ArticleLiterature Review

Review: The questionnaire on autonomic regulation: a useful concept for integrative medicine?

Authors:
  • Klinik Arlesheim und Forschungsinstitut Havelhöhe
  • Iscador AG
  • Forschungsinstitut Havelhöhe
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Abstract

The concept of autono mic regulation (aR) refl ects the relevance of the function of different autonomic systems for health. aR can be captured by questionnaires. We differentiate between a trait or constitutional aR questionnaire version including 12 (short-version) or 18 items, respectively, with three subscales (orthostatic-circulatory, rest/activity and digestive regulation), and an 18-item state aR questionnaire on the preceding week with four subscales (rest/activity, orthostatic-circulatory, thermo-and digestive regulation). The validated questionnaires show satisfying to good reliability and robust validity with clear construct validity. In this article, we summarized the actually available literature on aR and the use of aR questionnaires in clinical and observational studies. We described the relationship of high aR with health and in case of low aR or loss of regulation with disease and functional disorder in the three (four) different subscales and functional systems, such as rest/activity, orthostatic-circulatory or digestive regulation (thermoregulation) with the consecutive therapeutic need. Finally, we gave perspectives of its further application in clinical research.

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... CAM systems (e.g., anthroposophic medicine, ayurveda, homeopathy, traditional Chinese medicine, naturopathy) are whole medical systems, complete systems of theory and practice that have evolved independently over time in different cultures and apart from conventional medicine or western medicine [15,17,18]. In daily clinical practice, based on the nonatomistic holistic worldview and related health and disease concepts, CAM stimulates a health promotion oriented lifestyle (prevention) and treats patients with the aim of strengthening or supporting the self-healing or selfregulating ability of the human organism [19] to cope with diseases [20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. ...
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In 1999, ISPOR formed the Quality of Life Special Interest group (QoL-SIG)--Translation and Cultural Adaptation group (TCA group) to stimulate discussion on and create guidelines and standards for the translation and cultural adaptation of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. After identifying a general lack of consistency in current methods and published guidelines, the TCA group saw a need to develop a holistic perspective that synthesized the full spectrum of published methods. This process resulted in the development of Translation and Cultural Adaptation of Patient Reported Outcomes Measures--Principles of Good Practice (PGP), a report on current methods, and an appraisal of their strengths and weaknesses. The TCA Group undertook a review of evidence from current practice, a review of the literature and existing guidelines, and consideration of the issues facing the pharmaceutical industry, regulators, and the broader outcomes research community. Each approach to translation and cultural adaptation was considered systematically in terms of rationale, components, key actors, and the potential benefits and risks associated with each approach and step. The results of this review were subjected to discussion and challenge within the TCA group, as well as consultation with the outcomes research community at large. Through this review, a consensus emerged on a broad approach, along with a detailed critique of the strengths and weaknesses of the differing methodologies. The results of this review are set out as "Translation and Cultural Adaptation of Patient Reported Outcomes Measures--Principles of Good Practice" and are reported in this document.
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General health-related questionnaires on quality of life do not satisfactorily distinguish between healthy and sick people. One of the reasons cited for this lack is too much mental influence. This is why we developed a questionnaire on endogenous regulation (eR) that reflects the regulatory state of various vegetative functions. The current study examines whether the short version eR questionnaire is able to distinguish between healthy people and internal medicine patients. 408 participants were included in the study (284 females, 124 males). Among these were patients with colorectal cancer (n = 49), breast cancer (n = 95), diabetes mellitus (type 1: n = 20, type 2: n = 40), coronary disease (n = 39), rheumatoid illnesses (n = 28) and multimorbid patients (n = 22) as well as a healthy control group (n = 115). In addition to the eR questionnaire the study also used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the short questionnaire on self-regulation and questions on the vegetative status. The healthy control group showed the highest eR, with an estimated average of M = 29.8. Patients with breast cancer, diabetes mellitus type 2, coronary disease and rheumatoid illnesses reveal a significantly lowered eR. Multimorbid patients show the lowest eR. Patients with cancer of the colon and diabetes type 1 were measured at M = 27.9 and M = 27.3 respectively and showed no significantly lowered estimated average compared to the control group. A high eR significantly correlates (p < 0.002) with the following parameters: low levels of anxiety (r = 49) and depression (r = 0.36), high self-regulation (r = 0.34), morning type (r = 0.40), less congestive perspiration (r = 0.38), less shivering (r = 0.23), dysmenorrhoea (r = 0.38) and allergies (r = 0.17). Healthy people show the highest, multimorbid patients the lowest eR. Consistent relations to health, illness, heat regulation and personality presence have been shown. Further studies to clarify clinical relevance are necessary.
Article
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