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Abstract

In the present study, an attempt was made to know the activity of different plant extracts against the dandruff causing organism Malassezia furfur. Various parts of twelve different plants were collected and their crude as well as powered extracts were used for the activity studies. The evaluation was done using cup plate method. Sensitivity of the organism to marketed antidandruff shampoos was also studied. Of all the extracts, antifungal activity was shown by lemon, amla, shikakai, henna (decreasing order of activity). These results were compared with the antifungal activity of three branded shampoos. On comparison, it is inferred that plant extracts showed promising activity against Malassezia furfur when compared with the marketed antidandruff shampoos.
Open Access
: IJBNHY
: 2278-778X
Original Research Article
International Journal of Bioassays
*Corresponding Author:
Mamatha Pingili,
Associate Professor,
Department of Biotechnology,
Vaageswari Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Karimnagar, Telangana-505481, India.
E-mail: mamatharkrao@gmail.com
http://dx.doi.org/10.21746/ijbio.2016.11.0010 pg. 5047
Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dandruff causing
organism
Malassezia furfur
Mamatha Pingili*, Sridhar Vanga, Ramakrishna Raparla
Vaageswari institute of pharmaceutical sciences, Besides LMD Police Station, Ramakrishna Colony,
Karimnagar, Telangana-505481, India.
Received: October 21, 2016; Accepted: October 28, 2016
Available online: 1st November 2016
Abstract: In the present study, an attempt was made to know the activity of different plant extracts
against the dandruff causing organism Malassezia furfur. Various parts of twelve different plants were
collected and their crude as well as powered extracts were used for the activity studies. The evaluation was
done using cup plate method. Sensitivity of the organism to marketed antidandruff shampoos was also
studied. Of all the extracts, antifungal activity was shown by lemon, amla, shikakai, henna (decreasing order
of activity). These results were compared with the antifungal activity of three branded shampoos. On
comparison, it is inferred that plant extracts showed promising activity against Malassezia furfur when
compared with the marketed antidandruff shampoos.
Key words: Antidandruff shampoo, Antifungal activity, Dandruff; Malassezia furfur
Introduction
Dandruff is a scalp disorder which is characterized
by excessive shedding of skin cells from the scalp.
It is a common problem faced by people of all age
groups. Yeast like lipophilic basidiomyceteous
fungus Malassezia furfur [Pytirosporum ovale] is the
causative organism for dandruff [1]. Malassezia
converts the sebum lipid into fatty acids and
triglycerides, which accelerate hyperproliferation of
keratinoytes[2]. The treatment options [ointments,
lotions, shampoos] currently available for
management of dandruff have zinc pyrithione,
salicylic acid, imidazole derivatives, selenium
sulphide, tar derivatives, ketocanazole etc. as key
ingredients[3]. These synthetic treatment options
have certain limitations, which may be due to poor
efficacies or due to compliance issues[3]. These are
unable to prevent reoccurrence of dandruff with
side effects that cannot be neglected. The best
approach to treat dandruff is to use plants and
herbal formulations which possess antidandruff
properties. Studies evaluating antifungal effect of
essential oils have been reported [4,6]. Antifungal
activity of different plant extracts against Malassezia
furfura is carried out in this work.
Materials and Methods
15 different plant materials were collected from
different areas of Karimnagar district, and their
crude as well as powdered extracts were used to
evaluate their antifungal activity. Their activity was
compared with three branded antidandruff
shampoos. The plant parts selected are included in
table 1.
Table 1: List of plants and their parts used
S.No
Name of The Plant & Their Parts Used
1
Aloe babadensis sheath
2
Aloe babadensis gel
3
Hibiscus rosasinesis leaves
4
Lawsonia inermis leaves
5
Snake guard fruit
6
Wrightia tintoria leaves
7
Eucalyptus globules
8
Azadirachta indica leaves
9
Alium sativum bulb
10
Alium sepa bulb
11
Citrus lemonis
12
Sapindus mukorossi nuts
13
Trigonella foenum graecum seeds
14
Emblica officinalis fruit
15
Acacia concinna
Collection and maintenance of the culture
Pure culture of Malassezia furfur was obtained from
IMTECH, Chandigarh, India. The culture was
maintained in saborauds agar medium
supplemented with 2% olive oil.
Preparation of plant extracts:
Preparation of powdered extracts: Shade dried
powders of plant materials were taken in a beaker
and boiled with sterile distilled water for 15 mins.
Then the extract was filtered and centrifuged for
10 min. The supernatant was used to check the
activity.
Mamatha Pingili et al., International Journal of Bioassays 5.11 (2016): 5047-5049
http://dx.doi.org/10.21746/ijbio.2016.10.0010 pg. 5048
Preparation of crude extract: Collected plant
material was washed with sterile distilled water and
titurated individually by using motor and pestle.
Then the extract was filtered, centrifuged and the
supernatant was used for antidandruff activity.
Antifungal activity of plant extracts
The antifungal activity of different extracts on
Malassezia furfur was investigated by cup plate
method. The media was coated with a drop of
olive oil and then the organism was spread
uniformly over the agar surface. Wells were
punched aseptically with cork borer round the
margin of the plates equidistantly (3cm apart). In
to each of these wells 50microlitres of extracted
solutions were placed carefully. The plates were
allowed to diffuse for 30 minutes and incubated at
370C for 48 hrs. After incubation zone of
inhibitions were measured [ 7].
Results
The antifungal activity of the various crude and
powdered plant extracts against Malassezia furfur are
tabulated below.
Table 2: Antifungal activity of Crude extracts of
various plant parts
S.No
Name of The Crude Extracts
Diameter
in Cms
1
Aloe babadensis sheath
2
2
Aloe babadensis gel
2.4
3
Hibiscus rosasinesis leaves
-
4
Lawsonia inermis leaves
2.2
5
Snake guard fruit
-
6
Wrightia tintoria leaves
-
7
Eucalyptus globules
2
8
Azadirachta indica leaves
-
9
Alium sativum bulb
-
10
Alium sepa bulb
-
11
Citrus lemonis fruit
4.8
12
Sapindus mukorossi nuts
2.2
13
Trigonella foenum graecum seeds
2.1
14
Emblica officinalis fruit
3.4
15
Acacia concinna
2.1
Table 3: Antifungal activity of Powdered extracts
of various plant parts
S.No
Name of The Powered Extracts
1
Aloe babadensis sheath
2
Aloe babadensis gel
3
Hibiscus rosasinesis leaves
4
Lawsonia inermis leaves
5
Snake guard fruit
6
Wrightia tintoria leaves
7
Eucalyptus globules leaves
8
Azadirachta indica leaves
9
Alium sativum bulb
10
Alium sepa bulb
11
Citrus lemonis fruit
12
Sapindus mukorossi nuts
13
Trigonella foenum graecum seeds
14
Emblica officinalis fruit
15
Acacia concinna
Table 4: Antifungal activity of Combined plant
extracts
S.No.
Combinations of Crude Extracts
Zone of
Inhibition (Cm)
1.
Citrus lemonis+Lawsonia inermis
4.5
2.
Citrus lemonis+Emblica officinalis
4.5
3.
Lawsonia inermis+Emblica officinalis
3.5
4.
Acacia concinna+Citrus lemonis
3.5
5.
Acacia concinna+Emblica officinalis
3.5
6.
Acacia concinna+Lawsonia inermis
3.2
Table 5: Antifungal activity of Branded Shampoos
Sl.No.
Name of The Brands
Diameter In
(1-Well) Cms
1
Brand-a
3
2
Brand-b
4
3
Brand-c
5
Figure 1: Anti malassezia activity of Crude
extracts of various plant parts
Figure 2: Antimalassezia activity of Powdered
extracts of various plant parts
Discussion
Crude herbal drugs have been included in
traditional medicine and household remedies for a
long time. Not all herbal preparations have been
scientifically tested. Many studies are reported on
the antifungal activity of plant essential oils against
dandruff causing fungi malassezia furfur[4,6]. There
are measgre studies on the effect of plant extracts
on these fungi. In an attempt to determine the
benefits of various herbal extracts, effect of
different plant extracts against Malassezia furfur, an
yeast associated with dandruff were evaluated. The
most common cause of dandruff is probably the
fungus Malassezia furfur. The Plants were selected
based up on their usage as traditional medicine for
Mamatha Pingili et al., International Journal of Bioassays 5.11 (2016): 5047-5049
http://dx.doi.org/10.21746/ijbio.2016.10.0010 pg. 5049
treating dandruff. Both crude and powdered
extracts were prepared and tested against
Malassezia furfur by cup plate method and zone of
inhibitions were measured.
Out of the selected plant parts, lemon juice &
lemon peel powder showed maximum activity.
Next to lemon extracts a good activity was
observed with Amla, shikakai, henna, aloevera,
fenugreek, & reetha extracts. Lemon, amla,
shikakai & henna had good antifungal activity as
compared to other plant extracts. Six different
combinations from these four extracts were made
and checked for their synergistic activity against
Malassezia furfur. Lemon juice & henna extract and
lemon & amla combinations showed best activity
as compared to other combinations.
Antidandruff activities of three different branded
antidandruff shampoos were also studied and their
zone of inhibitions noted. These results were
considered as standard reference and compared
the results of the extracts with that of the
shampoos. On comparison one can say that the
plant extracts showed a considerable activity
against dandruff causing organism Malassezia furfur
and can be used to treat dandruff which cause no
side effects.
Conclusion
Plant extracts showed good activity against
dandruff causing organism Malassezia furfur. From
the results, we conclude that plant extracts have
antifungal activity and could be safely used for
treating dandruff. Further studies can be made on
the active molecules of plant extracts responsible
for antidandruff activity. Toxicity evaluation of
these extracts can also be carried out. Synthetic
drugs are unable to prevent recurrence [2].
Recurrence of dandruff up on usage of these plant
extracts can also be explored.
References
1. Arora P., Nanda A. and Karan M Plants used in
management of Dandruff. The Indian Pharmacist.
March, 2011pg: 28-31.
2. Singla chhavi, Drabu sushma, Ali Mohammad
Potential of herbals as antidandruff agents”.
International Research journal of Pharmacy. 2: 3,
2011 pg:16-18.
3. Vijayakumar R., C. Muthukumar, T. Kumar, R.
Saravanamuthu (2006) Characterization of Malassezia
furfur and its control by using plant extracts. Indian
Journal of Dematology. vol 51 2, 2006 145-148.
4. Lee, Jeong-Hyun and Jae-Sug Lee. Chemical
composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential
Oils Against Malassezia furfur Kor. J. Microbiol.
Biotechnol. 38: 3, 2010 315-321.
5. Clayton T. Shaw, Raymond W. Vanderwyk The
Human Scalp as a Habitat for Molds. J.Soc.Cosmetic
Chemists. 18(1967): 563-568.
6. Arora pooja, Nanda Arun, Karan Mahinder
Screening of plant essential oils for antifungal activity
against malassezia furfur Int.journal of pharmacy &
pharmaceutical sciences. Vol.5, issue2,2013, 37-39
7. Abhijeet pandey, Jui V. Jagpat, S. A. Polshettiwar.
Formulation and Evaluation of in-vitro Antimicrobial
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on their antimicrobial activity” International Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. vol 3:
1,2011, pg: 234-237.
8. G. E Piepard, J. E. Arrese, C. Pierard Franchimont,
P. De Doncker Prolonged effects of antidandruff
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colonization of skin. Int J Cosmet Sci. 3:1997 111-
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Cite this article as:
Mamatha Pingili, Sridhar Vanga, Ramakrishna
Raparla. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against
dandruff causing organism Malassezia furfur.
International Journal of Bioassays 5.11 (2016): 5047-5049.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21746/ijbio.2016.11.0010
Source of support: Nil.
Conflict of interest: None Declared
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Most active antidandruff shampoos exhibit a strong activity against the yeast Malassezia ovalis. The present study was undertaken to compare the prolonged antifungal effect of three proprietary shampoos containing either 2% ketoconazole, 1.5% zinc pyrithione or 2.5% selenium sulphide. Superficial squames were harvested from the scalp in the days following a 6-week antifungal shampoo treatment. Counts of yeasts highlighted by a fluorochrome were made using computerized image analysis. Data show the increased duration of yeast reduction for the ketoconazole shampoo over the two other formulations. The lingering effect of ketoconazole is explained by the combination of its antifungal and pharmacokinetic properties.
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Dandruff is a common scalp disorder affecting almost half of the population at the prepubertal age and of any gender and ethnicity. The fungus Malassezia furfur, a lipophilic yeast is widely accepted as the causative agent of dandruff, which due to its lipase activity releases proinflammatory free fatty acids causing dermal inflammation and tissue damage. Currently available treatment options of chemical origin have various limitations, either due to poor clinical efficiency or compliance issues. Also, these drugs are unable to prevent recurrence, which is the most common problem. Due to this, attention is shifting towards herbal remedies with aromatic plants and their essential oils being widely popular for their empirically antifungal properties. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential inhibitory effects of essential oils of indigenous plants on M. furfur. The antifungal activity of four aromatic oils of kapur tulsi, cinnamon, eucalyptus, cajeput along with one fixed oil of karanj was screened alone or in combinations using tea tree oil and ketoconazole as standards. Out of five selected oils, three oils showed activity in the order cinnamon oil >kapur tulsi oil >cajeput while karanj oil and eucalyptus oil were inactive against the fungus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of the active oils was evaluated using broth dilution method. The cinnamon oil, kapur tulsi oil and cajeput oil on evaluating in different combinations showed synergistic effect with a mixture of cinnamon oil and kapur tulsi oil exhibiting the best activity. The study reports effectiveness of kapur tulsi oil against M. furfur for the first time and further the synergistic combinations of oils is also being reported for the first time. The findings provide promising information on the potential use of essential oils for the treatment of dandruff.
Article
Malassezia furfur is an important causal factor for seborrheic dermatitis. Nowadays, the drugs available to treat this fungal infection are few. Several studies have documented the biological activity of essential oils. However, its antifungal properties are not completely understood, especially its anti-Malassezia activity. The aim of this study were to evaluate the effect of the plant essential oils on the growth of M. furfur using disk dif-fusion method and analyze by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) most active essential oils. In first screening, the 17 plant essential oils have possesses inhibitory activity against M. furfur at 2 mg/mL. Among the plant essential oils, oil of Citrus auranifoli was most active against M. furfur and its activity showed dose dependency. This anti-malassezial activity was high than that of itraconazole at 2 mg/mL. Oil of Citrus auranifolia also was phytochemically examined by GC-MS analysis, its main constituents were identi-fied as limonene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene. It can be concluded that essential oils of Citrus auranifolia may have interesting applications to control fungal-derived diseases.
Plants used in management of Dandruff " . The Indian Pharmacist
  • P Arora
  • A Nanda
  • M Karan
Arora P., Nanda A. and Karan M " Plants used in management of Dandruff ". The Indian Pharmacist. March, 2011pg: 28-31.
The Human Scalp as a Habitat for Molds
  • Clayton T Shaw
  • Raymond W Vanderwyk
Clayton T. Shaw, Raymond W. Vanderwyk "The Human Scalp as a Habitat for Molds". J.Soc.Cosmetic Chemists. 18(1967): 563-568.
Potential of herbals as antidandruff agents
  • Singla Chhavi
  • Ali Drabu Sushma
  • Mohammad
Singla chhavi, Drabu sushma, Ali Mohammad "Potential of herbals as antidandruff agents". International Research journal of Pharmacy. 2: 3, 2011 pg:16-18.
Plants used in management of Dandruff
  • P Arora
  • A Nanda
  • M Karan
Arora P., Nanda A. and Karan M "Plants used in management of Dandruff". The Indian Pharmacist. March, 2011pg: 28-31.
Formulation and Evaluation of in-vitro Antimicrobial activity of gel containing essential oils and effect of polymer on their antimicrobial activity
  • Abhijeet Pandey
  • Jui V Jagpat
  • S A Polshettiwar
Abhijeet pandey, Jui V. Jagpat, S. A. Polshettiwar. "Formulation and Evaluation of in-vitro Antimicrobial activity of gel containing essential oils and effect of polymer on their antimicrobial activity" International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. vol 3: 1,2011, pg: 234-237.