotria panamensis (J. Perez); 1
(slide USNM 106,959), 1 ♀, Estacion Pitilla, 9 km S.
Santa Cecilia, vii.1988 (Espinosa & Chaves); 1 ♂ (slide
USNM 106,949), 1 ♀, F[in]ca. La Campana, El Ensayo,
7 km NW Dos Rios, 15-17.iii.1986 (D.H. Janzen &
W. Hallwachs); 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,964), Rio San
Lorencito, Res[erva]. For[estal]. San Ramon, 5 km N.
Col. Palmarena, 800 m, 1-4.xi.1986 (I. & A. Chacon).
Cartago: 1 ♂, (slide USNM 106,957), Tapanti, Rio
Grande de Orosi, 1300-1400 m, 9.iv.1984 (D.H. Janzen
& W. Hallwachs). – Guanacaste: 2 ♂ (slides USNM
106,955 & USNM 106,951), 2 ♀, Estacion Mengo,
SW side Volcan Cacao, 1100 m, 29.vii.1987 (D.H.
Janzen & W. Hallwachs); 1 ♀, 13-SRNP-30124, Area
de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Pitilla, Sendero
Laguna, 680 m, Lat: 10.9888, Long: -85.42336, 10.i.2013,
eclosed 30.i.2013 from Psychotria panamensis (F.
Quesada); 1 ♀, 13-SRNP-31124, Area de Conservacion
Guanacaste, Sector Pitilla, Sendero Orosilito, 900 m,
Lat: 10.98332, Long: -85.43623, 19.viii.2013, eclosed
16.ix.2013 from Psychotria panamensis (M. Rios); 1 ♀,
13-SRNP-31126, idem; 1 ♂, 13-SRNP-31127, idem
except eclosed 14.ix.2013; 2 ♂ (slides USNM 106,950
& USNM 106,954), 2 ♀, W. of Carmona, Nicoya, 600-
700 m, 19.viii.1982 (D.H. Janzen & W. Hallwachs).
– Heredia: 1 (slide USNM 106,956), 1 ♀, El Angel
Waterfall, 8.2 km downhill Vara Blanca, 1350 m, i.1981
(D.H. Janzen & W. Hallwachs); 2 ♂ (slides USNM
106,952 & USNM 106,953), 2 ♀, Finca La Selva (OTS),
Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, 50 m, 14-15.xi.1982 (D.H.
Janzen & W. Hallwachs); 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,932),
La Selva Biol. Sta., Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, 40 m,
v.1987 (M.M. Chavarria). – Puntarenas: 1 ♂ (slide
USNM 106,960), 1 ♀, Monte Verde, 15-16.v.1980 (D.H.
Janzen & W. Hallwachs); 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,948),
Tajo Cafrosa, Z.P. Las Tablas, 1300 m, 25.xi.1987 (I.
Chacon). – San Jose: 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,961), 1 ♀,
Estacion Carrillo, Par[que]. Nac[ional]. Braulio Carrillo,
700 m, v.1985 (I. & A. Chacon); 1 ♀, Estacion Zurqui (El
Tunel), Par. Nac. Braulio Carrillo, 1500 m, vii.1985 (W.
I. & A. Chacon); 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,947), idem except
ix.1985 (W. I. & A. Chacon); 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,926),
1 ♀, La Montura, Braulio Carrillo Nat[ional]. P[ar]k.,
1100 m, 17.xii.1981 (D.H. Janzen & W. Hallwachs).
Deposited in USNM.
1 ♂ from Mexico: – Veracruz: 1 (slide USNM
106,939), La Gloria, Cardel, iii.1937 (J. Carmelo G.).
Deposited in USNM.
Diagnosis: The new species is externally similar to
D. vulcanalis Felder, Felder & Rogenhofer, described
from Volcan Chiriqui, Panama, and Veragua. They have
similar markings and absence of obvious modication
of the male antenna, but externally D. vulcanalis males
are larger (holotype=21 mm forewing length, but most
specimens are larger than 16 mm), the females of both
species are almost the same size, D. vulcanalis colour
is more chocolate brown than black, D. vulcanalis lacks
the femoral and tibial modied scaling that occurs in
the new species, the white markings on both wings are
broader in both sexes, and in the males only, the basal
areas of both wings have longer scales that give these
areas a ‘uffy’ look. In the male genitalia, the valvae
are similar, but in D. vulcanalis the apex is round
with a small fold that is absent in the new species,
the ventrobasal section also with a small, triangular,
marginal projection, but much more prominent in
D. vulcanalis. Most obvious are the differences in
the transtilla that is very straight in the new species,
but with two lobes in D. vulcanalis, the juxta is about
as long as wide in D. vulcanalis, whereas in the new
species it is about twice as long as wide, and the saccus
is wider and about twice as large in vulcanalis than
in the new species. In the phallus both species have
two sets of cornuti on the vesica, but in D. vulcanalis
it is 2 lines of straight spines, about 5 on each side,
326 B. Landry
Figs 17-24. Neotropical specimens of Spilomelinae, size not to scale. (17) Diaphania nitidalis ♀, Brazil, Bahía, Camacan, Res. Serra
Bonita, 800 m, 8.iv.2011, MHNG. (18) Ercta vittata ♂, Galápagos, Marchena, 12.iii.1992, MHNG. (19) Herpetogramma
bipunctalis ♂, Galápagos, Santa Cruz, CDRS, Barranco, 20 m, 30.iv.2002, MHNG. (20, 21) Herpetogramma phaeopteralis.
(20) ♂, Galápagos, Isabela, NE slope Alcedo, Los Guayabillos camp, 869 m, 2.iv.2004, MHNG. (21) ♀, Galápagos, San
Cristóbal, near La Loberia, sea level, 24.ii.2005, MHNG. (22, 23) Hymenia perspectalis. (22) ♀, Galápagos, Santa Cruz,
Los Gemelos, 4.v.2002, MHNG. (23) ♀, same locality, 27.v.1992, MHNG. (24) Lineodes integra ♂, Pinta, Cabo Ibbetson,
8 m, MHNG.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 327
decreasing in size posteriorly, whereas in the new
species they form curving structures with differing sizes
and arrangement of spines. In the female genitalia of
D. vulcanalis the anterior apophyses are almost three
times as long as the posterior apophysis, they are only
twice as long in the new species. In D. vulcanalis the
ductus bursae is shortly membranous followed by a
sclerotized, square-shaped colliculum with a short
extension into another membranous anterior part of
the ductus bursae, the colliculum in the new species is
wide and rectangular. The corpus bursae are similar, but
in D. vulcanalis it is less broad at the cephalic end. In
the Galápagos this species is unlike any other by virtue
of its black wings adorned with white spots and bands.
Hymenia perspectalis (Hübner) and Spoladea recurvalis
(Fabricius) are supercially similar, but they are paler
brown and they have the forewing paler markings that
touch the costa as well as the dorsum, whereas the white
spots on the forewing of D. mordor do not touch either
margin.
Etymology: The new name, treated as a noun in
apposition, means ‘Black Land’ in Sindarin, a ctional
language used in The Lord of the Rings, the epic
high-fantasy novel written by English author J. R.
R. Tolkien (1892-1973) (Wikipedia, 2016). Mordor
is volcanic and partly arid, like the Galápagos. As
Mordor is the land controlled by Sauron, the evil lord
in Tolkien’s tale, this name also refers to the tendency
of earlier authors to attribute names in relation to
death to species of Desmia, such as D. tages (Cramer,
1777), D. sepulchralis Guenée, 1854, or D. mortualis
Hampson, 1912.
Description: Male (n=50) (Fig. 12). Head with frons
at, dark blackish brown except for thin white line
along margin of eye ventrally from antennal base, broad
scales on dorsal half of frons not entirely appressed,
slightly elevated, longer and thinner scales between
antennae projecting anterodorsally, longer hair-like
scales behind ocelli projecting dorsomedially; antenna
liform, without modied agellomeres but with pair
of thickened setae arising laterally on each side of scale
coating before middle of agellomeres except rst few,
short on rst agellomeres on which they appear and
then about twice as wide as corresponding agellomeres
at maximum length, vestiture dark blackish brown on
scape and rst few agellomeres, paler greyish brown
beyond, with white longitudinal line ventrally on
scape; maxillary palpus minute, smaller than pilifer,
with greyish brown scales; labial palpus bicolored,
white ventrally on most of rst segment and base of
second, dark greyish brown elsewhere, slightly paler
medially toward apex of second and tiny third segment;
haustellum greyish brown at base, white to light cream
beyond. Thorax dorsally mostly dark greyish brown,
slightly darker at base of collar scales, with thin, paler,
whitish scales at base of mesoscutum hidden by collar
scales, white laterally and sometimes also basally on
metascutum. Tegula extending to posterior margin
of mesoscutum, scales extending to rst abdominal
segment. Foreleg coxa dark greyish brown with white
at base and apex; femur with chocolate brown brush of
short erect scales of equal length ventrally from base to
3/4, with greyish brown at base and white apically; tibia
greyish brown with white and cream at base and apex,
with long greyish brown scales at base of epiphysis and
projecting over it, with short projecting scales laterally
on distal half; tarsomeres cream coloured. Midleg femur
greyish brown with white and cream at base and white
subapically, ventral edge at base with row of medium-
length hair-like scales; tibia greyish brown with black
at base and white and cream at tip, spurs cream with
greyish brown; tarsomere I dirty cream with greyish
brown on distal half dorsally; tarsomeres II-V pale
cream. Hindleg femur dirty white at base, greyish brown
subapically, snow white apically; tibia dark greyish
brown, spurs cream dorsally and white ventrally;
tarsomere I dirty cream with greyish brown on distal
half dorsally; tarsomeres II white with cream distally;
tarsomeres III-V white. Forewing length: 12.0-14.0 mm
(wingspan: 24.0-26.0 mm); vestiture with blue-tinged
white markings as illustrated (Fig. 12), reniform spot
white, rectangular, orbicular and claviform white spots
as one, rectangular, fringe with longer scales white
above tornus. Hindwing broadly triangular, posterior
margin length equal to costal margin, with white discal
spot extending as a line to posterior margin, fringe with
longer scales white on all of termen except anal sector.
Abdomen tapering, 9 mm long, longer than female’s,
dorsally dark greyish brown to blackish brown on
tergite VII, tergites II-VI with snowy white line on
terminal margin, with line generally wider on tergite II,
ultimate segment longer than wide, blackish brown with
longitudinal lateral white lines ending in black hair-like
scales surrounding genitalia; ventrally white except for
dark greyish brown apex of ultimate sternite. Segment
VIII with sclerotization pattern as shown (Fig. 82).
Male genitalia (n=21) (Fig. 98). Uncus long and narrow,
with broad base, down curved distally, apically expanded
slightly, dorsoventrally attened, and covered evenly with
short, thick setae, with longer setae at base. Subscaphium
long and narrow, about 1.5X length of uncus. Tegumen
an inverted U with bid lateral arms, the median pair
more thickly sclerotized and partly covered by wider
lateral pair. Parategumenal sclerites membranous, barely
extending to saccus, with sclerotized edge, with small
group of long, narrow scales and denser fan of shorter,
narrow and apically bid scales. Gnathos a narrow,
weakly sclerotized (hardly visible) band, apparently
not connected medially. Transtilla a pair of narrow,
sclerotized sclerites sharply pointed distally (or adjoining
costa of valva), narrowing toward middle and connected
by membrane medially. Valva elongate, wider medially,
narrowing toward almost square-like apex, with dorsal,
328 B. Landry
Figs 25-32. Galápagos specimens of Spilomelinae, size not to scale. (25-27) Lineodes corinnae. (25) Lineodes corinnae ♀ holotype,
CNC. (26) ♀ paratype, Isabela, NE slope Alcedo, ca. 400 m up Los Guayabillos camp, 892 m, 1.iv.2004, MHNG. (27) ♂
paratype, Isabela, Alcedo, lado NE, camp Guayabillos, 700 m, 16.iv.2002, MHNG. (28) Lineodes fontella ♂, Santa Cruz,
NNW Bella Vista, 225 m, 18.ii.2005, MHNG. (29, 30) Lineodes vulcanalis. (29) ♀ paratype, BMNH ©, the Trustees of
the Natural History Museum, London. (30) ♂ holotype, BMNH ©, the Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
(31, 32) Loxomorpha cambogialis. (31) ♀, Isabela, 11 km N Pto Villamil, 13.iii.1989, CNC. (32) ♀, Santa Cruz, transition
zone, recently cut road, 12.iii.2004, MHNG.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 329
more thickly sclerotized band ending at about 3/4, with
oval-shaped ventrobasal section devoid of setae and
ending in small, triangular, marginal projection, ventral
margin set with long (as long as width of valva), thickly
sclerotized, narrow scales easily detached and shorter
toward apex. Juxta with slightly broader base, parallel-
margined until blunt apex, slightly shorter than uncus.
Vinculum with arms of medium width, as long as wide;
saccus a bulbous projection directed anteriorly, only
slightly wider than long from base of vinculum. Phallus
straight, with ventral wall more thickly sclerotized,
widening from middle, with short, narrower tongue-like
projection apically, also with short membranous, bulbous,
and shortly setose projection on each side ventrolaterally
before apex; vesica with two cornuti formed by small
attached spines, one curved with more than 10 slightly
curved spines, the other bear paw-like, with about 12
straight apical spines.
Female (n=47) (Fig. 13): Antenna without pair of lateral
setae from rst few agellomeres, but subsequently
present and increasing slowly in length to reach slightly
more than width of agellomeres. Legs without femoral
and tibial modied scales. Forewing length: 10.5-
13.0 mm (wingspan: 21.0-24.0 mm) (holotype: 10.5 mm
forewing length, 21.5 mm wingspan); reniform spot
rectangular as in male; orbicular and claviform spots not
rectangular, appearing as two spots adjoining, sometimes
disconnected. Hindwing differing from that of male in
markings as illustrated (Fig. 13); posterior margin length
shorter than costal margin; white discal spot extending
to posterior margin as two short, white lines. Abdomen
similar in colour to male, dorsally with white lateral
lines on ultimate segment shorter than those of male
but reaching apex, <6 mm in length, tergites II-VI not
tapering, tergite VI much broader than ultimate segment
giving it a square-like appearance, ultimate segment as
long as wide.
Female genitalia (n=4) (Fig. 144). Papillae anales narrow,
with setose surface slightly longer dorsally, ventral 1/3
attened and slightly curving posteriorly; narrow basal
sclerotized band slightly enlarging ventrally; posterior
apophyses straight except for slight subbasal bend,
about half as long as width of papillae anales. Segment
VIII with tergum dorsally about 3X ventral length,
with medium length setae more concentrated on distal
half and dorsally; without sternal plates or other ventral
modications; anterior apophyses almost twice as long
as posterior apophyses, slightly sinuate, with slight
enlargement subbasally. Membrane around ostium bursae
membranous, unmodied. Ductus bursae very short,
with basal section occupied entirely by wide, rectangular
colliculum dorsally thickly sclerotized and only so as
basal band ventrally; constriction at base of colliculum
followed by equally wide shorter membranous and
spiculate section. Corpus bursae elongate, about thrice
as long as ductus bursae, with basal section scobinated
until medioventral inception of ductus seminalis, with
following short section slightly narrower and without
membrane ornaments, then slightly enlarged in broad
triangle on right side with scobination slightly thicker on
enlargement than at cephalic end.
Biology: One BMNH paratype specimen from
Santa Cruz Island, without specic locality, bears a
label recording ‘further specimen from larva taken
on Psychotria rupes, Fernandina, October 1969’.
This specimen is probably a CDRS specimen only
labelled ‘105’, a number that refers to a note in
a CDRS notebook mentioning that it was reared
from ‘Psychotria rupes’. Many of the paratypes
from Costa Rica have been reared also from species
of Psychotria (P. graciliora Benth., P. jimenezii
Standl., P. panamensis Standl., P. remota Benth.).
Most Galápagos specimens were collected above
200 m in elevation, up to 1341 m at the rim of the
volcano on Fernandina, but a small series was taken
near the sea shore at Punta Albermarle on Isabela.
Collecting localities on Galápagos harbour a diverse
set of habitats, from untouched to modied for low-
intensity agriculture. Collecting dates of the Galápagos
specimens are from January to June and October.
Distribution: In the Galápagos this species has been
collected on the islands of Fernandina, Isabela, Pinta,
Santa Cruz, and Santiago. On the continent it is known
from Mexico, Costa Rica, and Brazil.
Remarks: A Rubiaceae, Psychotria rupes Hook. f. is
a vulnerable Galápagos endemic present on Fernandina,
Floreana, Isabela, Pinta, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, and
Santiago (Jaramillo Díaz & Guézou, 2015).
Diaphania Hübner, 1818
Another mostly Neotropical genus, with 88 species
described from the region (Munroe, 1995), and six more
from Australia and Asia (Nuss et al., 2016).
Diaphania galapagensis
B. Landry & M. A. Solis, sp. n.
Figs 14, 83, 99, 145
Stemorrhages (sp. near lustralis Guenée, 1854) [a synonym
of the similar D. glauculalis (Guenée)]: Parkin et al.,
1972: 105. ‒ Linsley, 1977: 37.
Margaronia limitalis Dognin: Perry & de Vries, 2003: 146.
Diaphania glauculalis (Guenée): Causton et al., 2006: 140.
Roque-Albelo & Landry, 2015.
Material examined
Holotype: ♂, ‘Galapagos : I. Santa Cruz | Station Darwin
(lumière) | 1964/ .1965 | J. & N. Leleup’; ‘MHNG | ENTO
♂ | 00009034’; ‘HOLOTYPE | Diaphania | galapagensis |
B. Landry & A. Solis’. Deposited in MHNG.
330 B. Landry
Figs 33-40. Neotropical specimens of Spilomelinae, size not to scale. (33, 34) Marasmia trapezalis. (33) ♂, Galápagos, Isabela,
Sierra Negra, 11 km N Puerto Villamil, 9.iv.2004, MHNG. (34) ♀, Galápagos, Santiago, Central, 700 m, 9.iv.1992,
MHNG. (35) Maruca vitrata ♀, Ecuador, Pichincha, Septimo Paraiso Reserve, ± 1300 m, 10.v.2002, MHNG. (36)
Microthyris anormalis ♀, Galápagos, Isabela, V. Darwin, 300 m, 15.v.1992, MHNG. (37) Neoleucinodes elegantalis ♂,
Guyane française, Rte de Kaw @ pk 37, 271 m, 6.iv.2008, MHNG. (38, 39) Neoleucinodes galapagensis. (38) ♂ holotype,
MHNG. (39) ♀ paratype, Isabela, NE slope Alcedo, ca. 400 m up Los Guayabillos camp, 892 m, 1.iv.2004, MHNG. (40)
Palpita egia ♂, Galápagos, Santa Cruz, ix-xi.1970, BMNH ©, the Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 331
Paratypes: 22 ♂, 13 ♀ from the Galápagos Islands.
Floreana: 1 ♂, BlackBeach, 10 m, littoral-arid F[light]
I[ntercept]T[rap], 21–28.iii.1989 (Peck & Sinclair, 89-
139). – Isabela: 2 (one dissected, CNC PYR 348), 1
♀, Puerto Villamil, 2.iii.1989 (B. Landry); 1 ♀, 11 km
N Puerto Villamil, 9.iii.1989, M[ercury]V[apour]L[ight]
(B. Landry); 1 ♂, idem except 13.iii.1989; 1 ♂, NE
slope Alcedo, near pega-pega camp, GPS: elev[ation].
483 m, S 00° 24.029’, W 91° 02.895’, 31.iii.2004,
u[ltra]v[iolet]l[ight] (B. Landry, P. Schmitz); 1 ♂,
n[ea]r Tagus Cove, 100 m elev., 21.v.1992, MVL (B.
Landry). – Santa Cruz: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, same data as holotype;
1 ♂, same data as holotype except ‘I.1965’; 1 ♀,
E[stacion].C[ientica].C[harles].D[arwin]., 4.iii.1992,
MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Finca Vilema, 2 km W Bella
Vista, 1.iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♂, transition zone,
house of L. Roque, elev. 137 m, GPS: 00° 42.595’, W
90° 19.196’, 9.iv.2004, white light (B. Landry); 5 ♂,
3 ♀ (one dissected, slide MHNG-ENTO-8932), same
data as holotype except ‘X-1964’; 3 (one dissected,
slide MHNG-ENTO-8934), 1 ♀, same data as holotype
except ‘X/XI- 1964’; 2 ♂, same data as holotype
except ‘Basse altitude XI.1964’. – Santiago: 1 ♂, Cerro
Inn, 28.iii.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀, 200 m elev.,
5.iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 2 ♀ (one dissected, slide
MHNG-ENTO-8676), Jaboncillo [camp], ± 850 m elev.,
8.iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry). – Unidentied island: 1 ♂,
1 ♀, with ‘42’ associated with note saying: ‘Margaronia
limitalis Dognin, Santa Cruz, Floreana, Isabela, Food:
Vallesia sp. (Apocynaceae)’. Deposited in CDRS, CNC,
MHNG, and USNM.
Diagnosis: This species is most similar in the
morphology of the genitalia to D. glauculalis (Guenée,
1854), and differs primarily in the male by the
sclerotization in segment VIII where the u-shaped
sclerotization of the sternite tapers in apically and is
less broad than the base and the tergite sclerotization
is almost the same width or only slightly expanded
posteriorly. In the female, the corpus bursae is broad
or bulbous-shaped after the ductus and the two round
signa are adjoining with short extensions, longer than
the base. It differs externally from D. glauculalis whose
wings have a conspicuous green shade, forewing length
and wingspan slightly larger (>16 mm and >35 mm
respectively), and males without modied segments
on the antennae and without a fold along the forewing
costa ventrally. In the Galápagos this species (Fig. 14)
is only externally similar to Palpita egia (Cramer),
but it is smaller with a wingspan 24.0-32.0 mm versus
50 mm in P. egia (Fig. 40). Also, the forewing costa of
D. costata is brown whereas that of P. egia is blue.
Etymology: The new name refers to the area of
occurrence of this species.
Description: Male (n=20) (Fig. 14). Head with frons
at, appressedly scaled, with frontoclypeal margin very
slightly rounded, white with dark blackish brown at
ventrolateral corners and paler brown at posterior eye
margin, with erect (white) scales on vertex and occiput;
antenna liform except for widening scape, modied
pedicel laterally expanded and recurved, crescent
shaped, with concavity set with tight rows of tiny, at,
brown scales or buds protected by short and recurved
white scales on median margin, rst agellomere
elongate, about as long as following four agellomeres,
set with compact bunch of short, thin scales appressed
and directed toward base of agellomere, vestiture of
subsequent agellomeres white with short scales in
two rows on each agellomere, with ciliation short;
maxillary palpus mostly chestnut brown with some
yellowish brown, white at apex and medially, with
longer apical scales directed anteriorly; labial palpus
laterally bicolored, white ventrally and chocolate brown
dorsally, with white medially on rst two palpomeres
and yellowish brown and chocolate brown on third;
haustellum mostly white with cream at base. Thorax
dorsally white with chocolate brown laterally at base
between eye and forewing costal band, with basal row
of wide scales at collar white to pale yellowish brown.
Foreleg white except for yellowish brown at apex
of femur and on tibia around epiphysis, and cream
sometimes on femur. Midleg white except for yellowish
brown at tip of femur and base of tibia dorsally and
cream sometimes on femur and tibia. Hindleg white,
sometimes with pale cream on femur. Forewing
length: 13.0-15.0 mm (holotype: 14.0 mm) (wingspan:
26.5-32.0 mm; holotype: 29.0 mm); vestiture white,
iridescent, with chocolate brown band along costa,
sometimes with single row of yellowish scales along
dorsal edge, narrowing until apex, also with six dark
brown dots between veins along terminal margin,
fringe white, with second row of scales slightly greyish
brown at their bases; costa underneath with elongate
fold until 4/7 wing length and harbouring hair-like to
thin scales. Hindwing white, with thin greyish brown
line terminally from apex until cubital sector. Abdomen
white dorsally and ventrally, with apical bunch of thin
dark greyish brown scales with their tips paler, white
to pale greyish brown, surrounding genitalia. Segment
VIII with sclerotization pattern as shown (Fig. 83):
sternite with u-shaped sclerotization same width in its
length; tergite with posterior sclerotization broad, lobe-
like. Intersegmental membrane VIII-IX with broad
extensions with thick lateral margins sporting large
bunch of imsy setae ‘protected’ laterally by 5-10 very
wide scales slightly curving inwardly.
Male genitalia (n=2) (Fig. 99). Uncus ‘neck’ widening
basally; posteriorly uncus ‘head’ slightly longer, directed
ventrally at right angle, widening to 3-4X girth of ‘neck’,
attened at base, with short, dense bunch of ne setae
dorsally on lateral margin, distal half with lateral margins
extended dorsally and set with short, thick setae along
edges, more thickly concentrated and slightly longer in
332 B. Landry
Figs 41-48. Neotropical specimens of Spilomelinae, size not to scale. (41, 42) Omiodes indicata. (41) ♂, Galápagos, Tagus Cove,
emerged ex pupa on Desmodium glabrum, 20-25.v.1992, MHNG. (42) ♀, Galápagos, Pinta, ± 50 m, 20.iii.1992, MHNG.
(43) Patania silicalis ♀, Galápagos, Alcedo, NE slope, 292 m, 30.iii.2004, MHNG. (44, 45) Penestola bufalis. (44) ♂,
Galápagos, Santiago, Cerro Inn, 28.iii.1992, MHNG. (45) ♀, Galápagos, Santa Cruz, CDRS, wall of Inverts. lab., 11 m,
6.iv.2004, MHNG. (46, 47) Pilocrocis ramentalis. (46) ♂, Venezuela, Aragua, PN H.-Pittier, Estacion Rancho Grande,
1100 m, 15.vii.2009, MHNG. (47) ♀, Galápagos, Santa Cruz, E.C.C.D., 6.iii.1992, MHNG. (48) Psara chathamalis ♀,
Galápagos, Santa Cruz, Bahía Conway, 14.iv.1992, MHNG.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 333
apical depression, ventral edges with medium-length
to short setae thicker and denser apically. Subscaphium
narrow, not extending much beyond uncus. Tegumen
with median teguminal ridges slightly diverging toward
apex; basal margin deeply and narrowly incised, almost
to half of length. Parategumenal sclerites about 1/3
surface area of valva. Gnathos thin, broadly crescent
shaped, connected medially. Transtilla a pair of lateral
triangles joining medially. Valva round, lightly setose,
with bula short and pointed medioventrally. Juxta
narrow with slightly widened extremities and thickened
median line along most of length. Vinculum with arms
short, of medium width, narrowly rectangular; saccus
narrowly bulbous in lateral view, forming Gaussian
curve in ventral view, directed upward. Phallus narrow,
only sclerotized along ventral margin, slightly down
curved subapically, as long as valva, without coecum
penis; vesica with single elongate, pointed cornutus
slightly down curved subapically, just short of 2/5 length
of phallus shaft.
Female (n=11): Antenna and forewing costa without
modications. Forewing length: 12.0-14.0 mm
(wingspan: 24.0-30.0 mm). Abdomen all white.
Female genitalia (n=2) (Fig. 145). Papillae anales
narrow, slightly bulging dorsally; basal sclerotized
band widened ventrad of base of apophyses; posterior
apophyses strong, slightly sinuous, slightly shorter than
width of papillae anales, slightly enlarged subbasally.
Segment VIII with tergum short, parallel-margined to
and ventrad of bases of apophyses, with ventral margin
slightly diagonal, almost straight, with few setae of
moderate length mostly toward apical margin; sternal
plates drop shaped with narrow ends directed laterally,
connected medially; anterior apophyses strong, sinuous,
about 1.7X length of posterior apophyses, with distinct
rounded dorsal enlargement at 1/4. Membrane around
ostium bursae without modications. Ductus bursae
long and of medium girth, with long colliculum about
1/5 length of whole ductus bursae and ending in tongue-
like extension, with distal half heavily spined; inception
of ductus seminalis right after colliculum. Corpus bursae
same width throughout length, expanding anteriorly,
about 15% longer than ductus bursae, with pair of round,
widely separated signa shortly extended in middle,
almost at.
Biology: Perry & de Vries (2003), under the name
Margaronia limitalis Dognin (a different, similar
species), report the food plant in the Galápagos as
Vallesia glabra (Cav.) Link (Apocynaceae). Specimens
were collected from the arid or littoral zone, on the
grounds of the CDRS, to about 850 m in elevation on
Santiago, in various types of habitats and in January,
March until May, October, and November.
Distribution: A Galápagos endemic for which we have
examined specimens collected on Floreana, Isabela,
Santa Cruz, and Santiago. Perry & de Vries (2003) also
mention it from Floreana.
Remarks: This species belongs to a complex group of
16 ‘white/greenish/brownish’ Diaphania species that
includes misplaced species in Munroe (1995), new
species, and species from other genera (e.g. Palpita,
Hoterodes). They have in common a short phallus and a
short ductus bursae (manuscript in prep., MAS).
BL initially identied a Galápagos specimen of this
species as D. glauculalis by comparing it with specimens
in the BMNH, including the female holotype, although the
latter is without an abdomen. The species was described
from a single female, without indication of collecting
locality, although Guenée (1854: 306) mentioned that
he believed it to be ‘américaine’, i.e. from the Americas.
However, the description of D. glauculalis, which records
the wingspan as 37 mm and the wings as whitish green,
supported the conclusion that the smaller Galápagos
specimens are not this species.
Diaphania costata (Fabricius) is externally similar to
D. galapagensis and unknown to occur in the Galapagos
Islands. The type was studied because the species
was only known from the original description and it
seemed similar. The lectotype of Phalaena costata
Fabricius, 1775 (Figs 73, 74), deposited in ZMUC is
here designated: ♀, ‘P: costata’; ‘Mus. Seh. & T. L.’;
‘LECTOTYPE | Phalaena | costata Fabricius | Des. B.
Landry, 2015’. The wings of this specimen are unspread
but the forewing length is 13.0 mm. This species belongs
to another group of species, exemplied by D. costata
(Fabricius, 1775), that have a long phallus and a long
ductus bursae (Fig. 182) (manuscript in prep., MAS).
There is no specimen of Phalaena costata in Fabricius’
personal collection in the ZMUC, but there is one in the
collection of Sehested & Tønder-Lund (O. Karsholt, pers.
comm.), also in the ZMUC. Ole Karsholt (pers. comm.)
also wrote ‘It is not clear from the original description
if Fabricius based the description [of costata] on a
specimen from the Sehested & Tønder-Lund collection,
and it can also have ended up there later on.’ Thus, this
specimen ‘should be considered as a potential syntype.’
and is here designated lectotype upon O. Karsholt’s
recommendation as it agrees with the current concept
of D. costata. Ove Ramel Sehested and Niels Tønder
Lund lived in Copenhagen and were pupils and friends
of Fabricius (Baixeras & Karsholt, 2011). According to
Tuxen (1959) cited in Baixeras & Karsholt (2011), ‘about
one third of all Fabrician insect descriptions are based on
material in the Sehested-Tønder Lund collection.’
Perry & de Vries (2003) briey described the mature larva
and the Galápagos host plant reported, Vallesia glabra
(Cav.) Link (Apocynaceae), occurs in the Galápagos in
two forms. Variety glabra, a tropical American taxon
is indigenous to the Galápagos, occurring on Española,
Floreana, Isabela, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, and
Santiago, while variety pubescens (Andersson) Wiggins
is endemic and found on exactly the same islands
(Jaramillo Díaz & Guézou, 2015).
334 B. Landry
Figs 49-56. Neotropical specimens of Spilomelinae, size not to scale. (49, 50) Rhectocraspeda periusalis. (49) ♂, Galápagos,
Santiago, Central, 700 m, 9.iv.1992, MHNG. (50) ♀, Galápagos, Isabela, ± 15 km N Pto Villamil, 25.v.1992, MHNG.
(51, 52) Salbia haemorrhoidalis. (51) ♂, Galápagos, San Cristóbal, antiguo botadero, ca. 4 km SE Pto Baquerizo, 169 m,
22.ii.2005, MHNG. (52) ♂, Ecuador, Pichincha, Septimo Paraiso Reserve, ± 1300 m, 8.v.2002, MHNG. (53, 54) Samea
castellalis. (53) ♀, Galápagos, Santiago, close to Caseta, 686 m, 6.iii.2005, MHNG. (54) ♂, Galápagos, San Cristóbal,
pampa zone, 15.ii.1989, CNC. (55, 56) Samea coffea. (55) ♀ holotype, CNC. (56) ♂ paratype, Galápagos, San Cristóbal,
4 km SE Pto Baquerizo, 12.ii.1989, CNC.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 335
Diaphania hyalinata (L., 1767)
Figs 15, 100, 146
Phalaena Geometra hyalinata Linnaeus, 1767: 874.
Diaphania hyalinata (L.): Peck et al., 1998: 227. ‒ Causton et
al., 2006: 141. ‒ Roque-Albelo & Landry, 2015.
Material examined: 4 ♂, 12 ♀, 53 of undetermined sex
from the Galápagos Islands: – Baltra: South Seymour
[without precise locality]. – Fernandina: SW side, crater
rim, GPS: 1341 m elev[ation]., S 00° 21.910’, W 91°
34.034’. – Isabela: 3 km N S[an]to Tómas, Agr[iculture].
Zone; Sierra Negra, 11 km N Puerto Villamil, GPS: S
00° 87.613’, W 91° 00.903’; NE slope Alcedo, near
pega-pega camp, GPS: 483 m elev., S 00° 24.029’, W 91°
02.895’; Alcedo, lado NE, 1100 m, cumbre, caseta Cayot.
Marchena: [no precise locality]. – Pinta: ± 50 m elev.;
200 m elev. – Santa Cruz: Academy Bay; Media Luna,
pampa zone; transition zone, recently cut road, GPS:
S 00°42.528’, W 90°18.849’; Finca Vilema, 2 km W
Bella Vista; Los Gemelos. – Santiago: NE side, close to
Caseta, GPS: 686 m elev., S 00°14.177’, W 90°44.619’.
Deposited in CAS, CDRS, CNC, MCZ, and MHNG.
Diagnosis: In the Galápagos this species (Fig. 15) is
similar to Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Fig. 16), but
it is generally larger (26-29 mm versus 19-25 mm) and
its forewing dark brown marginal band is straight until
the inner margin whereas this terminal band slightly
expands anteriorly before reaching the inner margin in
D. indica.
Biology: Robinson et al. (2014) record several host
plant species in the Cucurbitaceae, as well as odd
records on Araceae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae,
Rosaceae, and Verbenaceae. In the Galápagos,
specimens of this species were collected mostly at
higher elevations, from the transition zone up to the
pampa zone for example at the rim of the volcano on
Fernandina at 1341 m above sea level, but it was also
found on the littoral zone of Marchena. The habitats
at the collecting localities are mostly pristine or
modied by goats, but moths were also collected in the
agriculture zone of Santa Cruz. Collecting dates of the
Galápagos specimens are in February until May.
Distribution: This Western Hemisphere native is
found in North America from south eastern Canada
throughout the USA, Mexico, south throughout Central
and South America, and across the West Indies (BMNH
specimens; Heppner, 2003; Patterson et al., 2015;
Powell & Opler, 2009). Elsewhere it is now known
also from Asia (Robinson et al., 2014) and there are old
records from Europe (Slamka, 2013). In the Galápagos
I have examined specimens from several islands as
listed above. In addition, a specimen in the CDRS with
a single small label with just ‘11’ on it refers to notes
mentioning the occurrence of this species on Floreana,
Isabela, and Santa Cruz. However, there is a second
specimen with a label mentioning this number ‘11’ and
these same island data, but this specimen belongs to
Diaphania indica (Saunders), treated below.
Remarks: I conrmed the identication of a Galápagos
specimen by comparing it with specimens in the
BMNH.
Diaphania indica (Saunders, 1851)
Figs 16, 101, 147
Eudioptes [sic] indica Saunders, 1851: 163.
Diaphania indica (Saunders): Peck et al., 1998: 227. ‒ Causton
et al., 2006: 141. ‒ Roque-Albelo & Landry, 2015.
Material examined: 6 ♀, 13 of undetermined sex from
the Galápagos Islands: – San Cristóbal: 4 km SE P[uer]
to Baquarizo [sic]; La Toma, ca. 6.5 km east El Progreso,
GPS: 299 m elev[ation]., S 00° 55.356’, W 89° 31.089’.
Santa Cruz: Charles Darwin Research Station; Charles
Darwin Research Station, base of El Barranco, GPS: S
00° 44.305’, W 90° 18.105’; Horneman Farm, 220 m;
Media Luna, pampa zone. Deposited in CAS, CDRS,
CNC, MCZ, and MHNG.
Diagnosis: In the Galápagos this species (Fig. 16) is
similar to Diaphania hyalinata (L.) (Fig. 15), but it is
generally smaller (19-25 mm versus 26-29 mm) and its
forewing dark brown marginal band slightly expands
anteriorly before reaching the inner margin whereas
this terminal band is straight until the inner margin in
D. hyalinata.
Biology: The larva feeds on various Cucurbitaceae, but
it has also been recorded on Annonaceae, Fabaceae,
Malvaceae, Oleaceae, Poaceae, and others (Robinson et
al., 2014). In the Galápagos, in contrast to D. hyalinata,
D. indica was collected mostly in anthropized habitats
in the littoral zone, but also in the highest (pampa) zone
at about 700 m in elevation on Santa Cruz. Collecting
dates of the available Galápagos specimens are in
February and March.
Distribution: Around the world in tropical, subtropical
and warm temperate regions on all continents (including
Australia) and many islands (BMNH and MHNG
specimens; Shaffer et al., 1996; Robinson et al.,
2014). In the Galápagos it has been collected so far
on San Cristóbal and Santa Cruz, but see above under
Distribution for Diaphania hyalinata (L.).
Remarks: I conrmed the identication of a Galápagos
specimen by comparing it with specimens in the
BMNH. The latter had been curated by Michael Shaffer,
who wrote to Jack Clarke about two syntypes of D.
indica found in the University Museum of Oxford and
his manuscript lectotype and paralectotype designations,
made available by Clarke (1986: 80).
336 B. Landry
Figs 57-64. Galápagos specimens of Spilomelinae, size not to scale. (57, 58) Samea inconspicuella. (57) ♂ holotype, CNC. (58)
paratype, Santiago, close to Caseta, 686 m, 6.iii.2005, MHNG. (59, 60) Sisyracera inabsconsalis. (59) ♀, Santa Cruz,
NNW Bella Vista, 225 m, 18.ii.2005, MHNG. (60) ♂, Rábida, tourist trail, 3.iv.1992, MHNG. (61, 62) Sisyracera
jacquelinae. (61) ♀ holotype, MHNG. (62) ♂ paratype, Isabela, Sierra Negra, Corazon Verde, xi-xii.1974, BMNH ©, the
Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London. (63) Spoladea recurvalis ♂, Santa Cruz, E.C.C.D., 4.iii.1992, MHNG.
(64) Syngamia orella ♀, Santa Cruz, agriculture zone, near (NNW) Bella Vista, 223 m, 7.iv.2004, MHNG.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 337
Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll, 1781)
Figs 17, 102, 148
Phalaena Pyralis nitidalis Stoll in Cramer & Stoll, 1781: 160.
Diaphania nitidalis (Cramer): Causton et al., 2006: 141. ‒
Roque-Albelo & Landry, 2015.
Material examined: 2 ♂ from the Galápagos Islands.
Santa Cruz: low agriculture zone, GPS: S 00°42.132’, W
90° 19.156’; Horneman Farm, 220 m. Deposited in CAS,
MHNG.
Diagnosis: This species (Fig. 17) is unlike any other
in the Galápagos by virtue of its brown lustred purple
forewing with a large pale yellow patch postmedially
and the hindwing similarly coloured brown along the
margin and pale yellow from base to beyond middle.
The wingspan of the only spread Galápagos specimen is
29.5 mm.
Biology: Host records are various Cucurbitaceae, for
example in genera Citrullus, Cucurbita, Cucumis, Luffa,
Momordica, Sechium and Sichana, but there is also one
record in the Cactaceae (Robinson et al., 2014). In the
Galápagos the two specimens at hand were collected in
the agriculture zone in February and March.
Distribution: This species is found widely in the
Western Hemisphere, from the USA across the
Americas South to Argentina and including the West
Indies (BMNH and MHNG specimens; Heppner, 2003;
Robinson et al., 2014). From the Galápagos I have seen
only specimens from Santa Cruz, but Causton et al.
(2006) also report it from San Cristóbal.
Remark: I conrmed the identication of the
Galápagos specimens with identied specimens in the
BMNH.
Ercta Walker, 1859
Seven species of Ercta are now recognized (Nuss et al.,
2016), two of which occur in the Neotropical region
(Munroe, 1995).
Ercta vittata (Fabricius, 1794)
Figs 18, 103, 149
Phalaena vittata Fabricius, 1794: 217. ‒ Roque-Albelo &
Landry, 2015.
Material examined: 7 ♂, 20 ♀, 2 of undetermined sex
from the Galápagos Islands: – Genovesa: Bahía Darwin.
Marchena: [no precise locality]. – Pinta: Plaja Ibbeston
[sic]; Cabo Ibbetson, 8 m elev[ation]., N 00° 32.819’, W
90° 44.229’; arid zone; ± 15 m elev.; ± 50 m elev.; 200 m
elev. Deposited in BMNH, CDRS, and MHNG.
Diagnosis: This medium-sized species (20-23 mm in
wingspan) is unique among the Galápagos lepidopteran
fauna by virtue of its grey forewing adorned with a
black and white longitudinal streak along midline from
base of wing until a pair of superposed black dots with
white centre at the end of the cell (Fig. 18). There is also
usually a thin black line from 2/3 dorsum to about 3/4 on
costa and the termen is dotted black. The grey hindwing
also has a black dotted termen and it also has a thin
postmedian black line and two small black dots towards
base medially.
Biology: The host plant and immatures are unknown
(see Remarks below). Galápagos specimens have been
collected in March and April mostly at low elevations, up
to 200 m, only on three islands that were never inhabited,
but which (at least Pinta) suffered degradations from
introduced goats and the elimination of the giant tortoises.
Distribution: Described from ‘Americae meridionalis
Insulis’ (Islands in South America) and widespread
across the West Indies and South America from Paraguay
and north (BMNH specimens), this species occurs as
well in Costa Rica (www.boldsystems.org ) and Florida,
USA (Heppner, 2003; Patterson et al., 2015). From the
Galápagos I have seen specimens only from Genovesa,
Marchena, and Pinta.
Remarks: I have identied Galápagos specimens by
comparison with specimens in the BMNH, including
a dissected male. The larva has been recorded to feed
on Euclasta torquillalis and Atomopteryx torquillalis
(Heppner, 2003; Robinson et al., 2014), but this species
name refers to a moth described by Möschler (1890) and
a synonym of Ercta vittata (see Nuss et al., 2016).
Herpetogramma Lederer, 1863
One-hundred species are included in this genus (Nuss
et al., 2016), 38 of which are mentioned from the
Neotropical region (Munroe, 1995).
Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794)
Figs 19, 104, 150
Phalaena bipunctalis Fabricius, 1794: 232.
Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius): Peck et al., 1998: 227.
‒ Causton et al., 2006: 141. ‒ Roque-Albelo & Landry,
2015.
Material examined: lectotype of synonym Botys
philealis Walker, 1859, 3 ♂, 2 ♀ from the Galápagos
Islands: – Genovesa: Bahía Darwin. – Isabela: ± 15 km
N P[uer]to Villamil. – Santa Cruz: Charles Darwin
Research Station; Charles Darwin Research Station,
Barranco, 20 m elev[ation]. – Santiago: Jaboncillo
[camp], ± 850 m elev. Deposited in MHNG.
Diagnosis: Measuring 23 to 25 mm in wingspan, this
pale tan species can be recognized by its slightly darker
338 B. Landry
Figs 65-72. Neotropical specimens of Spilomelinae, size not to scale. (65, 66) Synclera jarbusalis. (65) ♂, Brazil, Bahía, Camacan, Res.
Serra Bonita, 800 m, 8.iv.2011, MHNG. (66) ♀, Venezuela, Aragua, PN H.-Pittier, Paso Portachuelo, 1136 m, 21.vii.2009,
MHNG. (67, 68) Terastia meticulosalis. (67) ♀, Galápagos, Santa Cruz, casa L. Roque-Albelo & V. Cruz, 137 m,
27.ii.2005, MHNG. (68) ♂, Brazil, Mato Grosso, environs de Dourados, iii.1966, MHNG. (69, 70) Udea galapagensis.
(69) ♂ holotype, MHNG. (70) paratype ♀, Galápagos, San Cristóbal, El Junco, east side, 654 m, 25.ii.2005, MHNG. (71,
72) Udea sideralis. (71) holotype ♂, MHNG. (72) paratype ♀, Santiago, N side, 527 m, 5.iii.2005, MHNG.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 339
forewing costa and apex, as well as by the two small
contrasting eponymous dots in the cell, with the apical
slightly bigger (Fig. 19). Herpetogramma phaeopteralis
(Figs 20, 21) is much darker and its darker markings are
poorly apparent. Paler specimens of Asciodes quietalis
(Fig. 6) are more evenly coloured on the forewing,
without darker costa and apex, their transverse lines are
zigzagged, and their apical cell dot is quadrangular with
the centre concolourous with the forewing background.
Biology: The larva has been recorded to feed on
a wide variety of host plants in the Acanthaceae,
Amaranthaceae, Araceae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae,
Chenopodiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Hy-
drangeaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Schi-
sandraceae, Solanaceae, Tiliaceae, Urticaceae,
Zingiberaceae (Robinson et al., 2014). In the Galápagos
the ve specimens available have been collected from
March until May in anthropized as well as pristine ha-
bitats from the littoral zone to about 850 m in elevation.
Distribution: Described from ‘Americae Insulis’
(American Islands) this species is widespread across
the World, including Australia in warmer regions, and
the Western Hemisphere from Canada and eastern USA,
across the West Indies and south to Argentina (Shaffer
et al., 1996; Patterson et al., 2015; Robinson et al.,
2014). It is known in the Galápagos from the islands of
Genovesa, Isabela, Santa Cruz, and Santiago.
Remarks: I have identied Galápagos specimens based
on specimens in the BMNH. Michael Shaffer, former
curator of Pyraloidea at the BMNH, pinned a note under
one specimen saying that it was conspecic with this
species. The type would be in Copenhagen. A female
lectotype for the synonym Botys philealis Walker,
1859, is designated with the following labels: 1- ‘47 | 9’
[recto], ‘Vene | zuela’ [verso] [circular, pale blue, hand
written]; 2- ‘74. BOTYS PHILEALIS.’ [typed, folded];
3- ‘Type’ [circular, green bordered, typed]; 4- ‘1953
| 424’ [hand written, upside down]; 5- ‘Lecto | type’
[circular, navy blue bordered, typed]; 6- ‘LECTOTYPE
| Botys | philealis | Walker | Des. B. Landry, 2000’ [hand
written except for Latin name, describer, and last two
zeros]’; 7- ‘B.M. Pyralidae | Genitalia slide | No. 22278
♀’ [typed except for female sign]; 8- LECTOTYPE |
designated by | A. Solis, 2009’ [typed]. A paralectotype
male without abdomen is also designated. The species is
known as the Southern beet webworm (Heppner, 2003).
Herpetogramma phaeopteralis (Guenée, 1854)
Figs 20, 21, 105, 151
Botys phaeopteralis Guenée, 1854: 349.
Herpetogramma phaeopteralis (Guenée): Peck et al., 1998:
227. ‒ Causton et al., 2006: 141. Roque-Albelo &
Landry, 2015.
Material examined
Type specimens: 2 syntypes without abdomen
(BMNH).
Other specimens: 17 ♂, 25 ♀, 17 of undetermined sex
from the Galápagos Islands: – Fernandina: SW side,
GPS: 815 m elev[ation]., S 00° 21.270’, W 91°35.341’;
SW side, crater rim, GPS: 1341 m elev., S 00° 21.910’,
W 91° 34.034’. – Floreana: Scalesias near Cerro Pajas,
GPS: elev. 329 m, S 01° 17.743’, W 90° 27.111’. –
Isabela: Alcedo, lado NE, camp arida alta, 200 m; Alcedo,
lado NE, 400 m, camp pega-pega; ± 15 km N P[uer]to
Villamil; Sierra Negra, Corazon Verde; NE slope Alcedo,
Los Guayabillos camp, GPS: 869 m elev., S 00° 24.976’,
W 91° 04.617’; Sierra Negra, pampa zone, 1000 m
[elevation]; Alcedo, lado NE, 1100 m, cumbre, caseta
Cayot. – San Cristóbal: near Loberia, sea level, GPS:
S 00° 55.277’, W 89° 36.909’; near Loberia, sea level,
GPS: elev. 14 m, S 00° 55.149’, W 89° 36.897’; 1 km S
El Progreso; base of Cerro Pelado; La Toma, ca. 6.5 km
east El Progreso, GPS: 299 m elev., S 00° 55.356’, W 89°
31.089’; vic[inity]. El Junco, ca. 700 m; pampa zone. –
Santa Cruz: 2 km W Bella Vista; Finca Vilema, 2 km W
Bella Vista; Media Luna, pampa zone. – Santiago: 200 m
elev.; Aguacate [camp], 520 m elev.; Central [camp],
700 m elev.; Jaboncillo [camp], ± 850 m elev. Deposited
in BMNH, CDRS, CNC, MCZ, and MHNG.
Diagnosis: This 18-22.5 mm wide species (Figs 20,
21) can be difcult to separate from four other brown
species in the Galápagos by virtue of their darker
brown markings. The key below, which excludes the
similarly coloured Beebea guglielmi, because of its
larger, 58-72 mm wingspan, should be sufcient for that
purpose.
Biology: The recorded host plants are mostly Poaceae,
but also Amaranthaceae and Polygonaceae in the
Western Hemisphere (Robinson et al., 2014). Available
Galápagos specimens were collected in all vegetation
zones, up to the top of several islands, in anthropized
as well as more natural habitats although at one
time colonized by goats or other feral farm animals.
Collecting dates are in January until May and November
and December.
Distribution: Described from ‘toute l’Amérique
méridionale’, this species is widespread across the
Western Hemisphere from the USA (mostly in the south,
but also as far north as Minnesota) to Argentina and
across the West Indies (BMNH specimens; Patterson et
al., 2015). Elsewhere it is also reported from Africa (De
Prins & De Prins, 2015) as well as India and Sri Lanka
(Robinson et al., 2014). In the Galápagos the available
specimens are from Fernandina, Floreana, Isabela, San
Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, and Santiago.
340 B. Landry
Figs 73-80. Neotropical specimens of Spilomelinae. (73, 74) Diaphania costata. (73) ♀ lectotype, ZMUC. (74) lectotype labels. (75-
78) Sisyracera inabsconsalis. (75) ♀ lectotype of Samea inabsconsalis, ZMB. (76) S. inabsconsalis lectotype labels. (77)
Samea contortilinealis Hampson ♀ holotype, BMNH. (78) S. contortilinealis holotype labels, BMNH. (79) Paralectotype
(left) and lectotype of Asciodes gordialis, BMNH. (80) Samea ecclesialis ♂, Brazil, Bahía, Camacan, Res. Serra Bonita,
800 m, 27.iii.2011, MHNG. Figs 77-79 under copyright and permission of the Trustees of the Natural History Museum,
London.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 341
Remarks: I have identied Galápagos specimens by
comparing them with two syntypes from Cayenne,
French Guiana and ‘Canad?’ without abdomen in the
BMNH. The species was described from 15 specimens
and I concur with Munroe (1995: 167) to refrain from
designating a lectotype as better syntypes may turn up.
The species is known as the Tropical sod webworm
(Heppner, 2003).
Hymenia Hübner, 1825
A genus of only three species (Nuss et al., 2016), one
of which occurring in the Western Hemisphere (Munroe,
1995).
Hymenia perspectalis (Hübner, 1796)
Figs 22, 23, 106, 152
Pyralis perspectalis Hübner, 1796: 18.
Hymenia perspectalis (Hübner): Parkin et al., 1972: 104.
Linsley, 1977: 37. ‒ Peck et al., 1998: 227. ‒ Causton et
al., 2006: 141. ‒ Roque-Albelo & Landry, 2015.
Material examined: 13 ♂, 32 ♀, 22 of undetermined
sex from the Galápagos Islands: – Española: Bahía
Manzanillo; Las Tunas Trail, 100 m elev[ation]. –
Fernandina: SW side, crater rim, GPS: 1341 m elev.,
S 00° 21.910’, W 91° 34.034’. – Isabela: Tagus Cove;
± 15 km N P[uer]to Villamil; V[olcan]. Darwin, 300 m
elev.; Albermarle, San[to] Tomas, 1200 f[ee]t; V. Darwin,
630 m elev.; V. Darwin, 1000 m elev.; Alcedo, lado NE,
1100 m, cumbre, caseta Cayot. – Pinta: ± 15 m elev.;
200 m elev.; 400 m elev. – San Cristóbal: La Toma,
ca. 6.5 km east El Progreso, GPS: 299 m elev., S 00°
55.356’, W 89° 31.089’. – Santa Cruz: Charles Darwin
Research Station; Bahía Conway; low agriculture zone,
GPS: S 00°42.132’, W 90° 19.156’; Finca Vilema, 2 km
W Bella Vista; Horneman Farm, 200 m; Horneman
Farm, 220 m; Los Gemelos. – Santiago: San Salvador,
Bahia James; Bahía Espumilla; N side, GPS: 147 m
elev., S 00° 12.186’, W 090° 42.888’; 200 m elev.; N
side, GPS: 437 m elev., S 00° 13.316’, W 090° 43.808’;
Aguacate [camp], 520 m elev.; NE side, close to Caseta,
GPS: 686 m elev., S 00°14.177’, W 90°44.619’; Central
[camp], 700 m elev.; Jaboncillo [camp], ± 850 m elev..
Deposited in AMNH, BMNH, CAS, CDRS, CNC, and
MHNG.
Diagnosis: Quite variable in size, with a wingspan
between 15 and 21 mm, this dark brown species
(Figs 22, 23) is most similar to Spoladea recurvalis
(Fabricius) (Fig. 63), which is somewhat paler brown.
Their white markings differ in the forewing by the
Key to the brown Galápagos species of Spilomelinae with darker brown markings, excluding Beebea guglielmi
Schaus
1 Forewing ground colour golden brown, with distinct darker brown markings as complete basal, antemedial, and
postmedial fasciae, and orbicular and reniform stigmata at base and end of cell respectively; hindwing linear
markings also distinct, without other spots; wingspan usually above 22.5 mm (20-26 mm); male antenna evenly
thin (Fig. 48) ..................................................................................................................Psara chathamalis (Schaus)
1’ Forewing ground colour greyish brown to dark brown, with darker brown markings often indistinct, without
apparent basal line, usually with only reniform stigma apparent; hindwing markings as poorly dened fascia(e),
with or without antemedian spot or short dash, or two spots; wingspan below 22.5 mm; male antenna thickened at
base in one species .................................................................................................................................................... 2
2 Forewing reniform stigma contrasting, comma shaped; hindwing with shorter scales of fringe dark greyish brown
and longer scales white; wingspan 18-22 mm; male antenna thickened at base and hindwing anal sector enlarged
(Figs 49, 50) ...................................................................................................... Rhectocraspeda periusalis (Walker)
2’ Forewing reniform stigma more or less contrasting, rarely comma shaped in one species; hindwing never with
longer scales of fringe white, although sometimes paler than basal scales; wingspan 16-22.5 mm; male antenna not
thickened at base and hindwing anal sector not enlarged ......................................................................................... 3
3 Wingspan 18-22.5 mm; forewing reniform stigma a small spot or short dash; hindwing with one small contrasting
spot or short dash in cell (Figs 20, 21) ......................................................Herpetogramma phaeopteralis (Guenée)
3’ Wingspan 15-20 mm; forewing reniform stigma large, variable, sometimes with paler centre or with second
encircling ring; hindwing either with two clearly contrasting spots or an indistinct line ........................................4
4 Dark brown; forewing reniform stigma squarish, with paler centre; hindwing with indistinct fascia(e); termen with
contrasting dark spots on veins of both wings; sexes dissimilar with male sporting distinctly elongate abdomen and
forewing fovea (Figs 44, 45) .......................................................................................... Penestola bufalis (Guenée)
4’ Drab to dark greyish brown; forewing reniform stigma variable, often with thin dark line encircling other marking,
‘U’ shaped to ‘8’ shaped; hindwing with two distinct spots in cell and postmedian fascia; termen with contrasting
dark spots on veins of both wings sometimes slightly darker between veins; sexes not overly dissimilar in abdominal
length (Figs 69, 70) .............................................................................................................Udea galapagensis sp. n.
342 B. Landry
Figs 81-91. Segment VIII of new Galápagos Spilomelinae species described herein. (81) Agathodes galapagensis, tergite above:
slide CNC PYR 365. (82) Desmia mordor, tergite folded unto itself: slide MHNG-ENTO-8668. (83) Diaphania
galapagensis: slide MHNG-ENTO-8934. (84) Lineodes corinnae, slide BL 1802. (85) L. vulcanalis: slide BMNH Pyr
21191. (86) Neoleucinodes galapagensis: slide MHNG-ENTO-9025. (87) Samea coffea: slide MHNG-ENTO-8719. (88)
S. inconspicuella: slide CNC PYR 367. (89) Sisyracera jacquelinae: slide BMNH Pyr 21188. (90) Udea galapagensis:
slide MHNG-ENTO-8717. (91) U. sideralis: slide MHNG-ENTO-9024. Figs 85, 89 under copyright and permission of
the Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 343
thin median fascia from the dorsum not touching the
discocellular stigma in H. perspectalis, wider and
touching the discocellular stigma in S. recurvalis, and
on the hindwing by the thin fascia presenting a median
bilobed projection medially on the external margin
in H. perspectalis compared to the wider and evenly
margined fascia of S. recurvalis. Cryptobotys zoilusalis
(Walker) (Figs 10, 11) also has white to cream fasciae,
but these are very thin and that of the hindwing doesn’t
have a bilobed projection medially.
Biology: Reputed to be polyphagous, this species has
been reared on host plants in the family Amaranthaceae,
Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Balsaminaceae, Chenopo-
diaceae, Fabaceae, Liliaceae, Scrophulariaceae,
and Solanaceae (Robinson et al., 2014). Galápagos
specimens have been collected from February until
May in all altitudinal zones, up to the top of volcanoes,
such as at 1341 m on Fernandina, in a diverse range of
habitats.
Distribution: Based on specimens in the BMNH
and MHNG this species is widespread in the Western
Hemisphere from the USA to Argentina and the West
Indies, but it occurs also in tropical and subtropical
locales of Africa (De Prins & De Prins, 2015) and
India (Robinson et al., 2014) and other islands such as
Aldabra in the Indian Ocean (Shaffer & Munroe, 2007).
Widespread in the Galápagos, it has been found so far
on the seven islands listed above.
Remarks: I conrmed the identication of Galápagos
specimens by comparing them with the original
description and specimens in the BMNH. The type
material pertaining to this species is lost, but the
illustration in the original description (pl. 16 g. 101)
provided by Hübner leaves no doubt as to the identity
of this species. The type locality is recorded as England,
but the species is not resident in Europe, nor a regular
migrant (Slamka, 2013; Nuss et al., 2016).
Lineodes Guenée, 1854
Thirty-six species make up this predominantly Western
Hemisphere genus (Nuss et al., 2016) with 33 having
been described from the Neotropical region (Munroe,
1995).
Lineodes corinnae sp. n.
Figs 25-27, 84, 107, 153
Material examined
Holotype: ♀, ‘ECUADOR [sideways on left side] |
GALÁPAGOS | Santa Crúz | Los Gemelos | 31.I.1989,
M[ercury]V[apour]L[ight] | [legit] B. Landry’;
‘HOLOTYPE | Lineodes | corinnae | B. Landry’.
Deposited in the CNC.
Paratypes: 3 ♂, 48 ♀ from the Galápagos Islands. –
Isabela: 1 ♀, Albermarle, Volcan Sierra Negra (= Santo
Tomas), Corazon Verde, 360 m, i.1971 (B.M. 1971-79,
Ref. No. L 118); 1 ♀, 3 km N S[an]to Tómas, Agr[iculture].
Zone, 8.iii.1989, M[ercury]V[apour]L[ight] (B. Landry);
7 ♀ (one dissected, slide MHNG-ENTO-8678), NE
slope Alcedo, ca. 400 m up (S) Los Guayabillos camp,
GPS: 892 m elev[ation]., S 00° 25.208’, W 91° 04.765’,
1.iv.2004, u[ltra]v[iolet]l[ight] (B. Landry, P. Schmitz);
1 ♂ (dissected, slide MHNG-ENTO-8677), NE slope
Alcedo, Los Guayabillos camp, GPS: 869 m elev., S
00° 24.976’, W 91° 04.617’, 2.iv.2004, uvl (B. Landry,
P. Schmitz); 1 ♂, 9 ♀, Alcedo, lado NE, 700 m, camp
guayabillos, 16.iv.2002, uvl (B. Landry, L. Roque);
2 ♀, Alcedo, lado NE, 1100 m, cumbre, caseta Cayot,
17.iv.2002, uvl (B. Landry, L. Roque); 2 ♀, V[olcan].
Darwin, 630 m elev., 16.v.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1
(slide BL 1802), Albermarle, San[to] Tomas, 1200 ft
alt[itude]., 23.viii.[19]06 (F.X. Williams); 2 ♀, Alcedo,
1100 m elev., 13.x.1998, uvl (L. Roque); 1 ♀, Sierra
Negra, Alemania, xi.1974 (T.J. de Vries, B.M. 1976-
58); 1 ♀, Sierra Negra, Corazon Verde, xi-xii.1974 (T.J.
de Vries, B.M. 1976-58). – Santa Cruz: 6 ♀, same data
as holotype; 1 ♀, Horneman Farm, 220 m, 5.iv.1964
(D.Q. Cavagnaro); 1 ♀, Los Gemelos, 4.v.2002, uvl (B.
Landry, L. Roque); 1 ♀ (slide MHNG-ENTO-8682),
Los Gemelos, 27.v.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 2 ♀, [no
specic locality or collector], vi.1970 (B.M. 1970-
567, Ref. No. L. 118). – Santiago: 4 ♀, N side, GPS:
527 m elev., S 00° 13.690°, W 90° 44.135’, 5.iii.2005,
uvl (P. Schmitz); 1 ♀, NE side, close to Caseta, GPS :
686 m elev., S 00°14.177’, W 90°44.619’, 6.iii.2005, uvl
(P. Schmitz); 1 ♀, Highlands, los jaboncillos [camp],
820 m, 63.iv.1974 (B.M. 1975-7); 5 ♀ (one dissected,
slide MHNG-ENTO-8681), Central [camp], 700 m elev.,
MVL (B. Landry). Deposited in BMNH, CAS, CDRS,
CNC, and MHNG.
Diagnosis: The females (Figs 25, 26), which have a
wingspan of 13-18 mm, will be distinguished from
congeners by the combination of markings of various
shades of brown and the simple, thin, white postmedian
line paralleling the termen for most of its length. The
otherwise mostly dark brown hindwing also has a white
to pale yellow spot, often v-shaped, between CuA2 and
A1 submarginally. The males (Fig. 27), with a wingspan
of 13 mm, are noticeably darker than the females and
with less apparent markings.
Etymology: I take pleasure in naming this species
after my colleague Corinne Reuteler, for her always
enthusiastic and professional technical assistance and
for her friendship.
Description: Male (n=3) (Fig. 27). Head with frons
at, vestiture appressed, with mixed colours including
various shades of brown, yellowish orange, and
more or less pure white, bulging occiput with mostly
344 B. Landry
Figs 92-94. Male genitalia of Galápagos Spilomelinae, a and b from same slides, but not to scale, (a) showing the genitalia without
phallus and (b), the phallus. (92) Agathodes designalis: slide CNC Pyr 369, Isabela. (93) A. galapagensis paratype: slide
CNC Pyr 365. (94) Asciodes quietalis: slide MHNG-ENTO-8662, Santiago.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 345
broad appressed scales directed anteromedially;
antenna liform, with reduced slightly erect vestiture
of 3 scales at base and 0-2 just beyond except for
laterally incomplete ring of basal scales on last 15
or so agellomeres, ciliation dense on conspicuous
protruding bases, shorter than width of agellomeres
to about as wide toward apex, scales dark brown with
ventral cream patch on scape, mostly greyish brown
with paler base beyond, with some yellowish on basal
agellomeres; maxillary palpus dark brown, with scales
projecting forward slightly beyond frons; labial palpus
porrect, projecting beyond frons for slightly more
than 1.5X eye diameter, mostly dark brown with few
orange scales laterally and along dorsal margin, white
at base ventrally and cream to yellowish orange at base
medially; haustellum yellowish orange. Thorax dorsally
mostly with dark greyish brown scales with paler base,
with few paler greyish brown and orange scales, white
as narrow transverse band postmedially and along
edges of metascutum. Foreleg coxa cream to yellowish
orange with scattered dark brown and chestnut brown
scales; femur as coxa, with black patch around distal
1/3; tibia blackish brown, with white ventrally at base
and at apex dorsally; tarsomere I blackish brown with
white at base, II dark greyish brown with white at base,
III-V unicoloured greyish brown. Midleg femur as on
foreleg but without black patch; tibia blackish brown
with more or less dense scattering of white scales,
especially on basal half, spurs well developed though
short, blackish brown and dirty white; tarsomeres as
on foreleg. Hindleg femur as on midleg, but more
uniformly blackish brown at base; tibia as on midleg,
with 2 pairs of spurs also short and coloured as on
midleg; tarsomeres as on midleg. Forewing length:
6.0 mm (wingspan: 13.0 mm). Forewing vestiture as
shown, sometimes with white postmedian lines more
prominent, the outer one connecting above dorsal
margin with thin subapical white line barely apparent
in specimen shown. Abdomen dorsally blackish brown
with white along all margins of whole of tergite I and
on apical margin of tergites II-VII, also with chestnut
brown medially on tergites II and III, and increasingly
more laterally on tergites IV-VI, forming inverted
V, basal scales apically covering genitalia blackish
brown, longer apical scales paler greyish brown to
dirty white; ventrally blackish brown, mottled with pale
greyish brown, chestnut brown, white, and yellowish
orange scales, with apical margin of each tergite white,
although blackish brown medially on rst three tergites.
Segment VIII with sclerotization pattern as shown
(Fig. 84).
Male genitalia (n=2) (Fig. 107). Uncus short, basically
straight, of medium girth, with slightly enlarged bare
base with rounded lateral margins, dorsally adorned
with thick, blunt spines on distal 3/5 and with a few
short setae on second fth of length. Subscaphium short,
not reaching tip of uncus, lightly sclerotized. Tegumen
wide with complete cover and thickened margins except
medially at apex and base. Pseudognathos laterally
narrow, disconnected medially. Transtilla a pair of broad
plates with median membranous connection the length
of one plate. Valva quadrangular, with apex slightly
rounded, with more thickly sclerotized dorsal margin
slightly concave, medially on dorsal half at base with
short, shortly setose low ridge connected at base with
transtilla and followed by broad, triangular bula with
rounded angles almost touching ventral margin. Juxta
almost a perfect circle. Vinculum with arms slightly
enlarging on dorsal half; saccus bulbous, directed
anterodorsally and slightly concave medially. Phallus an
almost straight, homogeneously sclerotized tube about as
long as valva; vesica with section of 1/3 length of shaft
set with 30 or more short spine-like cornuti.
Female (n=49) (Figs 25, 26): Antenna with ciliation less
conspicuous than in male, with complete set of scales on
each agellomere, including complete basal ring except
on rst few agellomeres without ventral scales; most
scales appressed, but basal rings partly erect toward apex
of agellum; blackish brown to dark brown with orange
on scape, mostly greyish brown but dorsally with white
basal scales on rst few agellomeres. Thorax dorsally
on basal half mottled white, pale and dark greyish brown,
as well as with few orange scales, distal half with scales
white and dark greyish brown with paler bases. Legs with
some yellowish orange scaling also on tibiae of mid- and
hindleg, as well as on tarsomere I. Forewing length: 6.5-
8.5 mm (holotype: 7.0 mm) (wingspan: 14.0-17.5 mm;
holotype: 15.0 mm). Wing vestiture paler brown than in
males, with generally more distinct markings as shown,
with some of them, i.e. at base, medially, and between
subapical and subterminal lines sometimes pale greenish
olive. Abdomen dorsally paler than in male, with blackish
brown most prominent laterally and apical white line of
tergites less conspicuous; ventrally with pale greyish
brown and white scaling more prominent than in male.
Female genitalia (n=3) (Fig. 153). Papillae anales
slightly elongate, almost half as long as wide, slightly
longer dorsally, broadly rounded apically; sclerotized
support band very narrow and short, a thin pointed blade
on each side of apophysis base; posterior apophyses long
and straight, about 3X width of papillae anales, with
narrow enlargement at 2/5. Segment VIII elongate, with
tergum plate dorsally twice as long as on ventral side of
apophyses, with few setae of medium length; without
sternal plates or modications of the membrane posterior
to and around ostium bursae; anterior apophyses about
as long but thicker than posterior apophyses, without
differentiated enlargement subbasally. Ductus bursae
with colliculum dorsoventrally attened, and divided
into two equally long parts, the basal parallel-margined
and more thickly sclerotized dorsally and (apparently
also) ventrally, the second, slightly wider at base and
narrowing, sclerotized more lightly and with inception
of ductus seminalis mediodorsally; subsequent section
346 B. Landry
Figs 95-97. Male genitalia of Galápagos Spilomelinae, a and b from same slides, but not to scale, (a) showing the genitalia without
phallus and (b), the phallus. (95) Beebea guglielmi: slide BMNH Pyr 21172, Santa Cruz, BMNH ©, the Trustees of the
Natural History Museum, London. (96) Cheverella galapagensis paratype: slide MHNG-ENTO-6070. (97) Cryptobotys
zoilusalis: slide MHNG-ENTO-8957, San Cristóbal.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 347
of ductus bursae, from 2/5 to 3/5 narrowing and ridged;
ultimate section very narrow and unmodied. Corpus
bursae small, about half as long as ductus bursae, circular,
without signum or other modications of membrane.
Biology: The host plant of the larva and the immature
stages are unknown. The habitats of the species are at
or above 220 m in elevation, from the agriculture zone
to the rim of the volcanoes on which slopes the species
occurs, in anthropized habitats to others only modied
by goats or other feral farm animals. Collecting dates
are in all months of the year except February, July, and
September.
Distribution: Endemic to the Galápagos, this species
has been found on the islands of Isabela, Santa Cruz,
and Santiago.
Remark: The colliculum of the female ductus bursae
after dissection is so much collapsed onto itself
dorsoventrally that it is not possible to clearly discern
which side (dorsal, ventral, or both) is well sclerotized.
Lineodes fontella Walsingham, 1913
Figs 28, 108, 154
Lineodes fontella Walsingham in Hampson, 1913: 314-315.
Roque-Albelo & Landry, 2015.
Material examined
Holotype: ♀ from Jamaica (BMNH).
Other specimens: 1 ♂, 3 ♀, 3 of undetermined sex
from the Galápagos Islands: – Isabela: 11 km N P[uer]
to Villamil; V[olcan]. Darwin, 300 m elev[ation]. –
Santiago: James Bay, E side near lagoons, alt[itude]. ±
2 m. – Santa Cruz: [more precise locality unrecorded];
NNW Bella Vista, GPS: 225 m elev., S 00° 41.293’,
W 90° 19.665’. Deposited in BMNH, CNC, MCZ, and
MHNG.
Diagnosis: Among Lineodes species, L. fontella is
easily recognized by its wing markings, especially
the round-ended hook of the postmedian line of the
forewing and the two small black dots postmedially on
the hindwing (Fig. 28). See also Hayden et al. (2013). In
Galápagos specimens the wingspan is between 15 and
17 mm.
Biology: The larva has been reared on the fruits
of various species of Physalis (ground cherries,
Solanaceae) (Hayden et al., 2013). In the Galápagos
the four specimens available have been collected in
February, March, and May from sea level up to 300 m
in elevation, in anthropized as well as pristine habitats.
Four species of Physalis occur in the Galápagos,
including the endemic Physalis galapagoensis Waterf.,
which is found on the islands of Española, Fernandina,
Floreana, Isabela, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, and
Santiago (Jaramillo Díaz & Guézou, 2015).
Distribution: Based on museum specimens examined
(BMNH), this species is known from Jamaica, the type
locality, USA (Florida), British Guiana, Suriname,
and Brazil. Hayden et al. (2013) mention it as widely
distributed in the Neotropical region (Brazil, Cuba,
Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Guatemala,
Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama) and in
the southern US. In the Galápagos this species has been
collected on Isabela, Santiago, and Santa Cruz.
Remark: I have compared one of my Galápagos
specimens with material in the BMNH, including the
holotype female from Jamaica (slide BM 1289), for
securing its identication.
Lineodes integra (Zeller, 1873)
Figs 24, 109, 155
Scoptonoma integra Zeller, 1873: 328, 329.
Lineodes integra (Zeller): Peck et al., 1998: 227. ‒ Causton et
al., 2006: 141. ‒ Roque-Albelo & Landry, 2015.
Material examined:
Type specimens: One syntype from Texas (BMNH).
Other specimens: 6 ♂, 15 ♀ from the Galápagos Islands:
Fernandina: SW side, GPS: 815 m elev[ation]., S
00° 21.270’, W 91°35.341’; SW side, crater rim, GPS:
1341 m elev., S 00° 21.910’, W 91° 34.034’. – Isabela:
± 15 km N P[uer]to Villamil; Alcedo, lado NE, 700 m,
camp guayabillos; NE slope Alcedo, ca. 400 m up (S)
Los Guayabillos camp, GPS: 892 m elev., S 00° 25.208’,
W 91° 04.765’; Sierra Negra, Corazon Verde; V[olcan].
Darwin, 1240 m elev. – Pinta: Cabo Ibbetson, 8 m elev.,
N 00° 32.819’, W 90° 44.229’; 200 m elev.; 400 m elev.
Santiago: Aguacate [camp], 520 m elev. Deposited in
BMNH, CDRS, and MHNG.
Diagnosis: The paler crescent at the end of the forewing
cell, the double white postmedian line near the forewing
apex, and the paler submarginal line on the almost
entirely and uniformly dark brown hindwing (Fig. 24)
will distinguish this species from all other members of
the genus. See also Hayden et al. (2013). The Galápagos
specimens examined have a wingspan of 17-23 mm.
Biology: The recorded host plants are a diverse array
of Solanaceae, including a good number of Solanum
species (Hayden et al., 2013; Robinson et al., 2014).
Hayden et al. (2013) mention that young larvae begin
by feeding under leaves, eventually skeletonizing them
while later instars web and roll leaves. When densities
are high, larvae also graze the surface of fruits. Pupation
occurs on the plant. On the Galápagos specimens have
been collected from sea level up to 1341 m in elevation,
in anthropized as well as pristine habitats, from
February until May and in November and December.
The Galápagos ora of Solanaceae is rather rich, with
46 species in 22 genera, including many endemics
(Jaramillo Díaz & Guézou, 2015).
348 B. Landry
Figs 98-100. Male genitalia of Galápagos Spilomelinae, a, b and c from same slides, but not to scale, (a) showing the genitalia without
phallus, (b), the phallus, and (c) is a close-up of the phallus apex showing the cornuti. (98) Desmia mordor paratype:
slide MHNG-ENTO-8668. (99) Diaphania galapagensis paratype: slide MHNG-ENTO-8934. (100) D. hyalinata: slide
MHNG-ENTO-8675, Pinta.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 349
Distribution: Based on BMNH specimens examined,
this species is known from the USA (Texas), Grenada,
Colombia, Honduras, Uruguay, and Cuba. Hayden et al.
(2013) also record it from several additional US states,
up north to Wisconsin and Washington, and south of
the USA in Argentina, Bahamas, Brazil, Costa Rica,
Mexico, and Nicaragua. In the Galápagos specimens
have been collected so far on Fernandina, Isabela, Pinta,
and Santiago.
Remarks: I have compared one of my Galápagos
specimens with the ‘type’ in the BMNH, which has
no abdomen. The species was described from a pair
(Zeller, 1873: 329) from Texas, USA, one of which is
in the BMNH and labelled as the holotype. I refrain
from selecting a lectotype because the other specimen
may be deposited in another collection and still have its
abdomen.
Lineodes vulcanalis sp. n.
Figs 29, 30, 85, 110, 156
Material examined
Holotype: 1♂, ‘GALAPAGOS ISLANDS: | Santa Cruz
(Indefatigable), | VI.1970.’; ‘B.M. 1970-567 | Ref. No.
L. 118’; ‘B. M. Pyralidae | Genitalia slide | No. 21191
♂’; ‘HOLOTYPE | Lineodes | vulcanalis B. Landry’.
Deposited in BMNH.
Paratype: 1 from the Galápagos Islands. Isabela: 1
(dissected, slide B. M. Pyralidae Genitalia slide No.
21192), Sierra Negra, Alemania, xi.1974 (T.J. de Vries)
(B.M. 1976–58). Deposited in BMNH.
Diagnosis: The almost black forewing ground colour
with the only markings as ne antemedian and median
pure white fasciae and an orange patch submarginally
near the tornus will separate this species (Figs 29,
30) from all others of the genus. It is similar to
L. triangulalis Möschler [see Hayden et al. (2013)] and
L. serpulalis Lederer in the presence of orange scaling
submarginally near the forewing tornus, although only
as a small orange line, and several white contrasting
markings such as a wide median fascia and a double
postmedian line in the radial and median sectors.
Lineodes vulcanalis is also similar to Atomopteryx
coelodactyla (Zeller, 1863) described from Venezuela,
but this species is larger (holotype: 15 mm in forewing
length) and the hindwing is paler toward the base and at
least with an inverted, darker crescent at the end of the
cell, and sometimes an indication of a subterminal line.
Etymology: The epithet refers to the dark colour of the
holotype and to the volcanic nature of the Galápagos
archipelago.
Description: Male (n=1) (Fig. 30). Head with frons
protruding slightly, very slightly rounded, with slightly
convex and thickened margin of frontoclypeus, vestiture
short, appressed and mostly black on frons, with orange
on dorsal part of frons, with white band along margin of
eye from base of antenna to apex of frons, short scales
behind eye ventrally orange, longer narrow scales on
occiput mostly dark brown with few orange, projecting
anteromedially; antenna liform, with ventral ciliation
dense and slightly longer than width of agellomeres
all along agellum, scape with scales mostly black, with
white spot at tip, rst few agellomeres with contrasting
rows of basal, yellowish orange and apical, dark greyish
brown appressed scales, with pair of yellowish orange
scales laterally on each side of agellomere basally,
second third of agellum with greyish brown scales
gradually becoming paler and lateral yellowish orange
scales becoming more erect, distal third with scales
all yellowish orange and lateral scales distinctly erect;
maxillary palpus small, directed upward, black scaled;
labial palpus short, directed upward at half right angle,
projecting barely above top of head and anteriorly
for about as long as eye diameter, vestiture mottled
with scales black to dark brown to chestnut brown
with paler bases; haustellum with scales black to dark
brown with slightly paler bases. Thorax dorsally mostly
dark greyish brown with black scales, with small white
patches laterally on mesoscutellum and on metascutum,
also with chestnut brown on mesoscutellum and
metascutum. Foreleg coxa blackish brown with paler
greyish brown toward apex; femur blackish brown on
basal half, with postmedian patch of yellowish orange,
distally dark greyish brown with mixed chestnut
brown; tibia chestnut brown on basal 1/3, blackish
brown beyond; tarsomeres cream, with blackish brown
at tip on rst and second, pale greyish brown at tip of
third. Midleg femur blackish brown with few scattered
chestnut brown scales; tibia cream with scattered darker
scales of different shades of brown, with chestnut brown
patch subbasally followed by blackish brown patch,
blackish brown at tip, only one tiny spur observed,
dirty white; tarsomeres as on foreleg. Hindleg femur
blackish brown with chestnut brown near middle, with
apex on only complete hindleg hidden; single available
tibia with base hidden, blackish brown toward base and
apically, paler cream midsection with scattered chestnut
brown and darker brown scales, one tiny spur observed,
dirty white; tarsomeres cream, with greyish brown
at apex of rst and second. Forewing length: 6.5 mm.
Wingspan not measurable as specimen is not spread.
Forewing vestiture (Fig. 30) blackish brown with
markings as snow white patch at 1/4 inner margin with
few white scales above, snow white line at 1/2 inner
margin curving outward and reaching diffuse dirty white
patch postmedially below costa, with chestnut brown
line on costa before apex, and with orange patch in anal
angle not touching margin; fringe in Medial and Cubital
sectors white, otherwise blackish brown. Hindwing not
visible. Abdomen dorsally mostly blackish brown with
paler based scales, with extensive chestnut brown on
rst tergite and as patches laterally on tergites II-VI,
350 B. Landry
Figs 101-103. Male genitalia of Spilomelinae, a and b from same slides, but not to scale, (a) showing the genitalia without phallus
and b, the phallus. (101) Diaphania indica: slide MHNG-ENTO-8673, Mozambique, Makulane. (102) Diaphania
nitidalis: slide BL 1810, Galápagos, Santa Cruz (CAS). (103) Ercta vittata: slide MHNG-ENTO-9028, Galápagos,
Pinta (MHNG).
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 351
with few orange scales apically on tergite VII; ventrally
blackish brown with scattered paler greyish brown and
chestnut brown scales. Segment VIII with sclerotization
pattern as shown (Fig. 85).
Male genitalia (n=1) (Fig. 110). Uncus short, about 1/3
of length of tegumen, slightly down-curved, of medium
girth, with slightly enlarged bare base, dorsally adorned
with thick, blunt spines on distal 3/5 and with a few
short setae on second fth of length. Subscaphium
narrow, reaching middle of uncus, well sclerotized
distally. Tegumen forming complete cover, narrowing
distally, with slightly concave lateral margins at mid-
length, about twice as long as mid-length width, with
thickened lateral margins and median, longitudinal band
of thicker sclerotization. Pseudognathos laterally narrow
and thickly sclerotized, medially more thinly sclerotized
and enlarged to twice lateral length. Transtilla with
triangular lateral arms disconnected medially by length
of one arm. Valva elongate, 4X as long as median width,
dorsal margin thickly sclerotized on basal half, slightly
concave medially, ventral margin slightly convex, more
thickly sclerotized on basal half, medially at base with
ventrally-directed, diagonal, thickly sclerotized, straight,
thin, and pointed bula with slightly wider base abutting
transtilla. Juxta lightly sclerotized, ‘heart’ shaped, with
narrow base, widening with rounded lateral margins,
apically cleft. Vinculum narrow, horse scapula like, with
thickly sclerotized anterior margin; saccus only slightly
projecting medioventrally. Phallus straight, tube-like,
with slightly enlarged bulbous base, with less thickly
sclerotized dorsal wall, almost 3/4 length of valva; vesica
scobinated, with one single, slightly curved cornutus
about 0.15X length of phallus shaft.
Female (n=1) (Fig. 29): Antenna with ciliation slightly
shorter than width of corresponding agellomeres.
Forewing length: 11.0 mm. Wingspan not measurable
as specimen is not spread. Forewing vestiture less dark
than in male, with more chestnut brown on dorsal half
especially at base and before orange anal patch. Hindwing
pale greyish brown with longitudinal patches of blackish
brown along anal margin and second cubital vein, with
small orange patch submarginally and on dorsal side of
Cu2. Abdomen dorsally with chestnut brown featuring
less prominently on tergites IV-VII than in male.
Female genitalia (n=1) (Fig. 156). Papillae anales of
regular narrow length along whole setose surface;
sclerotized basal margin very narrow and short;
posterior apophyses about as long as width of papillae
anales. Segment VIII with tergum widely sclerotized
dorsally, about 1/3 of dorsal width just before posterior
apophyses, and slightly wider ventrad from apophyses;
with broad, lightly sclerotized and square sternal plate
with lateral margins slightly converging apically
and anterior and posterior margins concave; anterior
apophyses almost twice as long as posterior apophyses,
only very slightly enlarged at 1/4. Membrane around
ostium bursae unmodied. Ductus bursae long and thin,
with basal 1/20th of length membranous, second 20th
forming well sclerotized colliculum, with inception of
ductus seminalis at 3/20, with short enlargement at 7/10
followed by spiculate distal section until corpus bursae.
Corpus bursae circular and short, about 1/4 of length of
ductus bursae, with single signum a small rounded and
spined depression.
Biology: Unknown except for the collecting months, i.e.
June and November.
Distribution: Endemic to the Galápagos and found so
far only on Santa Cruz and Isabela.
Remark: The female paratype specimen possibly
belongs to another species as it is from a different
island of the archipelago than the male holotype, but the
forewing markings do match very well.
Loxomorpha Amsel, 1956
A Western Hemisphere genus containing four species
(Munroe, 1995; Nuss et al., 2016) distributed from Texas
to Argentina.
Loxomorpha cambogialis (Guenée, 1854)
Figs 31, 32, 111, 157
Botys cambogialis Guenée, 1854: 331.
Loxomorpha cambogialis (Guenée): Roque-Albelo & Landry,
2015.
Material examined
Type specimens: ♂ lectotype, paralectotype from
Brazil (BMNH).
Other specimens: 11 ♂, 18 from the Galápagos Islands:
Isabela: Alcedo, lado NE, camp arida alta, 200 m;
Volcan Sierra Negra, Santo Tomas, Corazon Verde,
360 m; Sierra Negra, Corazon Verde; 11 km N Puerto
Villamil; ± 15 km N P[uer]to Villamil. Pinzón: plaja
[sic] Escondida. – San Cristóbal: 4 km SE Pto Baquarizo
[sic]; transition zone, SW El Progreso, GPS: elev[ation].
75 m, S 00°56.359’, W 89° 32.906’. – Santa Cruz: casa
L. Roque-Albelo & V. Cruz, GPS: 137 m elev., 00°
42.595’, W 90° 19.196’; transition zone, recently cut
road, GPS: S 00°42.528’, W 90°18.849’; Horneman
Farm; Horneman Farm, 220 m; Finca Vilema, 2 km W
Bella Vista; Los Gemelos. Deposited in BMNH, CAS,
CDRS, CNC, and MHNG.
Diagnosis: In the Galápagos this species (Figs 31, 32)
is most similar to Neohelvibotys hoecki Landry, 2015,
based on size and general colouration, but it differs
externally by the round frons, conical in N. hoecki, and
the hindwing pattern with an extra dot submedially in
L. cambogialis. Wingspan: 9-12 mm.
Biology: De la Torre y Callejas (1967) recorded the
larva on Opuntia dillenii (Cactaceae), without further
indication. Robinson et al. (2014) report rearing records
352 B. Landry
Figs 104-106. Male genitalia of Galápagos Spilomelinae, a and b from same slides, but not to scale, (a) showing the genitalia
without phallus and (b), the phallus. (104) Herpetogramma bipunctalis: slide MHNG-ENTO-9007, Genovesa. (105)
H. phaeopteralis: slide MHNG-ENTO-8683, Fernandina. (106) Hymenia perspectalis: slide MHNG-ENTO-9003,
Santiago.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 353
from eight different host plants in the Amaranthaceae,
Basellaceae, Fabaceae, Cactaceae, Portulacaceae,
and Urticaceae from Brazil and Cuba. Moths in the
Galápagos have been collected from sea level up to
about 720 m (Los Gemelos, Santa Cruz), in anthropized
as well as pristine habitats, and from January until May
and in November and December.
Distribution: Widespread in the Western Hemisphere
in warmer climates, as follows, based on published
records: Brazil (type locality, Guenée, 1854), Colombia
(Snellen, 1875), Cuba (De la Torre y Callejas, 1967),
Guadeloupe (Munroe, 1956), Jamaica (Butler, 1878),
Puerto Rico (Möschler, 1890; Schaus, 1940), USA
(Florida) (Kimball, 1965; Heppner, 2003; Patterson
et al., 2015), Venezuela (Heppner, 2003). Also found
in Grenada (Caribbean), Paraguay, and Peru based on
BMNH specimens. In the Galápagos the species has
been collected on Isabela, Pinzón, San Cristóbal, and
Santa Cruz.
Remarks: Loxomorpha cambogialis occurs in two
forms in the Galápagos, one ‘white’ form (Fig. 31) on
Isabela Island, and a bright yellow form (Fig. 32) on
the other three islands on which the species has been
found thus far, but clear differences in genitalia are
not perceptible. Based on a personal communication
by Alma Solis (24.iii.2014), I refrain from naming
the light form as a new subspecies, the type series of
L. cambogialis being bright yellow, because similar
variation occurs elsewhere such as in Cuba, from where
there is a reared pair in the USNM for which the female
is dark yellow and the male lighter, like the Isabela
specimens. The species was described from Brazil
on the basis of two specimens recorded as a male and
a female (Guenée, 1854: 331). Both specimens are in
the BMNH, but one, the female, is without abdomen
and designated paralectotype while the other, a male
with the abdomen in a gelatine capsule, was dissected
(slide BM 21109) and is here designated lectotype: 1-
‘Lecto- | type’ [circular, with marine blue edge, typed];
2- ‘Cotype’ [orange, typed]; 3- ‘Brasil | ex coll. Gn’
(typed); 4- ‘Paravicini Coll. | BM 1937-383’ [typed];
5- ‘B.M. Pyralidae | Genitalia Slide | No. 21109 ♂’
[typed except male sign]; 6- ‘Cambogialis | Gn. Brésil’
[handwritten]; 7- ‘LECTOTYPE | Botys cambogialis |
Guenée | Des. B. Landry, 2000’. The dissected lectotype
had two tufts of rather wide androconial scales of
medium length (inferior tuft) to long (superior tuft) on
the membrane before the genitalia next to the tegumen,
which became detached during the dissection.
Marasmia Lederer, 1863
Three species of this genus occur in the Western
Hemisphere (Munroe, 1995), but it contains altogether
37 described species (Nuss et al., 2016).
Marasmia trapezalis (Guenée, 1854)
Figs 33, 34, 112, 158
Salbia trapezalis Guenée, 1854: 200.
Marasmia trapezalis (Guenée): Peck et al., 1998: 227. ‒ Caus-
ton et al., 2006: 141. ‒ Roque-Albelo & Landry, 2015.
Material examined
Holotype: from Sierra Leone without abdomen
(BMNH).
Other specimens: 6 ♂, 10 ♀ from the Galápagos Islands:
Isabela: Sierra Negra, 11 km N Puerto Villamil,
GPS: S 00° 87.613’, W 91° 00.903’; ± 15 km N P[uer]
to Villamil. – San Cristóbal: El Junco, east side, GPS:
654 m elev[ation]., S 00° 53.734’, W 89° 28.727’. –
Santa Cruz: Charles Darwin Research Station, Barranco,
20 m elev.; low agriculture zone, GPS: S 00°42.132’,
W 90° 19.156’; NNW Bella Vista, GPS: 225 m elev.,
S 00° 41.293’, W 90° 19.665’; Finca Vilema, 2 km W
Bella Vista; Los Gemelos. – Santiago: Aguacate [camp],
520 m elev.; Central [camp], 700 m elev. Deposited in
CDRS and MHNG.
Diagnosis: The three straight lines of the hindwing, the
basal two slightly interrupted (Figs 33, 34), represent
a unique diagnostic character with regard to the other
Spilomelinae species of the Galápagos. The wingspan
based on the Galápagos specimens examined is
19-21 mm.
Biology: The larva is recorded to feed on a wide variety
of plants of the family Poaceae, including rice, millet,
sugar cane, and sorghum (Robinson et al., 2014). In
the Galápagos specimens have been collected from the
littoral zone up to about 1000 m in elevation in a diverse
range of habitats, and from February until May.
Distribution: Based on BMNH specimens this species
is found in the Neotropical region in Argentina,
Dominican Republic, and Jamaica. Patterson et al.
(2015) record it from Florida, Texas and a few other
states of the south east USA. It was described from
Sierra Leone and has been recorded widely in Africa
(BMNH specimens; De Prins & De Prins, 2015). It is
also known from India and Myanmar (Robinson et al.,
2014). On the Galápagos the species has been collected
on Isabela, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, and Santiago.
Remarks: Marasmia trapezalis was described from
a male from Sierra Leone. The genitalia on the slide
preparation of the lectotype of Botys creonalis Walker,
1859 (BMNH), a synonym of M. trapezalis, are
identical to those of a dissected female from Sierra
Leone, and of those of a female from the Galápagos
(Fig. 158). A lectotype is designated here for Botys
creonalis Walker, 1859, described from Santo Domingo
on the basis of two specimens. This female lectotype
bears the following labels: 1-‘Type’ [circular, green
bordered, typed], 2- ‘St. Dom. / 55.1’ [typed]; 3-
‘Pyralidae / Brit. Mus. / Slide No. / 6402’ [typed in
354 B. Landry
Figs 107-109. Male genitalia of Galápagos Spilomelinae, a and b not to scale, (a) showing the genitalia without phallus and (b), the
phallus. (107) Lineodes corinnae paratypes: slide MHNG-ENTO-8677 (a); slide BL 1802 (b). (108) L. fontella: slide
MHNG-ENTO-9001, Santa Cruz. (109) L. integra: slide MHNG-ENTO-8679, Isabela (phallus broken).
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 355
red, except for hand written number in black ink];
4- ‘Photographed / B. M. Negative [typed, except for
cross bar]; 5- ‘55. BOTYS CREONALIS.’ [typed,
folded]; 6- ‘Lecto/ type’ [circular, marine blue bordered,
typed]; 7- ‘LECTOTYPE / Botys / creonalis / Walker
/ Des. B. Landry, 2000’ [typed except for name and
last two zeros]. The second syntype is designated
paralectotype; it is a dissected female (Pyralidae Brit.
Mus. Slide No. 6404).
Maruca Walker, 1859
This genus of four species described from Asia (Nuss et
al., 2016) contains one that occurs widely in the Western
Hemisphere (Munroe, 1995).
Maruca vitrata (Fabricius, 1787)
Figs 35, 113, 159
Phalaena vitrata Fabricius, 1787: 215.
Maruca vitrata (Fabricius): Roque-Albelo & Landry, 2015.
Material examined: 1 of undetermined sex from the
Galápagos Islands: – Isabela: Volcán Darwin, 900 m.
Deposited in CDRS.
Diagnosis: The brown forewing background with
a large satiny white patch bordered dark brown
postmedially with two additional concolourous
white patches anteriorly, along with the mostly white
hindwing (Fig. 35) are sufcient to separate this
species from all other Spilomelinae of the Galápagos.
Wingspan: 22-30 mm (n=77 MHNG specimens).
Biology: The larva is known to feed primarily on a
variety of Fabaceae such as crops like peanut (Arachis
hypogaea L.), pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.],
hyacinth bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet], and
common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), but it has also
been recorded from other plant families (Robinson
et al., 2014). The larva feeds on owers, ower buds,
and young pods. The species is a serious pest of grain
legumes around the world (Sharma, 1998). From the
Galápagos the only available specimen was collected at
light.
Distribution: Based on BMNH specimens as well as
De Prins & De Prins (2015), Heppner (2003), Robinson
et al. (1994), Shaffer et al. (1996) and Slamka (2013)
the species is widespread around the world under
tropical and subtropical climates. In the Galápagos it
has been collected on Isabela.
Remarks: I was able to identify the Galápagos
specimen from a photo received from Lazaro Roque-
Albelo, in 2001, by comparing it with identied
specimens in the BMNH. The specimen was collected
in March 2000 by L. Roque-Albelo. The specimen
illustrated here was collected in Ecuador, Pichincha
Province, S 00° 01.253’, W 78° 46.600’, at about
1300 m in elevation (MHNG).
Microthyris Lederer, 1863
This strictly Neotropical genus contains seven species
(Nuss et al., 2016), two more than recorded by Munroe
(1995) due to his omission of one (microthyralis Snellen,
1899, described in Crossophora) and the transfer of
Cyclocena lelex (Cramer, 1777) to Microthyris by
Hayden & Dickel (2014).
Microthyris anormalis (Guenée, 1854)
Figs 36, 114, 160
Botys anormalis Guenée, 1854: 352.
Microthyris anormalis (Guenée): Roque-Albelo & Landry,
2015.
Material examined: 15 ♂, 20 ♀, 4 of undetermined sex
from the Galápagos Islands: – Isabela: Punta Albermarle,
SW old US radar site; 1 km W Puerto Villamil; Sierra
Negra, 11 km N Puerto Villamil, GPS: S 00° 87.613’, W
91° 00.903’; 3 km N S[an]to Tómas, Agr[iculture]. zone;
Sierra Negra, pampa zone, 1000 m; V[olcan]. Darwin,
300 m elev[ation].; Alcedo, lado NE, 400 m, camp pega-
pega; ± 15 km N P[uer]to Villamil. – San Cristóbal: near
Loberia, sea level, GPS: S 00° 55.277’, W 89° 36.909’;
4 km SE Pto Baquarizo [sic]; 1 km S El Progreso; base of
Cerro Pelado; La Toma, ca. 6.5 km east El Progreso, GPS:
299 m elev., S 00° 55.356’, W 89° 31.089’; pampa zone;
El Junco, east side, GPS: 654 m elev., S 00° 53.734’, W
89° 28.727’. – Santa Cruz: transition zone, recently cut
road, GPS: S 00°42.528’, W 90°18.849’; Finca Vilema,
2 km W Bella Vista; Horneman Farm, 200 m; Horneman
Farm, 220 m; Los Gemelos; Media Luna. Deposited in
AMNH, CAS, CDRS, CNC, MCZ, and MHNG.
Diagnosis: The greyish brown wings with dirty white
to pale cream spots on the forewing and a pair of black
lines on the hindwing (Fig. 36) will easily allow for this
species to be identied among Galápagos Spilomelinae.
No other species has a combination of the presence of
paler spots on the forewing and only darker lines on
the hindwing. In Samea coffea sp. n. (Figs 55, 56) the
more numerous paler markings of the forewing are
partly linear and on the hindwing, the darker lines are
generally outlined by paler scaling and there is usually a
submedian spot with paler centre. Wingspan: 24-30 mm.
Biology: One CDRS specimen labelled ‘106’ refers to
a note mentioning ‘Ipomoea’ as the ‘food’. Robinson et
al. (2014) report it from Convolvulaceae [sweet potato,
Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. and common morning
glory, Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth]. Heppner (2003)
adds Turbina corymbosa (L.) Raf. (Convolvulaceae), a
356 B. Landry
Figs 110-112. Male genitalia of Galápagos Spilomelinae, a and b from same slides, but not to scale, (a) showing the genitalia without
phallus and (b), the phallus. (110) Lineodes vulcanalis holotype, BMNH ©, the Trustees of the Natural History Museum,
London. (111) Loxomorpha cambogialis: slide MHNG-ENTO-6588, San Cristóbal. (112) Marasmia trapezalis: slide
MHNG-ENTO-9005, Santa Cruz.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 357
native Mexican morning glory that has become invasive
elsewhere. Available Galápagos specimens have been
collected from the littoral zone up to about 1000 m in
elevation, in habitats ranging from anthropized to nearly
pristine, from February until June.
Distribution: Widespread in the Western Hemisphere,
it has been recorded from the USA (Florida and Texas),
south through the Antilles, Central America and South
America to Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Ecuador
(BMNH and MHNG specimens; Patterson et al., 2015).
On the Galápagos so far this species has been found on
Isabela, San Cristóbal, and Santa Cruz.
Remarks: This species was described from a male from
Brazil. This holotype would normally be in the BMNH,
but it wasn’t found there or elsewhere. The Galápagos
specimens match the original description and specimens
identied as such in the BMNH.
Neoleucinodes Capps, 1948
This Neotropical genus contains eight species (Nuss et
al., 2016), one more than recorded by Munroe (1995) due
to the addition of a new species described in 2007 from
Colombia.
Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée, 1854)
Figs 37, 115, 161
Leucinodes elegantalis Guenée, 1854: 222.
Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée): Causton et al., 2006: 141.
‒ Roque-Albelo & Landry, 2015.
Material examined: 1 ♀ from the Galápagos Islands: –
Santa Cruz: Academy Bay. Deposited in BMNH.
Diagnosis: The mostly hyaline white wings with dark
brown patches terminally toward apex and basally,
in addition to a mostly rust brown patch medially on
dorsum (Fig. 37) will easily separate this species from
the other Galápagos Spilomelinae. The forewing length
of the single, unspread Galápagos specimen known
is 12.5 mm (wingspan about 26 mm), but the species
varies in this respect between 8 and 13 mm (see Hayden
et al., 2013).
Biology: Known as the Tomato fruit borer, the larva of
this species has been recorded to feed on a number of
Solanaceae species, but especially in the genus Solanum
(Hayden et al., 2013). Eggs are preferentially laid on
young fruits, 1-3 cm in diameter. Newly hatched larvae
immediately start boring into the fruit. Larvae consume
seeds and fruit esh and after ve moults exit the fruit
to pupate in a rolled leaf edge or among plant debris on
the ground (Hayden et al., 2013). The only specimen
recorded from the Galápagos was collected in the
littoral or arid zone in August 1969.
Distribution: Based on BMNH specimens (perhaps not
all correctly identied), this native Western Hemisphere
denizen of the tropical and subtropical regions is
found in Trinidad, Mexico, Guatemala, British Guiana,
Surinam, Colombia, and Brazil. Hayden et al. (2013)
report a wide distribution from Mexico through the
Antilles, Central and South America to Peru and
Argentina. It is reported from Florida, USA according to
Heppner (2003), but it is not present in North America
according to Hayden et al. (2013). Only one specimen,
collected on Santa Cruz, is known so far from the
Galápagos. Academy Bay is where Puerto Ayora is
located. This is the touristic hub and most populated
area of the archipelago. Neoleucinodes elegantalis
likely still occurs there in gardens.
Remarks: The single known Galápagos specimen was
determined with Capps (1948) and Hayden et al. (2013).
The female holotype from Brazil was not examined.
There are other, similar species of this genus on
continental South and Central America.
Neoleucinodes galapagensis sp. n.
Figs 38, 39, 86, 116, 162
Material examined:
Holotype: ♂, ‘ECU[ADOR]., GALAPAGOS | Santiago,
Central [camp] | 700 m elev[ation]., 9.iv.1992 | M[ercury]
V[apour]L[ight], leg[it]. B. Landry’; ‘[slide] MHNG |
ENTO ♂ | 00009025’; ‘genitalia slide | BL 1244’ (upside
down); ‘HOLOTYPE | Neoleucinodes | galapagensis | B.
Landry’. Deposited in MHNG.
Paratypes: 4 ♂, 38 ♀ from the Galápagos Islands. –
Fernandina: 1 ♀, SW side, crater rim, GPS: 1341 m
elev[ation]., S 00° 21.910’, W 91° 34.034’, 13.ii.2005,
u[ltra]v[iolet]l[ight] (B. Landry, P. Schmitz); 3 ♂ (one
dissected, slide MHNG-ENTO-8690), 2 ♀, SW side,
crater rim, reared from young green fruits of Solanum
erianthum, coll[ected]. 12.ii.2005, em[erged]. 28.ii.2005
(P. Schmitz). – Isabela: 11 ♀ (one dissected, slide MHNG-
ENTO-8692), NE slope Alcedo, ca. 400 m up (S) Los
Guayabillos camp, GPS: 892 m elev., S 00° 25.208’, W
91° 04.765’, 1.iv.2004, uvl (B. Landry, P. Schmitz); 2 ♀,
Alcedo, lado NE, 700 m, camp guayabillos, 16.iv.2002,
uvl (B. Landry, L. Roque); 1 ♀, V[olcan]. Darwin, 630 m
elev., 17.v.1992, M[ercury]V[apour]L[ight] (B. Landry);
1 ♀, V. Darwin, 300 m elev., 20.v.1992, MVL (B. Landry);
1 ♀, ± 15 km N P[uer]to Villamil, 25.v.1992, MVL (B.
Landry); 1 ♀, Sierra Negra, Corazon Verde (T.J. de
Vries, B.M. 1976-58); 2 ♀, idem except 19-20.xii.1975.
Pinta: 8 ♀ (one dissected, slide MHNG-ENTO-8691),
400 m elev., 17.iii.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 6 ♀, idem
except 18.iii.1992. – Santa Cruz: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Hacienda
Schiess, xi.1974 (B.M. 1975-7, Ref No. L.). – Santiago:
1 ♀, same data as holotype. Deposited in BMNH, CDRS,
CNC, and MHNG.
358 B. Landry
Figs 113-115. Male genitalia of Neotropical Spilomelinae, a and b from same slides, but not to scale, (a) showing the genitalia without
phallus and (b), the phallus. (113) Maruca vitrata: slide MHNG-ENTO-8995, French Guiana. (114) Microthyris
anormalis: slide MHNG-ENTO-9006, Galápagos, Isabela. (115) Neoleucinodes elegantalis: slide MHNG-ENTO-8693,
French Guiana.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 359
Other specimens: 1 with label ‘179’ referring to
notebook entry ‘Isa, Nov., Dec. ‘74’.
Diagnosis: This species (Figs 38, 39) differs from
the hyaline white-winged N. elegantalis (Guenée),
N. dissolvens (Dyar), N. imperialis (Guenée), and
N. silvaniae Díaz & Solis, 2007 by virtue of the more
abundant suffusion of darker scales on both wings,
with the paler areas harbouring a brownish shade. In
male genitalia N. galapagensis (Fig. 116) is similar to
N. elegantalis (Fig. 115), N. dissolvens, N. prophetica
(Dyar) and N. silvaniae, all of which have a single long,
spine-like cornutus on the vesica. They differ especially
in details of the position and shape of the bula, and
shape of the valva, tegumen, and uncus. Neoleucinodes
elegantalis is most similar in genitalia, but the basal
patch of the forewing is a mixture of rust, taupe and
white scales while the mediodorsal, triangular patch
is rust brown except for a row of taupe brown along
the patch’s margins (see Fig. 37); in male genitalia
N. elegantalis differs in having a narrower valva,
the bula situated before mid-length, narrower and
apically rounded, and the phallus about twice as long.
In female genitalia, the above-mentioned species are all
similar, with a long corpus bursae without signum, but
N. galapagensis (Fig. 162) differs from N. elegantalis
(Fig. 161) in the slightly bent posterior apophyses, the
straighter and apically pointed anterior apophyses, the
narrower ventral plate on segment VIII, the more thickly
sclerotized band along the ventral margin of the ostium
bursae, and the comparatively shorter ductus bursae.
Etymology: The new name refers to the area of
occurrence and highlights the endemic status of the
species.
Description: Male (n=5) (Fig. 38). Head with frons
gently rounded, not projecting, vestiture on frons
pale, appressed, short scaled, mottled white and pale
yellowish brown, with few greyish brown scales, with
longer narrow scales behind eye yellowish brown
ventrally, white dorsally and directed anterodorsally,
with occipital scales reaching between antennal bases,
white to yellowish brown; antenna liform, with
ventral ciliation short, slightly shorter than width of
corresponding agellomeres, vestiture mottled with
white, cream and different shades of pale brown on
scape, dirty white with single darker greyish scale in
middle of basal row in basal agellomeres, uniformly
coloured and almost pure white toward apex of
agellum; maxillary palpus tiny, not reaching above
pilifer, directed anterodorsally along dorsal margin
of labial palpus, white and pale greyish brown; labial
palpus projecting anterodorsally at half right angle
distinctly above top of head and anteriorly for about
as long as eye diameter, vestiture mostly short, with
projecting scales ventrally on rst agellomere and
base of second, with third segment distinct, not hidden
by scales of second agellomere, mottled white and
various shades of pale brown; haustellum mottled white
and various shades of pale brown. Thorax dorsally
mostly with greyish brown scales with paler bases, with
some scales darker greyish brown or chestnut brown,
with large transverse white band in middle of scales
of tegulae, white also apically on mesoscutellum and
medially on metascutum, apical scales of tegulae with
paler bases and apices, subapically pale greyish brown.
Foreleg coxa white with few light greyish brown,
cream, and sometimes chestnut brown scales; femur
medially unicoloured greyish brown, laterally white
with dark greyish brown patch subapically; tibia greyish
brown with white at base, with long thin scales covering
epiphysis light chestnut brown; tarsomere I cream
with few greyish brown scales at base, tarsomeres II-V
white. Midleg white with blackish brown at apex of
femur, scattered light brown on tibia especially on basal
half, tarsomeres cream in darker specimens. Hindleg
as midleg, with less brown scaling on tibia. Forewing
length: 6.5-9.0 mm (holotype: 9.0 mm) (wingspan:
14.0-18.0 mm; holotype: 18.0 mm). Wing vestiture
as shown, with chestnut brown markings pale greyish
brown instead in specimens from Fernandina, forewing
with many of the darker scales erect. Abdomen dorsally
with tergite I mostly white, with chestnut brown to pale
greyish brown lateral patches, tergite II pale greyish
brown with some slightly darker scales or with lateral
patches of chestnut brown and base and apical margin
white, tergite III as second except for absence of white
at base, subsequent tergites pale greyish brown with
paler lateral patches or darker greyish brown with few
chestnut brown scales and a thin white apical line;
laterally on some segments with short, erect, dark
greyish brown or chestnut brown scales; ventrally pale
greyish with white apical margin apparent in darker
specimens. Segment VIII with sclerotization pattern as
shown (Fig. 86).
Male genitalia (n=2) (Fig. 116). Uncus with short wide
base, slightly wider than apex of tegumen, with lateral
margins rounded, second third (‘neck’) narrow, bare,
distal third (‘head’) enlarged, ovoid, with short and
thick spine-like setae directed backwards. Subscaphium
basally simple, narrow, medially about 2X as wide,
distally forming two lateral rods reaching beyond tip
of uncus. Tegumen forming complete cover dorsally,
elongate, about 4X as long as width at 3/4 of length,
narrowing distally to about 1/3 basal width, without
longitudinal dorsomedian strut, with lateral margins
thickened, basal margin concave, apical margin blunt.
Pseudognathos thin, medially membranous along base of
subscaphium. Transtilla arms bird-head shaped, almost
connected medially. Valva elongate, narrowing to 1/3
basal width, apically rounded, dorsal margin thickly
sclerotized from base to 2/3, ventral margin thickly
sclerotized from base to middle, medially at mid-length
with bula short, at, triangular, corrugated, and directed
360 B. Landry
Figs 116-118. Male genitalia of Neotropical Spilomelinae, a and b from same slides, but not to scale, (a) showing the genitalia without
phallus and (b), the phallus. (116) Neoleucinodes galapagensis holotype. (117) Omiodes indicata: slide MHNG-
ENTO-8698, Galápagos, Santa Cruz. (118) Palpita egia: slide MHNG-ENTO-8997, Brazil.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 361
medially. Juxta a triangle with rounded base. Vinculum
very narrow laterally, only slightly enlarging dorsally;
with ventral margin straight and saccus forming median
bulbous enlargement directed dorsally. Phallus straight,
with basal 2/5 dorsally membranous, slightly shorter than
valva, apically with ventral margin slightly extended,
rounded; vesica with single straight cornutus about 2/5
length of phallus shaft.
Female (n=38) (Fig. 39): Antenna with length of ciliation
about one fourth that of male. Forewing length: 6.5-
12.0 mm (wingspan: 13.5-24.0 mm). Vestiture with
markings chestnut brown as shown to mostly greyish
brown, also with erect scales on forewing. Abdomen
dorsally with tergite I mostly white with chestnut brown
or greyish brown laterally, subsequent tergites greyish
brown with or without paler patches laterally, ending
with row of white scales apically; laterally with short
erect scales as in males; ventrally pale cream or pale
greyish brown with tiny darker spots medially at apex
of tergites.
Female genitalia (n=2) (Fig. 162). Papillae anales
laterally compressed, disconnected and longer dorsally,
forming low right triangle with posterior margin slightly
convex; sclerotized basal margin very narrow; posterior
apophyses about 2/3 width of papillae anales, slightly
widened from 1/2 to 2/5. Segment VIII with tergum longer
dorsally, shortening by about 1/3 at level of apophyses,
then slightly widening and triangular; ventrally and just
posterad of ostium bursae with elongate triangular plate
almost connecting with lateroventral angles of sternum
and with posterior margin medially v-shaped; anterior
apophyses about 10% longer than posterior apophyses,
slightly thicker, with slight enlargement subbasally.
Ostium bursae with ventral narrow band extending and
narrowing laterally. Ductus bursae with funnel-shaped
antrum about 10% of whole ductus length, medially
with short sclerotized plate of colliculum, dorsally with
inception of ductus seminalis; rest of ductus bursae of
medium girth, slightly widening toward corpus bursae.
Corpus bursae small, about 1/4 of ductus length, circular,
without signum or other modications of membrane.
Biology: Five specimens have been reared from young
green fruits of Solanum erianthum D. Don (Solanaceae)
on Fernandina. In the Galápagos specimens have been
collected only at higher elevations ranging from 300 m
on Isabela, Alcedo, to the crater rim on Fernandina.
Collecting dates are in February until May, and
November and December.
Distribution: This is a Galápagos endemic so far
collected on Fernandina, Isabela, Pinta, Santa Cruz, and
Santiago.
Remarks: The host plant species is indigenous, but
not endemic to the Galápagos, on which it occurs on
several of the islands (Jaramillo Díaz & Guézou, 2015).
It can be found around the world in tropical regions
(McMullen, 1999). Older specimens, collected in 1974
and 1975 are from the agriculture zone on Isabela and
Santa Cruz, but all other specimens, collected in 1992,
2002, 2004, and 2005 are from pristine habitats or
habitats unmodied by man, except for the (former?)
presence of invasive introduced mammal species. This
may reect a decrease in the diversity of the fauna and
ora in the agriculture zone in more recent times.
Omiodes Guenée, 1854
This is a large genus with 97 species described from
around the world (Nuss et al., 2016), 33 of which have
been recorded from the Western Hemisphere as per the
revision of Gentili & Solis (1998) and the addition of a
new species by Solis & Gentili (2000).
Omiodes indicata (Fabricius, 1775)
Figs 41, 42, 117, 163
Phalaena indicata Fabricius, 1775: 640.
Omiodes indicata (Fabricius): Peck et al., 1998: 227. ‒ Causton
et al., 2006: 141. ‒ Roque-Albelo & Landry, 2015.
Material examined: 5 ♂, 24 ♀, 3 of undetermined sex
from the Galápagos Islands: – Fernandina: [no precise
locality]; SW side, crater rim, GPS: 1341 m elev[ation].,
S 00° 21.910’, W 91°34.034’. – Isabela: Tagus Cove;
Tagus Cove, emerged ex pupa on Desmodium glabrum
(Mill) DC, Leguminosae; nr Tagus Cove, 100 m elev.;
V[olcan]. Darwin, 300 m elev.; 3 km N S[an]to Tómas,
Agr[iculture]. Zone; ± 15 km N P[uer]to Villamil; V.
Darwin, 1240 m elev. – Pinta: ± 15 m elev.; ± 50 m
elev.; 200 m elev.; 400 m elev. – San Cristóbal: near
Loberia, sea level, GPS: elev. 14 m, S 00° 55.149’, W 89°
36.897’. – Santa Cruz: Bahía Conway; Charles Darwin
Research Station; nca M. Guerra & S. Henderson, GPS:
186 m elev., S 00°41.997’, W 090° 19.195’, reared from
Rhynchosia minima; nca Vilema, 2 km W Bella Vista;
Los Gemelos; Media Luna, pampa zone. – Santiago:
Bahía Espumilla; N side, GPS: 437 m elev., S 00°
13.316’, W 090° 43.808’; Aguacate [camp], 520 m elev.;
N side, GPS: 527 m elev., S 00° 13.690°, W 90° 44.135’.
Deposited in the BMNH, CDRS, CNC, and MHNG.
Diagnosis: Among Galápagos Spilomelinae this species
(Figs 41, 42) could only be confused with Salbia
haemorrhoidalis Guenée (Figs 51, 52) by virtue of their
similar, mostly orange colour, although some specimens
of O. indicata are mostly purplish brown (Fig. 41). The
14-20 mm wingspan O. indicata differs in harbouring
a thicker, more contrasting dash in the forewing cell,
a smaller spot anteriorly in the cell (usually), and a
submedian dash near costa separate from the wavier
and more rounded submedian line in the hindwing
usually. On the other hand the male abdomen of
S. haemorrhoidalis has apical white and black patches
on the last and penultimate segments dorsally.
362 B. Landry
Figs 119-121. Male genitalia of Galápagos Spilomelinae, a and b from same slides, but not to scale, (a) showing the genitalia without
phallus and (b), the phallus. (119) Patania silicalis: slide MHNG-ENTO-8989, Pinta. (120) Penestola bufalis: slide
MHNG-ENTO-8991, Santiago. (121) Pilocrocis ramentalis: slide MHNG-ENTO-8992, Santiago.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 363
Biology: In the Galápagos I reared a specimen from
a pupa found on Desmodium glabrum (Mill.) DC.
(Fabaceae) and another specimen from Rhynchosia
minima (L.) DC. (Fabaceae), both Galápagos natives
found on a large number of islands (Jaramillo Díaz
& Guézou, 2015). The literature also records a wide
spectrum of host plants in the Fabaceae, but also
in other families (Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae,
Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucur-
bitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae,
Poaceae, Solanaceae, and Verbenaceae) (Gentili &
Solis, 1998; Robinson et al., 2014). The Galápagos
specimens were collected from a diverse range of
habitats from the littoral zone up to 1240 m above sea
level, and from February until May.
Distribution: This is a widespread species in the
tropical regions of the world (Gentili & Solis, 1998).
Based on BMNH specimens it can be found in Cuba,
Jamaica, Grenada, St Vincent, St Thomas, Santo
Domingo, Trinidad, Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica,
Honduras, Colombia, French Guiana, British Guiana,
Brazil, Paraguay, Peru, Africa, Seychelles, Solomon
Isl., India, Java, Taiwan. It is also widespread in the
south-eastern US States (Patterson et al., 2015). In the
Galápagos it is known from Fernandina, Isabela, Pinta,
San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, and Santiago.
Remarks: Galápagos specimens were identied as this
species based on Gentili & Solis (1998) and material
in the BMNH, in which is deposited the type material
of some of the synonyms, such as Nacoleia vulgalis
Guenée, 1854 (TL: French Guyana, Cayenne), Botys
moeliusalis Walker, 1859 (TL: Malaysia), and Botys
connexalis Walker, 1866 (TL: Dominican Republic).
The type material of Botys sabalis Walker, 1859 (TL:
Brazil) and Botys reductalis Walker, 1866 (TL: China),
also synonyms of O. indicata, could not be found in the
BMNH.
Palpita Hübner, 1808
Twenty-two species of this genus have been recorded
from the Western Hemisphere (Munroe, 1995), but 162
species from around the world are recognized in the
literature for this genus (Nuss et al., 2016).
Palpita egia (Cramer, 1777)
Figs 40, 118, 164
Phalaena Pyralis egia Cramer, 1777: 66-67.
Palpita egia (Cramer): Roque-Albelo & Landry, 2015.
Material examined: 2 ♂, 1 from the Galápagos
Islands: – Santa Cruz: [without precise locality].
Deposited in BMNH and CDRS.
Diagnosis: In the Galápagos this mostly satiny
white species (Fig. 40) is only similar to Diaphania
galapagensis sp. n. (Fig. 14). However, Palpita egia is
larger, with a wingspan of up to 50 mm versus 30 mm in
D. galapagensis. Also, the forewing costa of P. egia is
blue whereas that of D. galapagensis is brown.
Biology: Guenée (1854) presumably recorded the
rst host plant of the larva as Cerbera Thevetia
[now Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold, Apocynaceae].
He added that the larva lives within leaves attached
with silk, eating the leaves and defoliating a plant in
a few days. Robinson et al. (2014) cite two additional
Apocynaceae species as host plants. A specimen in
the CDRS bears a label with ‘# 167’ which refers
to information in a notebook mentioning that from
September onwards [until December] it is abundant
in Puerto Ayora, feeding on a bush of family Ana-
cardiaceae, the pupa making a loose cocoon between
leaves. Possibly Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold,
Yellow Oleander, or Nerium oleander L., Common
Oleander, or Allamanda cathartica L., Golden Trumpet,
represent the bush in question as all three Apocynaceae
are planted in the town of Puerto Ayora (McMullen,
1999). But there are also four introduced, cultivated
trees in the family Anacardiaceae, such as Mangifera
indica L., the mango, that are likely to be found in
Puerto Ayora (Jaramillo Díaz & Guézou, 2015).
Distribution: Based on specimens in the BMNH,
this species is widespread in the Neotropical Region,
including several of the Antilles, Mexico, Belize,
Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, Colombia,
Venezuela, British Guiana, Suriname (type locality),
Brazil, and Paraguay, while in the Nearctic Region
it is found in the south-eastern US States of Alabama,
Florida, and Texas (Patterson et al., 2015). In the
Galápagos it has been found so far only on Santa Cruz.
Remarks: The original description, its associated
illustration (pl. 140 g. D), as well as specimens
identied in the BMNH were used to identify Galápagos
specimens. Synonym Paradosis villosalis Zeller, 1852,
was described from Para (Brazil) as mentioned in the
original description and one of the type labels, contrary
to Munroe’s (1995: 70) ‘South Africa?’ record of type
locality. The lectotype of Margarodes phantasmalis
Guenée (1854), a synonym of P. egia, could not be
found in the BMHN. This lectotype was designated by
Munroe (1995: 170) from the syntype from Colombia;
the other syntype, from Bengal, could not be found
either.
Patania Moore, 1888
Forty-one species of Patania from around the world have
been described (Nuss et al., 2016). The three species from
the Western Hemisphere (Munroe, 1995) had been placed
in Pleuroptya Meyrick, 1890, a synonym of Patania.
364 B. Landry
Figs 122-124. Male genitalia of Galápagos Spilomelinae, a and b from same slides, but not to scale, (a) showing the genitalia without
phallus and (b), the phallus. (122) Psara chathamalis: slide MHNG-ENTO-8663, Santiago. (123) Rhectocraspeda
periusalis: slide MHNG-ENTO-8981, Isabela. (124) Salbia haemorrhoidalis: slide MHNG-ENTO-8700, Santa Cruz.
Spilomelinae of the Galápagos Islands 365
Patania silicalis (Guenée, 1854), comb. n.
Figs 43, 119, 165
Botys silicalis Guenée, 1854: 349.
Sylepta silicalis (Guenée): Schaus, 1923: 29.
Pleuroptya silicalis (Guenée): Roque-Albelo & Landry, 2015.
Material examined
Lectotype: ♂ from French Guyana, Cayenne (BMNH).
Other specimens: 27 ♂, 26 ♀, 53 of undetermined sex
from the Galápagos Islands: – Fernandina: SW side,
crater rim, GPS: 1341 m elev[ation]., S 00° 21.910’,
W 91°34.034’. – Isabela: 3 km N S[an]to Tómas,
Agr[iculture]. Zone; 11 km N Puerto Villamil; Sierra
Negra, pampa zone, 1000 m; Alcedo, NE slope, GPS:
292 m elev.; S 00° 23.829’, W 91° 01.957’; V[olcan].
Darwin, 300 m elev.; ± 15 km N P[uer]to Villamil;
Alcedo, lado NE, 400 m, camp pega-pega; NE slope
Alcedo, Los Guayabillos camp, GPS: 869 m elev., S
00° 24.976’, W 91° 04.617’; V. Darwin, 1000 m elev.;
Alcedo, lado NE, 1100 m, cumbre, caseta. – Marchena:
[no precise locality]. – Pinta: Plaja Ibbeston [sic];
200 m elev.; 400 m elev. – Rábida: Tourist trail. – San
Cristóbal: Chatham [no precise locality]; 4 km SE P[uer]
to Baquarizo [sic]. – Santa Cruz: [no precise locality];
Indefatigable [no precise locality]; Charles Darwin
Research Station; CDRS, arid zone; Finca Vilema, 2 km
W Bella Vista; Horneman Farm, 200 m; Horneman
Farm, 220 m; Tortuga Re[serve]. W S[an]ta Rosa; Los
Gemelos; Media Luna, pampa zone. – Santiago: James
[no precise locality]; Bahía Espumilla; Cerro Inn; 200 m
elev.; Aguacate [camp], 520 m elev.; Central [camp],
700 m elev.; Jaboncillo [camp], ± 850 m elev. Deposited
in AMNH, CAS, CDRS, CNC, MHNG, ROM.
Diagnosis: This species can be separated from the other
Galápagos Spilomelinae by its pale buff, lustrous and
concolourous wings with very faint markings (Fig. 43)
and a wingspan of 19-27 mm. It is most similar to
more poorly marked specimens of Psara chathamalis
(Schaus) (Fig. 48), but the stigma at the end of the
forewing cell is a thin lunule in P. silicalis whereas
it is thicker, quadrangular, and often pale centred in
P. chathamalis. Also, in the latter, there is usually a
smaller rounded spot anteriorly in the cell, absent in
P. silicalis. Some more uniformly coloured and poorly
marked specimens of Asciodes quietalis (Walker)
(Fig. 6) may appear similar to P. silicalis, but on the
forewing A. quietalis always shows two spots in the cell
and the submedian and postmedian lines are strongly
zigzagged, and in the hindwing the margin at the termen
is darker than the base of the wing. The generally darker
and smaller Herpetogramma phaeopteralis (Guenée)
(wingspan 18-22.5 mm) (Figs 20, 21) is also faintly
marked, but the ground colour of the wings is greyish
brown.
Biology: Robinson et al. (2014) report the larval host
plants as three species in the Urticaceae as well as
one species each in the Araliaceae, Cecropiaceae, and
Nyctaginaceae. Heppner (2003) adds two species in
the Convolvulaceae and one in the Phytolaccaceae.
In the Galápagos specimens have been collected
from sea level to the summit of Fernandina at 1341 m
in elevation in a diverse range of habitats, from
anthropized to pristine, and from January until May.
Distribution: Based on specimens in the BMNH and
MHNG this widespread Western Hemisphere native is
present in Jamaica, Mexico (Tabasco, Veracruz), Costa
Rica, Guatemala, Venezuela, French Guyana, Brazil,
Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. Patterson et al. (2015)
report it as widely distributed in the eastern USA, from
Florida to Maine in the north. It is widespread in the
Galápagos archipelago as attest the seven islands of
occurrence recorded above.
Remarks: The species was described from ‘Deux ♂,
une ♀’ from Brazil and Cayenne, French Guiana. I have </