R E S E A R C H Open Access
Prevalence of timely breastfeeding
initiation and associated factors in
Dembecha district, North West Ethiopia:
a cross-sectional study
, Muluken Teshome
and Getachew Mullu Kassa
Background: Early initiation of breastfeeding is a simple and cost effective intervention to advance the health of
mothers and newborn babies. A large number of neonatal deaths could be prevented if infants were breastfed.
However, there is poor practice related to breastfeeding initiation within the first one hour of birth, and the factors
affecting it are not well understood. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of timely breastfeeding
initiation and associated factors in Dembecha district, North West Ethiopia.
Methods: A cross-sectional study design was conducted from August to September 2015. Multistage sampling
techniques were used to select a total of 739 mothers who had children under 2 years of age. A pretested
structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, bivariate and multiple logistic regression
analysis were performed.
Results: The level of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 73.1 %. The magnitude of prelacteal feeding and
colostrum feeding in this study was 11.9 and 76.2 % respectively. Timely initiation of breastfeeding was
significantly associated with the presence of four and above antenatal appointments during the last pregnancy
(Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 3.1; 95 % Confidence Interval [CI] 1.2, 8.0), access to mass media such as radio or television
(AOR 1.54; 95 % CI 1.10, 2.20), and mothers who were attended by traditional birth attendant during their last birth
(AOR 0.23; 95 % CI 0.07, 0.75).
Conclusions: The level of timely initiation of breastfeeding was relatively good compared with previous studies in
Ethiopia, although more than quarter of mothers didn’t start breastfeeding within the first one hour of birth. Timely
initiation of breastfeeding was significantly associated with the presence of four and above antenatal care during
the last pregnancy, access to mass media (e.g. radio, television), and last child attended by traditional birth attendant.
Programs should encourage mothers to use skilled birth attendants at birth, emphasise the importance of feeding
colostrum and to initiate breastfeeding within one hour after childbirth.
Keywords: Breastfeeding, Timely initiation of breastfeeding, Child health, Ethiopia
* Correspondence: email@example.com
Midwifery Department, Medicine and Health Sciences College, Debre
Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia
Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
© 2016 The Author(s). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to
the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver
(http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Bimerew et al. International Breastfeeding Journal (2016) 11:28
The timely initiation of breastfeeding is defined as
putting the newborn baby to the breast within one hour
of birth . Breastfeeding is an important public health
strategy to reduce infant, child and maternal morbidity
and mortality and helps to control health care costs.
Breastfeeding is associated with a reduced risk of otitis
media, gastroenteritis, respiratory illness, sudden infant
death syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, obesity, and
Based on World Health Organization (WHO) report,
globally over one million newborn infants could be saved
each year by initiating breastfeeding within the first hour
of life. In developing countries alone, early initiation of
breastfeeding could save as many as 1.45 million lives
each year by reducing deaths mainly due to diarrheal
diseases and lower respiratory tract infections in chil-
dren . Studies have also reported that timely initiation
of breastfeeding can reduce more than twenty percent of
neonatal deaths . In developing countries where the
rate of communicable diseases is high, timely initiation
of breastfeeding is important in reducing the diarrheal
disease in the child .
According to study conducted in India, timely initi-
ation of breastfeeding is recognized as the first and vital
step toward reducing the infant and less than 5 years
of age child mortality. It has the potential to prevent
16 % of neonatal deaths if all infants are breastfed
from day 1, and 22 % if breastfeeding is started within
the first hour .
For several years, the poor nutritional status of chil-
dren and women in Ethiopia has caused serious health
problems . Based on 2010 Federal Ministry of Health
(FMOH) report, the initiation of breastfeeding within
one hour of birth was lowest in the Amhara and Somali
regions (38 and 40 %, respectively), and highest in the
South Nation Nationality of People (SNNP) and Dire
Dawa regions (67 and 66 %, respectively . A study
conducted in south east Ethiopia showed the prevalence
of timely initiation of breastfeeding to be 52.4 %. The
study also showed that factors that were associated with
timely breastfeeding initiation were being urban resident
and getting postnatal counselling . A community based
cross-sectional study conducted in western Ethiopia
also showed a better, 88.5 % prevalence of timely breast-
feeding initiation. Getting advice on breastfeeding during
antenatal visits, women who knew the importance of
colostrum and importance of mother to child attachment
were the determinant factors which were associated with
timely breastfeeding initiation .
Other studies have showed that problems related with
the timely initiation of breastfeeding cause a rise in
neonatal mortality of 22 % . This study will be
conducted to assess the prevalence of the timely initiation
of breastfeeding and associated factors in Dembecha
Woreda, North West Ethiopia. The findings of this study
will be important for planning and implementation of
prevention strategies of child morbidity and mortality in
resource limited setting.
Study design, area and period
A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted in
Dembecha Zuria Woreda, from August to September,
2015. Dembecha District is one of the fifteen Districts
in West Gojjam zone of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia.
Dembecha town is the capital town of Dembecha Zuria
Woreda. The woreda is located 349 km north from the
capital city of Addis Ababa and 215 km south from
the regional capital town of Bahir Dar. The woreda
has 25 rural kebeles and 4 urban kebeles . Based on
2014/ 2015 Amhara Bureau of Finance and Economic
Development Report, the total population of the district
was estimated to be 151,020. Of this, 49.5 % were females
and 50.5 % were males. The total number of women
who had a child less than 2 years of age in the woreda
was 5434. The majority, 95 % of the population follow
Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity. The woreda has six
health centres which provide healthcare services .
Source and study population
The source population were all mothers who had at least
one child less than 2 years of age and were living in the
woreda. Mothers who have a child less than 2 years of
age, who are permanent residents, and who lived in the
study area for at least six months, were included in the
Sample size determination
The required sample size of the study was determined
by using a single population proportion formula with
the following assumptions:
n = total number of mothers to be interviewed
z = critical value at 95 % confidence interval (1.96)
p = prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding in
under two children which is 57.2 % in rural communities
of Arba Minch Zuria .
d = marginal error between sample statistics and the
population parameter (5 %)
Since the source population was 5434, less than 10,000,
the correction formula was used and gave the sample size
Bimerew et al. International Breastfeeding Journal (2016) 11:28 Page 2 of 8
of 352, but since multistage sampling technique was used,
the sample size is multiplied by the design effect to
get the final sample size. By taking the design effect
as two, the required sample size was 704. Additionally
5 % was added for non-response rate giving a final
sample size of 739.
Multistage sampling technique was used to select the
study population at the community level. The first 5
kebeles were selected from 25 kebele using simple
random sampling technique. A sample size (739) of
mothers who had a child less than 2 years old from each
kebele was selected proportionally and each household
was selected by systematic random sampling technique.
Then, the number of house hold (HH) with mothers and
a child less than 2 years of age were selected from the
sampled kebeles using the family folder registration book
of each house hold, found in the health post. Based on the
proportional allocation each sample was selected every
unit of second household. In the case when more than
one mother with in a household were available, a lottery
method was used to select the mother to be included
and if more than two under two year children were found
in the house hold the youngest child was selected. The
sampling procedure of children under 2 years of age in
Dembecha Zuria Woreda is presented in Fig. 1.
Variables of the study
The dependent variable of this study is the timely initi-
ation of breastfeeding, which means the initiation of
breastfeeding within one hour after childbirth. The inde-
pendent variables include; sociodemographic characte-
ristics (age, religion, education of the mother, education
of the husband, ethnicity, marital status, economic
status/monthly income, sex of infant, age of infant,
occupation of the mother, occupation of the husband
and access to Media). Obstetric related history (parity,
Fig. 1 Schematic frame work of the sampling procedure
Bimerew et al. International Breastfeeding Journal (2016) 11:28 Page 3 of 8
history and frequency of antenatal visits, counselling,
place of delivery, mode of delivery, postnatal follow up,
history of breast problems, and knowledge and attitude
of the mother towards breastfeeding.
Timely initiation of breastfeeding
Is defined as putting the neonate on the mother’s breast
to suckle within one hour of birth as reported by the
mother/caretaker of the child.
Iincluded breastfeeding initiation, and an awareness and
understanding of the timely initiation of breastfeeding.
Mothers were considered to have good knowledge if
they correctly answered greater than or equal to 70 % of
the total knowledge related assessing questions.
In this study is defined as the mothers overall favourableness
toward the timely initiation of breastfeeding. Respondents
were categorized as having a favourable attitude if the
final score for attitude related questions was greater
than or equal to 50 %. If respondents had a score of less
than 50 %, they were grouped as having an unfavourable
attitude towards the timely breastfeeding initiation.
Traditional birth attendant
Is defined when the childbirth was attended by an
unskilled personnel such as relatives, neighbour, friend
or unskilled community based birth attendants.
Data collection tool and procedure
The data collection questionnaire was prepared after
reviewing different related literatures. The tools was first
prepared in the English language, then translated to
Amharic and translated back to English by another trans-
lator to check the consistence of the data. A pretested
structured questionnaire was used to collect the required
data from respondents. Data were collected by face-to-
face interview and supervision was based on prepared
checklists. Five health extension workers were involved
in the data collection and two nurses were assigned as
Data quality assurance
The quality of data was assured by proper designing and
pretest of the questionnaires in 5 % (37 mothers) of the
sample size in one kebele, other than the selected
kebeles, with similar sociodemographic characteristics.
Two days training was given for both data collectors and
supervisors by the principal investigator before and after
the pretest. The training was about the objectives of
the study, contents of the questionnaire, data collection
techniques and the issues of the confidentiality of the
responses. Every day after data collection, the question-
naires were reviewed and checked for completeness by the
supervisors and principal investigator and the necessary
feedback was offered to the data collectors in the next
Data processing and analysis
All the questionnaires were checked for completeness,
coded and entered into EpiData version 3.1 and then
exported to SPSS version 20 for data analysis. The
descriptive statistics was presented in the form of tables
and text using frequencies and numerical summary statis-
tics such as mean and standard deviation. Variables in the
bivariate analysis with p- value ≤0.2 were further consi-
dered in the final logistic regression analysis. The degree
of association between independent and dependent
variables was assessed by using odds ratio at 95 %
Socio- demographic characteristics
Seven hundred thirty nine mothers who had children less
than 2 years of age were included in the study making
the response rate of 100 %. Out of the total children, 400
(54.1 %) and 339 (45.9 %) of the children were males and
female respectively. The mean (± SD) age of the mother
and the child were 31 (±6) years and 12 (±7) months
respectively. Out of the total study participants, 475
(64.3 %) of mothers earn an average monthly income of
less than 500birr, 336 (45.5 %) mothers were unable to
read and write and only 453 (61.3 %) mothers have access
to Media. The majority, 711 (96.2 %) of respondents were
married (Table 1).
Health service and obstetrics related history
Most, 710 (96.1 %) of the mothers attended an antenatal
visit during their last pregnancy and 514 (69.6 %) of
the mothers have history of three and above pregnancies.
Eighty three percent of mothers gave birth to their
previous baby at the health institution. More than 2/3
of mothers had received postnatal care after their last
delivery and 432 (58.5 %) of mothers received information
about breastfeeding during antenatal visits (Table 2).
Knowledge and attitude towards timely breastfeeding
The majority, 552 (74.7 %) of the respondents have good
knowledge, while 187 (25.6 %) had poor knowledge
about the timely breastfeeding initiation. The majority,
661 (89.4 %) of the respondents have a favourable
attitude and 78 (10.6 %) have unfavourable attitude
towards the timely initiation of breastfeeding.
Bimerew et al. International Breastfeeding Journal (2016) 11:28 Page 4 of 8
The level of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 540
(73.1 %) and the majority, 725 (98.1 %) of mothers ever
breastfed. More than two thirds, 563 (76.2 %) of mothers
fed their colostrum, 87 (11.8 %) of the mothers were
giving the child foods other than breast milk in the first
six months after delivery; 61 (70.1 %) mothers gave
water, 17 (2.3 %) mothers gave butter, 4 (0.5 %) gave
glucose water and 5 (0.7 %) mothers gave other food.
The majority, 569 (77 %) of mothers have received
breastfeeding advice and the majority, 533 (72.1 %) of
Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers who had
a child less than 2 years of age in Dembecha Zuria Woreda,
North West Ethiopia, 2015
Variables (n= 739) Frequency Percent
15–19 year old 15 2
20–24 84 11.4
25–29 223 30.2
30 + 417 56.4
Child age in months
< 6 months 203 27.5
≥6 months 536 72.5
Religion of the mother
Orthodox 735 99.5
Muslim 4 0.5
Unable to read and write 336 45.5
Read and write 332 44.9
Elementary (grade 1–8) 48 6.5
High school (grade 9–12) 19 2.6
College level and above 4 0.5
Married 711 96.2
Single 13 1.8
Divorced 12 1.6
Widowed 3 0.4
Occupation of the mother
Housewife 682 92.3
Farmer 12 1.6
Private work 4 0.5
Daily laborer 40 5.4
Others 1 0.1
Unable read and write 232 31.4
Read and write 431 58.3
Elementary (1–8) 46 6.2
High school (9–12) 17 2.3
College and above 13 1.8
Monthly income (in Ethiopian birr)
< 500.00 birr 475 64.3
501.00–1499.00 birr 181 24.5
> 1500.00 birr 83 11.2
Media access (radio/television)
Yes 453 61.3
No 286 38.7
Table 2 Obstetric history of mothers who had a child under
2 years of age in Dembecha Zuria Woreda, North West Ethiopia,
Variables (n= 739) Frequency Percent
Gravidity (n= 739)
One 100 13.5
Two 125 16.9
Three & above 514 69.6
Antenatal visit in the last pregnancy (n= 739)
Yes 710 96.1
No 29 3.9
Number of antenatal visits in the last pregnancy
One 22 3.00
Two-three 275 37.2
Four & above 413 55.9
Breastfeeding counseling during antenatal appointments (n= 739)
Yes 432 58.5
No 278 37.6
Place of delivery (n= 739)
Health facility 612 82.8
Home 127 17.2
Attended at birth
Traditional birth attendant 121 16.4
Health professionals 618 83.6
Postnatal visit (n= 739)
Yes 562 76.0
No 177 24.0
Breastfeeding counseling during postnatal visit (n= 739)
Yes 556 75.2
No 7 0.9
History of infant admission (n= 739)
Yes 59 8.0
No 680 92.0
History of breast problems (n= 739)
Yes 62 8.4
No 677 96.1
Bimerew et al. International Breastfeeding Journal (2016) 11:28 Page 5 of 8
mothers were advised by health professionals. Two
hundred and three mother’s breastfed their child when
the child cries and 736 (99.6 %) mothers were still breast-
feeding their child (Table 3).
Factors associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding
Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. On
bivariate analysis, factors which were associated with
timely initiation of breastfeeding include; Media access
(like radio and/or television), number of antenatal visits
during the last pregnancy, place of delivery of the last
child, attitude of respondents towards timely breastfee-
ding initiation, and traditional birth attendance. Candi-
date variables for multivariate analysis were entered to
multiple logistic regression analysis and variables which
were found to be associated with timely breastfeeding
initiation include; the presence of four and above ante-
natal visits during the last pregnancy (AOR 3.1, 95 % CI
1.2, 8), access to mass media (AOR 1.54, 95 % CI 1.10,
2.20), and presence of a traditional birth attendant
during childbirth (AOR 0.23, 95 % CI 0.07, 0.75) (Table 4).
The findings of this study showed that the overall level
of timely initiation breastfeeding of mothers who had
less than 2 years of age were 540 (73.1 %). This was
much lower than the Ethiopian Ministry of Health target
to increase breastfeeding within the first hour of life
to 92 % by 2015 . The finding is also lower that a
study conducted in Bahir Dar town (87.0 %) , and
Australia 98 %  and slightly lower than Saudi
Arabia (77.8 %) . The finding was slightly higher
than those observed in other studies from South Nation
Nationality of People (67 %), Dire Dawa (66 %), and Nepal
(66.4 %) [8, 16–21]. This difference may be due to health
policy difference among the countries and due to the
difference in sociodemographic characteristics. In addition,
the current study was conducted in a relatively rural
area when compared with the above mentioned studies.
This finding is also similar with a study conducted in
Goba town .
Only 76.2 % of women reported that they feed their
colostrum to their child, while 23.8 % discarded their
colostrum before breastfeeding. The finding of this study
is lower than a study in Axum, in which only 55 % didn’t
express and discard their colostrum . The possible
explanations for such difference could be due to the
difference in sociodemographic and study period; the
current study was conducted after large scale educational
programs on the importance of feeding colostrum during
the recent years.
The magnitude of prelacteal feeding in this study
was 11.9 %. Compared to other studies, this finding is
almost similar with a study done in Axum, in which
the prevalence of prelacteal feeding was 11.72 % .
The finding is relatively lower than the study done in
India, 16.9 % .
The multivariate logistic regression model found three
factors associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding.
Table 3 Breastfeeding practice of mothers who had a child less
than 2 years of age in Dembecha Zuria Woreda, North West
Variables (n= 739) Frequency Percent
Did you breastfeed your last child?
Yes 725 98.1
No 14 1.9
Did you breastfeed within one hour?
Yes 540 73.1
No 199 26.9
Did you feed your colostrum to your last child?
Yes 563 76.2
No 176 23.8
Did you use prelacteal foods with your last child?
Yes 87 11.8
No 652 88.2
If yes, what types of prelacteal food did you use?
Butter 17 2.3
Water 61 8.3
Glucose water 4 0.5
Others 5 0.7
When do you breastfeed this last child?
On demand 457 61.8
When the child cries 273 36.9
Other 9 1.2
Do you still breastfeed?
Yes 736 99.6
No 3 0.4
Any breastfeeding difficulty with your last child?
Yes 115 15.6
No 624 84.4
Breastfeeding frequency of your last child
Every ≤2 h 383 51.8
Every > 2 h 356 48.2
Did you receive counseling about breastfeeding with your last child?
Yes 569 77
No 170 23
Who advised you about breastfeeding?
Health professional 533 72.1
Friend 23 3.1
Family 13 1.8
Bimerew et al. International Breastfeeding Journal (2016) 11:28 Page 6 of 8
These variables include; the presence of four and above
antenatal appointments during the last pregnancy, access
to mass media (e.g. radio, television), and traditional
birth attendance during their last birth.
Mothers who had four and above antenatal care visits
during their previous pregnancy were three times more
likely to initiate breastfeeding within one hour after
childbirth (AOR 3.1, 95 % CI 1.2, 8). This could be
because mothers who had frequent antenatal care visits
during their pregnancy could access frequent counselling
sessions on the importance of timely initiation of breast-
feeding, and thereby be more likely to practice it. This
finding is supported by a study done in western Ethiopia
and in India, which showed that counselling on breast-
feeding during antenatal visits increases the rate of timely
initiation of breastfeeding by mothers [1, 6, 22]. This is
because the mother becomes receptive and prepares
herself for timely breastfeeding . The findings are also
similar with the findings of large scale community based
programs as conducted in Bolivia and Madagascar .
Mothers who had access to mass medias like radio,
and/or television were more than 1.5 times more likely
to initiate breastfeeding within one hour after childbirth
(AOR 1.54, 95 % CI 1.1, 2.2). This maybe because the
information obtained from such channels regarding
breastfeeding improves their knowledge and practice.
Several studies have showed that the use of a skilled
birth attendant during childbirth is important in redu-
cing the high level of child and maternal morbidity and
mortality especially in developing countries [24–26]. The
current study also found that women who were attended
by a traditional birth attendant during their last child-
birth were less likely to start breastfeeding within one
hour after birth (AOR 0.23, 95 % CI 0.07, 0.75). The
possible explanation for this could be difference in
the health education provided by health professionals
as part of labour and delivery care, and immediately
after child birth when compared with traditional birth
The study had certain limitations. The limited nature
of the cross-sectional study design in determining cause-
effect relationship, and recall bias may be introduced
since this study also included mothers who experienced
childbirth before the 2 years of the data collection period.
Although some improvements have been observed,
the study showed that the level of timely initiation of
breastfeeding is still low. Even though a large number
of women are feeding their babies their colostrum, a
significant is the number of women are still discarding
their colostrum before initiating breastfeeding. Timely
initiation of breastfeeding was positively associated with
the presence of four and above antenatal care visits
during the previous pregnancy, and access to mass media
(e.g. radio, television). In addition, women whose last child
was attended by a traditional birth attendant were less
likely to initiate breastfeeding within the first one hour
after birth. Community based programs focusing on
improving knowledge of mothers towards timely breast-
feeding initiation is important. Policy makers should give
emphasis on the factors mentioned above when designing
interventions to improve the practice on timely breast-
feeding initiation. Further studies should be conducted on
a larger scale for reasons of not feeding colostrum.
Table 4 Multivariable logistic regression analysis showing factors associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers
who had a child less than 2 years of age in Dembecha Zuria Woreda, North West Ethiopia, 2015
Variables Timely initiation of breastfeeding COR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) p-value
Within 1 h of
After 1 h of
Number of antenatal visits 1 visit 9 (40.9 %) 13 (59.1 %) 1 1
2–3 180 (65.5 %) 95 (34.5 %) 2.74 (1.13, 6.64)* 1.74 (0.68, 4.42) 0.248
≥4 330 (79.9 %) 83 (20.1 %) 5.74 (2.37, 13.89)* 3.1 (1.2, 8) 0.019*
Access to mass Media
(e.g.: radio, television)
Yes 349 (77 %) 104 (23 %) 0.59 (0.43, 0.93)* 1.54 (1.1, 2.2) 0.018*
No 191 (66.8 %) 95 (33.2 %) 1 1
Place of delivery of the last child Health facility 470 (76.8 %) 142 (23.2 %) 2.7 (1.8, 4.01)* 1.84 (0.564, 5.988) 0.312
Home 70 (55.1 %) 57 (44.9 %) 1 1
Attitude towards timely initiation
Unfavorable attitude 373 (75.7 %) 120 (24.3 %) 1 1
Favorable attitude 167 (67.9 %) 79 (32.1 %) 0.68 (0.49, 0.95)* 1.34 (0.93, 1.92) 0.118
Last child birth attended by Skilled birth attendant 62 (51.2 %) 59 (48.8 %) 1 1
Traditional birth attendant 478 (77.3 %) 140 (22.7 %) 3.25 (2.17, 4.86)* 0.23 (0.07, 0.75) 0.014*
AOR adjusted odd ratio, COR crude odd ratio
*Statistical significance at (p- value < 0.05), 1: reference group
Bimerew et al. International Breastfeeding Journal (2016) 11:28 Page 7 of 8
AOR: Adjusted odd ratio; COR: Crude odd ratio; FMOH: Federal Ministry of
Health; TBA: Traditional birth attendant; WHO: World Health Organization
We would like to acknowledge to Debre Markos University, College of
Medicine and Health Science, to GAMBY College of Medical sciences,
supervisors, data collectors and study participants.
No funding was obtained for this study.
Availability of data and material
The datasets analysed during the current study available from the
corresponding author on reasonable request.
AB participated in the design, data collection, data analysis and
interpretation. GM and MT also participated in the analysis, interpretation
and drafting of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional ethical review board
of Debre Markos University, College of Medicine and Health Science.
Dembecha District Health Office and the selected kebeles for the study were
communicated through an official letter written from the Debre Markos
University. After informing the purpose and objective of the study, informed
verbal consent were obtained from each study participants. Participation was
on voluntary basis and participants could withdraw from participation at any
time if they feel uncomfortable. The information collected for this study was
Save the Children International, Bahirdar, Ethiopia.
Department, Medicine and Health Sciences College, Debre Markos University,
Debre Markos, Ethiopia.
Midwifery Department, Medicine and Health
Sciences College, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.
Received: 6 June 2016 Accepted: 26 September 2016
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