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Effect of sugar intake towards human health

Authors:
  • The Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research
  • Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, India,Lucknow

Abstract

Sugars belong to glycan/carbohydrate group of chemicals. Realisation of their sweetness was earlier as compared to its use as an energy source and an important dietary component. Although sugar is vital for defraying many physiological functions of our body properly, " Sweet tooth " or " Craving for sugar " is of common occurrence in children. Of late, we have realised that an excess consumption of sugar is harmful leading to various elements affecting our health, more so in children and women. So one should not only be careful while consuming excess amount of sugar (more than the recommended) in one's diet, but rather advertently avoid it.
DOI: 10.21276/sjm.2016.1.2.2
29
Review Article
Saudi Journal of Medicine ISSN 2518-3389 (Print)
Scholars Middle East Publishers ISSN 2518-3397 (Online)
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Website: http://scholarsmepub.com/
Effect of sugar intake towards human health
Varucha Misra1*, A.K. Shrivastava2, S.P. Shukla3, Mohammad Israil Ansari 4
1,2,3ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow-226 002, U.P, India
1,4Amity University, Lucknow Campus, U.P, India
*Corresponding Author:
Varucha Misra
Email: misra.varucha@gmail.com
Abstract: Sugars belong to glycan/carbohydrate group of chemicals. Realisation of their sweetness was earlier as
compared to its use as an energy source and an important dietary component. Although sugar is vital for defraying many
physiological functions of our body properly, “Sweet tooth” or “Craving for sugar” is of common occurrence in children.
Of late, we have realised that an excess consumption of sugar is harmful leading to various elements affecting our health,
more so in children and women. So one should not only be careful while consuming excess amount of sugar (more than
the recommended) in one’s diet, but rather advertently avoid it.
Keywords: essential, excess consumption, harmful, health, nutrition, sugar.
INTRODUCTION
Sugars are polyhydroxy aldehydes/ketones
belonging to glycans/carbohydrate group. By providing
energy currency, ATP and some other beneficial
physiological activities of the body, the carbohydrates
have earned the sake of macronutrients which are found
in several foods and beverages. The main function of
carbohydrates is to offer energy to the body for its
functioning and physical activities, utilizing glucose as
its source. This instant energy is fulfilled by intake of
sugars. Besides this, a therapy used for overcoming
chronic back pain termed as Prolotherapy indulges
sugar (glucose or dextrose) in injections for relieving
pain [1]. In addition to, many drugs consists of glycans
(type of sugar) as an essential ingredient. Drugs such as
heparin (used for treatment and prevention of blood
clots in veins, arteries or lungs), erythropoietin, some
anti-flu drugs and drugs treating against cancer contain
glycans [2]. Even though there are many uses of sugar
but yet the fight of sugar being a friend or a foe,
irresolvable, continues to be. In certain aspects, sugar is
considered to be a foe, yet its complete absence in our
diet will affect our health to a great extent. Thus, this
review highlights the effect of sugar intake (beneficial
or harmful) on human health.
Role of sugar in body and effect of its intake on
human health
Our body would cease to function properly if
there is no sugar intake. Naturally occurring sugars
causes huge profits in our diet like, sugars found in
fruits, lactose, milk sugar, etc. However, the sugars
called as “added sugars”, viz., sugars added during
processing of food, beverages and other preparations
are harmful to our body [3] while the “essential sugars”
are the carbohydrates required by the body in up-taking
nutrients from its source. Basically, the latter, its
nutrients are recognized as glyconutrients obtained from
fruits and vegetables [4]. Intake of the fruit sugars does
not harm our body, as besides fructose it also contains
fibers as well as some other nutrients. The fructose
provides our body with a quick energy while fibers
counterbalances the fructose effects, leading to long
lasting energy to body. Sugars in dairy foods are also
beneficial for our body as they provide us with other
nutrients too. Certain complex carbohydrates like whole
grains and starchy vegetables also contain some healthy
sugars and other nutrient fibers [5].
Some common types of sugar that we
generally consume in our diet and their effects on our
body health are given below
Glucose-Consumption of glucose stimulate pancreas to
secrete insulin. This increase in insulin signals by brain
which instructs to stop eating as we had enough of it.
There are many processes going in our body after
consuming glucose but one that occurs in the liver
produces very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) that
causes cardiovascular disease in our body. However,
about 1 out of 24 calories of the glucose we consume is
processed in the liver and gets converted into VLDL
[6].
Sucrose and high fructose corn syrups (HFCS)
Both sucrose and HFCS contain a large amount of
fructose (50% in sucrose and 55% in the HFCS). Intake
of these sugars is harmful to our body because fructose
Varucha Misra et al.; Saudi J. Med.; Vol-1, Iss-2(Jul-Sep, 2016):29-36
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is metabolized only by liver that means a large amount
of VLDL is produced along with fats. Also, intake of
these sugars cannot be controlled by brain as brain
resists leptin (a protein for energy intake regulation and
to check the efficacy of metabolism). This does not
mean that intake of these sugars is always harmful. In
case of athletes, intake of HFCS leads to accumulation
of glycogen in their liver which is used later in their
exercises or athlete activities. This vouches that intake
of HFCS is beneficial to persons performing higher
physical activity and requiring instant energy [6].
Fucose- It is exclusively found in large amounts in
human breast milk, sea kelp, Brewer’s yeast and even in
some of the mushrooms. L-fucose (6-deoxy-L-
galactose), a monosaccharide, is found in N- and O-
linked glycans and glycolipids produced by mammalian
cells. These are important in blood transfusion,
selectionmediated leukocyte-endothelium adhesion,
host microbe interaction and ontogenic events. An
alteration in their expression is associated with
pathological conditions like cancer and artherosclerosis
[7]. Intake of this sugar encourages long term memory,
prevents respiratory infections and growth of tumors.
Besides, they also act as powerful modulators for
immune system [8]. Glycoproteins and glycolipids
associated with this sugar are vital for toning immune
system as well as controlling inflammation [9]. This
sugar execute antibodies function as well as that of
major histocompatibility complexs (MHCs), platelets,
interaction of egg-sperm or connective tissue health,
exchange of substance across and building up of tissues.
It also performs some hormonal functions like follicle
stimulating hormone while the latter perform cellular
membrane functioning in exchange of substance as well
as interactions between the cells such as tissues build
up [10]. Lack of this sugar is associated with
rheumatoid arthritis. In patients suffering from ailments
like cystis fibrosis, diabetes, hepatic disorders, low
levels of fucose are observed. Fucose is also important
in extruding herpes virus from body [11].
Administering, this sugar also reduces wrinkles by
thickening the skin and their hydration.
Brown algae and some sea weeds (mozuku,
kambu, bladder wrack, wakam, hijiki) as well as
animals like sea cucumber contains fucoridan
polysaccharides which are used in some dietary
supplements [12].
Galactosamine- These are found in shark cartilage and
crustacean shells and also in some red algae
(Phaeophyceae). Although it is least essential, but helps
intercellular communication. Administering these
sugars help in regulating immune system and
inflammation. It is also necessary for proper health of
joints. Its low levels are associated with cardio vascular
diseases [13].
Glucosamine- This glyconutrient is helpful in
maintaining health of the joints. Being precursor of
cartilage, it helps in managing osteoarthritis problems
and is. In shark cartilage and crustaceans shells found as
galactosamine. Administer when in our body some of it
gets oxidized while the remaining ones are converted
into glycoproteins and glycolipids [13].
Galactose- This sugar which is found in milk is
composed of lactose- a disaccharide in combination
with glucose (nearly 5% solids in dairy products). This
sugar is also present in variety of fruits, vegetables and
also in some herbs [13]. Galactose helps in speedy
healing up of injuries, aids in absorption of calcium and
improve their memory power [14].
Mannose- Mannose is an integral component of our
immune system. Lack of this sugar leads to
inflammation and some diseases. As compared to
glucose it is absorbed in the body at a relatively slower
rate. After absorption it directly enters bloodstream. It is
found in Aloe Vera, sea kelp, beans, capsicum, cabbage,
eggplant, tomatoes, turnips, currants some mushrooms
and Aloe Vera, the latter being main source of it [13].
Neuraminic acid or N-acetylneuramic acid (or
NANA) - A unique sugar found in colestrum, is the first
ever food a mammalian gets after his/her birth from
his/her mother. This sugar is vital constituent of
gangliosides present in grey matter of brain. The
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) needed for
ovulation also contains it. Besides, this sugar also
distinguishes mammals from animals groups of other
animals [15].
Xylose- Xylose, an aldo-pentose, found in embryo of
most edible plants and is known for preventing
digestive tract cancers. It is found in a number of fruits
and vegetables, and to name few are Aloe Vera,
blackberries, broccoli, eggplant, green beans, guava,
pears, peas, raspberries, sea kelp and spinach [13].
Sugar metabolism in the body
Every cell in our body requires energy for its
physiological activities and this is accomplished by
enzyme catalyzed oxidation of the sugar. The flow of
sugars in our body takes place as follows:
Glucose (sugars) small intestine
blood stream Insulin liver and other tissues
Sugar molecules after reaching the cells in
liver and tissues of our body could be metaboilsed by
HSK pathway (glycolysis) and TCA cycle and various
intermediates to synthesize a number of molecules that
help various metabolic activities and storage [16]. After
being processed by the digestive system and subsequent
metabolism, the sugar gets converted into glycoproteins
and glycolipids. In animal cells, cell membrane is
Varucha Misra et al.; Saudi J. Med.; Vol-1, Iss-2(Jul-Sep, 2016):29-36
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composed of glycoproteins and glycolipids, sugars and
fats. Both of these (glycolipids and glycoproteins) form
tiny antennae on cell wall, which serve as a
communication between cells and also absorb and
process nutrients, enzymes, hormones and various other
chemicals required for the activity of our heart, healing
in skin, taking cure of bacterial infections,
arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases
[13].
Glycans are linear or intricate or branched
chains of sugars moieties occurring in our body,
composed of few to dozens of sugar molecules. The
study of structure, biosynthesis and biology of
saccharides is called as glycobiology while the
systematic study of all glycans structures of a cell or
gangilion is known as glycomics. Glycans regulate the
proper folding of proteins ensuring their proper
functioning. Glycans also serve as ZIP codes, to direct
the newly synthesized proteins to proper place of their
use in the body. Some of them also act as anchors to
attach viruses on cell surfaces signaling to immune
system and ensuring proper brain functioning [17].
As soon as we consume sugar, the primary
function is to provide us with energy for our brain and
nervous system that regulate performance of daily
activities [18]. Besides, there are several other
necessary reasons for us to consume of sugar in our
diet. Some of these are-
Metabolizing fats: Thus preventing use of proteins
for energy in our body which are otherwise
required as structural constituents.
Reservoir source of energy: Glucose can be stored
in liver in form of glycogen which act as reservoir
of energy. This energy is used up by the body
during exercise or when glucose is not available as
energy source. Their reservoirs also maintain our
blood sugar level stable.
Energy source for brain and muscles- An adult
brain uses about 140 g of glucose/day, viz viz., half
of the total dietary carbohydrate consumed for its
functioning. Studies have shown that sugar
sweetened beverage or carbohydrate meal are
associated with enhancing mental ability such as,
improved memorizing power, reaction times,
attention span and arithmetic ability. Also, it
encourages cognitive effects and even reduces
fatigue [19, 20]. Driving test using automobile
stimulators have indicated that for a long distance
(about 120 km) test, persons undertaking test after
consuming sugars committed less error than the
ones having water alone [21].
In addition to, intake of sugar activates two
hormones/neurotransmitters of the brain and
serotonin (feel good hormone) and beta -endorphin
which serve as pain reliever and overcoming
anxiety.
Maintain body temperature [22].
Production of myelin- It is a sheath around axon of
a neuron and insulating it for proper functioning of
nervous system. It is composed of 70-85% lipids
(glycolipid, galactocerebroside) and 15-30%
protein. Myelin formation requires glucose as well
as its derivative, glucosamine [22].
Transportation of monocytes- Monocytes are the
largest known leucocytes (WBCs) and an essential
part of the immune system. Intake of sugars helps
in their transportation [22].
Muscle formation- Muscle is a connective tissue of
the animals, filaments of which contain actin and
myosin. These slide past over one another; provide
contraction, maintains posture, movement,
locomotion as well as function of the interior
organs. Glucose and its derivative glucosamine are
essential for formation of muscle [22] as well as
keeping our muscles lean [18].
Skin formation- Skin is the outer protective and
sensory (for touch, heat etc.), covering of our body.
Collagen and elastin, the two main constituents of
the skin, require glucose as well as glucosamine for
its formation. A lack of sugar in our body causes
our skin to age early or speeds up ageing [22].
Fucose, by stimulating elastin formation,
deposition and maintaining density of fibres
improves skin elasticity [23].
Fig-1: Symptoms associated with low or no intake of sugar in diet.
Varucha Misra et al.; Saudi J. Med.; Vol-1, Iss-2(Jul-Sep, 2016):29-36
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Lack of sugars in the diet leads to low blood
sugar level which cause a number of problems like
restlessness, distracted, feeling hungry and weakness.
Some other observed symptoms include chills, lack of
coordination, sweating and clammy skin. Persons on
low sugar diet for longer time also experience blurred
vision, headache, confusion and difficulty in performing
even simple tasks. They may experience nightmares and
crying (while sleeping) [24] (Fig. 1).
Contrary to the common myth that consuming
sugars in our diets causes diabetes the fact is otherwise.
Although diabetes is occasionally related to increase in
blood sugar levels yet it has no association with sugar,
per se. A recent study in Sri Lanka, however, has shown
a correlation between per capita sugar consumption and
prevalence of diabetes mellitus in various countries.
The countries consuming relatively more of sugars were
relatively more prone to this metabolic disorder. The
correlation was found to be rather more in the Asian
countries (r= 0.660, p<0.001) as well as South East-
Africa (r=0.916, p <0.001). In Asian countries, Central
Asian countries (r=0.968, <0.001) exhibited relatively
higher correlation in comparison to the South Asian
countries (0.684, p<0.050) [25]. Homeostatic
mechanism maintains the normal range of blood sugar
levels in the human body. Any disturbance in this as
well as malfunctioning or failure of pancreas could lead
to increase in blood sugar levels. The pancreas of the
person having a pedigree of diabetes is less efficient. If
the pancreas produces less of insulin due to its
malfunction then the person suffers from diabetes (DM
type I) but if cells of body does not respond for insulin
production then the person suffers from diabetes (DM
type II). Besides, in women, in family way not having
otherwise detected for diabetes, if insulin is not
produced in requisite amount then the women suffers
with diabetes of gestational type [26]. Thus, in such
patients this process gets aggravated with intake of
more of sweets and more fats containing eatables.
However, people with normal health conditions may not
suffer with these by consumption of sweets and fat-rich
foods [27].
It is well known that excess of everything is
bad and so is true for the sugars as well. Higher
consumption of sugars leads to several health problems
or accelerate and may give rise to many diseases (Fig.
2). Sugar intake is solely not responsible for its harmful
affect on human health but improper functioning of
glands and organs are equally important.
Following are some of the recognised important
health related foes associated with higher dietary sugar
intake:
Suppression of immune system [28].
Defence against bacterial infection- By
impairing functions of WBCs is impaired [29].
Disturbed mineral and vitamin balance in the
body [30].
Chromium deficiency [31].
Disturbs role of calcium, magnesium in body
[31].
Macular degeneration of eyes [32].
Ageing- Sugar molecules enter into the blood
along with proteins and produce some harmful
molecules, AGEs (Advanced glycogen end
products) which damage elastin and collagen,
making the skin fragile and affect its firmness.
AGEs also neutralise the anti-oxidative
enzymes protecting the skin from harmful sun
rays and ultimately our skin ages [33].
Causes inflammation [28].
Lack of Matching Insulin activity [28].
Sucrose intolerance- It is sucrase enzyme that
metabolises sucrose in the body; and when it is
not produced in small intestine in sufficient
quantities, sucrose intolerance occurs. As per
Wikipedia, the latter could be visualised by
abdominal cramps and bloating, diarrhea and
constipation, hypoglycemia and headache,
poor growth, viral infection in the upper
respiratory tract, anxiety, etc. The people of
Alaska are more prone to sucrose intolerance.
It is also called as congenital sucrose-
isomaltase deficiency or even as sucrose
isomaltase deficiency [34]. Some other
intolerances met with sugars are fructose
intolerance (due to deficiency of fructose
carrier in enterocytes), trehalose intolerance
(due to lack of enzyme trehalase), lactose
intolerance (when a person is not able to
digest milk sugar (lactose), due to lactase
enzyme non-availability) and glucose-
galactose intolerance (a rare disorder, where
only fructose is digestible) [35]. It may be
sometimes called as sugar malabsorption.
Sucrose allergy due to the malfunctioning of
the immune system.
Sugar sensitivity- Due to unstable blood sugar
levels, low levels Serotonin- a feel good
hormone, and beta-endorphin- the reliever for
pain and anxiety [36].
Increase levels of triglycerides elevating
cholesterol levels leading to cardiovascular
diseases [37].
Damage to the structure of DNA: There is a
positive relationship between sugar
consumption and oxidative damage to the
DNA [38]. A study conducted on 5309 healthy
adults ranging between 20-65 years, whose
diets consisted of sugar sweetened beverages,
revealed that length of the telomeres (the
protective DNA caps at the end of a
chromosome) reduced [38].
Increase in uric acid (hyperuricaemia) in body
causing increased blood pressure, probability
of heart attacks and CVDs [39].
Varucha Misra et al.; Saudi J. Med.; Vol-1, Iss-2(Jul-Sep, 2016):29-36
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Association of excess sugar consumption with
other diseases like cancer [40-46], obesity [47-49],
Tooth decay or dental caries [51-54], Arthritis
(rheumatoid arthritis, gout and osteoarthritis) [55],
cardiovascular diseases [56], encourages yeast infection
(Candida albicans) [57], association with memory loss
and brain functioning [58-59], atherosclerosis [60],
cataract and myopia (short-sightedness) [62], etc.
Fig-2: An overall affect of intake of normal and other sugars and glycans in human body
Consumption of excess sugars causes some
diseases in men or women; and in children, as a group, excess intake of sugars also causes some diseases (Fig.
3).
Fig-3: Overall negative effects of excess sugar intake in women, children and men: Women are more affected by
excess consumption followed by children and men.
For men, American Heart Association (AHA)
has recommended average consumption of sugar to be
150 calories per day which is equivalent to 37.5 g or 9
tsf [63]. Increase in this amount may lead to exclusive
problems in men like increases estradiol level, decrease
in testosterone level and affects their sex life [64].
For women, AHA recommends an average
consumption of sugar to be 100 calories per day which
is equivalent to 25 g or 6 tsf [63], however, higher
consumption of sugars will be affecting their health
(Fig. 3) with frequent occurrence of ailments like breast
cancer, higher breast density in women who have not
attained menopausal state [65]. High intake of sugars,
both in pre-menopausal as well as post-menopausal
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women lead to higher breast density [66]. Excess of
sugar intake in women, in family way, causes toxaemia
and even influences production and strength of muscle
of their offsprings. Lactating women also exhibit a
similar response to excess sugar intake. It may also
increase neural tube defects in embryos; and more so in
adolescent mothers. It also affects pre-menstrual
syndrome (PMS), a hormonal imbalance associated
with women craving for sugar [67]. The latter worsens
the situation in women with Polycystic Ovary
Syndrome (PCOS) due to a rise in insulin level. The
latter may stimulate the androgen receptors and blocks
egg release form the follicle, and symptoms of hair
growth on face, arms, legs, head and acne are observed
[68]. Excess consumption of sugar in pre-diabetic and
diabetic women even causes brain decay [69] and
pancreatic cancer [70]. Unlike men, excess
consumption of sugar affects sex life in women and
produces excess testosterone which results in decline of
sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) gene. Low
activity of latter would result in infertility, polycystic
ovaries, uterine cancer and more frequency of CVDs
[71].
A child having no craving for sugar is rare as
high intake of sugars (and their products), is common in
this age group. It increases the negative effects like
Juvenile delinquency [69], hypersensitivity, anxiety,
incapability of concentration, increases in adrenalin
level, decreased learning capacity and less of drinking
of milk [54] (Fig. 3). The recommended intakes of
sugars for children in different age groups are given in
the table 1.
Table 1: Recommended sugar consumption in various categories of children
Category
Calories requirement /day
Sugar intake/day
Pre-schoolers
1,200 - 1,400
16 g (4 tsp)
4-8 years of age
1,600
12 g (3 tsp)
Pre-teens and teens
1,800-2,000
20-32 g (5-8 tsp)
(Source: Modified from http://www.bjcschooloutreach.org/Nutrition/Featured-Content/Adding-it-Up-How-Much-Sugar-
Should-Youth-Consume, 07.08.2015)
The negative aspect of excess consumption of
sugars does not end here. The innumerable undesirable
effects of excess consumption of sugar as well as how
we may overcome these, have been amply highlighted
in many of the recently published books like Lick the
Sugar Habit (1988) by Nancy Appleton and Suicide by
Sugar: A Startling Look at Our #1 National Addiction
(2009) by Nancy Appleton and G.N.Jacobs; Sweet
Poison- Why Sugar Makes us Fat (2009), The Sweet
Poison- Quit Plan (2013) both by David Gillespie, Get
the Sugar Out: 501 Simple Ways to Cut the Sugar Out
of Any Diet (2008) by Ann Louise Gittleman, I Quit
Sugar for Life by Sarah Wilson (2014), and for
children, Beat Sugar Addiction Now! For Kids by Jacob
Teitelbaum and Deborah Kenndy (2012), and there are
some more in the list. A blog on “The 141 reasons sugar
ruins your body” by Nancy Appleton has also appeared
[72].
CONCLUSION
Sugar is one of the important ingredients in
food products in today’s life. Although consumption of
sugar activates the “feel good hormone” of the brain but
on other side it can even make you addicted towards it.
No matter how sweet does the sugar tastes, it has some
negative effects on human beings, especially its excess
consumption which overweighs its positive effects on
our health. Even in non-diabetic persons, excess intake
of sugars is certainly harmful, more so for the women.
So, one should not only be careful while consuming
excess amount of sugar (more than the recommended)
in one’s diet, but rather advertently avoid it. It is
important for the further studies on sugar consumption
in humans.
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... Failure in the compensatory mechanism that reduces the sugar level to normal may result in obesity and can also increase the risk for diabetes and other heart diseases [42] . Therefore, in as much as these soft drinks are consumed due to their appreciative energy composition, its consumption should be well checked to reduce one's susceptibility to any of the associated undesirable side effects. ...
... However, the results obtained are lower than the total sugars of chocolate cake, blueberries and cranberries (23.5%, 45.4% and 39.0% respectively) [25] . The relatively low total sugar content of the locally made soft drinks gives them a general predilection over chocolate cakes, blueberries and cranberries due to the reduced risk for diabetes and other heart related diseases [42] ...
Article
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Soft drinks have been reported to contain some toxic heavy metals beyond the acceptable limits in some countries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the quality characteristics of selected locally produced and marketed soft drinks. Three (3) different batches of 23 soft drinks were sampled from the Takoradi markets in Western Region of Ghana. Qualitative tests for the presence of reducing sugars, phosphates, alcohol and carbon dioxide in the samples were carried out. The heavy metal contents and physicochemical properties were also determined with Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods. The results indicated the presence of reducing sugars, carbon dioxide and the absence of alcohol in all the selected soft drink samples. The pH, total sugars, moisture, total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity ranged from 2.42 – 3.44, 3.30 – 10.44%, 85.63 – 94.85%, 5.00 – 13.33°Brix, and 0.21 – 1.99% respectively. The concentration of heavy metals were also below detection limits in all samples. The quality of the selected soft drinks were within specifications prescribed by regulatory bodies.
... Sugars are molecules belonging to carbohydrate group and are polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones which play an effective role in providing energy to body along with other important functions such as muscle formation, skin formation, maintenance of body temperature, monocyte transportation, myelin production, etc. In general, there are nine sugars which are essential for body, viz., glucose, fucose, sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, galactosamine, glucosamine, galactose, mannose and N-acetyl neuraminic acid, xylose, etc. (Misra et al. 2016a). Sugar though tastes sweet but often misunderstood as unhealthy for humans, especially in excess intake perspective. ...
Book
Sugarcane enjoys a prominent position among agro-industrial crops and is commercially grown in 115 tropical and subtropical countries around the world. However, fluctuations in sugar prices have forced the sugarcane industry worldwide to broaden its revenue base by moving from single-commodity manufacturing to a range of value-added products. Utilizing the by-products in an innovative manner to create value-added products is the new course of action for sugar-producing countries. For many years sugarcane was regarded as a single-product crop, i.e., only useful for producing sugar. Its actual potential is now increasingly being recognised by the industry and there is a growing trend toward the manufacturing of allied products from sugarcane. Therefore, the focus is now on the establishment of sugar-agro-industry complexes, processing not just sugar but a range of other products. This book provides a comprehensive overview of sugarcane not only as a source of sweetening agents but also for many other uses, including as a source of bio-energy. It also explores the trend of sugar consumption and suggests practices to curb the consumption of sugar products in order to tackle obesity and reduce public health costs. The book underscores the need to diversify sugarcane and highlights means of doing so, while also addressing various innovations and technologies being developed in connection with sugar, sugar derivatives, and sugar industry by-products for sustainable utilization in the sugar-agro industry. Accordingly, it offers a valuable resource for professionals and R&D units in the sugar industry, and for students of agronomy and related fields.
... Sugar is also a source of energy in ST and BT diets as reflected in the average daily intake of 49.5 g, double the World Health Organization recommended daily intake limit for sugar of 25 g. 39 High sugar intake leads to increased prevalence of dental caries, micronutrient deficiencies, diabetes, obesity, and heart disease, 40 and there is no reason to expect that health effects of this type would not also be being experienced by Kiribati households. Dental caries are prevalent in the Pacific Islands 41 ; dietary sugar consumption is linked to the presence of specific bacteria and sugar fermentation on the teeth. ...
Preprint
Objective To assess obesity, the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) among adults, and determine the appropriate BMI cut-points in Kiribati. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 483 adults randomly selected from South Tarawa (urban) and Butaritari (rural). Weight, height, BF% and physical activity level (PAL) was measured using standard methods. Linear and quadratic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between BF% and BMI whilst controlling for age and gender. ROC curve analyses were used to assess whether for the Kiribati population alternative BMI cut-off points for obesity are needed. Results Approximately 75% of participants were obese using standard BMI and BIA cut-offs, with the highest prevalence observed in South Tarawa. BF% was significantly (p<0.001) and positively associated with age (males, r=0.78; females, r=0.67; p<0.000) and BMI. Based on ROC-curve analyses the BMI cut-offs for predicting high BF% among I-Kiribati people were 24.5kg/m 2 for males and 32.9 kg/m 2 for females Conclusion In conclusion, the majority of adults in Kiribati were either obese or overweight and had high BF%. We suggest that ethnic-specific BMI cut-points to define obesity for the population of Kiribati may be more appropriate than the currently used international cut-points.
... Sugar is also a source of energy in ST and BT diets as reflected in the average daily intake of 49.5 g, double the World Health Organization recommended daily intake limit for sugar of 25 g. 39 High sugar intake leads to increased prevalence of dental caries, micronutrient deficiencies, diabetes, obesity, and heart disease, 40 and there is no reason to expect that health effects of this type would not also be being experienced by Kiribati households. Dental caries are prevalent in the Pacific Islands 41 ; dietary sugar consumption is linked to the presence of specific bacteria and sugar fermentation on the teeth. ...
Article
Background and Objectives This study assessed the nutritional status among householders in urban South Tarawa and rural Butaritari in Kiribati. Methods and Study Design In this cross-sectional study, we assessed energy and nutrient intakes, food variety scores, and dietary diversity scores of men and women from 468 households randomly selected in South Tarawa (n = 161) and Butaritari (n = 307) using a 24-hour dietary recall. Nutrient adequacy ratios and mean adequacy ratios of selected nutrients were also determined from 3-day weighed food records collected among participants living in a further 28 households from South Tarawa (n = 29) and Butaritari (n = 44). Results Based on the 24-hour dietary recall, the average energy intake for men and women was 2536 kcals and 2068 kcals, respectively. Carbohydrate (CHO), fat, and protein intakes for men and women were 332.5 g, 76.5 g, and 130.4 g and 291.7 g, 55.1 g, and 103.5 g, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of household Food Variety Score and Dietary Diversity Score was 3.90 ± 1.25 and 5.44 ± 1.92, respectively. Intakes of vitamin A, calcium, and iron, and zinc were notably deficient in both locations, with the urban participants having lower intakes of vitamin B-1, vitamin B-2, magnesium, and potassium than their rural counterparts. Mean sodium intakes exceeded recommendations for all age groups in South Tarawa except children aged 4 to 6 years. Conclusions Food consumption patterns of the households in South Tarawa and Butaritari reflected high consumption of nontraditional diets and refined foods, which manifested in inadequate micronutrient intake estimates and low dietary diversity: strong risk factors for noncommunicable diseases such as obesity and diabetes.
Preprint
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Introduction "What is there that is not poison? All things are poison and nothing is without poison. Solely the dose determines that a thing is not a poison," Physician Paracelsus-The father of modern toxicology. 'Too much of a good thing can be bad". Toxicology is a branch of science which deals with the establishment of limit to a dose of a chemical compound to be a remedy or poison. It's the most ancient subject as our forefathers were able to identify the poisonous or non poisonous plants. Ebers Papyrus Roll is the best example with 877 recipes and 400 drugs for the treatment of different diseases (Wilson. Toxicology studies the compositions, mechanism, effect and detection of poisons in the plate or outside the plate. It is a common term we encounter in our day to day life. For a common man toxicology is what he is eating with the vegetables, fruits, meats and fishes. For the non science stakeholder it is the quality of plastic in bottles, toys, packaging materials, the air we breathe in, the crops we grow, the fuels we use, the cosmetics we apply and the medication we take. The Warning written on the medicinal leaflet" keep out of reach of children" isindeed toxicology.It is to decide which species of Mushrooms or berries to eat. Toxicology is a trickle down event which starts with the onset of exposure to the toxicant, to its levelling in the body, excretion and metabolism finally ending into a toxic expression or ultimately death.
Chapter
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Sugars, polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones, play an important role in humans as its primary function is to provide instant energy. Besides being energy booster, it performs several other functions like muscle formation, skin formation, maintenance of body temperature, monocytes transportation, myelin production, etc., in humans. However, one more expanding horizon of sugar that is not much known is its beneficial role in skin care and cosmetic industries where it acts as an important ingredient in skin care and cosmetic products. In the present time, healthy and glowing skin is becoming an important part in one’s life and women are more inclined towards use of such skin care products to look young and smart. Nowadays skin care and use of cosmetics have become important for human beings as people always thought of keeping their skin glowing and healthy not only thinking of being healthy but also to maintain themselves in society, especially with women. In this chapter, sugars as skin care product in ancient era, in cosmetic industries as ingredient, usage of sugar derivatives in skin care and cosmetic industries as well as their beneficial roles in various aspects of skin care have been described.
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Effective detection of solutes in water has always been a challenging issue in real‐time. This article presents a technique to detect solutes such as table sugar (CHOO3), common salt (NaCl), and combinations thereof in water using a wideband microstrip antenna with an electromagnetic band gap ground structure. An antenna is designed and fabricated to operate at the bandwidth of 3 GHz with a stable gain of 9 dBi maintaining voltage standing wave ratio ≤ 2. The uniquely designed antenna works as a sensor in its near field to sense solutes in water as a function of the resonant frequency. Apart from sensing solutes, the proposed technique also efficiently detects temperature of soft drinks. As temperature of soft drinks changes, reflection characteristics of an antenna change too. The results of the experiments show that as the concentration of the solute increases, the return loss decreases. The beauty of this technique is its efficient detection without any physical contact with a solution and without disturbing the chemical processes inside the solution. This method can be quite useful for food regulation boards to analyze and detect the contents of beverages, soft drinks and any consumable liquid, whether hot or cold.
Article
Introducción: México es de los principales países que enfrenta una problemática nutricional provocada por un déficit o exceso de nutrientes, que ocasiona desnutrición o sobrepeso en su población. Objetivo: Identificar los hábitos alimenticios entre tres distintos estratos sociales y compararlos con el perfil nutricional en un comedor social que brinda desayuno y comida en la Ciudad de Tepic, Nayarit. Materiales y métodos: Se realizaron encuestas en los diferentes estratos sociales que correspondieron a un recordatorio de un día de desayuno y comida con sus respectivos refrigerios y bebidas. Resultados: Se encontró consumos de proteína que excedían la ingesta recomendada diaria, bajo consumo de fibra dietética (asociado con la baja ingesta de frutas y verduras) y alta incidencia en consumo de bebidas carbonatadas. Además, la mayor ingesta calórica total fue en el estrato socioeconómico alto (atribuido a su mayor poder adquisitivo), seguido del comedor social; sin embargo, en ningún estrato, ni el comedor social se encontró una dieta balanceada. Conclusiones: El poder adquisitivo de los distintos estratos socioeconómicos no fue el principal factor que limita una adecuada alimentación, si no la falta de información y malos hábitos alimenticios de la población, debido a la pérdida de cultura alimentaria.
Article
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Background The increasing consumption of sugar worldwide seems to lead to several health problems, including some types of cancer. While some studies reported a positive association between sweet foods intake and breast cancer risk, little is known about their relation to mammographic density (MD), a strong breast cancer risk factor. This study examined the association of sweet foods and drinks intake with MD among 776 premenopausal and 779 postmenopausal women recruited at mammography. Methods A food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess intake of sweet foods, sugar-sweetened beverages and spoonsful of sugar added. Percent and absolute breast density were estimated using a computer-assisted method. Multivariate generalized linear models were used to evaluate associations. All models were adjusted for potential confounders, including age and body mass index. Results For increasing quartiles of sugar-sweetened beverages intake, adjusted-mean absolute density was respectively 32, 34, 32 and 36 cm2 among all women (Ptrend = 0.040) and 43, 46, 44 and 51 cm2 among premenopausal women (Ptrend = 0.007). For increasing quartiles of sweet foods intake, adjusted-mean percent density was respectively 16, 16, 17 and 19% among postmenopausal women (Ptrend = 0.036). No association was shown between intake of spoonsful of sugar added and MD. Conclusion Our results suggest that an increase in sweet foods or sugar-sweetened beverage intake is associated with higher MD.
Article
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To investigate the relation of dietary intakes of sucrose, meat, and fat, and anthropometric, lifestyle, hormonal, and reproductive factors to colon cancer incidence, data were analyzed from a prospective cohort study of 35,215 Iowa (United States) women, aged 55–69 years and without a history of cancer, who completed mailed dietary and other questionnaires in 1986. Through 1990, 212 incident cases of colon cancer were documented. Proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for age and other risk factors. Risk factors found to be associated significantly with colon cancer included: (i) sucrose-containing foods and beverages other than ice cream/milk; relative risks (RR) across the quintiles=1.00, 1.73, 1.56, 1.54, and 2.00 (95% confidence intervals [CI] for quintiles two and five exclude 1.0); (ii) sucrose; RR across the quintiles=1.00, 1.70, 1.81, 1.82, and 1.45 (CI for quintiles two through four exclude 1.0); (iii) height; RR=1.23 for highest to lowest quintile (P for trend-0.02); (iv) body mass index; RR=1.41 for highest to lowest quintile (P for trend=0.03); and (v) number of livebirths, RR=1.59 for having had one to two livebirths and 1.80 for having had three or more livebirths compared with having had none (P for trend=0.04). These data support hypotheses that sucrose intake or being tall or obese increases colon cancer risk; run contrary to the hypothesis that increased parity decreases risk; support previous findings of no association with demographic factors other than age, cigarette smoking, or use of oral contraceptives or estrogen replacement therapy; and raise questions regarding previous associations with meat, fat, protein, and physical activity.Cancer Causes and Control 1994, 5, 38–52.
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Insulin resistance is common in individuals with obesity or type 2 diabetes (T2D), in which circulating insulin levels are frequently increased. Recent epidemiological and clinical evidence points to a link between insulin resistance and cancer. The mechanisms for this association are unknown, but hyperinsulinaemia (a hallmark of insulin resistance) and the increase in bioavailable insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) appear to have a role in tumor initiation and progression in insulin-resistant patients. Insulin and IGF-I inhibit the hepatic synthesis of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), whereas both hormones stimulate the ovarian synthesis of sex steroids, whose effects, in breast epithelium and endometrium, can promote cellular proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, an increased risk of cancer among insulin-resistant patients can be due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage DNA contributing to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. On the other hand, it is possible that the abundance of inflammatory cells in adipose tissue of obese and diabetic patients may promote systemic inflammation which can result in a protumorigenic environment. Here, we summarize recent progress on insulin resistance and cancer, focusing on various implicated mechanisms that have been described recently, and discuss how these mechanisms may contribute to cancer initiation and progression.
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This study examines the physiological impact of a glucose load on serum testosterone (T) levels in men with varying glucose tolerance (GT). Cross-sectional study. 74 men (19–74 years, mean 51·4 ± 1·4 years) underwent a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test with blood sampling at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, total T (and calculated free T), LH, SHBG, leptin and cortisol were measured. 57% of the men had normal GT, 30% had impaired GT and 13% had newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Glucose ingestion was associated with a 25% decrease in mean T levels (delta = −4·2 ± 0·3 nm, P < 0·0001). T levels remained suppressed at 120 min compared with baseline (13·7 ± 0·6 vs 16·5 ± 0·7 nm, P < 0·0001) and did not differ across GT or BMI. Of the 66 men with normal T levels at baseline, 10 (15%) had levels that decreased to the hypogonadal range (<9·7 nm) at one or more time points. SHBG, LH and cortisol levels were unchanged. Leptin levels decreased from baseline at all time points (P < 0·0001). Glucose ingestion induces a significant reduction in total and free T levels in men, which is similar across the spectrum of glucose tolerance. This decrease in T appears to be because of a direct testicular defect, but the absence of compensatory changes in LH suggests an additional central component. Men found to have low nonfasting T levels should be re-evaluated in the fasting state.
Article
Herein, we review evidence that systemic insulin-resistance diseases linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis promote neurodegeneration. Insulin-resistance dysregulates lipid metabolism, which promotes ceramide accumulation with attendant inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Mechanistically, we propose that toxic ceramides generated in extra-CNS tissues, e.g. liver, get released into peripheral blood, and subsequently transit across the blood-brain barrier into the brain where they induce brain insulin-resistance, inflammation, and cell death (extrinsic pathway). These abnormalities establish or help propagate a cascade of neurodegeneration associated with increased ER stress and ceramide generation, which exacerbate brain insulin-resistance, cell death, myelin degeneration, and neuro-inflammation. The data suggest that a mal-signaling network mediated by toxic ceramides, ER stress, and insulin-resistance should be targeted to disrupt positive feedback loops that drive the AD neurodegeneration cascade.
Article
High intakes of dietary sugars in the setting of a worldwide pandemic of obesity and cardiovascular disease have heightened concerns about the adverse effects of excessive consumption of sugars. In 2001 to 2004, the usual intake of added sugars for Americans was 22.2 teaspoons per day (355 calories per day). Between 1970 and 2005, average annual availability of sugars/added sugars increased by 19%, which added 76 calories to Americans' average daily energy intake. Soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary source of added sugars in Americans' diets. Excessive consumption of sugars has been linked with several metabolic abnormalities and adverse health conditions, as well as shortfalls of essential nutrients. Although trial data are limited, evidence from observational studies indicates that a higher intake of soft drinks is associated with greater energy intake, higher body weight, and lower intake of essential nutrients. National survey data also indicate that excessive consumption of added sugars is contributing to overconsumption of discretionary calories by Americans. On the basis of the 2005 US Dietary Guidelines, intake of added sugars greatly exceeds discretionary calorie allowances, regardless of energy needs. In view of these considerations, the American Heart Association recommends reductions in the intake of added sugars. A prudent upper limit of intake is half of the discretionary calorie allowance, which for most American women is no more than 100 calories per day and for most American men is no more than 150 calories per day from added sugars.
Article
Carbohydrates are man's largest organic source of renewal energy both on land and in the sea. Whether consumed by man or animal, evolution has ensured that the enzymes in living cells use carbohydrates with conservation of that energy. Industries that make monomer carbohydrates dissipate the energy stored in its polymers. Prospects for future chemical and biochemical utilisation depend on remedying this tragedy and learning the lesson taught by nature.
Article
Intravenous injection of rats with insulin and 14C-labelled substrate containing either glucose or acetate led to much greater incorporation of these substances into the aortic lipids than when the substrate alone was injected. Since insulin is known to inhibit tissue-lipase in arterial tissue, excess of circulating insulin could cause accumulation of fat in the arterial wall by both increasing its deposition and inhibiting its removal. It is suggested that insulin thus plays a major role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.