ArticlePDF Available

Women’s Networking and Career Development: A Systematic Analysis of the Literature



Women behave differently from men in the development of their career. Additionally, women use networking relationships for advancement of their careers. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to analyze the different empirical views on barriers in women’s networking and its impact on their career development. The literature review comprises journal articles, conference proceedings and institutional reports by multidimensional organizations on the topic of women’s networking and their career development. This review article identifies five critical aspects in the literature as old boy’s networks, gender stereotype for networks, women network structure, network preference and attitude on women’s networking. Finally, this paper presents the deficiencies of existing literature and directions to future research.
International Journal of Business and Management; Vol. 11, No. 11; 2016
ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
Women’s Networking and Career Development: A Systematic
Analysis of the Literature
W. M. S. K Wanigasekara1
1 Department of Human Resource Management, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka
Correspondence: W. M. S. K Wanigasekara, Department of Human Resource Management, University of Kelaniya,
Sri Lanka. E-mail:
Women behave differently from men in the development of their career. Additionally, women use networking
relationships for advancement of their careers. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to analyze the
different empirical views on barriers in women’s networking and its impact on their career development. The
literature review comprises journal articles, conference proceedings and institutional reports by multidimensional
organizations on the topic of women’s networking and their career development. This review article identifies five
critical aspects in the literature as old boy’s networks, gender stereotype for networks, women network structure,
network preference and attitude on women’s networking. Finally, this paper presents the deficiencies of existing
literature and directions to future research.
Keywords: women, barriers of networking, top management, career development
1. Introduction
In today’s business world, many women works for the top level positions. Women have further accessed similar
level of education and employment opportunities as men. (ILO, 2005). Although, middle managerial level working
women have different issues to climb the career ladder to the top (Elmuti, Jia, & Henry, 2009). In line with this
regard, empirical research evidences have criticized the topic, why lack of women managers have not achieved
the top level career positions in their career ladder. As revealed by some researchers, there are different factors are
affecting to women to reach the ranks of top levels in management (Burke & Nelson, 2002; Burke & Mattis, 2005).
Among those factors, networking is one of the significant factors to discuss since networking is important to
improve managerial career development and affect to success of an individual (Singh et al., 2006) in the work
place. As defined by some researchers (Fisher & Vilas, 1991; Roane, 1993; Kramer, 1998; Barton, 2001;
Wellington & Catalyst, 2001) networking includes joining to professional associations, participating in social
functions and engage in social activities. Therefore networking can be supported to generate information, resources
and opportunities within and outside of the organization to female or male counterparts. Accordingly, networking
improve managerial career success. (Singh et al, 2006) of the work place. As said by Lathi, (2003) proper networks
make women to be successful on their own and this increases their determinations. Moreover, as suggested in some
research studies, networking is an important consideration for women’s career growth and success (Coleman,
2008). Women leaders can make networking to associate with organizational clients as well as with other collages
in their own profession or organization (Suseno et al., 2007) since networking brings range of benefits to enhance
the career success. These, networking relationships provide value to performers (e.g., individuals) by letting them
to top into the resources embedded in such relationships for their benefit (Bourdieu, 1986; Lin, 2001). However,
it is important to investigate women’s networking barriers to earn benefits from the networks in the same way as
men (Perriton, 2006; Fletcher et al., 2007; Tonge, 2008) to the development of their careers.
Therefore, this study has collected and criticized the literature from year 1995 to 2015 as “A literature review for
barriers in women’s networking and its impact on their career development”.
2. Methodological Approach of This Study
The methodological approach of this study is inspired by systematic analysis. Basically, a systematic analysis is
carrying together a number of differently conducted studies, sometimes with contradictory findings, and finally
producing their results (Akobeng, 2005). As mentioned by Akobeng, a systematic reviews let researchers to take
justification of the whole range of relevant conclusions from research on a specific topic, and not just the results
of one or two studies (Akobeng, 2005). Also, systematic reviews improve the reliability and accuracy of International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 11, No. 11; 2016
conclusions. Considering above mentioned benefits, the researcher has used the systematic analysis for this paper.
In contrast, researcher considered networking, formal and informal network, network structures, gender and
networking, stereotyping and career development as key words to search the literature researching on women
network and career development. The literature review encompasses journal articles, conference proceedings,
books and institutional reports by multidimensional organizations. Researcher examined approximately 15
journals (as mentioned below) with other sources. (Journal of Career Development International, Journal of
Economics, Business and Management, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Journal of Industrial and
Commercial Training, ,Research in Organizational Behavior, International Journal of Manpower, Journal of
Equal Opportunities International, Journal of Applied Psychology, Career Development International, Journal of
Educational Administration, Women in Management Review, Journal of Educational Administration, The
Academy of Management Review, Economics World) from 1995 to 2015. All the journals are highly recognized
journals of gender studies and management. Similarly, researcher selected the research articles based on relevancy.
The purpose of this study was to compare the empirical views about barriers on women’s networking and its impact
on career development.
3. Result
3.1 Old boys’ Networks
The old boys’ network can be referred as a mindset of a shared background and history with different informal
networks that were not easily associated by women (Mooney & Ryan, 2008). Moreover, networks at work are
often identified with “old boys” networks’ which can be formal, informal or personal, but always linked with male
privilege (Coleman, 2010). Theses male dominated networks are essential to career success. Further these male
dominated networks are more powerful and women naturally have difficulties in gain access to these male-
dominated networks. (Pini et al., n.d). Therefore, managerial women have limited or lack of access to male
dominated organizational networks with numerous disadvantages for career advancements as well as expressive
benefits such as friendship and social support (Ibid, n.d).
In several ways, these male dominated networks act as constrains for women to climb the top. As revealed by Sadl
(n.d.) in his study, men members of male network groups, particularly senior male counterparts, act as gatekeepers,
obstructing women’s career progression. Further, Gransmark (2010) revealed that these leading group are over-
represented among the recruiters for top level jobs and favor to hire employees with a similar background as
themselves and act as doorkeepers, reducing the possibilities for others to obtain the high-status jobs.
There are several reasons have combined with this male dominated behavior towards women’s career development
to the top level. Firstly, according to Ghazali et al. (2010) male managers are having their own ways in making
decision where sometimes the decisions were made in the informal setting such as washroom breaks or in lifts as
well. Similarly, Simmons(2011) long-established that the old boy’s network establishes business relationships on
golf courses, at exclusive country clubs, in the executive sky-boxes at sporting events, and in other facilities.
Therefore, women find it tougher to network in male-dominated settings and, therefore, women may miss out on
creating different networks that would empower them to raise their high profile (Mascia, 2015). Though, women
have the capability to be great leaders, but that they are still being held back (Mascia, 2015). Finally, as suggested
in, Green & Cassell (1996) in their study, women are seen as lack of leadership qualities and considered as
comparatively submissive, nurturing, warm, kind and selfness. Thus, they tend to be clustered with the entry level
positions. (Jamali, Safieddine & Daouk, 2007). With all these reasons, the “Old Boy’s Network” can avoid women
and other minority groups from being truly successful in the business world (Goodman, 2003). Recruiters for high-
status jobs and prefer to hire employees with a similar background as themselves as well as act as gatekeepers,
reducing the possibilities for others to obtain the high-status jobs.
3.2 Gender Stereotype
Gender stereotype leads to hinder the women’s career success through networking and such perceptions on
stereotypes are based on gender or sex-role stereotypes of what is appropriate or inappropriate behavior for men
and women leaders (Mavin, 2009). Further, these stereotypes are associated with the social predictions and
conceptual beliefs about the traits that are characteristic of, and fitting for, women and men (Mavin, 2009).
Therefore, societal expectations of gender suitability may highlight that women are expected to display communal
(nurturing, interpersonally sensitive) and that men are expected to show argentic (independent, assertive and
ambitious) abilities and behaviors (Wood & Lindorff, 2001).
As suggested by Simmon (2011) in his study, women have had minimal legal rights and career opportunities than
men over the past years and a woman’s main role has always been to be a house-wife, and then to be a mother. International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 11, No. 11; 2016
Hence, women have been stereotyped for years as being the less knowledgeable and weaker sex (Cohen &
Huffman, 2007). This gender stereotypes explicit a ‘message’ that the leader positions as a non-position for woman
whether women’s have appropriateness for a leader positions or not (Eagly & Carli’s, 2007; 2008). As suggested
by Mavin in his study, leadership qualities and traits are mostly associated with men, thus leaving women perceived
as less adequate for leader roles (Mavin, 2009). Therefore, Chemers and Murphy (1995) have mentioned that
women leaders face greater obstacles on gender stereotype.
Overall, women remain significantly lower represented in positions of power (Dee, 2013). These women carry
such restrictions as stereotyping and isolation (Barreto, Ryan, & Schmitt, 2009)
3.3 Women’s Network Structure
Network structure includes network size, composition and/or density (Moser & Wolf, 2009).With regard to
network structure, some research provides evidence that men and women differ in the structure of personal
networks, as well as in the rewards attained from personal networks. (Stallings, 2008). In one side, in male
dominating business structures, women have to make themselves known in men's networks as well to get
opportunities. On the other hand, men get more possibilities to rise to leadership positions with this network ties
than women. Further, if men have their own, broader networks than women, and if those men don’t aware about
any capable women to recommend, the opportunities will visibly go to men (Lathi, 2013). Research suggests that
if women takes opportunities through networks, women may gain less network rewards, such as beneficial
information or endorsement from top level managers, than men (Smith-Lovin & McPherson, 1993; Belliveau,
Moreover, network structure is a static and comprehensive view of an individual's total network encompassing the
entire population of an individual’s ties (Stalling, 2008). Further, women formed their networks in the same
structural context (Ibarra, 1997; Cited as Stallings, 2008). On the other wards, women expect to make relationships
with other women and with other minorities exists, a phenomenon called homophily (Rogers and Kincaid,
n.d).Therefore, this organizational structure influence for women’s career development over the networking (Ibarra,
1997; Cited as Stallings, 2008).Therefore, as suggested by Ibarra in her study, women are often less likely than
men to hold top level positions in organizations since women’s ability to generate influential societal networks.
Conversely, men does not face these same constraints.
While consider the network size on career development, Surngi (2014) has revealed that women have smaller
network size compared to men with several reasons. For example, for women there is a decline in network size at
reproduction age and with the problems of reproductive activities. (Moore, 1990). Moreover, women have
obstacles for networking in the social context than men and unable to commit the extra time outside of work hours
due to their parenthood commitments (Broughton & Miller, 2009). Therefore women have limited number of
members to associate and have lack of opportunities to climb the top.
3.4 Network Preference
Men and women are usually, inherently distinct. Therefore, they associate with others (Stallings, 2008) in different
ways. As revealed in number of former studies, women are more likely to make close ties with family members,
who provide support and collaboration, as compared to men (Miller, 1976; Chodorow, 1978; Gilligan, 1982; Surngi,
2014). Ibarra (1997, cited as Stallings, 2008) examined network preferences and found that high potential women
had significantly more same-sex career and information ties than non-high potential women. Men, on the other
hand, have a tendency to form more ties that provide instrumental resources than women (Ibarra, 1992; cited as
Stallings, 2008). Moreover, it has been found that men expects friendships from those men who also provide access
to organizational resources. Belliveau (2005) also demonstrates in his study that male instrumental ties may be
more valuable than female instrumental ties because individuals receive more valuable instrumental rewards, such
as access to important information (Mehra, Kilduff, & Brass, 1998) in an organization.
3.5 Attitudes on Women’s Networking
Gender differences in networking activities are stand up from gender-based socialization experiences. Further,
theses socialization viewpoints departs from the hypothesis that men and women learn gendered attitudes and
behaviors to be men and women (Addis & Mahalik, 2003). Further some other studies have mentioned that if
women have been culturally socialized and adopted certain behaviors, their traits leads them to fulfill assumed
roles such as dealing with domestic responsibilities, leaving the managerial positions to be occupied by men
(Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000). An example, it is suggested that men are having more instrumental
attitudes, whereas women hold more emotional responsive attitudes and like to release emotions more easily (Ogus
et al., 1990; Bakker et al., 2002). Further, the uneven distribution of women and men in various work roles, as well International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 11, No. 11; 2016
as the power structure and different opportunities within an organization, shape their attitudes (Brandser,
1996).Accordingly, women are anticipated to be more sensitive to others than men , place more value on
interpersonal relationships, and to seek societal support for a greater extent than does the male gender role
prescribes for men (Greenglass et al., 1996).Therefore, with these attitude issues, women have less welcome from
their work environments and somewhat threatened by what they perceived as self-serving dominant cultures
(Oakley, 2000). Therefore, organizational structures serve to exploit and continue gender-stereotyped attitudes and
uphold discrimination for women (Brandser, 1996).
4. Deficiencies of Existing Research
Through collecting and analyzing of research on women networking and career development in last 20 years, this
paper consists of the following deficiencies. This findings make a platform to show the gap between networking
and women’s career development. Also, these finding will be guided as path to future research. Firstly, it was
found, lack of fundamental theories on networking and women’s career development. Secondly, most of the studies
have generally identified the networking as a significant factor for women’s individual development however
researchers have not found the significant effect of networking on middle management women manager’s career
development. Further, the concept of “Old boys’ Networks” is emerging concept and discuss women’s networking
barriers with old boys’ networks but no one has recognized ‘how women can deal with old boys’ networks for their
career success. Moreover, it is difficult to find out sufficient number of empirical evidences for cultural constraints
on women’s career success and current studies have not considered different cultural settings such as traditions,
values, and beliefs on women’s networking. Moreover, sufficient number of researchers have not identified the
networking role and professional women’s attitudes on career development. Finally, there is a gap between
women’s networking and career development to identify the precautions to empower women and strengthen the
network relationships for women to reach the top management level positions.
5. Conclusion
This study investigated the literature related to women’s networking and their career development. It was found
that there are lack of research on women’s networking and career development. And few studies have
acknowledged the impact of gender on networking experiences (Garcia & Carter, 2009). Also, qualitative research
has dominated the in networking literature than quantitative research.
This paper mainly discussed the barriers of networking on women’s career development which are old boys’
networks, size of the network, structure of the women networking, gender stereotype for women’s networking,
attitudes of women networking, network preferences and cultural constrains.
In conclusion, this study is an initial step to fill the research gap. Furthermore, it is vital to conduct more research
on women networks and career development, to understand the women’s network role in the workplace and the
benefits to reach the top level.
6. Future Research
Future studies should attempt to find different cultural constrains on different cultures and contingent values of
specific networking behaviors. Further, it is important to investigate the specific structures and preferences of
women’s networking for future contribution.
There is no funding organization to support for this publication. The author gratefully acknowledge the guidance
of my potential supervisor.
Akobeng, A. K. (2005). Understanding systematic reviews and meta-analysis, Department of Pediatric
Gastroenterology. Central Manchester and Manchester Children’s University Hospitals, USA.
Coleman, M. (2010). Women-only (homophilous) networks supporting women leaders in education. Journal of
Educational Administration, 48(6), 769-781.
Cormier, D. (2007). Retaining top women business leaders: strategies for ending the exodus. Business Strategy
Series, 8(4), 262-269. http://dx/
Dee, A. S. (2013). Barriers for Women to Positions of Power: How Societal and Corporate Structures, Perceptions
of Leadership and Discrimination Restrict Women's Advancement to Authority. Earth Common Journal, 3(2).
Retrieved from International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 11, No. 11; 2016
Elmuti, D., Jia, H., & Henry, H. D. (2009). Challenges Women Face in Leadership Positions and Organizational
Effectiveness: An Investigation. Journal of Leadership Education, 8(2). Retrieved from
Ghazali, N., Sumarjan, N., & Chik, C. T. (2012). The influence of old boys’ network, glass ceiling phenomenon
and work life balance towards women’s career development. 3rd International Conference on Business and
Economics research Proceedings, Indonesia. http://dx/doi:10.1108/09649429610112565
Ghulam, R. N. (2001). The relationship between HRM, social support and subjective career success among men
and women. International Journal of Manpower, 22(5), 457-474. http://dx/doi:10.1108/EUM0000000005850
Gry, C. B. (1996). Women-the new heroes of the business world? Women in Management Review, 11(2), 3-17.
Hans-Georg, W., & Moser, K. (2009). Effects of Networking on Career Success: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 94(1), 196-206. http://dx/http://dx/
Huang, J., & Aaltio, I. (2014). Guanxi and social capital: Networking among women managers in China and
Finland. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22-39.
Ibarra, H. (1993). Personal Networks of Women and Minorities in Management: A Conceptual Framework.
Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 56-87. http://dx/
Katie, S. (2011). Women in Top Management Positions in the Sport Industry: Breaking Down the Barriers and
Stereotypes, Sport Management Undergraduate. Paper 22.
Klenke K. (1999). Women leaders and women managers in the global community. Career Development
International, 4(3), 134-139. http://dx/
Moses, A. (2007). Managerial Social Capital Strategic Orientation and Organizational Performance in an
Emerging Economy. Strategic Management Journal, 28(12), 1235-1255.
Pines, A. M., & Baruch, O. K. (2008).The role of culture and gender in the choice of a career in management.
Journal of Career Development International, 13(4). http://dx/
Porterfield, J., & Kleiner, B. H. (2005). A new era: Women and leadership. Equal Opportunities International,
24(5), 49-56.
Reese P. R. (1992). Entrepreneurial networks and resource acquisition: Does gender make a difference? The
University of North Carolina.
Ronald, S. B. (n.d). The Network structure of Social capital. Research in Organizational Behavior, 22, 345-423.
Sandler, C. (2014). Developing female leaders: helping women reach the top. Industrial and Commercial Training,
46, 61-67. http://dx/
Sandra, L., Fielden, M., & Davidson, J. (1998). Social support during unemployment: Are women managers
getting a fair deal? Women in Management Review, 13(7), 264-273.
Sharon, D. M. (2015). Are women better leaders than men? Human Resource Management International Digest,
23(7), 1-4.
Sharon, M. (2009). Gender Stereotypes and Assumptions: Popular Culture Constructions of Women Leaders, Full
Refereed Paper. 10th International Conference, Newcastle Business School, Northumbria University, UK.
Song, L. (2010). The Role of Context in Discourse Analysis. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1(6),
Surangi, H. A. K. N. S. (2014). Discourse Analysis in Women Entrepreneurial Networks: A Review of the
Literature. Economics World, 2(1), 25-35.
Surin, E. F., Halil N. H. A., & Edward, O. T. (2015). The Comparative Analysis of Gender and Social Network
among Malay SMEs Entrepreneurs in Malaysia. Journal of Economics, Business and Management, 3(7).
http://dx/ International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 11, No. 11; 2016
Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution
license (
... Furthermore, past studies provide evidence that women lack the opportunity to access significant organizational connections and positions in their place of work (e.g., Alsubaie & Jones, 2017;Arokiasamy et al., 2011;Bertrand et al., 2018;Gupta, 2018;Jamil et al., 2019;Linge, VanRensburg & Sikalieh, 2010), especially, women academics in public higher education are underrepresented in the top level academic positions (Ortega-Liston & Soto, 2014) also, women academics stay distinguished in mid-level scholarly positions, low-level positions, or positions more border lined to advancement into top positions, for example, teachers and understudy administrations (Blau & Kahn, 2017;Jarmon, 2014) notwithstanding being as scholastically qualified as their male partners. Networking behavior has been believed to be particularly crucial since it is a technique women can use to get through the glass ceiling (Singh et al., 2006;Qureshi & Saleem, 2016;Wanigasekara, 2016). Networking behavior assists in building strong connections with others and may serve to broaden women's venture into the more elite classes of associations (Forret & Dougherty, 2004). ...
... Therefore, individuals who engage in networking behaviors are more satisfied with their careers. According to Wanigasekara (2016), women use networking associations for progression in their careers. Spurk et al. (2015) found that the networks' gender structure is related with subjective career success and concluded that Men's networks comprise of a higher percentage of male to female groups, which, sequentially, was positively correlated with subjective career success. ...
Full-text available
Women career success is an important focus in today's research works. Past research reveals limited attention on the relationships between networking behaviors and women academics' career success. Thus, this study investigates the influence of networking behaviors on the objective and subjective career success of 146 women academics in two Malaysian research universities. The study utilized a descriptive-correlational study design and used a questionnaire for the data collection. From the regression analysis, active involvement in networking behaviors was found to contribute significantly to women academics' objective and subjective career success. This study enhances career success among women academics in the Malaysian research universities by highlighting the networking opportunities they have to achieve greater success in their careers. Therefore, these findings are useful to human resource development practitioners to include in their developmental programs and to encourage lifelong learning.
Drawing our attention to the managerial and administrative elements of global health, Nuzulul Kusuma Putri describes how the “glass ceiling” operates in two provinces of the Indonesian health sector—one culturally matriarchal (West Sumatra) and the other patriarchal (East Java). Using position reviews, she analysed promotion processes within District Health Offices and in both provinces found a wide gap in promotion probability between male and female health officers which was not explained by lack of technical competence or merit on the part of women.
Full-text available
Purpose – Examines some of the reasons women remain under-represented at the top of organizations, despite developments in management thinking that appear to reward areas where women traditionally excel. Design/methodology/approach – Looks at some of the research into leadership skills and draws conclusions regarding the paucity of women in management. Findings – Considers some of the obstacles to women becoming managers to be: the attitudes of male managers, the lack of suitable role models for women, women’s reticence to network, and lack of confidence. Practical implications – Urges organizations to work harder to reduce the significance of these obstacles. Social implications – Shows how organizations – and through them society as a whole – would benefit from having more women in top jobs. Originality/value – Argues that having more women in leadership positions – that is, more positive role models – would help to give women more confidence in their ability to be great leaders and would encourage more women to push themselves forward for leadership opportunities.
Full-text available
Over the past few years much has been written about the rapid spread of various types of firm networking, the area of women entrepreneurs' networks and small business entrepreneurship is still a challenging research field. This paper reviews literature addressing women business owners from the network perspective of understanding their contribution to the existing knowledge. The paper makes use of a discourse analysis to examine a selection of empirical research articles from 2000 to 2012 on women networks in entrepreneurship research in order to convey the key concept, main findings, key contribution, and the methodology. Moreover, it identifies in a broader literature the hegemonic statements with regard to women and networks in entrepreneurship and default of the existing research. Main findings based on the discourse analysis reveal six hegemonic statements; women businesses have higher discontinuance rates and one suggested reason for this problem is that women lack of networking, women have a less diverse network, women are disadvantaged compared to men and therefore cannot network effectively, women are more likely to network with men, women favor " strong ties " and women network size is small. Methodologically, the current status of research on networks and entrepreneurship validates that most of the knowledge is gained through cross-sectional surveys. Entrepreneurs may reveal their thoughts, their experience and reflections only if the relationship between the researcher and the researched is symmetrical. Qualitative approaches are suggested in order to " tap " the voice. Moreover, researcher hopes that the literature review on women entrepreneurial network will give some inspiration to researchers.
Full-text available
This study was undertaken to discover working public thoughts about roles of United States women in leadership positions and to test the relationship between managerial leadership styles and organizational effectiveness. A survey of perceptions of leadership roles and effectiveness distributed 700 randomly selected entities from industries in the United States. Findings suggest approximately 50% of women leaders perceive barriers that prevent women for
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to make comparison in terms of social network between male and female Malay entrepreneurs in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia. Social network is defined as interrelationship between the entrepreneurs and their contact (alter) in business venturing. However, there is limited understanding on how the entrepreneurs use their social network. Moreover, there is dearth attention given to investigate the social network in developing country especially in Malaysia. Both social network theory and structural perspective were employed in this quantitative-based study. The data gathered through the mail questionnaire method in which 93 are male and 72 female respondents representing 53 percent responded. Using t-test, the study reveals that there is no significance difference in terms of network size, network activity and network density for both genders. Implications and direction for further research are also presented.
Full-text available
Women act differently from men in the development of their career. Additionally, the succession of career behavior for women is far more complex than for men. This is due to womens' responsibility between education and career advancement in order to integrate work and family life. Furthermore, they also must strive to overcome obstacles such as gender discrimination and sex role stereotyping. Ironically, we claim to live in the world that offers equal rights between both genders, however the old boys' network scenario and glass ceiling phenomenon are still exist, especially in the hospitality industry. This study aims to identify whether old boys' network concept, glass ceiling phenomenon and work-life balance influence the career development of woman supervisors and managers especially in the hotel industry. This study will employ a mixed-method approach (questionnaire and interview). All female employees who hold supervisory or management positions from four-and five-star hotels within the Klang Valley area will be invited to participate. The quantitative data will be analyzed using regression analysis while interviews will be transcribed and analyzed for themes. This study is hoped to provide a deeply understanding about the phenomena and help hoteliers in reacting wisely and appropriately to counteract the issue. Knowing the needs of the women in this group could help to improve their loyalty and commitment toward the hotel. Additionally, the findings of this study will add to the body of knowledge regarding this issue. It could also acts as a direction for future research.
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this article is to explore the reasons behind the extremely small proportion of women at the top of UK business. It argues that companies must change their approach if they are to address this problem successfully. The article also describes the innovative Impact Programme for talented and senior women run by the author since 2008. Design/methodology/approach – The article is based on a combination of data, analysis and experience. It draws on a wide range of research evidence relating to female leaders and differences in how men and women behave. It describes and brings alive the benefits of the Impact Programme through examples of participant behaviour. Findings – The article finds that current efforts to increase the number of senior women in businesses are mostly fragmented, cosmetic and ineffective. Invisible organisational barriers holding women back must be addressed. The differences between men and women should be fully understood so that more high-potential women are identified and promoted. It concludes that women themselves also need to make changes to how they lead and should be offered development programmes which help them increase their self-belief, assertiveness and impact without losing their emotional intelligence or authenticity. Originality/value – This article brings a powerful new set of arguments to bear on an important issue. The Impact Programme described is a highly original and effective intervention. Business leaders and executives, both male and female, and members of the HR and L&D community will find it of significant conceptual and practical value.
Women’s advancement in the corporate workplace has taken significant strides over the last century. Research demonstrates, however, that despite an increased presence of female employees in mid-management positions, executive positions continue to be male dominated. Women are underrepresented in areas of governance, directorship, and executive leadership. This seems to contradict the apparent momentum of the promotion of women. This paper will unveil some of the hidden barriers that stubbornly exist for women in business. It will review research that demonstrates why gender inequality is difficult to recognize, the systems that perpetuate it, the complexities of how society views it, and the ways women respond to it. By understanding the interplay between external and internal obstacles, women who wish to assume positions of leadership can more easily navigate the labyrinth of gender inequality, and their male colleagues can better recognize the ways that they can either remove barriers or encourage equality. There are corporate, social and economic benefits to allowing women to fairly advance to positions of power. Recognizing and removing barriers is vital to the strength of companies, social networks and jurisdictions.
Despite voluminous research indicating that women and minorities have limited access to or are excluded from organizational networks, two central questions remain unanswered: (a) In what specific ways, if any, do the interaction networks of men and women and whites and racial minorities differ? and (b) What mechanisms produce those differences? The central thesis of the article is that the organizational context in which interaction networks are embedded produces unique constraints on women and racial minorities, causing their networks to differ from those of their white male counterparts in composition and characteristics of their relationships with network members. Organizational context is hypothesized to affect personal networks directly, as well as through its impact on individuals' strategies for managing constraints. A theoretical perspective that views women and minorities as active agents who make strategic choices among structurally limited alternatives is offered.
This is a review of argument and evidence on the connection between social networks and social capital. My summary points are three: (1) Research and theory will better cumulate across studies if we focus an the network mechanisms responsible for social capital effects rather than trying to integrate across metaphors of social capital loosely tied to distant empirical indicators. (2) There is an impressive diversity of empirical evidence showing that social capital is more a function of brokerage across structural holes than closure within a network, bur there are contingency factors. (3) The two leading network mechanisms can be brought together in a productive way within a more general model of social capital. Structural holes are the source of value added, but network closure can be essential to realizing the value buried in the holes.