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The Importance of Being “Me”: The Relation Between Authentic Identity Expression and Transgender Employees’ Work-Related Attitudes and Experiences

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Abstract

The present research examined the relation between authentic identity expression and transgender employees’ work-related attitudes and experiences. Drawing on Kernis’ (2003) theoretical conceptualization of authenticity and expanding on current workplace identity management research, we predicted that employees who had taken steps to reduce the discrepancy between their inner gender identities and their outward manifestations of gender would report more positive job attitudes and workplace experiences, in part because the reduction of this discrepancy is related to greater feelings of authenticity. In Study 1, we found that the extent to which one has transitioned was related to higher job satisfaction and perceived person-organization (P-O) fit and lower perceived discrimination. In Study 2, we replicate and extend these results by showing that the extent to which employees felt that others at work perceived them in a manner consistent with how they perceived themselves (relational authenticity) mediated the relations between extent of transition and all 3 of these outcomes. However, perceptions of alignment between one’s felt and expressed identity (action authenticity) only mediated this link for job satisfaction. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our results, as well as avenues for future research on authenticity in the workplace.

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... As highlighted above, as perceptions in our studies were mixed so were the outcome expectations at work, which is consistent with other (LGBTQIA) literature [87,88]. The sequence of CO and communication of the intention to TAW, which was dependent on private disclosure experiences and work relationships, was firstly done with persons considered as "safe and trustworthy", followed by a communication through different channels. ...
... Law et al. [34] already mentioned the importance of reactions in the work environment, especially among coworkers, as a mediator between disclosure and work outcomes. Martinez et al. [87], in their study on authentic identity expression, also placed a hierarchy onto this mediator role. The degree and support expressed by supervisors set an example for other personnel's attitudes and may be critical in the trans employee's well-being [87], which was also highlighted by Marvell et al. [57], wherein managers are key to an inclusive work environment. ...
... Martinez et al. [87], in their study on authentic identity expression, also placed a hierarchy onto this mediator role. The degree and support expressed by supervisors set an example for other personnel's attitudes and may be critical in the trans employee's well-being [87], which was also highlighted by Marvell et al. [57], wherein managers are key to an inclusive work environment. On the other hand, oppositional behavior by colleagues to improve the current work climate towards TP can also have a relational value for them and enhance work outcomes and general well-being [102]. ...
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Background and objectives Return to work (RTW) or work resumption after a work absence due to psychosocial or medical reasons benefits the well-being of a person, including transgender people, and is nowadays a major research domain. The objective is to examine, through an occupational lens, the literature reporting objective RTW outcomes and experiences in transgender people to (a) synthesize what is known about return to work (full-time, part-time, or self-employed) and (b) describe which gaps persist. Methods & sample Several databases and the gray literature were explored systematically. Studies between November 1, 2006 and March 1, 2021 revealing RTW quantitative and qualitative data of adult transgender people were eligible. This review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42019128395) on April 30, 2019. Results Among the 14,592 articles initially identified, 97 fulfilled the inclusion criteria which resulted in 20 being analyzed. Objective RTW outcomes, such as number of RTW attempts, time to RTW or number of sick days, were lacking; thus, other relevant work outcomes were reported. Compared to the general population, lower employment rates and more economic distress were observed, with trans women in particular saying that their work situation had deteriorated. Research on positive RTW experiences was highlighted by the importance of disclosure, the support from especially managers and coworkers who acted as mediators, personal coping, and a transition plan along with work accommodations. Negative work experiences, such as demotion, lay-offs, and discrimination were often prominent together with a lack of knowledge of trans issues among all stakeholders, including occupational health professionals. Conclusion & recommendations Few studies have explored employment characteristics and experiences of transgender people (TP). RTW is a dynamic process along with transition in itself, which should be tailored through supportive policies, education, a transition plan and work accommodations with the help of external experts. Future studies should include more occupational information and report RTW outcomes to enhance our knowledge about the guidance of TP and to make way for interventional studies.
... Conversely, others found that coming out actually decreased the microaggressions they received from their social networks and provided access to better social support, including financial and emotional support [14]. Martinez and colleagues [15] surveyed transgender employees and found that relational authenticity at work, or the degree to which participants were revealing and expressing their authentic gender identity, was positively associated with job satisfaction. However, participants also expressed that coming out could result in increased discrimination, as well as confusion and hostility from coworkers [15]. ...
... Martinez and colleagues [15] surveyed transgender employees and found that relational authenticity at work, or the degree to which participants were revealing and expressing their authentic gender identity, was positively associated with job satisfaction. However, participants also expressed that coming out could result in increased discrimination, as well as confusion and hostility from coworkers [15]. In other words, within populations with a concealable stigmatized identity, concealment can result in positive consequences by protecting the person from being socially stigmatized; on the other hand, it can have negative consequences through blocking authenticity and preventing intimacy in relationships. ...
... On the other hand, blending can be experienced as inauthentic when the social world is not recognizing the complexity of a person's transgender experience [16]. Indeed, once they become socially recognized as their gender, many report feeling better and less concerned with their gender identity than before their transition [16], likely because they are able to express their authentic selves [15]. Additionally, they experience less discrimination once their transgender status is no longer obvious to the people around them [20]. ...
Article
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Identity concealment (whether or not a person is open with others about their transgender status) and passing/blending (how much a transgender person can, or chooses to, blend into the binary social environment) have been shown to impact transgender people's experiences in various ways, but few studies examine these constructs in the lives of non-binary individuals (those whose gender identity does not fall exclusively into the categories of man or woman). This study analyzed the non-binary subset of the nationwide sample from the 2015 United States Transgender Survey (9,769 participants) to examine the effects of blending/passing and identity concealment on distress and victimization. When ethnicity and income were controlled for, low concealers reported higher distress and more victimization experiences than high concealers, and blenders reported more distress and fewer victimization experiences than non-blenders. Not concealing may put non-binary people at higher risk for victimization, but blending into the binary-gendered environment may increase distress through identity erasure. Implications are discussed and future research directions are suggested.
... Put simply, authenticity is the "subjective experience of alignment between one's internal experiences and external expressions" (Roberts et al., 2009, p. 151). Organisational interest in authenticity at work stems from the link to well-being and positive work outcomes ( Van den Bosch et al., 2019;Martinez et al., 2017). Notwithstanding marginalised professionals, such as devalued social groups, often struggle to construct authentic work identities. ...
... .[these groups] are often stigmatized by negative stereotypes and low relative status in the social hierarchy" (Roberts and Creary, 2012, p. 73). The challenge for marginalised professionals, such as devalued racial-ethnic groups (Slay and Smith, 2011), women (Lewis, 2013) and transgender employees (Martinez et al., 2017), is to transcend imposed stigmatised identities to realise authentic work identities. While authenticity is important for marginalised professionals, we know little about how they formulate and manage authentic identities in work organisations. ...
... Authentic work identity of marginalised professionals Authentic work identity refers to the fit (Schmader and Sedikides, 2018) between multiple identities at work (Ramarajan, 2014) and the broader life context (O'Brien and Linehan, 2019), as well as the authentic expression of salient identities within work contexts (Knoll et al., 2015;Martinez et al., 2017). This working definition is predicated on what Schmader and Sedikides (2018) referred to as the enigmatic person-environment fit as the foundation of state authenticity. ...
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Purpose This paper describes the author's lived experiences as a marginalised professional. It offers a nuanced understanding of the author's career development journey to an authentic work identity. Design/methodology/approach This analytic autoethnography, situated in multicultural, democratic South Africa, describes how historic moments in the country's political evolution influenced the author personally: the author’s sense of belonging and the author’s various roles socially, as well as at work. Findings The paper tracks selected stories in the author's professional career journey to an authentic work identity, as indexed by the themes: I am a Black South African; I am a gay professional and so, who am I at work? On reflection, the author realised how the bounded nature of authenticity allowed psychological safety while exploring congruency between the author’s multiple work identities. Originality/value The autoethnography demonstrates how multiple accounts by the same author may be a valuable way of contributing to the literature on authentic work identity. This autoethnographic work extends the authentic identity literature of marginalised professionals beyond the narrow authenticity–inauthenticity binary of most organisational studies. The paper introduces limited authentic work identity as an ameliorative self-concept in organisations.
... Despite some increases in visibility in recent years, transgender folx continue to experience considerable levels of discrimination across a variety of social situations and environments (James et al., 2016), including in healthcare settings (Grant et al., 2011), on university campuses (Flint et al., 2019;Seelman, 2016), and in the workplace (Davidson, 2016;Martinez et al., 2017). Such discriminatory experiences encompass institutions and policies that create barriers for trans folx as well as interpersonal manifestations of transgender social stigma, including exclusion, harassment, and violence (James et al., 2016). ...
... In addition to traditional demographic items capturing pronouns, age, race/ethnicity, work status, etc., transgender-specific demographics (e.g., "Which of the following best describes how you would characterize your status?") were adapted from the 2015 United States Transgender Survey (James et al., 2016) and another study of transgender individuals in the workplace (Martinez et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Gender diverse people in the United States are uniquely vulnerable to deleterious health outcomes because of long-enshrined systems of oppression and marginalization in American society. Trans young adults are especially vulnerable to these deleterious outcomes owing to their unique position in the life course. However, more research is needed on the mechanisms through which this marginalization contributes to mental health disparities in trans populations. Using a minority stress framework and online cross-sectional survey design, the current study examines potential mediators of the relationship between transgender identity-related distal stress and psychological distress from late May to early July 2020 in a sample of transgender young adults (N = 239; ages 18–29). More than half the sample scored above the K6 cutoff for severe psychological distress. Distal stress had a significant direct (β = .17, SE = .04, t = 2.76, p = .006) and indirect effect on psychological distress. Distal stress was indirectly associated with psychological distress through gender dysphoria (β = .04; 95% CI [.001, .10]) and emotion dysregulation (β = .16; 95% CI [.09, .23]). COVID-19 pandemic stressors were also positively associated with psychological distress (β = .36, SE = .12, t = 5.95, p < .001). Results highlight the significant mental health burden facing the trans community especially in the COVID-19 context, support a conceptualization of gender dysphoria as connected to experiences of oppression, and affirm the relevance of emotion dysregulation within minority stress frameworks. Mental health resources cognizant of the specific challenges experienced by trans young adults as well as policy changes that seek to address underlying structural transphobia in American culture and institutions are urgently needed.
... Compared to their cisgender counterparts, TGDNB individuals report more anxiety (Bouman et al., 2017) and life stress (Brewster et al., 2014), and these heightened levels of stress likely translate to the workplace. Indeed, TGDNB employees not only experience stressors common to many employees (e.g., work overload), but additional stressors tied to their nonconforming gender identity, including personal safety (Mizock et al., 2018) and gender policing (Martinez et al., 2017). Some estimates suggest that 30% of transgender employees have been fired, denied a promotion, or experienced another form of workplace mistreatment due to their gender identity or expression (Human Rights Campaign, 2018). ...
... Further, research is lacking regarding what impact these affirming behaviors actually have within the workplace. Considering that sexual orientation minorities have expressed the importance of allies engaging in supportive behaviors in the workplace (Martinez et al., 2017), it stands to reason that TGDNB employees would demonstrate a similar need for such targeted support. To this end, we examine the impact of these three specific behaviors on improving TGDNB perceptions of support, and, in turn, on several subsequent outcomes. ...
Article
Background: The experiences of transgender, gender diverse, and non-binary (TGDNB) workers remain poorly understood and under-examined in the extant literature, with workplace support perceptions and affirming behaviors of these workers particularly misunderstood. Aims: We address this gap in the literature by presenting and empirically testing a theoretical model that suggests affirming behaviors are differentially related to various sources of TGDNB worker support. We further suggest these sources of support are differentially related to TGDNB employee satisfaction and gender identity openness at work. Methods: We collected data from trans-related social media groups, inviting TGDNB-identifying employees to participate in the study. Quantitative and qualitative data from 263 TGDNB employees were collected through survey administrations. Results: Supervisor and coworker support are related to job and life satisfaction, with supervisor support strongly connected to job satisfaction. The use of gender-affirming pronouns/titles and discouraging derogatory comments at work were related to perceived TGDNB support. Positive transgender organizational climate was strongly related to gender identity openness at work. Discussion: Results highlight a need for better workplace inclusivity and TGDNB-friendly environments, as well as more diversity training and company policy improvements that directly impact the workplace experiences of TGDNB people.
... Numerous studies have integrated authenticity as a predictor, mediator/moderator, or an outcome when examining employee authenticity For example, recent work on employee authenticity has found that research on authenticity has focused on areas including authentic displays of emotion and emotional labor on customer service (e.g. Grandey et al., 2005;Groth et al., 2019), socialization practices (Cable et al., 2013), identity and autonomy (Yagil & Medler-Liraz, 2014), and gender identity (Martinez et al., 2017). Using methodologies ranging from qualitative studies (Yagil & Medler-Liraz, 2014) to laboratory experiments (e.g. ...
... Cable et al., 2013) to field studies (e.g. Martinez et al., 2017), these studies consistently find direct benefits from follower authenticity (Volpone et al., 2019). Others have found that inauthenticity leads to negative employee outcomes. ...
Article
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Recent theoretical and empirical work has developed the concept of authenticity, both as it relates to leader authenticity and as it relates to authenticity in followers. The present study examines perceptions of employee authenticity and perceived leader authenticity and highlights the utility of jointly examining the congruence between the two to predict individual-level outcomes. The present study utilized Qualtrics Panels to recruit three waves of survey participants. A total of 420 participants responded to all three time points. Polynomial regression, response surface modeling, and a block variable approach with indirect effects were used to test our hypotheses. Results supported the effect of authenticity congruence on individual-level work-related outcomes. Leader–member exchange was found to be a mediating variable between leader–follower authenticity congruence and outcomes in the work and non-work domains.
... For example, disclosures of sexual orientation were linked to higher job satisfaction and lower job anxiety among gay and lesbian employees (Griffith & Hebl, 2002). The extent to which transgender employees had physically transitioned (thus outwardly manifesting their inner gender identity) was associated with greater experienced authenticity, which was related, in turn, to higher job satisfaction (Martinez, Sawyer, Thoroughgood, Ruggs, & Smith, 2017). Pregnancy disclosure strategies were also linked to well-being (Jones, 2013;Little, Hinojosa, & Lynch, 2017). ...
... To explain the relationship between identity manifestation and well-being, scholars have argued that identity manifestation helps to meet the basic need for psychological coherence, which is important for well-being, whereas identity suppression may generate feelings of identity conflict (Jones & King, 2014;King & Botsford, 2009;Martinez et al., 2017;Ragins et al., 2007;Roberts et al., 2008). Relatedly, scholars have argued that suppressing invisible devalued social identities (e.g., sexual orientation or HIV status) can create enormous psychological strain (Ragins et al., 2007). ...
Article
In tandem with a surge of public interest in authenticity, there is a growing number of empirical studies on individual authenticity in work settings. However, these studies have been generated within separate literatures on topics such as authentic leadership, emotional labor, and identity management, among many others, making it difficult for scholars to integrate and build on the authenticity research to date. To facilitate and advance future investigations, this article reviews the extant empirical work across 10 different authenticity constructs. Following our research review, we use a power lens to help synthesize our major findings and insights. We conclude by identifying six directions for future research, including the need for scholars to embrace a multifaceted view of authenticity in organizations. Overall, our review both reinforces and tempers the enthusiasm in contemporary discussions of authenticity in the popular and business press.
... International quantitative and qualitative studies suggested a positive relationship between transitioning and mental health (Cardoso da Silva et al. 2016;Brewster et al. 2012Brewster et al. , 2014Callan 2014;Dhejne et al. 2016;Murad et al. 2010;De Cuypere et al. 2005Lobato et al. 2006;Smith et al. 2005;Green 2005), transitioning and life satisfaction (van de Grift et al. 2017;Bockting et al. 2016;Brewster et al. 2012Brewster et al. , 2014Salvador et al. 2012;Parola et al. 2010;Lobato et al. 2006;De Cuypere et al. 2006;Smith et al. 2005) and transitioning and job satisfaction (Martinez et al. 2017;Brewster et al. 2012Brewster et al. , 2014Scottish Transgender Alliance and Stonewall Scotland 2012;Morton 2008). ...
... It is suggested that disclosure of one's status may be related to increased job satisfaction and organizational commitment levels (Tatum 2018;Griffith and Hebl 2002). Martinez et al. (2017) presented that the extent to which one has transitioned is related to higher job satisfaction. Drydakis (2017a) evaluated that transitioning to the desired sex may allow people to focus more on their job tasks and take higher satisfaction from their workplaces. ...
Chapter
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For trans people (i.e., people whose gender is not the same as the sex they were assigned at birth), evidence suggests that transitioning (i.e., the steps a trans person may take to live in the gender with which they identify) positively affects extraversion, ability to cope with stress, optimism about the future, positivity towards life, self-reported health, social relations, self-esteem, body image, enjoyment of tasks, personal performance, job rewards, and relations with colleagues. These relationships are found to be enhanced by gender affirmation and support from family members, peers, schools and workplaces, stigma prevention programs, coping intervention strategies, socioeconomic conditions, antidiscrimination policies, and positive actions. Also important are legislation including the ability to change one’s sex on government identification documents without having to undergo sex reassignment surgery, accessible and affordable transitioning resources, hormone therapy, surgical treatments, high-quality surgical techniques, adequate preparation and mental health support before and during transitioning, and proper follow-up care. Societal marginalization, family rejection, violations of human and political rights in health care, employment, housing and legal systems, gendered spaces, and internalization of stigma can negatively affect trans people’s well-being and integration in societies. The present study highlights that although transitioning itself can bring well-being adjustments, a transphobic environment may result in adverse well-being outcomes. Policy makers can learn that policies to facilitate trans people’s transition and create cultures of inclusion in different settings, such as schools, workplaces, and health-care services, may help to improve societal well-being and allow the community to develop their potential and to minimize misery.
... Being open about one's status as a transgender person may lead to greater job satisfaction, but not necessarily make for a better fit within their place of employment nor to changes in discrimination they faced (Martinez, Sayer, Thoroughgood, Ruggs, & Smith, 2017). Ruggs, Martinez, Hebl, and Law (2015) found that being open about one's transgender status, coming out at work, did not lead to lowered perceptions of discrimination in the workplace among transgender employees. ...
... The purpose of this paper is to extend the understanding of workplace transitions by transgender employees so employers can create truly inclusive workplaces. Martinez et al (2017) pointed out that others' reactions to a transition in the workplace was important to the transitioning transgender employee's perception of organizational support. The existing literature on transgender people's experiences in the workplace, however, does not explain the effect of employer and co-workers attitudes and behaviors that could explain the psychological impact of perceived discrimination experienced by transgender employees. ...
Article
Increased visibility of transgender people challenges employers to create inclusive workplaces for those who transition in the workplace. Previous studies and prescriptive works examined transitions with a focus on the transgender employees' side of the transition and the workplace policies used to assist them in their transitions. While leading to greater job satisfaction, transitions do not necessarily lead to a better fit in the organization for transgender employees. This paper discusses workplace transitions of transgender employees with respect to their co-workers and organizational culture which may need change to create a supportive and inclusive workplace.
... Social identities are relevant across all life domains because they help people to define themselves and to shape daily social interactions. Being authentic in the workplace is associated with positive outcomes in terms of job attitudes and well-being (Martinez et al., 2017). However, authenticity might be challenging for those groups historically stigmatized by society and who may have concealed identities, as is often the case for LGBT people (Croteau et al., 2008;Martinez et al., 2017). ...
... Being authentic in the workplace is associated with positive outcomes in terms of job attitudes and well-being (Martinez et al., 2017). However, authenticity might be challenging for those groups historically stigmatized by society and who may have concealed identities, as is often the case for LGBT people (Croteau et al., 2008;Martinez et al., 2017). Although many countries reject discrimination based on sexuality and gender identity (McFadden & Crowley-Henry, 2018), overt and subtle discrimination against non-heteronormative identities remains. ...
Article
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The review explores key issues associated with discrimination and hostility faced by Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) people at work and organizational responses to it. Starting from a description of the main challenges facing LGBT workers' identity management, the review examines manifestations of negative attitudes towards gender and sexual minority groups, highlighting processes of subtle discrimination and exclusion. It presents and critiques dominant organizational responses to LGBT stigmatization, highlighting the need for holistic, intersectional approaches, and pointing out issues requiring further research.
... Rather, we believe that diversity programs and initiatives at present still have yet to rectify and provide redress to the groups they were originally intended to benefit (e.g., King et al., 2022). Indeed, discrimination remains rampant in organizations (Quillian et al., 2017;Roscigno, 2007), marginalized employees still feel excluded and inhibited in their self-expression (Alegria, 2020;King et al., 2022;Martinez et al., 2017), women and people of color still struggle to be promoted at equal rates to their peers. Recent research also shows that people of color suffer severely from the spillover of racialized violence and trauma in the world (Leigh & Melwani, 2019). ...
Article
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Diversity initiatives are designed to help workers from disadvantaged backgrounds achieve equitable opportunities and outcomes in organizations. However, these programs are often ineffective. To better understand less‐than‐desired outcomes and the shifting diversity landscape, we synthesize literature on how corporate affirmative action programs became diversity initiatives and current literature on their effectiveness. We focus specifically on work dealing with mechanisms that make diversity initiatives effective as well as their unintended consequences. When taken together, these literature point to several inequality‐specific omissions in contemporary discussions of organizational diversity initiatives, such as the omission of racial inequality. As we contend in the first section of this review, without affirmative action law, which initially tasked US employers with ending racial discrimination at the workplace, we would not have diversity initiatives. We conclude by providing directions for future research and elaborating on several core foci that scholars might pursue to better (re)connect issues of organizational diversity with the aims of equity, equality and social justice.
... For example, Drydakis (2016) observed increases over time in job satisfaction for employees who underwent gender reassignment surgery. In a cross-sectional study, Martinez, Sawyer, Thoroughgood, Ruggs, and Smith (2017) found a positive relationship between job OMJ 17,2 satisfaction and the extent of gender transition. Keeping the same job while transitioning provides financial and emotional stability that one loses if one does not work during transition or changes place of employment. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to test bigenderism, a universalistic theory that purports to explain why trans men employees enjoy greater organizational acceptance and superior economic outcomes compared to trans women employees. Design/methodology/approach Respondents were presented with one of two case studies in which they had to choose whether or not to respect the right of a trans employee to use the restroom of their choice at work. The only difference between the two case studies was the gender of the trans employee. In one case, the employee was a trans man and in the other case, the employee was a trans woman. Findings The gender of the trans employee had no impact on the choices of the respondents. Research limitations/implications The chief research implication is that heightened discrimination against trans men may better be explained by situational theories of transphobia rather than the universalistic theory that was tested in this paper. The primary research limitation was the use of American undergraduate business students as respondents. Practical implications Organizations need to be especially vigilant in protecting the restroom rights of their transgender employees, which may entail eliminating gender-segregated restrooms. Originality/value This paper is original in that it uses an experimental design to test the theory of bigenderism. It adds value by encouraging experimental research that examines situational theories of transphobia.
... Additionally, the role of coworkers acting as allies may be of key importance at the individual level. Although not work-life speci c, prior research examining the experience of transgender workers demonstrated that having their gender identity af rmed by others (relational authenticity) explained why gender transition was related to positive workplace outcomes (Martinez, Sawyer, Thoroughgood, Ruggs, & Smith, 2017). Further, sexual orientation minorities have expressed the importance of allies engaging in supportive behaviors in the workplace (see Martinez, Hebl, Smith, & Sabat, 2017). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we explore the workplace experiences of LGBTQ parents. We begin by presenting workplace policies that have the potential to uniquely impact LGBTQ parents, focusing on family/parental leave and family medical coverage. Following our presentation on workplace policies, we provide an overview of contemporary theoretical perspectives that have been used to help understand workplace experiences of LGBTQ parents as well as critical theories that pose the greatest possibility for advancement in this area as they incorporate a more nuanced understanding of LGBTQ working parents. These theoretical perspectives include role theory, gender role theory, stigma theory, and minority stress theory, as well as transformative perspectives, feminist theory, and queer theory as they relate to LGBTQ working parents. We then summarize the literature that has incorporated the various theoretical approaches to empirically explore the workplace experiences of LGBTQ parents. Finally, based on the theoretical frameworks and empirical literature that we present, we provide implications for practice and recommendations for future research. We begin with some strategies to affect change, and in the spirit of embracing a larger systems perspective, we provide suggestions at the individual, organizational, and national level.
... abilities Act, 1990) and be more likely to have decreased job attitudes (Ragins, Singh, & Cornwell, 2007) when disclosing an ED, compared with female counterparts, given they may be less likely to find themselves in a supportive workplace environment (Martinez, Sawyer, Thoroughgood, Ruggs, & Smith, 2017). Therefore, although disclosure appeared to enhance the quality of workplace life for the few men who chose to reveal their condition to their workplaces, our work suggests that future researchers might examine how and when men with EDs "feel out" their organizational culture to determine the best course of action for their unique situation. ...
... IM is important to consider because of its connection to downstream consequences related to retaining women in STEM occupations. That is, research and theory connect IM choices to job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and physical and mental well-being (Jones et al., 2016;Lyons, Wessel, Ghumman, Ryan & Kim, 2014;Madera, King, & Hebl, 2012;Martinez, Sawyer, Thoroughgood, Ruggs, & Smith, 2017). ...
Article
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Recruiting and retaining women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations is seen as challenging, and researchers have begun to consider how women manage their identity in these contexts in response to potential questions of fit. Within identity management theoretical work, there has been little attention to occupational influences. Based on role congruity theory, we investigate occupational characteristics as influences on women's gender identity management, along with individual differences and organizational support influences. Results suggest that engaging in identity management behaviours is unrelated to the gender stereotypicality or gender composition of the field, but that support, fit (i.e., congruence between the interests of the individual and occupation), and personality affect engagement in these behaviours. Implications for enhancing the experiences of women in STEM fields as well as for social identity‐related research more broadly are discussed. Individuals may differ in how they choose to address stigmatization at work, based on their personality and fit with the position. Perceived organizational support is associated with willingness to engage in stigmatization confronting strategies. Efforts to understand and affect identity management strategy use should consider individual characteristics (i.e., interests and personality).
... A number of scholars have highlighted the importance of authenticity in understanding the experiences of LGBT individuals (e.g., Martinez, Sawyer, Thoroughgood, Ruggs, & Smith, 2017;Riggle et al., 2017;Rivera et al., 2019). Authenticity focuses on the selfconcept and on self-presentation (Lehman, O'Connor, Kovacs, & Newman, 2018); many elements of which draw parallels with Goffman's (1959) earlier work on the presentation of self. ...
... As an LGBTQþ gender was recognized within a community, participants were seen and valued for who they were, without pretense. For transgender participants, authentic gender expression took varied forms (see confirming findings on authenticity by Martinez, Sawyer, Thoroughgood, Ruggs, & Smith, 2017). While for some participants, an authentic gender expression was possible only through medical affirmation, for others, it was not based upon changes to their body (e.g., genderqueer, gender nonconforming, or crossdressing people). ...
Article
I write this rejoinder to the thoughtful comments made by Tebbe (2019), Moradi (2019), and Watson (2019) in response to my functionalist theory of gender and gender identity communities (Levitt, 2019). First, I clarify the role of power as conceptualized in two forms. Hegemonic social power is positioned in the framework as the impetus for the functions of gender across the four domains that were articulated (i.e., it is oppression in each domain that demands genders to serve those functions). In addition, subversive power is conceptualized as an effect of gender across the domains, as gender identities transform norms and foster resilience in the face of marginalization. Also, I position power within critical feminist-multicultural and humanistic perspectives. Second, the theoretical framework was developed to act as an analytic tool for developing situated understandings of the functions and effects of gender in communities, rather than as a checklist to which all genders are expected to conform. I indicate vital research questions appropriate for the framework’s application and I suggest adaptations to investigate other identities (e.g., sexual orientations). Finally, I discuss methodological and demographic changes that support this use of this tradition of feminist research.
... As an example, Martinez, Sawyer, Thoroughgood, Ruggs, and Smith (2017) examined the relationship between authentic identity expression and work-related attitudes and experiences of transgender employees. In Studies 1 and 2, the researchers collected data from conference participants at the same conference for transgender health issues in the northeastern United States. ...
Article
Replication is an essential part of any science, confirming or adjusting our understanding of the world through repeated exploration of a phenomenon of interest. While there has been an increased interest in the role of replication studies, there also exists skepticism regarding the need for more replication. Our empirical analysis of 406 recent studies that use the term “replication” suggests that this criticism stems from a lack of appreciation of the different forms that replication can take, the prevalence (or lack thereof) of many of these forms, and the objectives that are met by one of the least common forms, constructive replication. As such, the purposes of our paper are (1) to explore the different forms that constructive replication can take and the objectives at which each can be directed, (2) to distinguish these forms from other forms of replication with which they are often confused, (3) to determine how common each form of replication is in our field, and (4) to provide concrete examples of different forms of constructiveness from published studies in order to pave the way towards more (and more useful) replications in the future.
... As an LGBTQþ gender was recognized within a community, participants were seen and valued for who they were, without pretense. For transgender participants, authentic gender expression took varied forms (see confirming findings on authenticity by Martinez, Sawyer, Thoroughgood, Ruggs, & Smith, 2017). While for some participants, an authentic gender expression was possible only through medical affirmation, for others, it was not based upon changes to their body (e.g., genderqueer, gender nonconforming, or crossdressing people). ...
Article
In this invited article, I present an inclusive theory of gender that clarifies its interconnections with gender identity, gender expression, and sexuality. To support this functionalist theory, I summarize findings from an extensive body of mixed methods research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other (LGBTQ+) genders in the United States. I use a feminist-intersectional lens to empirically base and historically situate a theory of gender that is grounded in research of LGBTQ+ communities (butch, femme, bear, leathermen, transgender, drag queens, and family/house systems). I define genders as either sets of personal qualities within a culture associated with physiological sex or sets of qualities that evolve in reaction to limitations of existing genders. The evolution of genders functions to meet needs in four domains: (1) psychological: an experience of fit between a core aspect of self and a gender construct; (2) cultural: the creation of an LGBTQ+ culture that asserts sets of gender characteristics, which were denied and stigmatized within preexisting cultural norms; (3) interpersonal: the communicating of affiliation and status to enhance safety; and (4) sexual: an erotic embodiment of signifiers of these needs via an aesthetic that structures sexual attraction. I detail how each function affects identity, security, belonging, and personal and social values.
... Similarly, Ruggs, Martinez, Hebl, and Law (2015) found that coworkers' reactions to transgender identity disclosures at work were the most influential factor in predicting discrimination at work. Recently, Martinez, Sawyer, Thoroughgood, Ruggs, and Smith (2017) found that the extent to which coworkers affirmed and validated one's transgender identity at work (relational authenticity) was more influential in predicting positive employee attitudes than the extent to which the employees felt they were portraying themselves in a way that aligns with their new gender expression (action authenticity). These coworker reactions can be characterized as direct indicators of discrimination at work (Ruggs et al., 2015), which can have pernicious effects. ...
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We introduce a theoretical framework of lesbian disclosure of sexual orientation in workplace contexts. Existing empirical research suggests (1) that disclosing one’s sexual orientation results in positive, negative, and neutral workplace outcomes; and (2) that scholarship focused specifically on lesbian disclosure in workplace contexts is relatively limited. We extend this literature by introducing new theory that suggests that reactions to disclosure of lesbian identities will vary as a function of self-presentation. Specifically, we suggest that the extent of stereotypical gender expression (embodying stereotypically masculine vs. feminine traits or behaviors) will impact both the decision to disclose and the outcomes of disclosure in workplace contexts. We describe a conceptual model that includes intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and societal considerations related to lesbian disclosure and present eight specific research propositions to advance this literature.
... Our decision to focus on OBSE as a mediator is informed by research suggesting it serves as a core mechanism linking self-relevant cues in the work environment to employee outcomes (e.g., Ferris, Brown, & Heller, 2009). Moreover, we focus on outcomes (job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion) that have been empirically linked to trans individuals' work experiences (e.g., Martinez, Sawyer, Thoroughgood, Ruggs, & Smith, 2017;Thoroughgood et al., 2017) and which are theoretically relevant to sociometer theory. Beyond these indirect links, we further provide a more nuanced view on the messages of value sent by these acts of oppositional courage by examining the centrality of observers' transgender identity as a moderator. ...
Article
Achieving greater social equity in organizations often depends on majority members taking risks to challenge the status quo on behalf of their colleagues with stigmatized identities. But, how do employees enact courageous behavior in this regard, and what are the social implications of these courageous acts on stigmatized group members who witness them at work? To begin examining these questions, we conducted 4 studies using qualitative and quantitative data collected from 428 transgender employees. Drawing on the core principles of sociometer theory, we argue that these acts of oppositional courage serve an important symbolic function in the eyes of transgender employees in that they convey a powerful, public message regarding their value as organizational members. This message of value likely has key implications for their organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) and, in turn, their job attitudes and wellbeing. In Study 1, we employed a critical incident technique to generate qualitative accounts of participants' exposure to these courageous acts in support of their trans identities at work. In Study 2, we experimentally manipulated trans participants' exposure to these behaviors to examine their impact on individuals' anticipated levels of OBSE. In Study 3, we developed a measure of oppositional courage and conducted tests of its construct validity. In Study 4, using a time-lagged survey design, we found that trans employees' perceptions of oppositional courage were positively related to their job satisfaction and negatively related to their emotional exhaustion via their OBSE. Yet, these indirect effects were moderated by the centrality of participants' trans identity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... However, this should not imply that we should encourage the expression of incongruent gender identity. Current research has shown than higher levels of congruence between one's inner self-concept and outward expression of their identity (action authenticity) may allow one to focus and to enjoy work, and this brings about positive outcomes such as job satisfaction (Martinez et al., 2017). ...
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Young people find it difficult to access to the labor market, particularly in countries like Spain with a dramatically high rate of unemployment. A further problem is that this labor market is not gender-neutral. This has been demonstrated repeatedly in the literature, with women typically being at a disadvantage. This highlights the need to study issues related to employability from a gender perspective, beyond including sex as a mere control variable. This analysis is relevant given the gender biases in organizations and in society in general that hinder the advancement of gender equality in organizations. Accordingly, our aim is to study both sex (male vs. female) and four profiles of gender identity based on dimensions of masculinity and femininity (i.e., feminine, masculine, undifferentiated, and androgynous) in relation to perceived employability in an exploratory way in two samples of employed (N = 181) and unemployed (N = 246) Spanish youngsters (i.e., below 30).The results show different patterns for employed and unemployed youngsters regarding sex, gender identity and their interaction in relation to perceptions of being employable. Concerning sex, women seem more confident about their employment chances when unemployed. In contrast, men feel more confident about their employment chances within their organization than women when employed. Concerning gender identity, the androgynous gender profile in the employed sample (in both men and women) scored highest on perceived employability. Results of the sex-gender identity interaction show that being feminine associates with the highest level of perceived employability for an unemployed man and the lowest for an unemployed woman. Moreover, both unemployed men and women androgynous score the highest in perceiving employability (except feminine men). Our findings highlight that sex and gender identity do play a role in shaping employability perceptions of young men and women in different labor contexts (employment and unemployment). This reinforces the need of changes against discrimination at work and in job search from a feminist approach to arrive at a more equal society.
... This is unfortunate as disclosure in the workplace can improve TNB individuals' well-being (Halpin & Allen, 2004;Mohr et al., 2019;Nuttbrock et al., 2010), and identity concealment circumvents opportunities for support and has been found to be associated with lower self-esteem, less job satisfaction, greater turnover intentions, and less organizational commitment (Mallory et al., 2011;Mohr et al., 2019;Newheiser, Barreto, & Tiemersma, 2017). Interestingly, it may not be the disclosure of gender identity itself but how organizations and co-worker react to it, or rather the extent to which they are perceived as supportive, that affects employees' job attitudes, work behavior, and well-being (Martinez, Sawyer, Thoroughgood, Ruggs, & Smith, 2017). However, the workplace experiences of TNB individuals, and the role of support for TNB individuals within workplaces, have not extensively been studied in quantitative research (Brewster, Velez, Mennicke, & Tebbe, 2014;Mc-Fadden, 2015). ...
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The development of diverse and inclusive workforces is increasingly being prioritized by organizations. However, organizations often struggle to adequately address the unique issues faced by transgender and nonbinary (TNB) people, and this can result in workplace discrimination, with deleterious consequences on employees’ job attitudes and behavior, and their well-being. Co-worker and organizational support may play an important role for TNB employees’ job attitudes and behavior. In an online survey with 225 TNB employees, we investigated how perceived co-worker support relates to job attitudes and work behavior, specifically job satisfaction, affective commitment, turnover intentions, job anxiety, and counterproductive work behavior. We also investigated whether these relationships were mediated by perceived organizational support. We found significant associations between perceived co-worker support and all job attitudes and work behavior. We also found that all of these relationships were mediated by the extent to which the organization was considered supportive. The findings thus suggest that companies should focus on supporting TNB employees at both the organizational and interpersonal level.
... As a result, I-O research in the domain of employment discrimination has increased within the 21st century. Additionally, within the last 50 years the field has also experienced an increase in research surrounding identity disclosure and effects of diversity-related organizational policy and support on well-being, organizational commitment, and other related outcomes (Martinez et al., 2017b;Ragins et al., 2007;Williamson et al., 2017). Such research has been impactful as the literature suggests a need for inclusive workplace environments for identity disclosure, reduced perceived interpersonal discrimination, and employee well-being. ...
... Self-concept refers to the totality of an individual's thoughts and feelings regarding the self as an object (Rosenberg, 1979). In the workplace, by guiding employees' thoughts, motivations and feelings (Burke and Stets, 2009;Mohr et al., 2019), self-concept deeply impacts employees' work attitudes and experiences, such as job satisfaction, perceived person-organizational fit, psychological well-being and job performance (Martinez et al., 2017;Ramarajan et al., 2017). These studies emphasize that self-concept contains multiple identities (i.e. ...
Article
Purpose This study investigated the joint impact of organizational and individual career management on employees' ideal self-discrepancy. Drawing on the identity literature, the authors aimed to uncover the mechanism and boundary condition of this impact, focusing on how organizations influence ideal and actual selves of employees with different protean career orientation. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a four-wave time-lagged study over eight months, with a sample of 331 employees from various organizations. Findings Perceived organizational career management negatively influenced ideal self-discrepancy via organizational identification, and such relationship was strengthened by protean career orientation. Employees with stronger protean career orientation saw a stronger moderating effect of individual career management on the relationship between organizational identification and ideal self-discrepancy, whereas their counterparts saw an opposite effect. Practical implications This study highlighted the essential role of organization in narrowing employees' ideal self-discrepancy in the protean career era. It suggested that organizations should set differentiated career practices depending on employees' protean career orientation levels. Originality/value By integrating vocational psychology and organizational scholarship, this study extended the ideal self-discrepancy literature by offering a nuanced understanding of the mechanism and boundary condition of the role of organizational career management in narrowing ideal self-discrepancy in the protean career era. It identified the joint efforts of organization and employee as a fascinating avenue for future studies.
... In addition, differences in beliefs of how gender and gender identity are constructed necessitates research exploring the consequences of these differences. While there is significant evidence that transgender individuals experience prejudice and discrimination (e.g., [8,12], perceptions of transgender employees by their cisgender peers should be examined as a potential explanation for this prejudice and discrimination. ...
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The current research sought to identify potential reasons for the prejudice and discrimination that transgender employees face in the workplace. Participants viewed a photograph of a potential employee with some participants randomly assigned to the experimental condition, which suggested the employee was transgender. Work-related skills and potential success in the workplace were evaluated. Participants tended to evaluate transgender employees lower on traits and skills important in the workplace, but there was no difference in the evaluation of potential success in the workplace. Results are discussed in terms of practical barriers that exist for transgender employees in the workplace.
... Individuals choosing to conceal a stigmatized identity may conceal this identity for the following reasons: to protect one's privacy, to not be seen as asking for special treatment, out of fear that disclosure would lead to biased work evaluations, to avoid being perceived as less competent, to align with cultural norms, and/or because they are in denial about their identity (MacDonald-Wilson et al., 2011). Although empirical research on outcomes of concealing a mental illness at work are lacking, research focused on other concealable stigmatized identities (e.g., being a sexual minority) have linked concealment to lower commitment to the organization and lower job satisfaction (Madera et al., 2012;Martinez et al., 2017) and to an increased likelihood of stress-related physical symptoms (Cole et al., 1996;Ullrich et al., 2003). Further, as a result of concealing a stigmatized identity, individuals experience increased internal anxiety, stress, and shame leading to negative psychological outcomes (Dinos et al., 2004;Lane & Wegner, 1995;Smart & Wegner, 2000). ...
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Employees with a mental illness regularly encounter situations where they must make decisions regarding the extent to which they discuss their stigma. Past research has found links between positive disclosure experiences and positive well-being and job-related outcomes for the individual disclosing. However, research on stigma disclosure has not yet defined what differentiates a supportive response from an unsupportive one, and there is evidence to suggest that people are unsure of how to best respond to a disclosure. In a series of three studies, we sought to develop a better understanding of mental illness disclosure at work. First, we created a typology of supportive and unsupportive responses to disclosure via critical incidents gathered from working adults with a mental illness. Second, we surveyed working adults with and without a mental illness to examine if they perceive the supportiveness of responses differently. Third, in an experimental study, we examined which methods of disclosure are most effective in eliciting a supportive response. This work identifies several types of supportive (e.g., providing emotional support) and unsupportive (e.g., denial of symptoms) responses to mental illness disclosure and finds that individuals without a mental illness have a reasonable understanding of what an individual with a mental illness would also identify as supportive/unsupportive responses. We also find that downplaying one’s mental illness will likely lead to a less supportive response.
... This approach is aligned with the current trend in organizational research methods that cautions against adding demographic control variables since they not only have very little meaning but also can distort the focal relationships (Becker et al., 2016;Bernerth & Aguinis, 2016;Carlson & Wu, 2012;Spector & Brannick, 2011). This method has been increasingly adopted in recent management studies (e.g., Caesens et al., 2017;Martinez et al., 2017;Troester & Van Quaquebeke, 2020). In this study, we controlled for the paths from trust in senior leaders and trust in direct supervisors to extra-role behavior since we are interested in the indirect effects in the model. ...
Article
Extant research on trust in public administration focuses on trust in a specific level of management, ignoring the connection of trust in different management levels and their effects on employees. Building on the trickle-down and trickle-up models, this study proposes that employee trust in senior leaders fosters their trust in direct supervisors and vice versa. Also, drawing on the job demands-resources model, we argue that trust in senior leaders and direct supervisors indirectly affects extra-role behavior through psychological well-being, and that workload moderates the above effects. Moreover, as leaders and supervisors play complementary roles, we predict that trust in senior leaders and trust in direct supervisors positively interact to enhance psychological well-being. Using the latent moderated structural model with data from the 2019 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey, we find empirical support for our hypotheses. This study broadens scholarly knowledge about the connection of trust in multi-level managers and their effects on employees’ attitudinal and behavioral outcomes.
... Much of this work has also focused on the concept of inclusion, that is, creating an environment where people from different backgrounds can feel safe to be their authentic selves, promoting a culture at all organizational levels that values and supports people from different backgrounds, and ensuring that people feel connected to their supervisors and coworkers and that they can influence important decisions (Ferdman, 2014;Shore et al., 2011). Some ongoing research issues include the importance of a diversity climate in organizations (e.g., Holmes et al., 2021), understanding the effects of diversity on performance (e.g., Li et al., 2021), and the importance of being able to express one's authentic identity at work (e.g., among transgender employees; Martinez et al., 2017). As noted in a recent review (Roberson et al., 2017), although diversity has taken root as a significant part of the I-O psychology literature, much work still needs to be done to understand the mechanisms associated with workplace diversity, the range of outcome affected, and how best to promote diversity and inclusion in organizations. ...
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Otantik yaşam, alan yazında bireyin kendi yaşamındaki kendi gerçek benliğine uygun şekilde hareket etme yeteneği olarak açıklanmaktadır. Otantik yaşam kavramı, birey için motivasyon kaynağı olmasının yanında bireyin özel yaşamı ve iş yaşamındaki ilişkisiyle son zamanlarda büyük ilgi gören kavramlardan biri olmuştur. Bu araştırmada Denizli’de sağlık sektöründe çalışanların otantik yaşam düzeylerinin kariyer tatmini, bağlamsal performans ve iş tatmini üzerinde etkisi olup olmadığını; ayrıca işe adanmışlığın otantik yaşam ile söz konusu bağımlı değişkenler arasında aracı rolünün olup olmadığını ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Toplam 254 sağlık çalışanından çevrimiçi anket formları aracılığıyla toplanan veriler yapısal eşitlik modeli ile analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonunda elde edilen bulgulara göre otantik yaşamın kariyer tatmini, bağlamsal performans ve iş tatmini üzerinde pozitif yönde ve anlamlı etkisinin olduğunu; ayrıca işe adanmışlığın otantik yaşam ile söz konusu bağımlı değişkenler arasında aracılık rolü üstlendiği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
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Though employment is typically associated with positive mental health outcomes for individuals with disabilities, the ubiquity of stress and stigma at work may complicate the relation between work and well-being for women with eating disorders (EDs). To date, however, the experiences of women with EDs in the workplace have not been examined. By utilizing a qualitative methodology to form an initial framework for the examination of EDs in the workplace, we address this gap in the literature. Seventy adult women with anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder discussed the relation between work and their condition. The data analysis led to the delineation of a theoretical model, which we propose explains the interconnections between key study constructs, including individual characteristics; workplace stressors; identity, stigma, and stress management techniques; and related personal and organizational outcomes. Our research suggests that, depending on how stress is managed, the workplace can serve as a bridge or a barrier to ED recovery. This study lays the groundwork for understanding the ways in which workplace life interacts and interferes with ED management, opening up a new line of investigation for researchers working to enhance the lives of individuals with EDs across life domains.
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Human sexuality is a highly regulated but fluid construct that people communicatively organize around. What has been socially constructed as "normal" sexuality (e.g., preferences, rights, vocabulary, etc.) has shifted dramatically over time, and differently between communities and geographic boundaries. In workplace contexts, where policies and daily practices explicitly and implicitly regulate performances of and communication about sexuality, regional and cultural sexual "norms" can affect how people of diverse sexualities understand and experience their jobs. The Midwestern United States is a particularly complex and diverse region when considering sexual equality in the workplace. Using the lens of co-sexuality, this study explores how people identifying with varying sexual, gender, and professional identities in Midwestern workplaces explained their perceptions of "normal" sexuality and how it affected their workplace experiences. Participants drew on the master narrative of the Midwest, composed of perceived Judeo-Christian norms and a cultural discomfort with difference, and described feeling simultaneously pulled toward and pushed away from cultural sexual "norms" in their day-to-day work environments.
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There remains a significant knowledge gap in HRM regarding the inclusion of transgender (henceforth 'trans') workers. We examine and apply the emerging concept of allyship (a specific form of active support and advocacy for minority groups) to trans workers, and in doing so we advance a new model of allyship intentions and perceptions. We test our model across two studies. The first extends theorising on perceived diversity and inclusion climate (PDIC) and social dominance orientation (SDO) to explain how non-trans workers can exhibit trans allyship intentions. When non-trans workers were presented with a scenario of a co-worker disclosing their trans identity, we find that SDO is negatively related with allyship intentions, yet PDIC moderates this relationship, such that the negative impact of SDO is buffered by the positive influence of PDIC. The second study builds upon theorising on psychological safety and authenticity to explain how perceived allyship facilitates the wellbeing of trans workers. We find, in a survey of trans workers, that perceived allyship is positively associated with psychological safety and authenticity at work; and is indirectly related to work engagement via the former and to life satisfaction via the latter. We provide critical insights into how allyship can be advanced to understand and support trans inclusion.
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This study examined affect as it relates to the identity management (IM) experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) workers. We integrate IM theories and evidence (Chaudoir & Fisher, 2010; Pachankis, 2007) within the framework of affective events theory (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) to predict relationships among mood, identity management, and emotion at work. LGB participants rated aspects of positive and negative affect each work morning and immediately following IM situations at work over 3 weeks, making it possible to examine within-person changes and next-day consequences of IM. Our results provided little support for the notion that LGB workers' IM behaviors are driven by affect. However, there do appear to be affective consequences of IM behaviors. After concealment, participants experienced diminished positive affect and increased negative affect; in contrast, revealing was associated with increased positive affect and diminished negative affect. Additionally, these immediate affective consequences of identity management continued into the following day for some facets of affect. We examine these findings as they relate to the identity management and affect literatures, thereby building new insights into their intersections.
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Qualitative research methods are a powerful set of tools that play an important role in the scientific knowledge generation cycle. Yet the role of qualitative research in knowledge generation in the WOP field is unclear. The aim of this position paper is to showcase the value of qualitative research methods for the progress of WOP research. We offer an empirical overview and evaluation of observed practices and explore methodological challenges that appear to be prevalent. Furthermore, we discuss future opportunities for harnessing the hitherto untapped potential of qualitative methods for exploring pertinent and timely WOP research questions. Throughout this paper, we wish to encourage thoughtful discussion of how qualitative methods can be used to constructively contribute to scientific knowledge generation in the WOP field.
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This study explores how researchers in the organizational sciences use and/or cite methodological ‘best practice’ (BP) articles. Namely, are scholars adhering fully to the prescribed practices they cite, or are they cherry picking from recommended practices without disclosing? Or worse yet, are scholars inaccurately following the methodological best practices they cite? To answer these questions, we selected three seminal and highly cited best practice articles published in Organizational Research Methods (ORM) within the past ten years. These articles offer clear and specific methodological recommendations for researchers as they make decisions regarding the design, measurement, and interpretation of empirical studies. We then gathered all articles that have cited these best practice pieces. Using comprehensive coding forms, we evaluated how authors are using and citing best practice articles (e.g., if they are appropriately following the recommended practices). Our results revealed substantial variation in how authors cited best practice articles, with 17.4% appropriately citing, 47.7% citing with minor inaccuracies, and 34.5% inappropriately citing BP articles. These findings shed light on the use (and misuse) of methodological recommendations, offering insight into how we can better improve our digestion and implementation of best practices as we design and test research and theory. Key implications and recommendations for editors, reviewers, and authors are discussed.
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Research on the benefits of authenticity tends to focus on expressing one’s authentic individual aspects of self (e.g., personality traits, values, opinions) and less on other identities, such as the roles one inhabits and the collective groups to which one belongs. Across two studies and samples totaling over 4,500 working individuals, we test the relationships between work-related role and collective authenticity and well-being/withdrawal outcomes, as well as their added explanatory value above and beyond the traditional way of conceptualizing authenticity (individual authenticity). In Study 1, we find that both work-related role authenticity and collective authenticity predict well-being above and beyond individual authenticity, whereas only work-related role authenticity adds explanatory value to both withdrawal outcomes. In Study 2, we find a largely similar pattern of results between types of authenticity and well-being/withdrawal outcomes collected approximately 9 months after. Implications are discussed.
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We propose that status incentives weaken the relationship between moral behaviors and status conferral by undermining perceptions of authenticity. Across two experiments among diverse samples of participants, evidence indicates that observers question the authenticity of moral actors who are pursuing status incentives. Perceptions of authenticity mediate the interaction of moral behaviors and status incentives on status conferral. A third two-wave online survey replicates the experimental findings and reveals that observers’ moral identity further strengthens the interaction of moral behaviors and status incentives in shaping perceptions of authenticity and subsequent status conferral.
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The present study is one of the first to investigate the effects of housework engagement on work productivity despite sickness presenteeism and to explore personality traits (i.e., conscientiousness) and gender differences among couples. Based on a sample of 180 heterosexual couples, an integrated model of both housework and workplace realities was proposed and tested based on the actor-partner interdependence model using structural equation modeling. The results verify that the higher the degree of women’s conscientiousness, the greater their and their partners’ level of productivity despite presenteeism. In addition, the higher the couple’s perception of partner support is, the greater their level of work productivity despite health problems, for both men and women. Results also confirm that housework engagement mediates the relationships between both conscientiousness and perceived partner support and work productivity despite health problems, for women, but not for men. This study denotes an advance in the literature on the relationships between personal and social resources within the family domain and work productivity despite sickness presenteeism. The findings support the applicability of the resource perspective of the Job Demands-Resources theory (JD-R) (i.e., motivational branch) to housework, as well as extend existing presenteeism models by providing evidence for the inclusion of the family domain in explaining this organizational phenomenon.
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This review focuses on the disclosure decisions faced by employees with concealable stigmatized identities – one of the most challenging decisions these individuals must make on a day‐to‐day basis. Indeed, multiple theoretical frameworks have provided a foundation for understanding the antecedents and outcomes associated with the decision to disclose or not to disclose a stigmatized identity. What is less clear, however, is the extent to which these frameworks have been empirically supported. This systematic review serves to unify the extant literature and prompt continued research related to employees with concealable stigmatized identities. Specifically, we draw upon multiple fields of study, including applied psychology, management, social psychology, and occupational health as a means to systematically synthesize the existing empirical research related to disclosure of stigmatized identities at work. In addition to advancing the scholarly knowledge of disclosure, this review also provides practical utility to organizations as they continue to create work environments that foster inclusion of all stigmatized and non‐stigmatized employees.
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This review describes the history, current state, and future of modern discrimination in organizations. First, we review development of discrimination from the early 1900s to the present day, specifically discussing various stigmatized identities, including gender, race, sexual orientation, religion, disability, weight, and age. Next, we describe both individual-level (e.g., identity management, allyship) and organization-level (e.g., training, norm setting) strategies for reducing and reacting to discrimination. Finally, we describe future research directions in the relationship between subtle and overt discrimination, intersectionality, the impact of social media, and cross-cultural considerations—areas that we suggest would help us gain a more comprehensive understanding of modern discrimination. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Volume 7 is January 21, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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Rationale: A growing body of transgender (trans) health research has explored the relationship between stigma and health; yet, studies have conceptualized and operationalized anti-trans stigma in multiple ways. Objective: This scoping review aims to critically analyze quantitative measures of anti-trans stigma in the U.S. using a socioecological framework. Method: We organized and appraised measures from 126 included articles according to socioecological level: structural, interpersonal, or individual. Results: Of the identified articles, 36 measured anti-trans stigma at the structural level (i.e., institutional structures and policies), 102 measured anti-trans at the interpersonal level (i.e., community interactions), and 44 measured anti-trans stigma at the individual level (i.e., internalized or anticipated stigma). Definitions of anti-trans stigma varied substantially across articles. Most measures were adapted from measures developed for other populations (i.e., sexual minorities) and were not previously validated for trans samples. Conclusions: Studies analyzing anti-trans stigma should concretely define anti-trans stigma. There is a need to develop measures of anti-trans stigma at all socioecological levels informed by the lived experiences of trans people.
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For employees with stigmatized concealable identities, the decision to disclose or not disclose represents a critical workplace experience. Moreover, employees enact their disclosure decisions by engaging in identity management (IM) strategies. Although multiple conceptual frameworks exist related to disclosure decisions and IM strategies, none of these frameworks consider the relationship between these two phenomena. In addition, empirical work surrounding disclosure decisions often positions disclosure as a dichotomous decision, rather than considering disclosure as occurring along a continuum. In this study, we use in-depth interviews to investigate the nuances of concealable IM using a sample of stigmatized employees, namely, those with depression. Through inductive thematic analysis, a continuum of disclosure decisions emerged (non-disclosure, partial disclosure, and full disclosure) as well as eight distinct IM strategies that participants used to enact their disclosure decisions. Our results extend the knowledge of concealable IM in multiple ways. First, we map specific IM strategies onto the disclosure continuum to provide a more robust understanding of the IM process for employees with depression. Second, we identify specific IM strategies related to partial disclosure and full disclosure, thereby extending existing conceptual frameworks. Additionally, we expand the definitions of the concealing and signaling IM strategies. Lastly, our study exposes the lived experiences of a group of employees that have traditionally been underrepresented in applied organizational research, those with depression.
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The concept of authenticity has been increasingly on the scholarly radar. While conceptualized in numerous ways, authenticity has been suggested to include some form of alignment of one’s internal sense of self (e.g., beliefs, values, motivations) and the external expression of it. State or felt authenticity has been defined as the sense of being one’s real self. Much evidence highlights the positive consequences of authenticity, both in general and at work. Yet, many questions remain. This special section consists of four articles that theorize and provide novel empirical evidence, including experiments and field studies, on antecedents and consequences of authenticity in the work context. The articles focus on behavioral, felt, and perceived authenticity, document intrapersonal and situational factors triggering authenticity. Moreover, the articles lay the foundation for novel research directions, integrating concepts such as identity integration, humility, and power into the authenticity at work discourse.
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Founders of hybrid ventures encounter organizational tensions that can compel compromise in both their organizations' and their own personal values. Such compromises may, in turn, undermine founders' identification with their ventures. In a multi-case study analysis we examine why social entrepreneurs differ in their responses to organizational tensions, both at the firm- and individual-level, and how such differences relate to their venture identification. Specifically, our findings reveal that strategic decisions made in the context of values-based complexity are often accompanied by concerns regarding founder authenticity—that is, judgments about the alignment between founders' actions and the commitments or responsibilities associated with their identities as entrepreneurs. Yet, because founders differ in the basis from which they seek to maintain such alignment, these differences shape both hybridity management and subsequent venture identification. By unpacking such differences, our findings contribute new theory, bridging recent scholarship on founder authenticity with longstanding research on organizational identification and hybrid organizing.
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Background To date, a comprehensive state-by-state assessment of transgender transition-related health care coverage for gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) and genital gender-affirming surgery (GAS) has not been reported. Aims The aims of this study were 1) to verify which U.S. states’ Medicaid systems do/do not cover GAHT and GAS; 2) to assess the ease/difficulty for patients to determine whether GAHT and GAS are Medicaid-covered benefits; and 3) to understand possible state-related predictors of Medicaid coverage for gender-affirming care. Methods We reviewed the official Medicaid Handbook and website for all 51 states (+D.C.) and 5 territories to confirm whether GAHT and GAS are covered benefits. When indeterminate, we called the Medicaid office in each state, and for many, Medicaid managed care organizations (MCOs), and individual in-state providers, to confirm coverage. We recorded our experiences, number of, and duration of phone calls to confirm coverage. Outcomes The main outcome was a definitive answer from the state/territory's Medicaid program or MCOs regarding whether GAHT and GAS are/are not covered benefits. Secondary outcome measures included responses we received and the total number/duration of phone calls necessary to confirm coverage. Results Only 12 of 51 states and 0 of 5 territories featured their policy regarding coverage for GAHT in their Medicaid Handbook/webpages. We confirmed that 34 of 51 state Medicaid programs do cover GAHT, whereas 9 of 51 states' and 2 of 5 territories’ do not. We could not confirm coverage of GAHT in 8 of 51 states and 3 of 5 territories. Only 26 of 51 states and 0 of 5 territories featured their policy regarding coverage for GAS in their Medicaid Handbook/webpages. We confirmed that 25 of 51 state Medicaid programs do cover GAS, whereas 22 of 51 states' and 3 of 5 territories’ do not. We could not confirm coverage of GAS in 4 of 51 states and 2 of 5 territories. Up to 12 calls, lasting up to 125 minutes, were required to confirm coverage for GAHT/GAS. Clinical Implications Our findings indicate that important health care access barriers/disparities exist today and warrant improvement. Strengths & Limitations To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive assessment of transgender transition-related health care coverage. Limitations include possible bias, as it could be that we were more persistent than actual patients would be to determine service coverage, and a lack of specificity regarding which specific hormone formulations or procedures are/are not covered. Conclusion Our findings show that only 34 of 51 (67%) states’ Medicaid programs include GAHT and 25 of 51 (49%) include GAS as covered benefits. Our experience suggests that the process to confirm coverage can be especially time-consuming and frustrating for patients. M Zaliznyak, EE. Jung, C Bresee, et al. Which U.S. States’ Medicaid Programs Provide Coverage for Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapy and Genital Gender-Affirming Surgery for Transgender Patients?: A State-by-State Review, and a Study Detailing the Patient Experience to Confirm Coverage of Service. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX–XXX.
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********* Important Note: The final version of this preprint along with all appendices and supplemental material was published in the European Journal of Social Psychology in May, 2020. If applicable, please cite the final, published version of this manuscript: Crabtree, M. A & Pillow, D.R. (2020). Consequences of enactment and concealment for felt authenticity: Understanding the effects of stigma through self-distancing and motive fulfillment. European Journal of Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2680 *********** Grounded in Motivated Identity Construction Theory and Self-Determination Theory, two studies examined the consequences of identity enactment and concealment for motive fulfillment and explored how these mediate the negative effects of stigmatized identities on felt authenticity. Participants (Ns=343 and 344) reported the extent to which they had enacted and/or concealed 8 to 12 of their identities in the past 3 days and evaluated their motive fulfillment and felt authenticity. Using multilevel modeling, we found that identity enactment positively predicted felt authenticity via motive satisfaction, while concealment negatively predicted authenticity via thwarted motive satisfaction. Identities were coded with respect to stigmatization in Study 2 and these related negatively to felt authenticity with effects mediated through suppressed enactment, heightened concealment, and thwarted motives. Thus, stigmatized identities do not inherently feel less authentic, rather it is individuals’ self-distancing behaviors that impairs feelings of authenticity for a stigmatized identity. This pre-print represents the author's copy of the manuscript which is currently in press for publication in the European Journal of Social Psychology. Please do not distribute without the author's permission. Please cite the published version of this preprint when it becomes available.
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R package for Data Analysis using multilevel/hierarchical model
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While the popular acronym “LGBT” suggests that sexuality-based discrimination and gender-based discrimination are similar in nature, transgender employees face unique challenges in comparison to lesbian, gay and bisexual employees. This chapter outlines existing research pertaining to the status of transgender employees at work, in order to determine appropriate next steps for increasing efforts for transgender equality, both for researchers and practitioners. In order to achieve this goal, this chapter first seeks to highlight the most recent statistics on transgender discrimination, both in society and at work. Then, possible interventions that organizations might put in place to support transgender employees are suggested. Finally, a set of research recommendations are made in order to advance our knowledge about transgender employees in general and to further support workplace interventions for transgender equality. Overall, this chapter provides a comprehensive review of the existing transgender workplace literature and creates suggestions for extending and enhancing this research, in order to best support transgender employees in the workplace.
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The theory of stereotype threat has captivated those who have long struggled to understand why some groups of people seem to systematically underperform in certain domains. But although early research on the theory provided dramatic examples that even very subtle reminders of being negatively stereotyped could impair performance, it has been only recently that research has identified the processes by which these performance impairments occur. In this chapter, we provide a summary of how situations of stereotype threat set in motion both automatic processes that activate a sense of uncertainty and cue increased vigilance toward the situation, one's performance, and oneself; as well as controlled processes aimed at interpreting and regulating the resulting negative thoughts and feelings that the negative stereotype can induce. By articulating the integration of these component cognitive and emotional processes, we are then able to identify how policy changes and interventions can combat stereotype threat both by facilitating changes to people's stereotypes and by providing individuals with the tools they need to better cope with the threat.
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Although great strides have been made in increasing equality and inclusion in organizations, a number of stigmatized groups are overlooked by diversity initiatives, including people with a history of cancer. To examine the workplace experiences of these individuals in selection contexts, we conducted 3 complementary studies that assess the extent to which cancer is disclosed, the stereotypes associated with cancer in the workplace, and discrimination resulting from these stereotypes. In a pilot study, we surveyed 196 individuals with a history of cancer (across 2 samples) about their workplace disclosure habits. In Study 1, we explored stereotypes related to employees with a history of cancer using the framework outlined by the stereotype content model. In Study 2, we used a field study to assess the experiences of job applicants who indicated they were "cancer survivors" (vs. not) with both formal and interpersonal forms of discrimination. This research shows that cancer is disclosed at relatively high rates (pilot study), those with a history of cancer are stereotyped as being higher in warmth than competence (Study 1), and the stereotypes associated with those who have had cancer result in actual discrimination toward them (Study 2). We discuss the theory behind these findings and aim to inform both science and practice with respect to this growing workplace population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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Managing diversity in organizations requires creating an environment where all employees can succeed. This paper explains how understanding "stereotype threat" - the fear of being judged according to a negative stereotype - can help managers create positive environments for diverse employees. While stereotype threat has received a great deal of academic research attention, the issue is usually framed in the organizational literature as a problem affecting performance on tests used for admission and selection decisions. Further, articles discussing stereotype threat usually report the results of experimental studies and are targeted to an academic audience. We summarize 12 years of research findings on stereotype threat, address its commonplace occurrence in the workplace, and consider how interventions effective in laboratory settings for reducing stereotype threat might be implemented by managers in organizational contexts. We end the paper with a discussion of how attention to stereotype threat can improve the management of diversity in organizations.
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A general theory of domain identification is used to describe achievement barriers still faced by women in advanced quantitative areas and by African Americans in school. The theory assumes that sustained school success requires identification with school and its subdomains; that societal pressures on these groups (e.g., economic disadvantage, gender roles) can frustrate this identification; and that in school domains where these groups are negatively stereotyped, those who have become domain identified face the further barrier of stereotype threat, the threat that others' judgments or their own actions will negatively stereotype them in the domain. Research shows that this threat dramatically depresses the standardized test performance of women and African Americans who are in the academic vanguard of their groups (offering a new interpretation of group differences in standardized test performance), that it causes disidentification with school, and that practices that reduce this threat can reduce these negative effects.
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Extant research suggests subtle, interpersonal forms of discrimination, though often normalized and overlooked, may be just as detrimental to targets as compared to more traditional, overt forms of discrimination. To further examine this question, we meta-analyzed the current literature to estimate the relationship between discrimination and a host of psychological, physical health, and work-related correlates as a function of its form (subtle or overt). Analysis of 90 effect sizes suggested that subtle and overt forms of discrimination hold relationships of comparable magnitude with a host of adverse correlates. By demonstrating that these two forms of discrimination are not differentially related to relevant outcomes, our findings call into serious question the pervasive belief that subtle discrimination is less consequential for targets as compared to overt discrimination (Landy, 2008; McWhorter, 2008). Taken together, our results suggest that subtle discrimination is at least as important to consider and address as its overt counterpart. Implications for organizational scholars and practitioners are discussed.
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Over the past 20 years, a large body of laboratory and field research has shown that, when people perform in settings in which their group is negatively stereotyped, they may experience a phenomenon called stereotype threat that can undermine motivation and trust and cause underperformance. This review describes that research and places it into an organizational context. First, we describe the processes by which stereotype threat can impair outcomes among people in the workplace. Next, we delineate the situational cues in organizational settings that can exacerbate stereotype threat, and explain how and why these cues affect stereotyped individuals. Finally, we discuss relatively simple empirically based strategies that organizations can implement to reduce stereotype threat and create conditions in which employees and applicants from all groups can succeed.
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The use of control variables plays a central role in organizational research due to practical difficulties associated with the implementation of experimental and quasi-experimental designs. As such, we conducted an in-depth review and content analysis of what variables and why such variables are controlled for in ten of the most popular research domains (task performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, turnover, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, employee burnout, personality, leader-member exchange, organizational justice, and affect) in organizational behavior/human resource management (OB/HRM) and applied psychology. Specifically, we examined 580 articles published from 2003 to 2012 in AMJ, ASQ, JAP, JOM, and PPsyc. Results indicate that, across research domains with clearly distinct theoretical bases, the overwhelming majority of the more than 3,500 controls identified in our review converge around the same simple demographic factors (i.e., gender, age, tenure), very little effort is made to explain why and how controls relate to focal variables of interest, and control variable practices have not changed much over the past decade. To address these results, we offer best-practice recommendations in the form of a sequence of questions and subsequent steps that can be followed to make decisions on the appropriateness of including a specific control variable within a particular theoretical framework, research domain, and empirical study. Our recommendations can be used by authors as well as journal editors and reviewers to improve the transparency and appropriateness of practices regarding control variable usage.