Content uploaded by Brian Fraser

Author content

All content in this area was uploaded by Brian Fraser on Oct 30, 2016

Content may be subject to copyright.

BeyondEinstein.pdf 1

Beyond Einstein: non-local physics

Copyright Brian Fraser

(popular format)

Introduction

Einstein’s Special and General Relativity theories, have proven to be very useful in the several

decades since the theories were introduced, starting in 1905 and 1907–1915. It is noteworthy,

however, that these are “local” theories by design and intent. They simply do not address the

“non-local” behaviors discovered by physicists in the decades since SR and GR were introduced.

You have no doubt heard people say things like “according to Einstein, nothing can travel faster

than light”. But the existence of aberration free forces which appear to have instantaneous effects

(“faster than light”) even over large distances, was simply not recognized in 1905 when Special

Relativity was introduced. Einstein himself noticed some problems in this regard in a 1935 paper

which is now referred to as the EPR paradox. In the following decades more and more

experiments revealed more and more problems. But these “faster than light” problems are simply

outside the scope of SR and GR; a “local” theory cannot treat truly non-local phenomena in a

satisfactory manner.

The following analysis gives powerful and fascinating insights about the deep properties of

space, time, and motion. It uses one of Einstein’s own equations to develop satisfying, intuitive

explanations for many of these mysteries and paradoxes raised by Relativity. It is intended for a

general science audience—people who “like science”. It has been compiled from previously

published obscure sources in scattered locations on different themes over the years.

This article may be freely distributed for non-commercial purposes, provided the copyright

notice is included and the author’s rights to maintain the document are respected.

The Universe has two behaviors: local and non-local

The Universe has two types of physical behaviors. Physicists call them “local” and “non-local”.

Local physics is characterized by cause-and-effect being linked by spatial contact or spatial

proximity. It limits all speeds to less than that of light or light speed itself. It conceptualizes

“space” as a connecting medium (rather than something that separates). It is the everyday

physics that is very familiar to us and is widely taught in the schools and has immediate practical

applications. It includes Newtonian mechanics, statistical mechanics, chemistry, biology, etc. To

the human mind, it “makes sense” and is intuitively understood even by people who are not

scientists or engineers.

Non-local physics, in contrast, is virtually unknown to the general public. It is not taught in the

schools, except in the form of quantum mechanics (which has a limited but very important

scope). It is characterized by cause-and-effect NOT being linked in space (“action at a

distance”). Speeds of interaction are instantaneous or at least superluminal, and are not limited

by spatial separation, even if the interacting objects are separated by light years. In its full scope,

non-local physics is weird, baffling and non-intuitive. It has practical applications that are

strange, bizarre, and astonishing.

The usual illustration to help the layman understand the difference between these two types of

physics uses a doll. If someone sticks a pin in the head of the doll, the effect is that the doll

acquires a pinhole in its head. The cause is direct spatial contact with the pin. Cause and effect

BeyondEinstein.pdf 2

are linked in space, and are easily and intuitively understood. This is “local physics” or “physics

of locality”.

Now suppose the doll is a voodoo doll. If someone sticks a pin in the head of the doll, the victim

immediately gets a headache. The action occurs instantly and at a distance, even if the victim is

on another planet, or light years away. There is no propagation in space or traversal of space (as

with an arrow or a bullet). Spatial shielding is not possible and the cause is not apparent to the

victim. The only apparent connection between cause and effect is one of time. The science is

baffling and paradoxical; it is sometimes even called “voodoo physics.”

Physicists have identified several non-local behaviors. The most obvious ones are gravity and

electric and magnetic fields. These display the characteristic “action-at-a-distance” behaviors,

and (as we will see later) exert forces that seem to be superluminal.

Another one well-known in physics circles, is the EPR paradox. It was a “thought experiment” in

quantum mechanics proposed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen in 1935. Its essence was that

under certain circumstances, measurement of one particle’s properties could instantaneously

affect another particle’s properties, irrespective of spatial separation. This was a violation of

“causality”, and was contrary to common sense and to the “local” views of physicists (including

of course Einstein) of that time. Something, was apparently wrong with the predictions of

quantum mechanics. Hence, it became a “paradox”. Later, Bell’s theorem of 1964 allowed this

proposition to be tested experimentally. The conclusion was that measurement of one particle

does indeed instantaneously affect the other. The effect became known as “quantum

entanglement”. It could not be adequately treated within the “local” framework of Einstein’s

Special or General Relativity.

Various other experiments pointed to the conclusion that the Universe really does have non-

casual, non-local behaviors:

Aharonov–Bohm effect 1949-1959)

Aharonov-Casher effect (1991)

Chalmers W. Sherwin and Robert D. Rawcliffe experiment (1960).

Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality (1969)

Stuart Freedman (1972) and Alain Aspect (1981)

Colella-Overhauser-Werner effect (COW)

These showed, variously, the unexpected influences of “potentials”, instant action-at-a–distance

for electric or magnetic fields, and that the effects could not be explained by as yet undiscovered

“hidden variables” that had a “local” nature. These experiments, along with the non-local

behaviors inherent in Quantum Mechanics, led to the conclusion that “local realism” had to be

abandoned.

Einstein would not have liked these conclusions. His Special and General Relativity theories

were intentionally and purposefully “local” theories and had, and still have, many uses and

successes. SR and GR are actually intuitively understandable (if you can keep your head on

straight); the mathematics of SR can even be understood by high school students who have a

background in algebra and trigonometry. The theories work fine for reference system effects, but

are not adequate to deal with non-local phenomena—not even Einstein’s own EPR paradox.

Additionally, SR and GR still have not been reconciled with quantum gravity.

There is a startling resolution to these problems, however. It is buried in one of Einstein’s own

equations: E = mc2 .

BeyondEinstein.pdf 3

What E = mc2 reveals about gravitation, space, time, and motion

Einstein is especially well known for his equation that expresses the relationship of energy and

mass. Written in its usual “local” form it is

E = mc2

For our purposes, we need to express it in its “non-local” form:

The first form is the one most of us are familiar with. It is simple, computationally friendly, and

is the one that students would use on timed tests. The second one still works out to E= mc2 . but

gives us some additional insights. It is saying that mass is a three-dimensional form of energy.

And it is suggesting that the 1/c term has some sort of special significance that is not normally

recognized. Most important to us is that the dimensions of mass can be work out in pure

space/time units. In conventional physics and engineering, space, time, mass, and charge are

regarded as the fundamental dimensions. But here we have an opportunity to see what the

dimensions of mass would be in terms of pure space and time. The table below shows the

dimensions of all terms in pure space/time dimensions.

Item

Name

Space/time dimensions

c

speed of light

s/t

1/c

energy

t/s

m

mass

t3/s3

E

energy

t/s

The 1/c in the denominators of both sides in a fundamental equation like this one, suggests that

1/c is some sort of “unit quantity”. It is like “unit pricing” in the grocery store. You can get so

many ounces of nuts for one dollar, or a cost of so many cents per one ounce. Hence, 1/c is one

unit of energy and (1/c)3 is one unit of mass. For quantities, we get 1=1 in the numerators and 11

= 13 in the denominators.

The same reasoning applies to c itself. It is in the denominator of 1/c, and so it too must be a

fundamental unit quantity. In this case it would be one unit of speed.

Hence, we now have a unit quantity of speed, a unit quantity of energy, and a unit quantity of

mass. Also, implied is that there are unit quantities of space and of time. In other words, all these

items are “quantized”. That is, they exist in discrete, rather than continuous, units, at least at a

fundamental level.

And so we discover that the Universe not only has built in mathematics (enough of a mystery), it

also has built in unit quantities. And if mass and energy can be expressed in terms of pure

space/time dimensions, then apparently everything else can too, if we insist on dimensional

consistency (rewrite the textbooks!)

BeyondEinstein.pdf 4

Non-directional motion

The dimensions of energy (t/s) and the dimensions of mass (t3/s3) are puzzling. Do they have a

physical meaning or are they just mathematical artifacts? Space/time is just ordinary speed or

velocity in space with respect to time. So time/space must analogously be a speed in time

relative to space. That implies that both space and time must be three-dimensional, and that

space must progress like time, and that there must be locations in time just as there are locations

in space. So in addition to the concept of spatial motion and position we have the concept of

temporal motion and temporal position. But what would a temporal motion look like in a spatial

reference system? How could we identify a “when” motion in a “where” type of reference

system?

One thing that is apparent is that a temporal motion (or temporal momentum) cannot have a

preferred direction in a spatial reference system. It must be non-directional (like time) and have

only a magnitude. It is a “scalar” as the mathematicians would say. In contrast, a spatial speed

has both a direction and a magnitude, and is mathematically described as a “vector”.

Hence, energy, expressed as t/s, must be a magnitude-only, “scalar” quantity. And mass,

expressed as t3/s3 must likewise be scalar (having only magnitude but no direction). It turns out

that both of these are indeed treated as scalar quantities in ordinary physics.

There is one more quirk that we can wring out of this. The speed of light is c, and it is a unit

quantity and can therefore be expressed as 1/1 or as 1/1. No, that is not a typo. It means that at

the speed of light, spatial and temporal speeds are equal. That is, s/t = t/s because they are both

1/1 (one unit of time divided by one unit of space, or vice versa). This is telling us that a

temporal motion can appear to us as some kind of energy, especially at speeds near that of light.

So let’s look at electrons being accelerated in a large particle accelerator. We are interested in

finding a good measure of the “amount of motion” these electrons possess. An electron with a

speed of 0.995 that of light, has an energy of about 15 MeV. At a speed of 0.99999995 that of

light, it has an energy of 5 GeV. Note that the speed has increased by a factor of only 1.0005 but

the energy has increased by a factor of 300. How can there be such a huge increase in energy

with only a tiny (5 parts in ten thousand) speed increase? Physicists say that the mass of the

particle increases. The mathematics of this claim are consistent with the behavior, and so this is

one possible interpretation.

But in light of the above, an alternative presents itself. The real speed of the electron is a

combination of spatial speed and temporal speed. Spatial speed is space/time. Temporal speed is

time/space. The former has a direction, is mathematically “vectorial”, and is very familiar to us.

The latter is non-directional, is mathematically “scalar” and is not at all familiar to physicists or

engineers. In fact, it does not seem to make any sense at all. It is not a speed in space, but is a

speed in time.

How these two different speeds combine can be seen in the Lorentz-Einstein correction factor

commonly known as “gamma”. In local form it is:

The non-local form is:

BeyondEinstein.pdf 5

c2 = (c/)2 + v2

The second form of the equation is saying that everything moves at the speed of light, and that

the total speed is composed of a non-local speed and a local speed, or, in other words, a temporal

speed and a spatial speed. The magnitude of the temporal speed cannot be directly summed with

a spatial speed unless the correction factor is applied.

It follows that there must be two kinds of speed measurements, one for spatial speeds, and

another for temporal speeds. Spatial speeds have the dimensions of c (s/t) but temporal speeds

have the dimensions of 1/c, that is, energy (t/s). Spatial speeds are always less than that of light,

and temporal speeds are always above the speed of light. Both are equally common and ordinary,

as we shall see later.

In the particle accelerator, the measure of motion starts out as a change of position in space with

respect to time (velocity). But at higher speeds, the measure of motion includes an increasingly

larger temporal component, and its proper measure is energy. From the standpoint of non-local

physics, the mass remains constant. _____

Actually that “increase in mass” stuff is only taught to freshman; to a physicist the issue is

momentum/energy increase, not mass increase. I wish I had known about this when I learned

about beta decay. Massless particles have momentum, even though they do not have mass.

In beta decay there are supposed to be two end products: an atom and either a positron or an

electron which is ejected in the decay process. The energies involved should be discrete and sum

to a certain expected value, in accord with the principle of Conservation of Energy. But the

observed energy spectrum of the electron (or positron) was continuous, not discrete. Wolfgang

Pauli had to invent the neutrino to account for the missing energy. But I could not figure out how

that solved the problem.

http://www.cobra-experiment.org/sites/site_cobra-experiment

/content/e98229/BetaDecaySpektrum_thumbnail_eng.jpg

The neutrino was massless and moved at the speed of light. How could it vary in energy with a

fixed speed and no mass? What I did not know was that physicists in this case are looking only at

energy/momentum increase—something more fundamental than mass. The mass can remain at

zero and the speed can still change, but the maximum speed that can be portrayed as a change of

position in space with respect to time, is c, the speed of light. Anything beyond that is non-local

and will appear as energy (1/c). Problem solved.

_____

Most people are initially uncomfortable with the concept of non-directional motion, and so-

called “dimensions of motion”, in contrast to dimensions of space or dimensions of time. But we

BeyondEinstein.pdf 6

do in fact experience instances of non-directional motion. You see it every time you watch TV.

As the camera zooms in on a scene, all the picture elements move outward and away from each

other. This is really just one motion but it requires two dimensions of space to describe it.

You see it again when using your computer. If you want to expand a Microsoft window, there

are two ways of doing it. You can drag one edge, say rightward, and then drag another edge, say

downward. We could say that TWO, one-dimensional motions have enlarged the picture in two

spatial dimensions.

You could also drag a corner and accomplish the same thing. In this case you are applying ONE,

two-dimensional motion to enlarge the picture in two dimensions. (Read that carefully.)

Astronomers use these concepts in explaining the expanding Universe. They use the surface of

an expanding balloon to illustrate spatial inflation. As the balloon expands, all points on the

balloon’s surface move away from each other. All have equivalent motion, and no one point is

more special than any other point. It is a centerless expansion and there is no “zero” point, or

point of origin for the motion (as there would be in an explosion). It is a two-dimensional

example of the expansion of space in a three-dimensional Universe.

A distortion is introduced, however, when one point on the balloon is designated as “stationary”

and the motions of the other points are referred back to the stationary point. The motion that

would have been attributed to the stationary point is now attributed to the other points. One point

loses a motion that it inherently has, and the other points now acquire an additional motion that

they do not in fact possess, just due to the choice of a reference system. This will skew an

astronomer’s interpretation of a redshift; part of that redshift is attached to us, and the other part

is inherent in the object being observed.

If you survived all that, you are now ready for the heavy-duty, industrial strength stuff. Picture a

bead on a wire as in the illustration below.

The wire snakes across the room in some arbitrary fashion and defines a path for the bead. Of

course, the wire does not really exist; it is simply an aid to visualization. The “dimension of

motion” is represented by the wire. The motion itself is one dimensional but requires three

dimensions of spatial displacement and one dimension of progressive time displacement to

describe its movement.

The terminology here is intended to be different from what you learned in high school. Back then

you would say “a pyramid is three-dimensional” but you would not mean that there are three

dimensions of “pyramidism”. You meant that the pyramid extends itself in space in three

independent ways. In the illustration, the wire represents the one dimension of motion as seen by

the bead. You could also call it one “motional dimension”.

BeyondEinstein.pdf 7

Suppose instead of the bead moving on the wire, the wire is moving and the bead is stationary

relative to the room. The bead can only “see” the wire, and as far as the bead is concerned, it is

still moving.

Now let’s split the wire into two pieces inside the bead. Now we can have the wires move

inwards or “towards” the bead. (We will say that the wire is “consumed” inside the bead,

because the wire does not really exist anyway.) There is still only one dimension of motion, but

now the motion is non-directional in the only defined dimension of motion. It still has a

“polarity” in that the motion can be “towards” or “away”. But otherwise it is non-directional.

Suppose we now add two more wire paths and make them all mutually perpendicular, each with

a split segment that is moving into the bead.

We now have three dimensions of motion which are all non-directional.

This is not just an academic exercise in mental gymnastics. It illustrates the way gravity actually

behaves. This kind of motion does not have a “trajectory” but instead the word “potential” is

used (as in “gravitational potential”). In fact, we can derive Newton’s law of Universal

Gravitation from it.

BeyondEinstein.pdf 8

Derivation of Newton's gravitational equation from E = mc2

Replace the bead with a planet. Let m, stand for mass or motion. Then because this motion is

non-directional, its intensity will be inversely proportional to the distance between m and a

detector. It is like light from a light bulb. When you hold your hand (a detector) near the bulb,

you feel a certain amount of heat. As you move your hand away from the bulb, you feel less heat.

The total amount of light emitted is constant, and the area of your hand is constant also. What

changes is the distance. The light is effectively being spread out on an invisible spherical surface.

Your hand is part of that surface. As your hand moves away, the surface gets rapidly bigger

relative to your hand. The surface area of a sphere is proportional to the radius squared, and so

the intensity at your hand is inversely proportional to the square of the radius. Hence, we have a

reduction factor of r2 and so:

Motional potential = m/r2

We need to adjust this form so as not to introduce extraneous units, like square meters, into what

at this point is purely a geometry problem. Hence, we will divide out the units (meters, feet, etc.)

by using a radius that represents a unit area. We will call it r0. Hence, we have

= m/(r2 /r20)

This leaves m as pure motion, multiplied by a pure number that accounts for the geometry. (The

r20 term is numerically equal to one; it represents the area of your hand, treated as one unit.)

What if we had twice as much mass? Obviously, we would have twice as much motion. We

have to account for this too. We have to multiply m by another factor that accounts for a

multiplicity of mass units. Again, we use a unit mass and create a pure number just like we did

with r, except now we will rename the original mass, m, and call it m1. Then we have:

Motional potential = (m1/m0)

(r2 /r20)

If we have two separate masses with this behavior (like the Earth and the Moon), they will

behave as though each acts on the other. This results in a multiplicative effect. If we call the

additional separate mass m2, then we get:

Motional potential = m2 (m1/m0)

(r2 /r20)

This is equivalent to Newton’s Universal Law of Gravity equation without G as the

proportionality constant (which is not needed if unit quantity amounts are used).

So here we have derived the Law of Gravity by using the concept of temporal motion, which in

turn came from E = mc2. Note that there are no gravitons, gravity waves, space warps, four

dimensional space-time or eleven dimensional strings. The only thing needed was the concept of

temporal motion—a simple explanation for a simple phenomenon. Gravity is temporal motion.

But temporal motion is not the cause of gravity. More on this later.

You may, in general, suspect temporal motion is operative when physicists use the term “force

fields”.

BeyondEinstein.pdf 9

The speed of gravity is MUCH faster than the speed of light

There are still a lot of questions that need to be asked and answered at this point. First and

foremost is about the speed of gravity. How fast is it? Specifically, is it faster than light?

According to Einstein, as well as most of today’s physicists, the answer would definitely be, No!

But Einstein’s Special Relativity of 1905 was specifically and intentionally a “local” theory,

which limits all speeds to that of light. Speeds greater than light are simply “out-of-scope” and

are not addressed by the theory. Non-local effects like the action-at-a-distance of gravity and

electric and magnetic fields were conceptualized back then as “local” by the Faraday/Maxwell

“field” concept. This treated space as a connecting medium, instead of something that separates.

Additionally, this was all before Quantum Mechanics (1925-1927) and other non-local behaviors

began to be noticed, even, ironically, Einstein’s own EPR paradox of 1935.

Today we have more facts at hand to help resolve this question. Consider what astronomer Dr.

Tom Van Flandern says about the speed of gravity.

"The most amazing thing I was taught as a graduate student of celestial mechanics at Yale in the

1960s was that all gravitational interactions between bodies in all dynamical systems had to be

taken as instantaneous. . . .Indeed, as astronomers we were taught to calculate orbits using

instantaneous forces; then extract the position of some body along its orbit at a time of interest,

and calculate where that position would appear as seen from Earth by allowing for the finite

propagation speed of light from there to here. . . . That was the required procedure to get the

correct answers." (" The Speed of Gravity - What the Experiments Say" , Tom Van Flandern,

Physics Letters A, 250 (1-3) (1998) pp. 1-11; see also

http://www.metaresearch.org/cosmology/speed_of_gravity.asp )

The most obvious and incontrovertible experimental evidence for an extremely high speed of

gravity is that gravity has no aberration (see figure below). Gravity from an object always

coincides with that object’s position. If the object moves, there is no gravity still on its way from

the “retarded position”, as there would be from a light or sound source. Evidence from the

motions of celestial bodies, from radar ranging, and from a binary pulsar lead to the conclusion

that the speed of gravity is at least 20 billion times (20 x 109) faster than the speed of light.

Other experiments have led to similar conclusions. Consider this from "Measurement of the

Speed of Gravity", Yin Zhu (2013) http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1108/1108.3761.pdf

Appendix B

The speed of Gravity:

An Observation on Satellite Motions

Abstract

"The radius of orbit of the geosynchronous satellite can be observed at the precision of less than

8cm. And, a force about ~10-9m/s2 can make the orbit of satellite shifted. Here, the gravitational

forces of the Sun acting on the satellite from the present and retarded positions are calculated

respectively, assuming that the retarded position is determined with that the speed of the

gravitational force is equal to the speed of light. It is shown that the difference of the force

between the present and retarded positions of the Sun acting on a geosynchronous satellite can

be larger than 1×10-7m/s2 . And, the difference of the radius of the orbit of the satellite

perturbed by the gravitational force of the Sun from the present and retarded positions in 3000s

can be larger than 8.2m. It indicates that the gravitational force of the Sun acting on the satellite

is from the present position of the Sun and that the speed of the gravitational force is much

larger than the speed of light in a vacuum."

BeyondEinstein.pdf 10

And this one from “The Cosmic Ether: Introduction to Subquantum Kinetics” Paul A. LaViolette

. (2012) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875389212025205 :

“ . . . a moderately simple experiment performed by Alexis Guy Obolensky has clocked speeds

as high as 5c for Coulomb shocks traveling across his laboratory (LaViolette, 2008a).

Furthermore Podkletnov and Modanese (2011) report having measured a speed of 64c for a

collimated gravity impulse wave produced by a high voltage discharge emitted from a

superconducting anode.”

Professor of Physics, A. P. French, has a relevant note in his very informative book, Special

Relativity (1968), p. 242-243; 267 "Relativity and electricity":

"Now the electric field due to a stationary source charge is radial and, of course, spherically

symmetrical; that is, it is the same in all directions. It is simply the Coulomb field . . . . If the

source charge is moving uniformly, the electric field is no longer spherically symmetrical. Its

strength is different in different directions. But, at each instant, the direction of the electric field

is still radial with respect to the position of the source charge at that same instant.

If you think about this last result a bit—that at each instant the electric field due to a uniformly

moving source charge is directed radially away from the position of the source charge at that

same instant—you may begin to realize that this is a very surprising result."

To see why this is so surprising, consider the following illustration:

The electric field from a moving electric charge has no aberration.

Electric charge, q1, is moving at high speed in a particle accelerator from X1 to X2. A charge

detector is located at P and it can detect both the intensity and direction of the field associated

with q1. Hypothetically, q1 is emitting an electric field which propagates at the speed of light. As

q1 passes through location X1, the field is on its way to P, but takes a finite time to get there. But

by the time the field reaches P, q1 has actually moved to X2. From what direction then does the

detector at P see the electric field as q1 arrives at X2. Does it see the field as though it were at the

"retarded position" of X1? Or does it see it as emanating from X2 where q1 is presently located?

French continues:

BeyondEinstein.pdf 11

"Nevertheless, the field at P points away from the present position of q1. Nature behaves in such

a way that, for a uniformly moving source charge, even though the field produced at some point

P originated from the location and behavior of the source charge at an earlier time, nevertheless

the field points away from the position of the source charge at the present time. It is as though

nature calculates where the source charge should be at the present time and acts accordingly. . .

. Thus a result which at first glance may seem rather obvious is seen, upon closer examination,

to be quite surprising—but nevertheless true."

But it is surprising only if, as French says, "if we believe that no effect—no mass, no energy, no

force—can be transmitted with a speed greater than c". If the electric field propagates

instantaneously, then the lack of aberration is no surprise at all. We just simply have a different

problem requiring a different explanation, namely, how can electric fields propagate

instantaneously?

The answer to that problem is simple. Electric fields don't propagate. They are "non-local" in a

spatial reference system, much like the concept of time, which is not affected by spatial position.

Gravitational fields are likewise.

Reference system effects

Photons have no motion:

Einstein said that the photon does not experience the passage of time. Objections to Special

Relativity have been raised on this point because it implies that photons have no trajectory. In

other words, photons are stationary. Yet physicists freely manipulate photons with mirrors,

lenses, diffraction gratings, etc., as though they do have trajectories. Therefore, it is argued,

Special and General Relativity must be fundamentally flawed.

The only obvious counter argument is that if the trajectory cannot be attached to the photon, then

it must attach to the reference system. But this is like saying if the photon were a basketball, the

ball would be stationary and the court would move instead. At first that seems ridiculous. But on

second thought, it reminds us of the bead on the wire illustrations. And so maybe it is not so

ridiculous.

In non-local physics, you have to get used to some really weird thinking patterns. Suppose, just

suppose, that we require the reference system to do the moving instead of the photon. What

would be required? Two things seem to be clear: First, because the photon can be deflected in

any direction, the reference system must be moving in any and every direction. Secondly,

photons move at the speed of light. If the photon is to be stationary, then the reference system

must be moving at the speed of light. Are those insurmountable requirements?

No. The concept of temporal motion makes it all possible. As has already been explained,

gravitation, is non-directional temporal motion (t3/s3). That means that the reference system

actually is moving in all directions simultaneously. If I jump out of a tree, I am temporarily in

“free fall”. There are no forces acting on me. I am in an “inertial reference frame” (as per

Einstein). It is the Earth that then moves up to meet me (as per Einstein). But if I jump out of a

tree from another spot on Earth diametrically opposite to the first one, the same thing happens. In

fact, I could do this anywhere, and get the same result. The Earth—the reference system we are

using—is engaged in the very kind of motion that is needed to assign a seeming trajectory to the

photon, exactly as required.

That gravitation acts in all directions has also been shown by experiments performed by Colella,

Overhauser, and Werner (the “COW effect”). They used a neutron interferometer to show that

gravity has an active horizontal component. In our words, this means that gravity has three

BeyondEinstein.pdf 12

“motional dimensions”, but the effects of only one of those can be represented in the common

spatial reference system.

Ok. Now how do we get a laboratory to move at the speed of light. Simple. We attach it to Earth!

Again, Earth has that t3/s3 temporal motion. We can assert that the reference system “stays put”

in space, but that it moves at the speed of light in time. That means that even though the spatial

coordinate remains fixed, the time coordinate associated with that position continually changes.

When I sit stationary in a chair, I am actually still moving, because time is progressing, and my

time coordinate keeps changing. We sense this intuitively. All we need to say is that time is

progressing at the speed of light. Remember that equation with the gamma factor (above). It said

that all things move at the speed of light, and that the total speed is composed of a temporal

speed and a spatial speed. Compared to the speed of light, the spatial speed of the Earth is nearly

zero. Hence, the vast majority of its motion is in time, and that is in fact the meaning of t3/s3.

The static Aether was not detectable

There is yet another consequence to this non-directional, non-vectorial, scalar, isotropic, motion the Earth

is engaged in. Remember the Michelson-Morley experiment? It attempted to detect the absolute motion of

the Earth through the Aether, which was supposed to be some sort of invisible substance which filled the

Universe as a medium for light waves and which was thought to be stationary. But as the Earth moved

around the Sun, no “Aether wind” could be detected by this clever experiment. Physicists then concluded

that the Aether did not exist, nor did absolute motion, and that all motion must therefore be “purely

relative”.

This experiment depended on vector addition of velocities, but the fundamental (or “absolute”)

motion of the Earth is scalar (in all directions, like an expansion). The design of the experiment

was simply not capable of detecting this kind of motion. There may still be an “ether” (a specific

structure of space and time), but it must be a dynamic, non-directional one, quite unlike the static

Aether of the 1800s. Space and time must be “emergent” at the speed of light. The Ether is like

the wires in the wire/bead illustration, but with the wires moving out of bead instead of inward.

Objects with mass move “anti” to this outward motion (which originates everywhere and

everywhen). And we call that motion “gravity”.

What about the photon? It has no mass. It is therefore motionless, as we have already concluded.

The photon is swept along in the “Expansive Ether”, or “Emergent Ether” like a leaf in a river,

having no motion relative to it. The photon does not experience the flow of time, and does not

even experience the flow of space. Photons are fundamentally stationary!

The speed of light is invariant in a vacuum

If space and time are three-dimensional (as has been noted), then all things must have a location

in space and a location in time. Because the photon has no independent motion, it is locked into a

location in space and in time and the Expansive Ether moves these locations away from their

original locations. The speed of separation in the underlying reality is the total spatial separation

divided by the total time separation. If two photons progress directly away from each other, the

speed thus calculated becomes 2/2. 4/4, 6/6, etc. which always reduces to 1/1, the speed of light.

Note that the speed is constant, even though the values in the numerator and denominator are

continually changing.

The EPR paradox is resolved

Suppose the two photons in the above example were created in the same event, that is, at the

same time. This can be done by “down converting” one violet photon into two red photons. The

two photons then separate in space (in the context of the reference system) but they still remain

in the same time location. An action on one photon can therefore produce an instantaneous

action on the other photon, even though they may be separated by miles or light years of space.

This seems to be the resolution of the EPR paradox, and Einstein’s discomfort with “spooky

action at a distance.”

BeyondEinstein.pdf 13

I think Einstein would have been thrilled.

The twin paradox is resolved

Anyone who studies Special Relativity soon encounters the Twin Paradox. This one has all sorts

of versions but here is the essence: One twin stays on Earth and the other goes away in a rocket

ship at some significant fraction of the speed of light. Upon his return, he has aged less than his

twin on Earth.

But this is not the official paradox; this is just a simple prediction of Special Relativity. The

paradox is that either twin can be viewed as being younger (or older) than the other, because the

motion can only be "purely relative". The fact that the cause of one type of motion can be

distinguished from the other is irrelevant to the paradox.

Observations of muon lifetimes and actual experiments with clocks do indeed show that clocks

moving at high speed run slower than those that are “stationary”. But this is only true of clocks

that measure time. Remember that gamma correction factor? It shows that there are two kinds of

motion: temporal motion and spatial motion. If you are going to mix these two kinds of motion,

then you need to have two kinds of clocks: one that measures the flow of time and one that

measures the flow of space. At high speeds the flow-of-time clock slows down, but the flow-of-

space clock speeds up; at low speeds the opposite is true: time proceeds at its regular rate, and

the flow of space is essentially zero. To get the total amount of “progression”, the values on the

two different types of clocks have to be added together with a Pythagorean-like “orthogonal

sum”. According to this reasoning, both twins age at the same total rate, but the different kinds of

clocks individually show different times. If the comparison is done between the two different

reference systems —one on a time clock and one on a space clock—then the ages will conflict.

But back on Earth, with one reference system, they will be the same age. And so there is no

paradox.

What is needed here is an "orthogonal sum clock” that incorporates both time and space

progression effects. The effects of both local and non-local behaviors need to be taken into

account.

Accelerated reference system effects

Apparent bending of light by a gravitational field

Einstein used an elevator to illustrate his Principle of Equivalence in General Relativity. The

Principle can be stated as: “A homogeneous gravitational field is completely equivalent to a uniformly

accelerated reference frame.” In layman terms, that means that gravitational acceleration is

equivalent (indistinguishable) from ordinary linear acceleration.

This is important because, although some of you don’t know it, you are living on an accelerated

reference system. When you stand on the floor or sit in a chair, “gravity” is accelerating you

upwards at 9.8 m/sec2 ; If this were not the case, you, and everything else would be floating

around inside the room.

People understand elevators more readily than gravitation, so we’ll stick with the elevator

analogy, with a few Space Age modifications.

So if you were in a closed room inside a rocketship, and your acceleration meter (bathroom

scales) indicated an acceleration of 9.8 m/sec2 , you would not, from this one piece of

information, be able to tell whether the rocketship was accelerating in outer space or whether it

BeyondEinstein.pdf 14

was still on Earth. (Presumably nobody is performing the Colella-Overhauser-Werner

experiment which would detect a horizontal component of real gravity). This is shown in the

illustration below. (The blue stuff is a stream of water squirting out of the wall.)

Rocket engine is shut off. Everything in the

elevator is in “free float”, also known as an

“inertial reference frame” because there

is no acceleration. The stream of water

goes straight across.

BeyondEinstein.pdf 15

I used a stream of water in these illustrations because it is intuitive. Einstein used a light beam, as

shown below.

Here a light beam shines left-to-right across the elevator which is being accelerated by a rocket

engine (the curvature of the light beam is greatly exaggerated).

Note the following effects:

1. The light beam seems to bend downward.

2. The source of the beam, when viewed from the right end, seems to be displaced from S to

S’.

3. The curvature adds extra length to the path.

It is important to understand the three effects noted in the illustration.

Effect #1: The light beam, or pulsed water stream if you will, is actually going straight

relative to an ordinary reference system outside the elevator. Once it leaves the accelerating

source at the wall, there are no more forces acting on it. We say it is in “free float”. The room

(i.e., the reference system) is still accelerating. Its vertical velocity is changing, and no longer

matches the (zero) vertical speed of the (detached) water. To an observer in the room, the

water appears to be moving on a curved path, but this is due to the accelerating room, not the

water itself.

Effect #2: The image displacement should be intuitively obvious.

Effect #3: The extra path length should be intuitively obvious.

These effects will still occur irrespective of the source of acceleration (gravity or the rocket

engine).

Gravitational lensing or image displacement

S’

S

eye

BeyondEinstein.pdf 16

Effect #1 in the elevator has an equivalent in astronomy. Starlight seems to curve slightly in the

presence of a strong gravitational field such as that near the Sun. See the illustration below.

In General Relativity, the effect is supposed to be due to the presence of mass causing a warping

effect on space. But the critics don’t regard this as an “explanation”? How can mass grab ahold

of space and warp it? This is like explaining a mystery with an enigma.

A much better explanation is simply that of effect #2 in Einstein’s elevator. If the acceleration is

upwards, the displacement of the source is upwards. If the acceleration were sideways, the

displacement of the source would be sideways. What we need is an elevator that accelerates in

all directions simultaneously. But Aha! That is what we would call gravity. Remember it is a

non-directional motion. It is that t3/s3 thing again.

When starlight passes the Sun, the Sun is moving “towards” the star light in the two dimensions

that our telescope sees. But from our perspective, Sun is stationary and the starlight is being

“deflected inward”. This displaces the images in the star field outward (away from the Sun) and

is equivalent to a magnification effect. The light is not actually bent. The apparent bending is just

a reference system effect.

The effect near the Sun is only about an arcsecond of deflection and is difficult to detect. Far

more precise measurements have become possible with radio astronomy. A radio source that is

90 degrees away from the Sun will show a deflection of a millarcsecond –very small but still

detectable. These observations are within 1% of Einstein’s predictions.

If you still have trouble visualizing all this, it might help to create your own version of curved

space. When I was a kid, I went to a school that had a miniature merry-go-‘round. We kids

would sometimes play "catch" on this rotating merry-go-‘round by throwing a ball straight

across the center to another kid. To an observer on the ground, the ball traveled a straight path

once it left our hands. But to us kids on a rotating platform the ball's path was strongly curved,

and was very difficult to catch. The same effect could be produced by a kid on the stationary

ground throwing a ball to a kid on the merry-go-‘round. We understood these effects because the

mechanics of the situation could be clearly seen. But if we did not know the merry-go-‘round

was rotating, we would have had to invent some other explanation. It probably would have been

something like "Space becomes curved in the vicinity of merry-go-‘rounds".

Shapiro time delay

In the 1960s Irwin I. Shapiro predicted that there would be a time delay introduced into the round

trip time of radar signals as they reflected off a planet passing behind a massive body like the

BeyondEinstein.pdf 17

Sun. The delay would be caused by the warpage of space due to the presence of the Sun's mass.

(Shapiro, Irwin. I., 1964, Physical Review Letters. 13: 789; Shapiro, Irwin I. et al., 1971,

Physical Review Letters, 26, 1132) . This was another good test of General Relativity.

The tests were originally performed by reflecting radar signals off the planets Mercury and

Venus. Decades later, the use of a transponder on the Viking Mars lander greatly improved the

precision of the time delay measurement. See diagram below.

The 200 microseconds is the radar distance equivalent of about 40 miles (roundtrip). So this is

like saying that the spacecraft, with a planet attached to it, jumped 20 miles out of its normal

orbit as it passed behind the Sun. The observations are "explained" by claiming that the Sun's

mass causes a warp in space, and consequently the path of a radar beam passing near the Sun has

to go through space that is stretched out, and this causes the additional time delay.

You have probably seen the illustrations of this effect. They show a rubber sheet stretched out

across a hoop (like the top edge of a garbage can). Straight lines are then drawn on the sheet and

some lines pass near the center of the sheet, and others are closer to the edge. A weight is then

placed in the center of the sheet. The sheet deforms downward, with the greatest deformation

being at the center. The lines are still at their same positions on the sheet, but the ones near the

center are stretched out longer than the ones near the edges. The time delay for a radar beam is

thus due to a change in the geometry of space itself, not to fluctuations in the orbital path, and is

greatest for signal paths grazing the Sun.

But there is a better explanation for this effect. Let’s return to the Einstein elevator and forget

about warps in space. This situation involves effect #3. In the elevator, the path of the light

beam is actually straight, but the acceleration of the elevator and the observer within it, causes

the path to appear curved. In the reference system, the curve adds extra length to the path, and

therefore a time delay beyond what would be expected.

Gravitational redshift/blueshift, kinematic time shift

Experiments by Pound, Rebka, and Snyder at the Jefferson Physical Laboratory at Harvard circa

1960 have verified the existence of the gravitational redshift/blueshift effect to within one

percent of the theoretical value. Those fascinating experiments were done with an extremely high

resolution energy spectrometer that utilized the Mössbauer effect in iron 57.

BeyondEinstein.pdf 18

The conventional explanations for the gravitational redshift and kinematic time shift are still

valid, and are illustrated here only for completeness. Note that the explanations are actually

intuitive, as is most of GR

Cosmology

The “gravipause”

Einstein recognized that a “static” Universe (the accepted view in the early 1900s) could not be a stable

one. The Universe would eventually collapse due to the action of gravitation. To counter that problem,

Einstein introduced the “cosmological constant” to General Relativity in 1917. It represents what is now

viewed as “dark energy” which keeps the Universe from collapsing. However, it was recognized that its

inclusion still did not lead to a static Universe, because the equilibrium was unstable. If stars moved

closer, the gravitational force would increase, moving closer still. If stars moved farther apart, then the

gravitational effect would be lessened, and “dark energy” would more readily move them even farther

apart. The whole situation was unstable, and to this day the cosmological constant is still regarded as an

“outstanding theoretical challenge” in cosmology.

In 1929 Edwin Hubble uncovered evidence that the Universe is actually expanding. Decades

ago, this was thought to be caused by a “Big Bang” that blew a tiny dense something-or-other

BeyondEinstein.pdf 19

apart, resulting in the observed Universe and its redshifts. Besides being ridiculous, the

Cosmological Principle points to an additional problem with that view. If everything is supposed

to look statistically the same from all viewpoints, then observers in other galaxies must be seeing

the same kind of redshift behavior. In other words the redshift must result from a centerless

expansion of space, not from an explosion.

The view that is gaining currency today is that space itself expands or is "emergent" (new spatial

units are being generated by some unknown process). It is like time, in that it progresses. But it

progresses in three dimensions, and we call that an expansion.

Opposing the expansion is gravitation, which is centered on an object (planet, star, galaxy). We

interpret the resulting motions in terms of forces, the cosmological expansion force, which is not

affected by distance, and the gravitational force, which has a 1/d2 dependence. Because of this,

there is necessarily a distance where the forces are at equilibrium, a distance I call the

"gravipause" (which, in this definition, involves only one body, and space itself). For stars it is

apparently a few light years, and for galaxies it is apparently a few million light years. Inside this

distance, objects come together, and outside this distance, objects move apart. This is the

“beyond Einstein” view that reconciles the issues of stability and instability. It explains why

globular clusters are stable, even though they do not rotate sufficiently to keep them from

collapsing. It explains why stars are separated by light years, but not by light weeks. It may

explain some of the problems in calculating the Hubble constant, because the “constant” would

be dependent on the location from which the observations are made (a large versus small

galaxy). And the Big Bang now needs to be thrown in the trash can, especially since there are

other explanations for the diffuse microwave background, (and the diffuse X-ray background,

and the diffuse gamma ray background, and the diffuse cosmic ray particle background, etc.)

Gravitation seems to have three regions. Gravitational force near a star starts out strong but

declines rapidly with distance (the 1/d2 region). At the gravipause, gravitation is still present, but

falls off less rapidly (the 1/d1 region, or "Hubble space" as it could be called). Beyond that,

quantization causes the gravitation to disappear completely (the 1/d0 region, where it does not

decrease at all, because there isn't any).

Galactic rotation: no “dark matter” is needed

The existence of “dark matter” is inferred mostly from the characteristics of galactic rotation:

"most stars in spiral galaxies orbit at roughly the same speed. . . . These results suggest that

either Newtonian gravity does not apply universally or that, conservatively, upwards of 50% of

the mass of galaxies was contained in the relatively dark galactic halo.

( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_matter#Galactic_rotation_curves )

But no dark matter is needed, just an alternative conclusion: Stars in a galaxy do not "orbit" the

central bulge. Their motion is NOT comparable to planetary orbits in a solar system. This is a

much different situation.

Picture two small galaxies approaching each other. The chances are good that the approach will

be off-center (not co-linear). Two effects will become apparent immediately. The differential

effects of gravitation will cause the galactic blobs to "string out" into a line of stars. The off-

center approach will cause the system to rotate around its barycenter (forming a spiral). The

barycenter core is initially formed from the stars on the leading edge of each galaxy which

experience a stronger gravitational pull and form a central nucleus of stars, usually accompanied

by a visible "bar" of stars connecting the leading edges of the strung-out stars. Gravitation

changes the direction of the stellar motion far more than the speed. The result is that, as quoted

BeyondEinstein.pdf 20

above, "most stars in spiral galaxies orbit at roughly the same speed". And they do so because

their original speed of approach remains mostly unchanged.

It is not rotation or "centrifugal force" that keeps the stars separated. The separation is

maintained by the same mechanism as with non-rotating star structures like globular clusters.

There is a mass-dependent distance where gravitation and the outward expansion of space are at

an equilibrium. Gravitation has an inverse square force distribution, but the expansion of space is

centerless and uniform. There is necessarily an equilibrium position for these forces. For stars it

is a few light years; for galaxies, it is a few million light years. Hence, the galactic stars will not

coalesce with each other, but they are still stuck inside the galaxy’s overall gravitation.

Two kinds of non-locality

There are two kinds of non-locality. One originates from a unit space boundary and the other

from a unit speed boundary. The first is addressed by Quantum Mechanics, and the second is

addressed partially by Special and General Relativity.

The need for Quantum Mechanics arose because the “mechanics” of the microphysical realm

proved to be very different from the “mechanics” of Newton. The problem, in the oversimplified

version, is that two atoms can approach each other in space until the one unit spatial boundary is

encountered. At this point the atoms cannot come closer in space, because the space is fixed at

one unit. There is no "inside" to this space, and therefore no spatial positions or trajectories are

definable. The momentum continues in three-dimensional time but it cannot vary in space.

However, time in our ordinary reference system is both scalar and non-local. Vectorial directions

in three dimensional time are meaningless from the standpoint of a spatial reference system.

Temporal motions in that realm map into the ordinary spatial reference system with a sort of

“definite randomness”. The overall behavior can be precisely predicted, but behaviors at an

individual level are seemingly random. Quantum Mechanics (1925-1927) was developed to

address these problems, which were not understood at the time, and which still baffle many

physicists.

The other kind of non-local physics arises from a unit speed boundary. It does not have the

spatial restrictions of quantum mechanics and remains non-local even at the size of stars and

galaxies.

We have seen that at c, the relationship with our reference system inverts. The measure of speed,

represented by c (s/t) inverts and becomes energy (t/s). Instead of a matter/antimatter Universe,

we have a local/non-local Universe, or a space/time and time/space Universe. Our perception of

the non-local Universe, or non-local phenomena in a local setting, becomes inverted. Low

density temporal stars still in the spatial system are seen as ultrahigh density stars. High

frequency radiation (gamma rays) from the temporal system becomes low frequency

(microwaves) from our standpoint. The intuitive relations become non-intuitive

Example: What would non-local infrared radiation look like to our telescopes? The inversions

have to be worked out in terms of unit quantities. The Rydberg frequency is a possible unit

quantity for frequency. So for approximations we will take infrared as 1012 Hertz and Rydberg

as 1015 Hertz. The calculation is thus 1/(1012/1015) times 1015 or 1018 Hertz. That is in the X-

ray range, and so there should be a diffuse X-ray background appearing in our skies. There is in

fact such a background, and for a diffuse background, it is even rather bright.

Special and General Relativity addressed the behavior and perception of phenomena that have

high speeds but which are still below that of c. That met the scientific needs of 1905, when

things like the diffuse X-ray background and the diffuse cosmic microwave background were not

known. But both SR and GR are specifically "local" theories by design and intent: the speed of

light cannot be exceeded in space; cause and effect are in space (which is conceptualized as a

connecting, rather than separating, medium). The theories work fine for coping with reference

BeyondEinstein.pdf 21

system limitations (especially at high spatial speeds), but they are simply out-of-scope when

applied to fundamentally non-local phenomena.

Example1: The speed of gravity and electric fields are clearly above that of light (as presented

above). But SR insists that gravity and electric fields can propagate no faster than light speed.

But in fact these fields are non-local; they have no spatial velocity at all, and act instantaneously,

even over long distances.

Example2: Consider Faraday’s law of induction:

This says that a time-changing magnetic flux through the area enclosed by a loop of wire will

induce a voltage in the loop (a principle used in the Betatron to accelerate a ring of electrons in a

vacuum). In other words, a change in a magnetic flux is "felt" instantaneously everywhere by a

wire loop enclosing the flux, even if the loop is extremely large. There is no mathematical term

suggesting a propagation delay. In fact the integral sign, depicting a global quantity, implies that

the voltages in each segment of wire appear all at once.

The out-of-scope restrictions imposed by mistaken beliefs about SR and GR limit are limiting

our imagination and the actual use of non-local science.

Example: there are two kinds of position and two kinds of velocity. Remember those two terms

in the non-local form of gamma? We are using only one of them for propulsion—the spatial

velocity one that depends on Newtonian mechanics. The other possibility, that of non-local

motion, has been left unexplored. Using that, an aircraft could move from one position in the sky

to another without traversing the intervening space. It would appear at one location, then

disappear, then re-appear at another location. It could move at extremely high speeds without

generating a sonic boom. It would use “field propulsion” based on the non-local characteristics

of electric and magnetic fields. It would be completely self-contained because there is no

action/reaction (exhaust) as in conventional propulsion (in this case, the reaction forces are

radial, and cancel out within the structure of the aircraft, making the preferred shape one of

something with radial symmetry, like a saucer or cigar).

Utilization of field propulsion technology has been the dream of engineers and scientists for

many decades. But research into such possibilities gets labeled as “science fiction” and “junk

science” because of mistaken ideas about the scope of SR and GR.

Incidentally, these two different types of non-locality make SR and GR irreconcilable with

quantum gravity. Gravity would “invert” at the unit space boundary

The cause of gravity

We have seen how gravity behaves and how it gives rise to numerous reference system effects.

But what is the cause of gravity? We have seen that the space/time dimensions of mass are t3/s3.

But that is not much of a clue. How does that turn into acceleration which has the dimensions of

s/t2 ? Furthermore, the t3/s3 seems to be saying that the overall observable motion of mass is

“anti” to the progression of the Expansive Ether, which is s3/t3 from our perspective. There does

not seem to be anything in these dimensions that says a planet sized chunk of mass will

accelerate objects placed on its surface.

We need to know more about the structure of mass, and that can be derived from the Periodic

Table.

BeyondEinstein.pdf 22

The number of elements on each row of the Periodic Table are commonly displayed as 2, 8, 8,

18, 18, 32, 32. This can be expressed as the following pattern:

2x12 =2

2x22 =8

2x22 =8

2x32 =18

2x32 =18

2x42 =32

2x42 =32

This makes a total of 118 elements. The pattern is based on four integers (1,2,3,4) and squares of

those integers, and a factor of 2. If we worked out all the details, we would find that any element

in the Periodic Table can be designated by a set of three numbers: {n1,n2, m}. These three

numbers apparently correspond to three discrete “physical” structures within the atom. What are

they?

If the atom is going to be made from structures of space/time ratios like mass, they must

evidently be the 4 and 2 spin systems (well-known to physicists). They would be organized as

“shells” like in layers of an onion (spins of spins).

But is this going to answer the question of acceleration? First take this pre-employment exam

for physicists: There are three controls in your car that allow you to smoothly control

acceleration. Can you name them?

They are the gas pedal, the brake pedal, and the steering wheel. What? The steering wheel? Yes,

a change of speed or a change of direction result from acceleration.

Spin is rotation and rotation is acceleration. So intrinsic spin is accelerated motion.

What is it that is spinning? Nothing really. Intrinsic spin is not a spin of something. It is just pure

spin, an unusual relationship between space and time. Time progresses but the space does not

(like in a centrifuge). In the ultimate reality intrinsic spin is a “direction that has no motion” and

it moves against the Expansive Ether, which is a “motion that has no direction”. Well, that is

certainly Beyond Einstein!

Conclusion

We have seen how Einstein’s equation of E = mc2 gives fascinating insights into the deep nature

of time, space, motion, and reference system effects. For the nature of gravity, a simple

phenomenon, has been given a simple explanation. There were no gravitons, space warps,

gravity waves, 11 dimensional strings, etc. There were no built-in mysteries like how mass grabs

space-time and warps it. There were no bottomless questions like “What are particles made of?”

The concepts are very different from what is taught in the schools, but are not hard to

understand.

You can see why non-local physics is not published in the mainstream science journals. When an

editor sees statements like “photons are stationary” and "Motion that has no direction" and

"Direction that has no motion", he will simply throw the submission into the trash can. The

article will never even see peer review, let alone publication. The public would pass it off as

“junk science” and have no idea what they are missing out on. The physics of non-locality is

basically “stuck” back in 1905 (quantum mechanics excepted).

Control of gravity and control of locality, would give us the ability to travel to the stars without

traversing the intervening space. It would give us new forms of energy, and new ways of shaping

our world, as well as many other astonishing things. But, clearly, there is a lot of work to do

before we get there. At a minimum the currently “reigning paradigm” in physics must change

and include things that are Beyond Einstein.