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Head and facial anthropometry for determining the critical glasses frame dimensions

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Many products have been designed and developed to aid and support people in their daily activities. The products are created after a series of activities from generating ideas, converting the ideas into design, and bringing the design into a real product. Glasses consist of a sub-assembly and components namely a frame and a pair of lenses. The frame has three critical parts namely the rim, bridge width, and temple length. The aim of this research is to determine the head and facial anthropometry which can be used to find the critical glasses frame dimensions. The results of this research show that there are significant differences in the anthropometry between female and male. We proposed the same dimension for end piece and bridge for both female and male while the rim and temple dimension must be different between female and male.
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Journal of Engineering Science and Technology
Vol. 11, No. 11 (2016) 1620 1628
© School of Engineering, Taylor’s University
1620
HEAD AND FACIAL ANTHROPOMETRY FOR DETERMINING
THE CRITICAL GLASSES FRAME DIMENSIONS
C. N. ROSYIDI*, N. RIYANTI, I. IFTADI
Industrial Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University,
Jalan Ir. Sutami 36 A Surakarta, 57126 Indonesia
*Corresponding Author: cucuk@uns.ac.id
Abstract
Many products have been designed and developed to aid and support people in their daily
activities. The products are created after a series of activities from generating ideas,
converting the ideas into design, and bringing the design into a real product. Glasses
consist of a sub-assembly and components namely a frame and a pair of lenses. The frame
has three critical parts namely the rim, bridge width, and temple length. The aim of this
research is to determine the head and facial anthropometry which can be used to find the
critical glasses frame dimensions. The results of this research show that there are
significant differences in the anthropometry between female and male. We proposed the
same dimension for end piece and bridge for both female and male while the rim and
temple dimension must be different between female and male.
Keywords: Head and facial anthropometry, Glasses frame, Critical dimensions.
1. Introduction
Many products have been designed and developed to aid and support people in
their daily activities. The products are created after a series of activities from
generating ideas, converting the ideas into design, and bringing the design into a
real product. Some products are new and some others are an increment from
previous designs. Generally, a design process will consider many aspects such as
users, functions, ergonomics, and aesthetics. The users and ergonomics play a
vital role in the product design [1].
Anthropometry is the science of measurement and the art of application that
establishes the physical geometry, mass properties, and strength capabilities of
the human body [2]. Using anthropometry, a product dimensions must be able to
be found from the human body dimensions. Anthropometry has been recognized
as critical in successfully designing and sizing protective helmets, eyewear, and
respirators [3]. Glasses are important eyewear product that is designed to aid the
Head and Facial Anthropometry for Determining the critical Glasses Frame . . . . 1621
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology November 2016, Vol. 11(11)
Nomenclatures
BS
Bridge size, mm
HEB
Horizontal ear breadth, mm
OND
Occiput to nasion distance, mm
OTD
Occiput to tragion distance, mm
R
Rim of glasses frame, mm
TFW
Total frame width, mm
TL
Temple length, mm
human vision, protect the eyes, and also used as fashion accessory. Glasses
consist of sub-assembly and components, namely a frame and a pair of lenses.
There are two important aspects that must be considered in glasses frame design:
style and comfort. The styles of glasses frame may be utilized to change the
impressions of human face [4] and have strong relationship with physical
attractiveness and personality traits [5].
Several researches have been conducted in the field of anthropometry. Hu et
al. [6] conducted a research to determine the anthropometry of elderly people
living in China, especially in Beijing area. The data are then used to describe
the gender and national differences of anthropometric characteristics for the
elderly people compared to Japanese data. The data are very useful in designing
the healthcare facilities and living products. Another research was conducted by
Del Prado-Lu [2] which measured the anthropometric data of Filipino
manufacturing workers in 31 manufacturing industries. The results of the
research can be used as valuable data in designing workstations, personal
protective equipment, tools, interface systems, and furniture that aid in
providing a safer, more productive, and user-friendly workplace for the Filipino
working population.
The important of head and facial anthropometry to find the optimal
dimensions of products related to the head and part of the face has attracted
many researchers. Liu [1] conducted a research to incorporate anthropometry in
the design of ear-related products. The research has found that there are three
ear critical dimensions which can be used in determining the dimensions of the
products. Ear-hole, ear-connection, and pinna length are the determinant of the
ear-related dimensions. In a similar research, Liu et al. [7] determined six
anthropometric characteristics in designing spoon for children. The research
also investigated the effect of age on dimensions and found that the
characteristics can be divided into several subsets and revealed the needs for
different dimensions in each subset. A deeper analysis of facial anthropometric
data has been conducted by Zhuang et al. [8]. They found statistically
significant difference among race/ethnic groups, gender, and age in facial
anthropometric measurements. It was an important research since the respective
data are more than 40 years old. Beside that, the data up-date are needed due to
the increased in body size and facial measurement and higher proportion of
minorities in current US workforce. The main goal of the research is to
determine the face shape and size differences among races and age groups for
the design of more fitted respirators.
1622 C. N. Rosyidi et al.
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology November 2016, Vol. 11(11)
Kim et al. [9] conducted a research to determine the fitness of quarter mask
respirators to the Korean face anthropometry. They also found that gender has a
significant effect on facial anthropometry and the mask respirator dimensions
must be re-determined according to the results of the research. Yang and Shen
[10] conducted a survey in facial anthropometry and used the data to design a
halfmask respirator and determine its size for Chinese people. The research
found 10 facial anthropometry dimensions in determining the critical
dimensions of the respirator. None of the above researches used the head and
facial anthropometry in determining of glasses frame dimensions. Hence the
aim of this research is to determine the critical dimensions of glasses frame
using the head and facial anthropometry. In this research, we only consider the
functional aspect of the glasses. This research is important since the glasses are
used for many purposes such as for visual aid and eye safety and protection.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2 we present the
materials and method used in the research. Section 3 deals with the results and
discussions, while the conclusions and directions for future research are drawn
in the last section.
2. Materials and Methods
In this research, we firstly identify the critical parts of the glasses frame. We
found some websites containing descriptions about the critical dimensions of
the frame. For example according to [11] and [12], a glasses frame has three
critical dimensions which are the rim, bridge width, and temple length.
According to [11-13], there are three measurable dimensions of a glasses frame
and coded using seven digits code. The first two digits represent the horizontal
rim size. The next two digits represent the bridge width, while the rest of the
digits represent the temple length. The critical dimensions of the glasses frame
are shown in Fig. 1. In Figs. 1, A, B, and C represent the bridge width, rim, and
temple length respectively.
Fig. 1. Critical dimensions of glasses frame.
After determining the critical part of the frame, we proceed to determine the
head and facial anthropometry from which the critical dimensions must be
determined. The head and facial anthropometric measurement point can be found
by tracing the glasses components which respect to the anthropometric point. We
Head and Facial Anthropometry for Determining the critical Glasses Frame . . . . 1623
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology November 2016, Vol. 11(11)
use the nose breadth to find the bridge width since the bridge width is parallel to
the nose breadth. We also measure the bar bridge of the glasses and find the
proportion of the bridge width to the nose breadth. The mean of the proportions
will be used to determine the bridge width. We assume that the users feel
comfortable with their glasses.
The second critical dimension of the glasses is the rim, which is a part of the
total frame width. The total frame width consists of left and right rim,
endpieces, and bridge. Total frame width may be determined using the
bitragion breadth. According to [14], as a rule of thumb the endpiece can be
determined about 10% of the total frame width. Hence the rim can be
determined using the following formula:
  
(1)
In determining the temple length, three anthropometric data are used which
are occiput to nasion distance, horizontal ear breadth, and occiput to tragion
distance. The temple length can be found by the following formula:
     (2)
2. Results and Discussions
We collect the anthropometric data from 100 people who wear glasses, 50 each
for male and female. The subjects of our research are the students at Sebelas
Maret University Surakarta Indonesia. All the subjects are above 18 years old.
We also measure the glasses frame of the subjects which will compare to the
results of critical dimensions based on the anthropometric data. Based on the
comparison, we can find the optimal dimensions of the glasses frame. The mean
and standard deviation of the anthropometric data are shown in Table 1. We
perform hypothesis tests to check whether there are any significant differences
between male and female anthropometric data. The results of the hypothesis tests
are shown in Table 2. Table 2 shows that there are significant differences
between male and female anthropometric data.
We calculate the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles of the
anthropometric data to find the size of the critical dimensions. Table 3 shows the
results of the calculation for male and female data. After percentiles calculation,
we proceed to determine the critical dimensions of the glasses frame.
The bridge dimension can be found using the mean of the nose breadth and
mean of bridge dimensions. Those data are then used to calculate the ideal
proportions between the nose breadth and bridge mean. The proportions are
found to be 0.49 and 0.48 for female and male respectively. From the proportions
we can find the bridge dimensions for each percentile by multiplying the
proportions to the percentiles of the nose breadth. Bitragion width and bridge
dimension are used to determine the dimension of the rim as the formulae in Eq.
(1). The temple length can be determined by Eq. (2) using the following
anthropometric data: the occiput to nasion distance, occiput to tragion distance,
and horizontal ear breadth. Table 4 shows the results of the glasses frame
dimensions which are used by the female subjects along with the results of the
dimensions for each percentile. Table 5 shows the results for the male subjects.
1624 C. N. Rosyidi et al.
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology November 2016, Vol. 11(11)
Table 1. Mean and standard deviation of anthropometric data.
Anthropometry Data
Female
µ
σ
µ
σ
Bitragion Breadth
145.70
5.15
151.82
5.33
Occiput to Nasion Distance
169.14
6.74
175.74
7.36
Occiput to Tragion Distance
105.66
7.06
109.02
7.18
Nose Breadth
35.34
2.85
37.6
2.44
Horizontal Ear Breadth
29.98
3.19
31.24
3.02
Table 2.The Results of Hypothesis Test of Anthropometric Data.
No
Antropometric Data
Hypothesis
Hypothesis Test
Ho
H1
Statistical
Test (Z)
Conclusion
1
Bitragion Breadth
μ1 = μ2
μ1 ≠ μ2
-5.839
Accept H1
2
Occiput to Nasion Distance
μ1 = μ2
μ1 ≠ μ2
-4.676
Accept H1
3
Occiput to Tragion
Distance
μ1 = μ2
μ1 ≠ μ2
-2.359
Accept H1
4
Nose Breadth
μ1 = μ2
μ1 ≠ μ2
-4.255
Accept H1
5
Horizontal Ear Breadth
μ1 = μ2
μ1 ≠ μ2
-2.028
Accept H1
Table 3. Percentiles of Anthropometric Data.
Antropometric Data
Sex
Percentiles
5
10
25
50
Bitragion Breadth
Female
137.23
139.11
142.25
145.70
Male
143.05
145.00
148.25
151.82
Occiput to Nasion
Distance
Female
158.05
160.51
164.62
169.14
Male
163.63
166.32
170.81
175.74
Occiput to Tragion
Distance
Female
94.04
96.62
100.93
105.66
Male
97.20
99.82
104.21
109.02
Nose Breadth
Female
30.64
31.69
33.43
35.34
Male
33.58
34.48
35.96
37.60
Horizontal Ear Breadth
Female
24.73
25.90
27.84
29.98
Male
26.27
27.37
29.22
31.24
Table 3. Percentiles of Anthropometric Data (cont’d)
Antropometric Data
Sex
Percentiles
75
90
95
Bitragion Breadth
Female
149.15
152.29
154.17
Male
155.39
158.64
160.59
Occiput to Nasion Distance
Female
173.66
177.77
180.23
Male
180.67
185.16
187.85
Occiput to Tragion
Distance
Female
110.39
114.70
117.28
Male
113.83
118.22
120.84
Nose Breadth
Female
37.25
38.99
40.04
Male
39.24
40.72
41.62
Horizontal Ear Breadth
Female
32.12
34.06
35.23
Male
33.26
35.11
36.21
Head and Facial Anthropometry for Determining the critical Glasses Frame . . . . 1625
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology November 2016, Vol. 11(11)
From Tables 4 and 5, we can see that the existing bridge dimension of the
glasses frame falls between 25th and 50th percentile for female and exactly at
50th percentile for male anthropometric data. The mean of the existing rim for
female is 49.88 and falls between 50th and 75th percentiles, while the mean of
the rim for male is 50.28 and falls between 10th and 25th percentiles. The results
show that the existing rim dimension for female was taken from the higher
percentiles than male. The mean of the temple dimensions for female is 136.28
mm which is far above the 95th percentile of the anthropometric data.The mean
for male shows the similar result which is also far from 95th percentile of the
anthropometric data. These findings conclude that the temple length of the
existing glasses frame has been made longer than needed.
Table 4. The critical glasses frame dimensions for female.
Frame Parts
Dimensions (mm)
Anthropometry (mm)
Mean
Min
Max
P5
P10
P25
P50
Bridge
17.26
12.00
21.00
15.04
15.48
16.41
17.35
Rim
49.88
45.00
56.00
47.37
47.90
48.70
49.61
Temple
134.72
114.00
148.00
88.73
89.78
91.54
93.46
Table 4. The critical glasses frame dimensions and for female (cont’d).
Frame Parts
Dimensions (mm)
Anthropometry (mm)
Mean
Min
Max
P75
P90
P95
Bridge
17.26
12.00
21.00
18.28
19.14
19.65
Rim
49.88
45.00
56.00
50.52
51.35
51.84
Temple
134.72
114.00
148.00
95.38
97.14
98.19
Table 5. The critical glasses frame for male.
Frame Parts
Dimensions (mm)
Anthropometry (mm)
Mean
Min
Max
P5
P10
P25
P50
Bridge
18.20
13.00
24.00
16.26
16.69
17.41
18.20
Rim
50.28
41.00
55.00
49.09
49.66
50.60
51.63
Temple
136.3
125.00
145.00
92.70
93.87
95.82
97.96
Table 5. The critical glasses frame dimensions for male (cont’d).
Frame Parts
Dimensions (mm)
Anthropometry (mm)
Mean
Min
Max
P75
P90
P95
Bridge
18.20
13.00
24.00
18.99
19.71
20.14
Rim
50.28
41.00
55.00
52.66
53.60
54.16
Temple
136.3
125.00
145.00
100.10
102.05
103.2
Based on the results of this research, we proposed the design dimensions of
the glasses frame for female and male as seen in Figs. 2 and 3 respectively. For
both female and male, we suggest the 95th percentiles to make the frame suitable
for most population. The total frame width is equal to the bitragion width. We
1626 C. N. Rosyidi et al.
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology November 2016, Vol. 11(11)
found that the width is 154.17 mm and 160.59 mm for female and male
respectively. The endpiece dimensions are found from the total frame width
which by the rule of thumb it is 10% from the total frame width for each
endpiece. From the calculations, we found the endpiece dimension is 15.42 mm
and 16.06 mm for female and male respectively. From Tables 4 and 5, the bridge
dimensions are 19.65 mm and 20.14 for female and male respectively. Since the
difference between female endpiece dimension and male endpiece dimension is
less than 1 mm, we propose the same dimensions for female and male. The bridge
dimension has the same case, so we take the male dimensions to represent the
endpiece and bridge for both female and male. For the rim, the respected
dimension is found to be 51.84 mm and 54.16 mm for female and male
respectively. The temple length is equal to the 95th percentile for both female and
male with the respected dimension is 98.19 mm and 103.22 mm respectively.
51.84 mm
20.14 mm
16.06 mm
98.19 mm
Fig. 2. The frame dimensions for female.
54.14 mm
20.14 mm
16.06 mm
103.22 mm
Fig. 3. The frame dimensions for male.
Head and Facial Anthropometry for Determining the critical Glasses Frame . . . . 1627
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology November 2016, Vol. 11(11)
4. Conclusions
In this research, we determined the critical dimensions of glasses frame using head
and facial anthropometric data. We consider the bridge width, rim, and temple
length as the critical parts of the frame. We used the nose breadth to determine the
bridge width. The rim is determined from the subtraction of the total frame to the
endpiece and bar bridge. The total frame is found from the bitragion breadth. The
temple length is found from occiput to nasion, occiput to tragion distance and
horizontal ear breadth. We conclude that based on the results of anthropometric
data analysis, the endpiece and bridge dimensions have small difference between
female and male so we proposed the same dimensions. The mean of existing bridge
dimension for female closed to 50 percentile of the anthropometric data, while for
male it was exactly at 50th percentile of the data. The mean of the existing rim
dimension for female fell between 50th and 75th percentile, while for male it fell
between 10th and 25th percentile. The existing temple length is far beyond the 95th
percentile for both female and male. It means that the temple length dimensions are
made longer than needed. For all dimensions, we proposed the 95th percentiles of
the data so they will be suitable for the most population. For the next research, a
prototype can be built and tested to customers to determine their opinion about the
suitability and comfortness of the resulted design.
References
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products. Applied Ergonomics, 39 (1), 115-121.
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manufacturing workers. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics,
37(6), 497-503.
3. Yokota, M.(2005). Head and facial anthropometry of mixed-race US army
male soldiers for military design and sizing: a pilot study. Applied
Ergonomics, 36(3), 379-383.
4. Lo, C-H.; Yang, C-Y.; Lin, P-T.; Hsieh, K-J.; Liu, Y-C.; and Chiou, W-K.
(2012). Are human faces more attractive with glasses? Journal of The
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Objectives: The impact of race/ethnicity upon facial anthropometric data in the US workforce, on the development of personal protective equipment, has not been investigated to any significant degree. The proliferation of minority populations in the US workforce has increased the need to investigate differences in facial dimensions among these workers. The objective of this study was to determine the face shape and size differences among race and age groups from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health survey of 3997 US civilian workers. Methods: Survey participants were divided into two gender groups, four racial/ethnic groups, and three age groups. Measurements of height, weight, neck circumference, and 18 facial dimensions were collected using traditional anthropometric techniques. A multivariate analysis of the data was performed using Principal Component Analysis. An exploratory analysis to determine the effect of different demographic factors had on anthropometric features was assessed via a linear model. The 21 anthropometric measurements, body mass index, and the first and second principal component scores were dependent variables, while gender, ethnicity, age, occupation, weight, and height served as independent variables. Results: Gender significantly contributes to size for 19 of 24 dependent variables. African-Americans have statistically shorter, wider, and shallower noses than Caucasians. Hispanic workers have 14 facial features that are significantly larger than Caucasians, while their nose protrusion, height, and head length are significantly shorter. The other ethnic group was composed primarily of Asian subjects and has statistically different dimensions from Caucasians for 16 anthropometric values. Nineteen anthropometric values for subjects at least 45 years of age are statistically different from those measured for subjects between 18 and 29 years of age. Workers employed in manufacturing, fire fighting, healthcare, law enforcement, and other occupational groups have facial features that differ significantly than those in construction. Conclusions: Statistically significant differences in facial anthropometric dimensions (P < 0.05) were noted between males and females, all racial/ethnic groups, and the subjects who were at least 45 years old when compared to workers between 18 and 29 years of age. These findings could be important to the design and manufacture of respirators, as well as employers responsible for supplying respiratory protective equipment to their employees.
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Anthropometric data of the elderly have become an immediate need for ergonomic design of health care and living products even in a developing country like China. The first aim of this survey was to collect anthropometric data of the Chinese elderly (aged over 65) living in the Beijing area. 58 females (age range 65.0-80.7, mean 71.2, SD 4.1) and 50 males (age range 65.2-85.1, mean 71.5, SID 4.4) took part in the survey. A total of 47 anthropometric dimensions and three items of functional strength were measured. Mean values, standard deviations, coefficients of variation, and percentiles for each parameter were estimated. It was found that in most dimensions there were no significant differences between the age groups of 65-69 and 70-74 or between the age groups of 70-74 and 75+. Male and female elderly had no significant differences in the body dimensions around the hip area. Comparison between Chinese (Beijing) and Japanese elderly shows that Chinese (Beijing) elderly are larger in the dimensions of the body trunk, and Japanese elderly are larger in the dimensions of the head and extremities. The conclusions are based on a limited number of subjects in the Beijing area, and the in-depth reasons for the above findings remain a subject for further study. Relevance to industry The continuous growth of the number of aged people has created a big market of health care and living products for the elderly. Anthropometric data are essential to the ergonomic design of these products. However, available anthropometric data for aged people are quite limited. This study fills part of this gap by supplying anthropometric data of the Chinese elderly. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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The purpose of this study was to provide product designer with the anthropometric dimensions of hand for children and compare the dimensions of spoon sizes with anthropometric database and recommend appropriate solutions for design. Two hundred and five subjects who age ranged from 3 to 10 years old were separated into eight stratifications for analysis. Six dimensions of hand were measured by digital caliper. Results of ANOVA showed that all hand dimensions were significant age effect. Further, post test revealed that mean length of hand could be divided into four subsets. Manufacturers should make products available in various sizes to accommodate different users at least four sizes for children and various sizes were based on hand length plus 30 mm.
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This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. Please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy).Reason: This article is a duplicate of a paper that has already been published in Ann. Occup. Hyg., 51 (2007) 415–521, doi:10.1093/annhyg/mem005. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that the paper is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and we apologize to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.
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This study conducted anthropometric measurements among 1805 Filipino workers in 31 manufacturing industries. Anthropometric data were measured for standing, sitting, hand and foot dimensions, breadth and circumference of the various body parts, and grip strength. The workplace assessment survey was also done among respondents coming from the subject population to look into the common work and health problems that may be associated with ergonomic hazards at work. The data gathered can be applied for the ergonomic design of workstations, personal protective equipment, tools, interface systems, and furniture that aid in providing a safer, more productive, and user-friendly workplace for the Filipino working population. This is the first ever comprehensive anthropometric measurement of Filipino manufacturing workers in the country which is seen as a significant contribution to the Filipino labor force who are increasingly employed by both domestic and foreign multinationals.
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In the United States, the biologically admixed population is increasing. Such demographic changes may affect the distribution of anthropometric characteristics, which are incorporated into the design of equipment and clothing for the US Army and other large organizations. The purpose of this study was to examine multivariate craniofacial anthropometric distributions between biologically admixed male populations and single racial groups of Black and White males. Multivariate statistical results suggested that nose breadth and lip length were different between Blacks and Whites. Such differences may be considered for adjustments to respirators and chemical-biological protective masks. However, based on this pilot study, multivariate anthropometric distributions of admixed individuals were within the distributions of single racial groups. Based on the sample reported, sizing and designing for the admixed groups are not necessary if anthropometric distributions of single racial groups comprising admixed groups are known.
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Past studies on respirator fit or performance have mostly been done for Whites or male subjects, and little attention has been paid to minorities and Asians. To fill this gap, this study was designed to provide facial anthropometric data for Koreans and to analyze the association between facial dimensions and respirator fit factors for three brands of quarter-mask respirators, two domestic and one imported brand, using a Portacount 8020. A total of 110 university student subjects, 70 males and 40 females volunteered for participation in the study. The results of this study showed that Korean males and females have different facial dimensions as compared with those of White males and females. Unexpectedly, the imported respirator performed better than the domestic respirators. Males were found to achieve better respirator fit than females regardless of respirator brands tested. The regression analysis found no common prognostic variables with the three respirator brands studied. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was conducted to find predictive facial dimensions with respirator fits. Some facial dimensions were found to be statistically significant, but these dimensions are different from the traditionally recommended facial dimensions of face length and lip width for quarter mask. To improve respirator fit for Koreans, these different facial characteristics need to be considered in the design of quarter mask respirators.
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To achieve mass customization and collaborative product design, human factors and ergonomics should play a key development role. The purpose of this study was to provide product designers with the anthropometic dimensions of outer ears for different demographic data, including gender and age. The second purpose was to compare the dimensions of various ear-related products (i.e., earphone, bluetooth earphone and ear-cup earphone) with the anthropometic database and recommend appropriate solutions for design. Two hundred subjects aged 20-59 was selected for this study and divided into four age stratifications. Further, three different dimensions of the outer ear (i.e., the earhole length, the ear connection length and the length of the pinna) were measured by superimposed grid photographic technique. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the effects of gender, and age on ear dimensions. The results showed that all ear dimensions had significant gender effects. A comparison between the anthropometric dimensions and those of current products revealed that most current ear-related products need to be redesigned using anthropometric data. The shapes of earhole and pinna are not circular. Consequently, ear products need to be elongated so that users may feel more comfortably and not have the product slip off easily.
The influence of grooming style of recruiter's evaluation of female applicants for a managerial position
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Heke, J. (2010). The influence of grooming style of recruiter's evaluation of female applicants for a managerial position.Master Thesis of Business Studies in Communication Management, Massey University, Palmerston North, England.