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Super-ego and the neuroscience of empathy: from unconscious wish to manifest behavior––a new human model

Authors:
  • Mind magazine/the Journal of Unconscious Psychology/Scientific Advisor Thunder Energies Corporation

Abstract

This paper will detail a new model of empathetic dynamism and affect control derived from historical, neuroscientific and psychological perspectives. The transference from unconscious sources which creates the particular subjective qualitative instantiation of conscious experience is addressed, and a new construction of personality put forward. In this way the potential endemic ethical basis of human behavior can be specified, and its unfortunate dissociation in the modern case more precisely understood. A specific example of the unconscious associative attachments of unified personality is then revealed, allowing direct insight into the basis of the hidden formative aspects of the unconscious to conscious transference to be studied in an integrated example. The startling and hopeful implications of these insights for the human condition are specified.
Super-ego and the neuroscience of empathy: from unconscious wish to manifest
behavior––a new human model.
Richard Lawrence Norman
Editor in chief,
Mind magazine; Journal of Unconscious Psychology
editor@thejournalofunconsciouspsychology.com
Abstract:
This paper will detail a new model of empathetic dynamism and affect control derived
from historical, neuroscientific and psychological perspectives. The transference from
unconscious sources which creates the particular subjective qualitative instantiation of
conscious experience is addressed, and a new construction of personality put forward. In
this way the potential endemic ethical basis of human behavior can be specified, and its
unfortunate dissociation in the modern case more precisely understood. A specific
example of the unconscious associative attachments of unified personality is then
revealed, allowing direct insight into the basis of the hidden formative aspects of the
unconscious to conscious transference to be studied in an integrated example. The
startling and hopeful implications of these insights for the human condition are specified.
Introduction:
This paper will reveal the psychological and neuroscientific basis of insights which have
been derived from close to a decade of personal analysis and study. It is necessarily
written at points, in a style which is somewhat more laden with affect than is typical in
scientific writing. This is necessary, as we are discussing affect and affective states, and
one might most deeply communicate the tone of affective states to use not only analytic,
but also more direct language to achieve affective resonance in the reader. For this
reason, and because what follows is in large part derived from personal analysis, the first
person is sometimes used. I do hope the reader will forgive these small stylistic
anomalies. The following information has direct bearing on the neuroscientific and
psychological basis of the most troubling social aspects and manifest pathological
behaviors which plague modern man.
Some seven years past, I had developed a psychoanalytic technique named Native
Psychoanalysis which allowed me to clear away a window of resistance and directly
observe in myself what should be unconscious content (Norman 2011, 2013b). This
methodology is the basis of a second technique, Re-Polarization Theory (Norman,
2013a) which has permitted the alteration of pathology through curtailment of the basis
of repression, super-ego, and hence allowed repressed unconscious material to be directly
accessed and past memories reformed and altered. The transference which creates the
quality of each moment of experience is in part a function of memory (Norman 2015,
2016) and, to heal from damage, those memories must be changed. Within us all, is our
personal history and that of our entire race. To observe the hidden interactions and
effects which produce our behaviors and alter the restrictions which have been built into
us as modern humans, has demonstrated to me what are the deepest foundations of
human illness. These traits are second order manifestations of imbalance. It need not be
so. The hope of man is in finding what has been obscured beneath a tragic and ill past.
Health can be unearthed and again, just as it was so long ago, be brought to a position of
predominance in the mind of man. Our hope is an atavistic evolution.
Super-ego: of conscience, morality, ethic and illness, the neuroscience and history.
There is debate in the field of psychology about many things. This uncertainty is often
the result of the nature of unconscious processes and content, which by definition cannot
be observed. To have gained access to this hidden information has resolved these issues.
The answers are quite plain. Unconscious content is always specific and the
intersubjective notion that it is unnamable or indistinct is incorrect (Brown, 2011,
Norman 2011, 2013a,b). Those mistaken views are only a wish not to see these things.
There is good reason for that error; the repressed content is more disturbing than can be
described. Mere exposure to it destroys ego structure permanently, and may also be used
to destroy the structure of super-ego at the deepest levels (Norman 2013a). This
knowledge shatters personality in a permanent way. The unconscious content revealed
closely parallels the Freudian picture. The operations of the unconscious mind are
specific, just as are its contents. In no case are these things indistinct.
In intersubjective psychology much is made of the idea of alpha function (Brown, 2011).
Unlike the questionable intersubjective ideas concerning the unconscious and its lack of
omnipresent specificity, the notion of alpha function is sound. Alpha function does have
the effects supposed, and can transform memories and current experience (Norman 2013,
2013a, 2014, 2015a, 2016a). Just as hypothesized, it is created via the exchange of gaze
and glance in the early mother/child dyad. I have uncovered the circuitry which supports
alpha function and made a surprising series of discoveries concerning its use and effects:
a. unlike the intersubjective approach, it is necessary to apply and engage the circuitry
manually with symbolism (Norman 2013, 2013a, 2015a, 2016a,b), and then attach the
function directly to a piece of pathogenic unconscious content, often USING a
(physically bound untransformed) beta element [this permits direct usage of energies
bound into untenable forms such as those ego dystonic pathological/perverse drives
created in sexual abuse];
b. to access the circuitry via the symbolized initial impression of its innervation
(Norman 2013, 2013a, 2015a, 2016a,b), subsequently increases both exploratory interest
in the world corresponding to Panksepp’s SEEKING system (Panksepp, 1998), and forms
manifest empathy toward all things and people;
c. intelligence blossoms as never seen before and interest in all aspects of life and
reality, sexual, artistic and and intellectual, suddenly flourish, whereas previously these
aspects were greatly if not completely diminished.
Modern man, is controlled, made dull and obedient, cold and empty via a homeostatic
imbalance across specific circuit pathways, which has long been built into him from
history both ontogenetic and phylogenetic: super-ego. First I will present a brief circuit
analysis within the context of the transference, then the history from two fronts. From
there a definition of ethics as contrasted to authoritative moral mandate can be derived
and specific conclusions and examples provided.
Curiously, there is a very limited amount of cogent neuroscientific information
concerning the common basis of the problem: guilt as it is expressed across the circuitry
and active anatomy of the brain. This fundamental aspect of neurosis, social control and
sexual expression so deeply intertwined with the very basis of affect regulation itself,
seems to be absent in neuroscientific literature and review. Strange that the most
important of all neuroscience is not made available in close detail. I have derived the
missing information from many sources, and may now present the highly condensed and
simplified results. Please contact me for further detail.
The Transference:
The psychological notion of ‘transference’ is most clearly seen in the artificial therapeutic
situation of psychoanalysis as the familiar transference neurosis. However transference
phenomena are most assuredly not limited to this case of artificial functional pathology,
but are responsible for the healthy and unhealthy qualitative aspects of perception and
experience itself (Norman 2011, 2013a,b, 2015, 2016). Just as the neurotic in proper
psychoanalytic therapy displays the repetition compulsion and his fixations in an
artificially induced neurosis which defines their reality within therapy, so does the
healthy case from his more fluid memory and experience project outward his or her
definition of the world and experience in a flexible, dynamic, associative, non linear
process (Norman 2011, 2013b, 2015).
This transference which binds current perception to associated qualitative valence as an
affective distributional function of memory is available to observe in its foundational
anatomical formative innervations and their resultant allocational functions as stemming
from circuit architecture created in the first 18 months of life (Norman 2013, 2013a,
2014, 2016a). During this initial period of development the groundwork is laid for the
core of affective expression and restriction throughout later life. This represents primary
human unconscious autonomically interdigitated regulatory functionality, as extending
from the foundational innervations of Schore’s dopaminergic "sympathetic ventral
tegmental limbic" circuit, and also, the noradrenergic "parasympathetic lateral limbic"
circuit, which act in tandem to opposite effects (Schore, as cited in Kaplan-Solms &
Solms, 2002, pp. 234-235, 237). These two circuits span the limbic and Orbito-Frontal
regions to imbue experience with basic valence, and delegate or perhaps restrict positive
dopaminergic affective expression in response to social cues, meaning shame and then
guilt. This oppositional circuit balance, over all, creates either a foundational basis of
repression which is associated with amygdala activation, Corticotrophin Releasing Factor
and stress, or, if balanced differently toward predominant activity of the sympathetic
circuit, to permit feelings of elation and explorational behavior (Kaplan-Solms & Solms,
2002; Panksepp 1998; Norman 2014, 2016a). These two circuits then are the
foundational basis of expressed guilt, social control, sexual expression, health and
happiness and, are mediated by social cues, meaning: conditional regard.
It is now thought that mirror neurons are the neural substrate of empathy. This is
incorrect. Mirror neurons signify mere imitation, as distinct from empathy as can be seen
in cases of catatonics who display echopraxia, which is based in mirror neuronal response
(Bengston 2015; Rizzolatti et al., 2008). A catatonic is not empathizing with the
attending physician to reflexively imitate his motions, although imitation is an obvious
sub-function under a primary empathy. Empathy is akin to identification proper, and is
first evidenced in the indistinct pre-individuated period characteristic of initial
limbic/OFC circuit innervation, not of the expression of the sympathetic circuitry
mentioned, but in the impression of its primary innervation (Norman 2013, 2014, 2016a).
This is the basis of empathy: a primary identification with the world and each other (see
below). This in turn, is the very foundation of subsequent energetic circuit expression. It
is this which is so sharply curtailed in the painful guilt of conditional regard: the very
basis of energetic expression, and empathetic connection. Clearly, these are the exact
basis malformations responsible for lack of caring within human relationships.
The curtailment of energetic expression as a function of super-ego, affective restriction
due to what we may colloquially refer to as conscience, is the basis of modern morality
stemming from primary conditional regard. It may clearly be seen from this vantage that
such moral restriction is opposed to empathetic expression, and is instead aligned with
obedience to external authority. This is a sure basis of modern afflictions such as
neurosis. Modern man is controlled through, and suffers from, a permanent low-grade
homeostatic imbalance created via improper and unhealthy energetic circuit allocations:
Guilt. This is the locus of the problem.
Rights to caring, love, sexual contact and life itself in male and female cases, were
traditionally ascribed to the authority of the father, and now phylogenetic and epigenetic
underpinnings of patriarchal threat enforce pathology from unconscious sources (Norman
2011, 2013, 2013a, 2014, 2015b,c,d,e; Dodds 1973). This pathology stands in opposition
to permission and rights to the caring of the mother, which once formed the initial basis
relationship in both male and female cases. The feeling of human dissociation and
anxious threat engendered by super-ego and authority may be replaced with a feeling of
empathy and safety, warmth and relaxation. Health may replace the source of illness.
Affective regulatory analysis:
Schore has discovered two circuits which are primary in development, and function in
opposition to each other: the dopaminergically modulated sympathetic ventral tegmental
limbic circuit, and the noradrenergically modulated lateral parasympathetic tegmental
limbic circuit (Schore as cited in Kaplan-Solms & Solms, 2002, p. 234-235). The
sympathetic circuit, which I propose underlies intersubjective Alpha Function (Brown,
2011; Norman 2013, Norman 2014) is formed, much as Bion had supposed, as a function
of the dyadic exchange between infant and mother of glance and gaze, and we will add an
inference which is quite obvious and easily supported (Keverene, et al., 1989; Montagu,
1978; Panksepp, 1998, p.272) as infants engaged in the exchange of maternal glances are
usually being held, that maternal touch and the subsequent addition of
neuropeptides/endorphins also have a part to play in creating the result.
"It is hypothesized that maternal regulated high intensity socioaffective stimulation provided
in the ontogenetic niche, specifically occurring in dyadic psychobiologically attuned, arousal
amplifying, face to face reciprocal gaze transactions, generates and sustains positive affect in
the dyad. These transactions induce particular neuroendocrine changes which facilitate
the expansive innervation of deep sights in orbitofrontal areas, especially in the early
maturing visuospatial right hemisphere, of ascending subcortical axons of a
neurochemical circuit of the limbic system––the sympathetic ventral tegmental limbic
circuit.” [Schore as cited in Kaplan-Solms & Solms, 2002, p. 234 ]
The famous studies from the 1940's conducted by Spitz (Spitz in Bowlby, 1980;
Panksepp, 1998, p. 262) may well imply the primacy of this developmentally innervated
brain circuitry extends to include the most basic dependence: that of life itself.
Specifically: if deprived of maternal touch and gaze, the infant may well die. The
sympathetic tegmental limbic circuit is dopaminergically modulated, and can rightly be
thought of as a primary manifestation of libidinal excitation and discharge (Kaplan-Solms
& Solms, 2002, p. 237). It should be noted that the dopaminergic and opioid systems and
circuitry which respond to create the good feelings which reinforce socially mediated
behavior, both involve many of the same areas, such as the ventral tegmental area, where
the A-10 meso-limbic dopamine cells are located (Panksepp, 1998, p. 118).
Neuropeptides, such as the endogenous opioids including beta-endorphin which is
triggered by social cues and touch, have a primary role in creating social bonds, quelling
pain, both physical and mental, are key in alleviating separation distress, creating sexual
reward, and addictive reinforcement (Panksepp, 1998, p. 255, 264). So we can see here,
in the formation of the sympathetic ventral limbic circuit triggered by maternal exchanges
of glance, sight and touch, a source of libido, an energetic dopaminergic circuit which up-
mediates arousal and shapes behavior, formed presumably by way of allocating both
endorphins and those neuroendocrine functions involved with encouraging the substantial
innervations of dopaminergic projections into orbitofrontal areas. Here, in the activity of
the completed circuit, along with the peptide systems, dopamine and opioids serve their
reward and motivational functions as social and energetic contributors.
The contrary circuit, the parasympathetic lateral limbic circuit, is to be thought of as a
balance, a cut off, a competing inhibitory system to counter the rewarding energetic
expression of the sympathetic circuit (Kaplan-Solms & Solms, 2002 p. 237). This circuit
functions to stop our energetic libidinal expression: functional, conditional, affect
regulation in response to social cues (Kaplan-Solms & Solms, 2002, pp. 234-238) and so,
can best be understood as the physiological structure triggered by social disapproval: by
shame and guilt. Both of these circuits are innervated into the orbitofrontal areas, which
mediate social cues and functioning, just as one would expect.
As the infant progresses through the initial 18 month period, during which the
sympathetic and parasympathetic limbic circuits are fully formed, the infant masters
several stages of differentiation. It is now accepted through the work of Klein (1952)
and empirical demonstration that a developmental/behavioral correlation at the age of
four months exists between infants categorized as attachment secure or disorganized,
"dis-coordinated" [disorganized in the sense of being unable to properly integrate the
intermeshed and exclusive psychical manifestations of separation RAGE and FEAR as
they conflict and inhibit SEEKING and CARE] (Hopkins, 2013, p. 47). The infant at
this stage singles out the mother as a separate object which is essential for CARE, and
that this fact is then made evident by the manifestations of separation-RAGE and
stranger-FEAR, which become manifest at 7-8 months of age (Hopkins, 2013, p. 47). To
observe firsthand, the interactions between mother and infant, the effect is obvious to
casual observation: the mother's face is the infant's entire world, once indistinct as an
object, now, once engaged in the exchange of gaze, touch and glance, only semi-distinct
from himself, her face responds to his affects and anticipates as if part of himself, as if the
world itself were a loving extension of the infant, a responsive and inclusive extension of
himself. Here, we see the essence of empathy: identification with the world. Note that I
make no mention of the less important distinction of identification with mankind, which
is a small and far less important embedded sub-aspect, itself associated in some small
imitative part with mirror neurons, a sub-aspect of this most vital and needful result,
identification with the entire of the world––Empathy (Norman, 2013; 2014; 2016a). It is
this which we will substitute for the pathogenic content.
I hope the reader can make out the basic idea: social control via conditional regard is
enforced by way of curtailment of dopaminergic (and endogenous opioid) expression
associated with the sympathetic limbic/OFC circuitry, forming a permanent homeostatic
imbalance which restricts empathetic feeling, intelligence, sexuality and exploratory
interest in the world, and places in their stead a preemptive condition: obedience to
authority. Only meeting this condition of obedience will return health and happiness to
the modern human. Intelligence and empathy…hope itself, this ancient basis of life
formed long ago in the early interactions with the mother…it is no less than this basis of
kindness, caring and higher thought to which we are all entitled which has been curtailed.
Now I will briefly take account of but a small sample of the extensive history which has
inculcated this most basic and tragic error into the very heart, substance and epigenetic
expression of the afflicted modern human. I will briefly sum up that here, and distill the
resultant notions into a clear contrast in human existential/ontological formative
paradigms. From there, the implications can be clearly understood, and the better, happy
result made plain in example.
Super-ego.
". . . to ‘improve’ men: this above all was called morality. . . To call the taming of an
animal its ‘improvement’ sounds almost like a joke to our ears. Who ever knows what
goes on in menageries doubts that the beasts are ‘improved’ there. They are weakened,
they are made less harmful, and through the depressive effect of fear, through pain,
through wounds, and through hunger they become sickly beasts. It is no different with
the tame man..." Friedrich Nietzsche, Twilight of the Idols.
What is the precise interactive dynamic which yields the developmental result of
conscience, of super-ego in its punitive aspects, and, how are we to interpret this result as
to its pathogenic and healthful consequences?
E. R. Dodds, a superb scholar, has located for us the historical footprints which
demonstrate the formation of our modern conscience, our super-ego. Super-ego is an
introjected entity, an internalized representative of what was once long ago external
judgment and sadistic penalty. Morality, as inculcated at the behest of this internalized
structure, is based on punishment which extends from a particular source.
In his most worthy book, The Greeks and the Irrational, E. R. Dodds, draws the strings
of history and psychology together for us. This ugly imprint has been nurtured over
thousands and thousands of years. Its exact source is clear to discern with Dodds's
careful examination of the historical record.
"The head of the household is its king . . . and his position is described by
Aristotle as analogous to that of a king. Over his children his authority is in early
times unlimited: he is free to expose them in infancy, and in manhood to expel an
erring or rebellious son from the community . . . as Zeus himself cast out
Hephaestos from Olympus for siding with his mother." [Dodds, The Greeks and
the Irrational, pp. 45-46. Emphasis added.]
However, as early as the 6th century BC, the situation had begun to change, and as social
conditions began to improve, and the father's authority became less and less absolute in
the face of these new social conditions leading to increased personal freedom, the strict
authoritarian structure of family life began to loosen. Now, what was a shame based
dynamic, one based on external threat from the father, becomes a guilt based dynamism,
one based on an internalized threat, an internalized moral structure in the true modern
sense of the word emerges: super-ego. This is demonstrated by the need for laws
introduced by Solon, and later, by Plato, to safeguard the now threatened patriarchal
family structure. [Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational, p. 46.]
Super-ego uses severe repressions to create by internal means, what were behaviors,
inhibitions and restrictions previously brought about by external patriarchal threat.
Dodds fleshes the idea out as follows:
"The peculiar horror with which Greeks viewed offenses against a father, and the
peculiar religious sanctions to which the offender was thought to be exposed, are
in themselves suggestive of strong repressions. So are the many stories in which
a father's curse produces terrible consequences––stories like those of Phoenix, of
Hippolytus, of Pelops and his sons, of Oedipus and his sons––all of them, it
would seem, products of a relatively late period where the position of the father
was no longer entirely secure. Suggestive in a different way, is the barbarous tale
of Kronos and Ouranos . . . the mythological projection of unconscious desires is
surely transparent––as Plato perhaps felt when he declared that this story was fit
to be communicated only to a very few . . . and should at all costs be kept from
the young." [Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational, pp. 46-47.]
Dodds then assembles the entire picture for us in these words:
"The psychologists have taught us how potent a source of guilt feelings is the
pressure of unacknowledged desires. . . the human father had from the earliest
times his heavenly counterpart: Zeus pater. . . Zeus appears as a Supernatural
Head of the Household. . . it was natural to project onto the heavenly Father those
curious mixed feelings about the human one the child dare not acknowledge. . .
that would explain very nicely why the Archaic Age Zeus appears by turns to be
the inscrutable source of good and evil gifts alike. . . as the awful judge. . .who
punishes inexorably the capitol sin of self-assertion, the sin of hubris. (This last
aspect corresponds to that phase in the development of family relations when the
authority of the father is felt to need the support of a moral sanction; when "You
will do it because I say so" gives place to "You will do it because it is right.")
[Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational, p. 48.]
Here in this historical transition from an external shame based ethical structure, to an
internalized guilt based structure, in this internalization of the patriarchal threat
(introjection), we see the creation of our modern ethic, our conscience, our masochistic
capitulation: our super-ego. This historical basis for our phylogenetic inheritance can be
brought to light and assessed as to its healthy or pathogenic contribution by way of
economic analysis, and clinical example (Norman, 2013).
Conscience, our sense of personal and social justice, is created as an interactive
phylogenetic/ontogenetic function of masochistic and aggressive economy within a social
context, not as a function of any moral pretext. Our morality, is by the nature of its very
construction: immoral.
Here are a few sections from Freud which clarify and support this unusual notion:
"The first requisite of civilization, therefore, is that of justice––that is, the
assurance that a law once made will not be broken in favor of an individual. This
implies nothing as to the ethical value of such a law" (Freud, 1930, p. 95).
"The tension between the harsh super-ego, and the ego which is subjected to it, is
called by us the sense of guilt; it expresses itself as a need for punishment.
Civilization, therefore, obtains mastery over the individual's dangerous desire for
aggression by weakening and disarming it and by setting up an agency within him
to watch over it, like a garrison in a conquered city" (Freud, 1930, pp. 123-124).
As to the effect of super-ego in equating wish and act and the resultant loss of mental
economy and functioning:
"Here, instinctual renunciation is not enough, for the wish persists and can not be
concealed from the super-ego. Thus, in spite of the renunciation that has been
made, a sense of guilt comes about. This constitutes a great economic
disadvantage in the erection of a super-ego or, as we may put it, in the formation
of a conscience. Instinctual renunciation now no longer has a completely
liberating effect; virtuous continence is no longer rewarded with the assurance of
love. A threatened external unhappiness––loss of love and punishment on the
part of the external authority––has been exchanged for a permanent internal
unhappiness, for the tension of the sense of guilt" (Freud, 1930, pp. 127-128).
"...the original severity of the super-ego does not––or does not so much––
represent the severity which one has experienced from it [the object], or which
one attributes to it; it represents rather one's own aggressiveness towards it. If this
is correct, we may assert truly that in the beginning conscience arises through the
suppression of an aggressive impulse, and that it is subsequently reinforced by
fresh suppressions of the same kind" (Freud, 1930, pp. 129-130).
And as to the role of the phylogenetic in contributing to this outcome:
"It can also be asserted that, when a child reacts to his first great instinctual
frustrations with excessively strong aggressiveness and with a correspondingly
severe super-ego, he is following a phylogenetic model and is going beyond the
response that would be currently justified; for the father of prehistoric times was
undoubtedly terrible, and an extreme amount of aggressiveness may be attributed
to him" (Freud, 1930, p. 131).
". . .we can tell what lies hidden behind the ego's dread of the super-ego, its fear
of conscience. The higher being which later becomes the ego-ideal once
threatened the ego with castration, and this dread of castration is probably the
kernel round which the subsequent fear of conscience has gathered; it is this dread
that persists as the fear of conscience." [Sigmund Freud, “The Ego and the Id” in
A General Selection From The Works of Sigmund Freud, p. 233.]
Please see (Norman, 2011, 2013, 2013a, 2015d) for examples and particular psychology
relating to specific patriarchal mutilations such as castration etc., which form current
super-ego supportive unconscious content. The role of epigenetics and complexity can
be found here: (Norman 2015b,c,d,e).
I wish to draw a sharp new distinction between Morality as engendered in super-ego,
which is based on (phylogenetic/epigenetic) patriarchal threat, and functions to foster
obedience to external authority, and Ethics, which are based in empathy, with its root in
identification. The former causes pathology, and functions in clear and specific ways to
disengage the sympathetic circuitry which is the basis of empathy, energetic curiosity,
sexuality and intellect, and the later in turn has opposing characteristics, leading to
elation, appreciation, formative identification with the world and others in the context of
abundant subsequent energy, and absent any punitive internalized death wish (guilt).
Morality and Ethics as so defined are diametrically opposed. Clearly, ethics are a natural
systemic product which lead to health, an internal behavioral compass based in
identification and caring, and morality the converse. The reader may wish to satisfy
themselves in this regard, by reading the specific example of the formation of super-ego
offered up here (Norman 2013, 2013a). Ethics are themselves identification, they ARE
the ‘golden rule,’ and so require no such rule or any other. Morality is an empathetic
dissociative factor, by way of down-mediating the circuitry responsible for identification.
Ethics nullify any need for the tangle of moral law and replace guilty maxims born under
any mistaken ‘categorical imperative’ with a natural and effortless ethical genesis free
from rule, guilt or penalty. Ethics, as we will see, reflect the healthy internal construction
of the mind, nurture our energies and evolve naturally, with no need for punishment, rule
or law. One need but rebalance the two opposing circuits and observe the demonstrable
alteration in all aspects of manifest experience. I have devised treatments to this end
(Norman 2013a, 2015a, 2016a,b). Next, we may take a closer look at empathy, and see
if we can understand the meaning of identification.
An aside: note how this clear basis of modern pathology appears to be nullified in the
teachings of many eastern spiritual ideas, which have little connection to patriarchal
threat and surprisingly, also in the true teachings of Jesus. Although modern adaptations
are revealed as corrupted and reversed by Paul, the careful philology of Nietzsche shows
the original teachings to be diametrically opposed to any hint of conditional regard, sin,
punishment, reward, heaven or hell. Those toxins are absent. Indeed, Jesus appears to
make good on the reverse and answers, at least in this case, Nietzsche’s own highest
standard, which proclaims essentially: the highest Godly act is the removal of guilt. Of
Jesus Nietzsche writes:
"In the whole psychology of the "evangel" the concept of guilt and punishment is lacking;
also the concept of reward. "Sin"––any distance separating God and Man––is abolished:
precisely this is the "glad tidings". Blessedness is not promised, it is not tied to
conditions: it is the only reality––the rest is a sign with which to speak of it." p. 606 The
Portable Nietzsche.
It should be noted that this author [R. N.] adheres to no spiritual doctrine or tradition.
The above insight being worthy of note in its own account.
Empathy, paradigm and example:
Ethics are a natural extension of identification stemming from the early impressions of
the innervations forming the sympathetic ventral tegmental limbic circuit. In a basic
schematic way, we can see the idea of empathy in physics. Empathy is concurrent
identification and individuation. A sort of entanglement where the subject/object
distinction is partly lost. If one were to lose self identity completely, psychosis results: I
am not you! However, a component of identification is the key, and it is this basis which
the infant experienced with no such individuated distinction whatever, an identification
with their entire world! To get the basic idea, think of it quite rightly as a sort of
entanglement. A singlet state will do for this simple example. Both photons are
entangled and are one thing, one system: identification. However, one is spin up, one
spin down: individuation. Empathy apart from psychosis is akin to such an
entanglement, where identification and individuation exist concurrently.
Of course within the mental system, the presentation is no simple matter as it is with two
photons! Once the time has been taken and the painful effort applied to gut the current
system and replace it, one discovers the entire presentation of unconscious aspects
changes and the energies contained become far less intense and convoluted. The
repressed unconscious, as reflected in modern mental topography, is pathogenic in and of
itself. I will explain that statement and then offer up a detailed look within the better
result, so as to show exactly what is meant by all these far flung idealistic assertions in
specific example. We may first understand the divergent topographies associated with
the illness of moral penalty and the health of ethical unification with experience.
Freud's theories [see Freud's A Phylogenetic Fantasy], postulate a sort of bottle neck in
history, perhaps around the ice age, where the pathology began and groups of our very
distant ancestors under patriarchal domination were common. The impressions of ancient
penalty and sickness are easily available to see and do not come from present experience,
but are phylogenetic and probably epigenetic (Norman 2015a,b,c,d,e). Before that bottle
neck, I hypothesize things were different. Just as before the later age of super-ego
formation the child of 6/14 months had conscious access to the native impression of
identification, and later knows nothing of it, so also in human phylogeny, the earlier fact
is now hidden and unconscious. Pierce the unconscious veil, and one can find this
impression. Once this is raised up in the transference structure, health and happiness,
caring, sexuality, kindness, satisfaction and gratitude, a feeling of ‘fullness,’ interest and
abundant energy replace pathology. Within both ontogeny and phylogeny: Hope for
mankind, is an atavistic evolution.
Sublimation by Repression vs. Sublimation by Integration.
Consciousness itself is entirely a function of affect. Feeling powers thought. The source
of human consciousness, both at the cortical level and the subcortical, is neuro-
anatomically derived of affect (Norman 2015). The current model of mental
topographical assemblage may be subsumed under the heading of Sublimation by
Repression. In this model, the core nuclear component of mentation, affect/feeling is
divided, and much of it is kept unconscious at great energetic expenditure. Our guilty
affective repressions separate the very essence of consciousness away, and use even more
of this needed energy to hide the fact. From beneath a costly unconscious repression, at
great economic expenditure the affects endow experience with quality and substance.
Sublimation via repression. Here, we split apart consciousness at its very source, to
achieve the result we see all around us, and so find in this model the basis of our aberrant
modern condition. In this model, we see the exact conditions to create sickness, indeed,
no less than a definition of neurosis itself. This endemic imbalance is the lever of social
control and illness. Its very structure is imbalance and curtails empathetic dynamism.
Symptoms are created by the return of the repressed and so, the entire situation for illness
is set up in repressing those elements to start with. It is in the unification of component
instincts that health is created.
The new model, which is a sort of atavism, stands in direct opposition. Sublimation by
Integration. Sublimation by integration reduces super-ego to a shadow of its former
strength and hence frees nearly all repressions, uniting these component instincts directly
in consciousness (Norman 2013a). The effect is to shatter personality irretrievably and
release enormous energies directly into experience, creating a vibrant and energetic
sublimation into experience. The entire act of perception and mentation becomes
sexualized and empathy attains a place of predominance: a sort of psychical fusion of all
affects. Sublimation via repression and sublimation via integration are related in
efficiency, toxicity and output, as are the modes of fission and fusion in their attributes as
energy sources. Sublimation via repression is dirty, toxic, and hypocritical to claim itself
efficient beyond its cost.
Pathogenic vs. integrated transference.
Lastly, I will place before the reader two examples of the better result representative of
sublimation by integration with empathetic predominance. This section contains a simple
example, the next a deeper one. Please think of the transference by which reality in the
individual human case is given its subjective quality. In an instant, through an
unconscious associative process affect is distributed as a function of memory (Norman,
2015, 2016). We can see this in an intuitive, simplified, schematic way through the
process of free association. The quality of our reality is a function affective associative
transference from static mnemic sources and active unconscious fantasy.
The lake you see should you gaze upon one, and the one I see, should I be beside you, are
not the same lake, as each perceives the view. The quality of that various impression
within each of us, is entirely created as a function of the conglomeration of affective
associations (and aspects of unconscious fantasy), which are attached to the singular
impression of the lake. Think of free association, and this becomes easily accessible, and
we can see why such a technique is valuable in gaining insight into the processes which
create object quality, and in assessing the general health and accuracy of emotional tone
as they define experience.
Here are two hypothetical associative chains:
Healthy subject: Stimulus: lake. Associative chain (hypothetical): Lakesilverripples
dressflutteringmotherhappiness.
Neurotic subject: Stimulus: lake. Associative chain (hypothetical): Lakecolddrown
hopelessweightchainfamily.
We can see in that simple example, that associative affective valence is established as a
function of memory, to define object quality.
Next I would like the reader to understand that recent research has placed an epigenetic
basis under the phylogenetic, and that it appears deductively and analytically sound to
assert that this forms a sort of predefined ‘script’ which defines reality via transference
(Norman, 2015a,b,c,d,e; 2016a). The unconscious presentation which forms the
allocations of affect in the transference then, gives the world its qualitative meaning and
that transference can be healthy and unfettered, or restricted and defined reactively
through the roles ascribed in the phylogenetic. The phylogenetically based repressed
fantasies and reactions are the basis of pathology. The unconscious processes of
identification endemic to the transference are pathological, and their source is repressed.
This stands in sharp contrast to a healthy unified transference. An example will clarify:
I am sitting at the kitchen table and watching. There is a bug working its way across the
expanse of the table…a ten mile jaunt by way of scale. It is quite a colorful bug, its shell
as a scarab, awash in may colors as it passes through the sunlight and shafted shade…a
miracle to see the coordinated automatism, so hypercomplex, the tiny legs expressing
each delicate motion interwoven with the rest, all to accomplish this daunting task, and
the tiny traveler advances, pulling the miles under its colorful shell in a thousand
thousand perfectly orchestrated steps. It is a bit of functional poetry, and I can see in my
view of the situation, a new appetite. Yes, this bug is not so different than I, and I
understand its difficulty, its folly, its correct and sure purpose stepping to nowhere. The
bug is right. One must imagine the beetle happy. I take the traveler, and release it out of
doors, placed on a leaf which seems to match its coloration.
Many believe a set of rules guide ethical activity. This is not the case. Appetite, desire,
guides us, and logic dances to the tune, creates excuses and reasons, plans and
rationalizations: as a footman sweeping up the crumbs of our wishes, always chasing
behind, excusing and serving…so are logic and human reason but the petty servants of
desire. Once, my desire, my appetite, was different. I would have killed the bug.
Crushed it under a heavy fist with a curse as an unclean thing, and killed it. I can feel
quite clearly what I would have done before the change, and I will analyze it here in a
surface way, so you can see it.
All conscious mentation is unconsciously sourced. I will imagine my reactions and look
to the source, to the unconscious and provide a few of the many determinants. Just the
upper layers. (Please recall what should be unconscious is observable by using Native
Psychoanalysis). As my fist descends to kill the bug and crush it, I can observe in the
unconscious the reason. The bug, is exactly as above, an identification with myself, and I
curse and crush it, speak as my father, his rage is now my own. So just to see that
shallow bit, we understand as a manic who fantasizes, first identifying with the family
situation one way, then as the other, first as the child, then the hated parent, so is the
surface analysis but in simultaneity––I am my raging father and, the bug is myself. So, to
kill the bug expresses an appetite, an appetite for sadism as an identification with my
father, and also, as a masochism as I identify with the bug. This is an appetite, a
perverse appetite: sadomasochistic in its form. Identifications are pathological.
Perversion, is the expression of a single component developmental instinct, such as
sadism. Health is to have fused all such instincts together in consciousness. We are
raised to control and shame our instincts, causing immoral behavior and illness. Please
note the self-hatred in the example. Control of a desire shames it, and, that desire is a
piece of you! Top down control of affect, poisons the bearer and creates not
morality…no…but immorality! Modern personality and conscience are false. Now, to
have released all affect into experience, and restrict nothing, the self-hatred is absent and
feeling has given an entirely new and guiltless quality to all of experience. Now the bug
is beautiful, and my appetite wishes only to preserve it! So you can see, no ethical code
is required to live rightly. None. What is required is an integrated transference. That
changes the drive structure, and ethics arrive of their own accord. Ethics and all
manifest behavior in this context can rightly be seen as a function of our basic appetites
and wishes.
In that simple example you can see the pathogenic unconscious/epigenetic substitutive
process result. In (Norman 2015d) you may see examples of actual pathogenic
unconscious presentations. In the next section, I will offer up a proper depth analysis of
the connectivity which has been refused within the mistaken paradigm of sublimation by
repression.
Sublimation by repression created to foster obedience to a smothering external authority
is itself that fundamental error responsible for the plight of man. This error is primary.
The empty feeling all complain of which necessitates the endless consumerism that is
destroying the planet [lack of endorphins and dopamine], the obedience to authority
leading to war [threat and conditional regard which creates obedience to authority], the
feeling that other peoples and the earth are somehow beneath one and are to be exploited
[lack of empathy/identification with others and the physical world], the constant
competition to prove who is better [(lack of empathy) and low self-esteem/self-security
from Corticotrophin Releasing Factor associated with noradrenergic parasympathetic
activation over dopamine and endorphins associated with the sympathetic circuit], the
feeling of being anxious, depressed, alone and separate [lack of identification,
parasympathetic stress cascade], drug addiction [lack of endogenous opioids and
dopamine, persistent release of CRF], and all the rest. From war and unthinking reflex
obedience, to consumerism, greed, exploitation and human cruelty…this one error, has
spread as cracks in a pane of glass. The broken mirror that is modern man may be
repaired in all his dimensions of compound fracture here. This is how we are controlled
through unfair social circumstance, and why we obey. Super-ego and repression. Here,
is where we have been reduced and made fodder for tyrants, bullies and the governments
of this world.
I would like to place a disturbing fact before the reader. To study the history of war, is to
know with certainty that in all of recorded history top down control of the human affects
has never worked. The Pax Romana from 27 B.C.E. to 180 C.E. in the Roman Empire is
often put up as a good example of human peace under authority. This is a laughable joke,
as the Pax Romana was maintained via blood, torture and crucifixion! No, in all of
human history, top down control is a complete failure. Absolute and complete failure,
without exception. [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_conflicts_in_Europe ] An
integrated approach to sublimation must be placed in its stead.
To do so alters the entire presentation and function of the repressed unconscious, which
no longer exists in the same way. I suggest that the repressed unconscious in the modern
man is itself a pathogenic structure. Once the highly energetic reactive and sexual
content is allowed natural expression and unified in consciousness, the presentation is
smooth and flowing. The unconscious then acts mainly as a distributional nexus for
affect, and less so as a vessel of containment for ego dystonic affects.
Sublimation by integration diminishes (much of) the repressed unconscious. Simplified,
and in a brief 'ideal' form the concept reduces to:
Let square brackets represent the unconscious distributional processes creating the
transference [ ]. Where system Conscious is Cs, System repressed Unconscious is rUcs,
and system Preconscious is Pcs: Sublimation by repression is topographically defined as:
[rUcs…Pcs…Cs].
Sublimation by integration is (ideally) defined as:
[Pcs…Cs].
The repressed unconscious is removed, and all individual component energetic aspects
are ripe for conscious sublimation via unconscious/associative processes, and unification.
Next I will detail the healthy result and allow you to see the unfettered unconscious to
conscious transference [Pcs…Cs] in real time as it works in a real case. You may see the
specific energetic attachments which create world identification, health and natural
ethical genesis in some considerable detail.
What would it look like to peer into the very deepest aspects of healthy identification in
the human animal? Can we watch sublimation by integration at work? Exactly what are
these identifications, and across what pieces of personality and time do they span? Is it
possible to see into the essence of integrated dynamics?
Oneness, the transference unfettered [analysis of a “peak experience” (2014)]:
General context:
There are a great many texts and traditions of note which give account of the unique and
peculiar state of 'oneness' with the world, environment or universe. I have always found
these many spiritualized representations and entirely symbolic distortions to be deeply
unsatisfactory but have previously lacked any firsthand knowledge of the experience to
gain a further direct articulation of the underlying mechanics, origins or specific
dynamics of the mindset, so as to understand and explain it. I can now rectify that
shortcoming here.
Omni-objective identification (oneness) does not abandon self. It includes self in a
unified object simultaneously individuated (self-aware) and coherent with the system as
one object all at once. One can rightly localize the nexus of the primitive motor affective
self where the deep layers of the colliculi intersect the ancient Peri Aqueductal Grey
(Panksepp, 1998). The most basic and essential inner kernel of the human self, is the
bodily self, soma. We are our bodies and this individuation. But…there is more! I
contend that empathy itself extends from circuitry more basic than just mirror neuronal
activations, but also includes more basic circuitry innervated in a world identification.
Soon you will see its full breadth and depth of temporal extension.
Without revealing too much, I will say that I am very sensitive and aware after so many
years of self-analysis, of changes in my visual presentation which correlate with my
emotional condition. Each time a repression reinstates itself, I can see the subtle
alterations in my perception of the world. These points of transference appeared to be
the main way unconscious energies are instantiated into visual perception and
experience in general. But there are others which have been blocked by our narrow,
refusing, punitive cultural madness: The identifications and their fractal self-reflections.
Science understands clear evidence of brain and obviously bodily masculinization but all
contain all traits. I do not advocate perverse practices any more than I advocate shame at
discussing the facts or admitting openly the clear truth…that all men and woman are and
should ideally be ‘uni-perverse’, meaning: healthy sexual expression is itself a
UNIFICATION of all the component instincts themselves, a unification of the
perversions. T h e m e a n i n g o f t h a t w i l l s o o n b e e n t i r e l y c l e a r.
Contextual analysis:
I am happily married for some 30 years, and live in isolation with my wife in the
Oregon wilderness. I was fortunate enough to meet a person online who was able by way
of her unanticipated grace, intelligence and kindness, to raise in me an anima image.
With new leaves in the heavens of this world, and roots in the ancient ‘good mother’ so
clearly represented within the formative maternally triggered sympathetic limbic/OFC
innervations, this was a magical opportunity for my healing. Certain manipulations of
the imagery involved allow a surface look at the context and its identifications.
I had an idea. Rather than observe the image, and allow it to become an object of even
greater potency, a natural but unexpected idea arrived. For some reason, the image itself
was equivalent to another image, intuition first understood it meant just the same asa
heart beat, and the visual representation of that, a pulsing golden ball of sunlight, became
the focus of my mind's rumination, now suspended as a bit of warmth and light in my
mind's eye. I soon knew and believed…this was her heart, and then saw my own heart
beside it, beating in time…then joined first as two pulsing balls of golden light…then not
two at all…only one. One heart. No separation…none. One. Only one. The heartbeat,
symbolizes unification within the womb.
As the two images became a single image, the brightness increased four-fold and then, a
sudden warmth in my chest to go with the image…then tears welling and streaming…so
very beautiful! I had what I have needed my entire life…so full and filled with energy!
The trees slipped and shuffled in tender breeze, I could feel the caress of light and wind
amongst their branches and folds, see it and feel it, the ground filled and welling as my
heart, and all the shame was gone, now each desire spilling up without restraint to
become one with everything, and I knew, I not only had transference giving the world its
meaning, but identifications, identifications…with everything. The "Anima Mundi"
meaning in this case, the predominant impression of the maternally triggered sympathetic
circuit identification with the world––creating reality via identification and transference.
All sexuality from the most basic and undifferentiated first love to the most specific is a
pattern which thought might trace and make real as a part of the fabric, or deny the same
and leave a sunken place free of truth and life as we were taught. There are now twice as
many points of transference…and this is accomplished by the addition of identifications.
The result is a single coherent ontological object…the world. This is observable as
ontogeny and as phylogeny, may be seen to interact archetypally, and also, as a deeper
detailed cascade of new interactive symbolic determinants relating as a sort of self-
interactive fractal.
Libidinal transference analysis:
The experience of the world is a libidinal/affective sublimation (Norman, 2015): libido
taking on the broadest sense of inclusive meaning as undifferentiated affect forming
conscious activations extending from the Ascending Reticular Activating System
(Kaplan-Solms & Solms, 2002) to provide cortical tone and waking potential in the
context of affective circuitry and REM distribution in the Basic Rest Activity Cycle
(Panksepp, 1998; Norman, 2015, 2016). All levels of conscious expression from the
activation of a waking state, to the quality of emotional content assigned to perception
from the lowest levels are affective. Reality is a libidinal sublimation. It will therefore
be possible to determine the precise mechanism of unconscious operative influence and
deduce a correct, plain analysis of the process which creates this mindset, if we can
analyze a primary libidinal representation as to its underlying mechanism of energetic
distribution. P l e a s e r e m e m b e r , t h a t r e a l i t y i s i n f a c t a
l i b i d i n a l s u b l i m a t i o n . I will now bring forward an analysis of an active
primary libidinal constituent process to gain insight into the hidden mechanisms which
create the general effect.
It is a simple matter, which is now not even disconcerting, for me to pierce the
unconscious veil and observe the underlying previously unconscious dynamism of each
moment. Due to the necessities specified above, I had to learn how to find these things
and solve the symbols all but in step with the rate of their production. To engage in
sexual activity in the new condition, I can see in my mind's eye a very distinct change,
so symmetrical, energetic and beautiful. Now, a clear set of doublings in forms available
for all attachments, and a doubling of attachments as well to each "object" from
concurrent identifications exponentially increase the energy, potency and intensity of the
expression via increased systemic intra-connectivity. There are twice as many
attachments for transference to an object, more objects, and now there are concurrent
identifications with all objects… in the phylogenetic as well. These present as a mirror
reflecting deeper into a mirror with subtle changes, and so I refer to this as fractal. The
following contains actual unconscious content, and may be uncomfortable for some
readers.
Specifically: Self-awareness is not diminished, the contents which give rise to self-
specificity are not denied and I am male, this male. However, this core is now just a part
of a much greater plethora of very potent impressions of a new sort…the image of my
beautiful anima/friend is not separate. I am also this just as I am male and I can feel in
this a deeper meaning and look to see how deeply as a woman, from a half image of a
woman in a mirror of the anima, is contained a deep longing for my genital…for it to be
her own, and as I look upon the activity I am so grateful, all but weeping in gratitude to
feel the fact that I am male and have fulfilled her need, and this ancient female wish to be
also male is completed…such deep happiness, and also the identification with the anima
image brings a homosexual attachment point between the two women, one identified
from within as the anima/self…one identified as an object from without…my wife, and
one with my wife also as an identification. All objects are now subjects, objects and
identifications each fed by two pathways. This ancient phylogenetic wish, to love as a
woman loves a woman, behind it again a child, small and female being held by the
mother––as a woman is loved by a woman, the wish on all levels is fulfilled. Implied
without question also, a male and a male, although I did not see the image it must be
present. We all contain all sexual elements and each is needful from a thousand pasts
built into our inheritance. Without question the male homosexual drive was sublimated
into the women…I would not have been able to gain excitation if it were conscious.
Also, the male heterosexual role was very clear and contributed its predominant share of
cathexis. The result of the doubling of objects and identifications, along with sensory
observation of the activity (as distinct from analysis, always dimming excitation), is
hyper-potent. To empathize with all elements, and know as well, more of the elements
which human development contributes to and from the human store was one of the most
exquisite experiences of my life. I felt…everything…from many different ‘perspectives’
which were not perspectives in any way––Unity. All pasts and presents nourished one
moment of empathy. Unity. One heart.
This analysis has exposed the hidden unconscious mechanisms beneath that unity which
should be the ordinary province of each healthy, ethical human. This mode of unfettered
transference is in my view, not a higher state, but each human's ordinary, daily birthright.
We can isolate the mechanism of the transference structure responsible for the experience
of unification from analysis of the libidinal representation. Remember, reality is a
libidinal sublimation, so: the mechanism responsible for the mythological archetypal
presentation of the experience of ‘oneness’ in general is that of concurrent
identifications and object transferences from all libidinal components spanning ontogeny,
clear from the first impressions in the womb (remember the heart image) to those of the
component instincts and their mature representations in eventual unity––and––extending
the same structure of concurrent identification and object, to include the complete
bisexual phylogenetic representation in each person, IN THE CONTEXT OF
OBSERVATION. To condense:
(Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic) Object + Identification in the context of
Observation yields Unity.
Obv[p/ontO + I] = U
That is the formula for our wish fulfillment, place and purpose in happiness on this
planet.
Now I look at the world and am the world. This is ethics. I could never hurt or exploit a
part of myself. Sublimation by Integration. I can feel the rippling wind in the trees, and
the the shadows which play upon my flesh. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s t h e b a s i s o f
e m p a t h y a n d e t h i c s . O u r w i s h e s a r e o u r w o r l d . How full is my
heart, one heart, this world is my skin, my breath is its wind, and we know one simple
truth of all things. For I have learned there is a thing we should all have and bring near,
to never let go of the fact and the pulse––of one heart.
Conclusion:
The basis of modern human psychology contains within it a fundamental error: punitive
super-ego. This structure, so closely associated with our Morality, is a dissociative
element which splits the affective basis of conscious and empathetic predominance in
two, creating the homeostatic conditions for social control, neurosis, compulsive
consumerism, cruelty, existential angst and unthinking obedience to authority. Standing
in direct opposition to Ethical functioning which evolves as a natural product of
identification based in the innervations of the sympathetic dopaminergic limbic/OFC
circuitry, punitive morality finds its historical footing and epigenetic expression based in
patriarchal penalty and mutilation (Norman 2013). The rebalancing of the circuitry
involved is difficult, involved and painful (Norman 2011, 2013a). However, this single
error has cast the unhappy lot of man and provided all those throughout history with a
hopeless situation doomed to repeat itself. To examine the numerous wars in constant
procession throughout recorded human history and understand that top down control of
the affects is a clear sham and a consistent failure, is to understand that the basis of
human empathy must be allowed its natural place as the progenitor of ethical behavior.
Although the road for a modern adult is filled with pain to alter this pathological basis,
the pathway for the next generations is a hopeful one (Norman 2015f). In raising the next
generations in an environment free of reaction formations and penalties in excess, the
basis of human connection and empathy may be nurtured and the native connectivity and
kindness within man, might finally meet with his allotted measure of intellect. The
broken race of man has within it the seed of its own ascension. The hope for mankind is
an atavistic evolution.
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Mirror neurons and their clinical relevance Nature Clinical Practice Neurology 5, 24-34
doi:10.1038/ncpneuro0990
http://www.nature.com/nrneurol/journal/v5/n1/full/ncpneuro0990.html
... It is also in this stage that the feeling of guilt, and regret emerges within the psyche of the individuals. Anytime they violate any of the standards of their Superego, they will fall into a state of anxiety and agitation (Norman, 2016). Therefore, the Superego is not satisfied except when the person reaches perfection. ...
... It is also in this stage that the feeling of guilt, and regret emerges within the psyche of the individuals. Anytime they violate any of the standards of their Superego, they will fall into a state of anxiety and agitation (Norman, 2016). Therefore, the Superego is not satisfied except when the person reaches perfection. ...
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