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Typology of Wheat and Vegetable Farmers’ Perception Towards Climate Change Through of Q-Methodology

Authors:
  • Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan

Abstract and Figures

Climate change and global warming are serious challenges in the 21st century with significant negative impacts on the agriculture. Farmers are important players if agriculture is to be adjusted to the changing climate conditions. Their perceptions about climate change directly affect their behavior toward this problem. Therefore, it is important to recognize and classify their perceptions to improve the rural development programs. We used the Q methodology to classify the farmers' perceptions toward climate change in Hamidiyeh County in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Q research initiates by recognizing a concourse, often shaped by dialogs with elite people. Then, a Q statement is nominated, which represents an individual's belief. In this study, by reviewing the literature and interviewing with 6 agricultural experts and farmers, 160 statements were identified. Then, by sorting them, we arrived at 42 final statements or Q-sample. This Q-sample was sorted by 46 farmers, selected through purposive sampling. To analyze the data, we used PQMethod 2014. The factor analysis of Q sorts revealed two discourses; support seekers and adaptable among the 27 vegetable growers; and two other discourses among 19 wheat farmers; fatalism passive-adherents and disappointment. Various individuals think differently about the causes, impacts, self-efficacy, responsibility, adaptation, and intention to mitigation of greenhouse gasses and climate change. Therefore, based on the perceptions, knowledge, and behavior of the individuals, policy makers can provide various recommendations to deal with climate change.
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Summer 2016. Vol 7. Num 2
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* Corresponding Author:
Masoud Yazdanpanah, PhD
Address: Department of Agriculture Extension and Educaon, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, Iran.
Tel: +98 (61) 36524348
E-mail: masoudyazdan@gmail.com
Research Paper
Typology of Wheat and Vegetable Farmers’ Percepon Towards Climate Change Through
of Q-Methodology
1. MSc. Student, Department of Agriculture Extension and Educaon, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, Iran.
2. Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture Extension and Educaon, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, Iran.
Tahereh Zobeidi1, *Masoud Yazdanpanah2, Masoumeh Forouzani2, Bahman Khosravipour2
Climate change and global warming are serious challenges in the 21st century with signicant negave
impacts on the agriculture. Farmers are important players if agriculture is to be adjusted to the changing
climate condions. Their percepons about climate change directly aect their behavior toward this
problem. Therefore, it is important to recognize and classify their percepons to improve the rural de-
velopment programs. We used the Q methodology to classify the farmers' percepons toward climate
change in Hamidiyeh County in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Q research iniates by recognizing a concourse,
oen shaped by dialogs with elite people. Then, a Q statement is nominated, which represents an indi-
vidual's belief. In this study, by reviewing the literature and interviewing with 6 agricultural experts and
farmers, 160 statements were idened. Then, by sorng them, we arrived at 42 nal statements or
Q-sample. This Q-sample was sorted by 46 farmers, selected through purposive sampling. To analyze the
data, we used PQMethod 2014. The factor analysis of Q sorts revealed two discourses; support seekers
and adaptable among the 27 vegetable growers; and two other discourses among 19 wheat farmers;
fatalism passive-adherents and disappointment. Various individuals think dierently about the causes,
impacts, self-ecacy, responsibility, adaptaon, and intenon to migaon of greenhouse gasses and
climate change. Therefore, based on the percepons, knowledge, and behavior of the individuals, policy
makers can provide various recommendaons to deal with climate change.
A B S T R A C T
Key words:
Typology, Climate
Change, Farmers’ Per-
cepons, Adaptaon,
Greenhouse Gases,
Q-Methodology
Received: 14 Feb. 2016
Accepted: 21 May 2016
Citation
Zobeidi, T., Yazdanpanah, M., Forouzan, M., & Khosravipour, B. (2016). Typology of Wheat and Vegetable Farmers Perception To-
wards Climate Change Through of Q-Methodology. Journal of Rural Research, 7(2), 374-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.21859/jjr-07028
:
: http://dx.doi.org/10.21859/jjr-07028
Extended Abstract
1. Introduction
limate change and global warming are se-
rious global challenges in the 21th century
that have signicant negative impacts on
human systems, especially the agricul-
tural sector. Climate change results in an increase in ex-
treme weather events such as oods and droughts and
increased global temperature, as well. Potential increase
in droughts disturbs not only the water resources but also
agriculture and consequently, food security. Therefore,
it is important to decrease the effects of this phenom-
enon as the agricultural sector has an importance role
in food security, employment, and poverty reduction.
C
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On the other hand, farmers are serious decision makers
if agricultural lands are to be efciently accomplished to
adjust to the changing climate conditions. Since the farm-
ers’ perception of climate change have a direct relationship
with their attitude and behavior toward the adaptation and
coping with this problem, it is important to identify their
perceptions for planning and policy making. Moreover,
heterogeneity can be seen in the attitude of farmers toward
climate change. Therefore, it is important to classify the
farmers’ perceptions to improve the usefulness of rural
development programs associated with agriculture and
forestry. This will also enable the impacts of scal assist
and nancial development programs on landowners to be
traced more successfully in changing conditions.
2. Methodology
This study uses the Q methodology to classify the per-
ceptions of farmers in Hamidiyeh County in Khuzestan
province of southwestern Iran toward climate change.
One of the noticeable methods in which Q method can
be charity is to disclose different social viewpoints that
occur on a subject. A Q research initiates by recogniz-
ing a concourse. A concourse usually contains of script,
often shaped from dialogs with elite people. From the
concourse a illustration of Q statements is deliberately
nominated. Each Q statement is an appearance of an
individual belief. Q participants are people with clearly
different beliefs who are asked to express beliefs about
the Q statements by categorization them, i.e. “doing a Q
sort.” Naturally a few dozen Q sorts are placid.
These are analyzed using statistical techniques of cor-
relation and factor analysis to disclose outlines in the
way people subordinate beliefs. The consequences of
the examination are construed and articulated in the
custom of dissimilar public standpoints. A Q study also
exposes in what way the persons who did the Q sort ap-
prove or distress with the standpoints. In this context,
using literature review and interviewing with six agri-
cultural experts and farmers, 160 statements was identi-
ed. Then by removing in appropriate statements and
prioritize by experts get 42 nal statement or called Q-
sample. 46 farmers as participants were selected through
purposive sampling. This Q-sample was sorted by 46
farmers. Subsequently PQMethod 2014 software was
used to analyzing data.
3. Results
Farmers who loaded on a factor have commonality and
similarity with other farmers in that factor and dissimi-
Yazdanpanah, M., et al. (2016). Typology of Wheat and Vegetable Farmers Perception. Journal of Rural Research, 7(2), 374-391.
larity with farmers who load highly on other factors. The
factor analysis of Q sorts revealed two major discourses;
Support seekers; and adaptable among the 27 vegetable
growers; and two discourses among 19 wheat farmers:
fatalism passive-adherents and Disappointment.
4. Discussion
Perspective of Support seekers: 19 farmers belonged
to this group. This discourse displays public adaptation
and disagrees with the statement of personal adaptation.
They believed that “With capital, recognition, instruc-
tion, and material prepared by the government, it is likely
to manage with climate change”. Adaptable perspective:
8 farmers belonged to this group. These farmers have
high knowledge and concern about climate change and
its risks. They have shown adaptation behaviors in the
face of climate change. They agree with statements of
adaptation such as “Global warming and climate change
caused a change in my cultivated land” or “I am spread-
ing into other crops due to Global warming”.
First perspective, fatalism passive-adherents: 12 farm-
ers belonged to this group. This group did not show any
adaptation behavior or mitigation intention to climate
change. Thus, this group was passive. In addition, this
group agreed that “Lord will shield my farm household
from global change”; therefore, this discourse was fatal-
ism. Disappointment perspective: 7 farmers belonged to
this group. This perspective disagreed that “With capi-
tal, recognition, instruction, and material prepared by
the government, it is possible to manage with climate
change” and “I can’t change my farming style due to
climate change”. In other words, this group did not have
personal efcacy and thought that the attempt towards
reducing of climate change is useful.
5. Conclusion
These different perspectives indicated that various indi-
viduals think differently about the causes, impacts, self-ef-
cacy, responsibility, adaptation, and intention to mitiga-
tion of greenhouse gasses and climate change. Therefore,
based on the perceptions, knowledge, and different behav-
ior of the individuals, policy making can provide various
recommendations to deal with climate change.
Summer 2016. Vol 7. Num 2
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     
Arbuckle, Morton, & Hobbs,    
       2013a)
(Whitmarsh, 2005)

(Houghton, 
2005)
      
(Houghton, 2005)
       


(Fleming & Vanclay, 2010)



(Arbuckle et al., 2013c)
       

(Arbuckle et al., 2013a)

    
      (Diggs, 1991)

 (Gbebouo, 2009)

(Spence, Poornga, & Pidgeon, 2012)

  












 
 
 


 





Jamshidi,) 
Nouri Zamanabadi, Ebreahimi, 2015; Azizi-Khalkheili, Zmani,
 2014; Ghambarali, Papzan, Afsharzadeh, 2012

Haya, Yazdanpanah, & Karbalaee,)
(2010; Yazdanpanah, Thompson, Haya, & Zamani, 2013





  



(Barnes & Toma, 2012)

       
      



(Barnes, Willock, Toma, Hall, 2011)

   

(Barnes & Toma, 2012)

        
  (Barnes & Toma, 2012)  

(Steelman & Maguire,
1999)




       
  
        


(Webler, Danielson, & Tuler, 2009)
    
      
     

      

(Brown, 1993)

  
(Van
(Exel & de Graaf, 2005



Brown, 1993; Van Exel & de Graaf, 2005



(Barry & Proops, 1999)




     
        
(Brown, 1993)





       


(Bartle & DeWeese, 2014)





         








(Van Exel & de Graaf, 2005)



(Was & Stenner, 2005)


      


  




 



    (Bartle & DeWeese, 2014) 
 



1. Q-sample
(Was & Stenner, 2005)
   




        
       
















Previte,)
(Pini, & Haslam-McKenzie, 2007




      

(Zobeidi, Yazdanpanah, Forouzani, & Khosravipour, 2016)













       
(Van Exel & de Graaf, 2005)

       





(Bartle & DeWeese, 2014)


        

     


       



2. P.Q. Method 2014











 







       

(Akhtar-Danesh, Baumann, & Cordingley, 2008)
  







NN
 

     
(Brown, 1993)
 
 
      P   
(Akhtar-Danesh et al., 2008) 


SE(2.58)=0.15(2.58)=0.38
SE(1.96)=0.15(1.96)=0.29
SE=1/ N

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
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

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      
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

    


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



  







(Bartle & DeWeese, 2014)


















   
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









       




















      


       






(Barnes & Toma, 2012)




    
       

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        
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        
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      
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
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
Aitken,)
Chapman, & McClure, 2011)


(Gandure, Walker, & Botha, 2013)
       






 (Bryant et al., 2000)




(Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008)





    (Bord, Fisher, & O'Connor, 1998)




O’Connor, Bord, Yarnal, &)

 (Wiefek, 2002


(Hyland et al., 2016)
     

      
      

(Schwarz, McRae-Williams, & Park, 2009)
        





Nainggolan, Termansen,)
(Reed, Cebollero, & Hubacek, 2013






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The Problem To better understand Human Resource Development (HRD), it is critical to understand human behavior and perspectives on subjective topics. Q methodology provides a view of subjectivity from the point of view that is self-referenced. The Solution This article provides a description of a method to identify similarities and differences in the subjective perceptions across a sample. This is distinctly different from traditional factor analysis that examines correlation between items. A step-by-step description of Q methodology is included that describes defining the concourse, developing the Q-set, selecting the P-set (sample), Q-sorting (collecting data), as well as analyzing and interpreting the data. The Stakeholders Both researchers and practitioners will benefit by understanding how to implement and interpret Q methodology in both research and practice to understand human subjectivity. The article can be used as a guide by researchers and practitioners who want to conduct Q methodology in the field of HRD to better understand subjective viewpoints.
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