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Anti-obesity effect of hibiscus Sabdariffa L.- A review

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Abstract

Obesity is a serious health issue prevailing worldwide and has become a global epidemic. Obesity affects all age groups; it has become particularly common among children and women. Obesity is associated with increased risk of several health problems. Using synthetic drugs and surgery for treating obesity entails a high cost and side effects. As a result an alternative approach for treatment is emphasized. Traditional medicine is explored extensively from ancient times and the use of medicinal plants and their phytochemicals for treating various diseases is well documented. The present review deals with the antiobesity effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an annual herbaceous shrub belonging to Malvaceae family. Leaves, seed, flower and root of H.sabdariffa L. are rich in phytochemicals. It has been reported that H.sabdariffa L. modulates obesity through its antioxidant mechanism and reduction in adipogenesis. It has a significant effect on lipid metabolism, fat absorption and excretion, and obesity related enzymes.

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... It is a vital source of vitamins and minerals such as calcium, iron, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin C. Hibiscus sabdariffa helps to fight against many diseases related to kidney stones, gastrointestinal disorders, and liver damage. It has antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetic properties [73,73]. The main bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins, flavonoids, and organic acids, are responsible for the anti-obesity activity of the herb [74]. ...
... It is a vital source of vitamins and minerals such as calcium, iron, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin C. Hibiscus sabdariffa helps to fight against many diseases related to kidney stones, gastrointestinal disorders, and liver damage. It has antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetic properties [73,73]. The main bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins, flavonoids, and organic acids, are responsible for the anti-obesity activity of the herb [74]. ...
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Obesity is arising as a global pandemic throughout the world. Over the past few decades, obesity has tripled worldwide, creating an alarming situation. The majority of people nowadays are suffering from obesity and overweight. It affects health of people of all age groups, ethnicity, gender, and sex, and is linked to a sedentary lifestyle of people, poor eating habits, and disturbed sleeping patterns. It causes several diseases such as diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, gallstones, and colon cancer. Many synthetic anti-obesity drugs such as orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine, bupropion, and liraglutide are already available on the market. However, these drugs have side effects, including dry mouth and sleeping disorders, dizziness, blood pressure, heart rate elevation, constipation, and headache. Humans have a long and ancient history of dependency on traditional medicinal plants and their major bioactive antioxidant components, such as quercetin, anthocyanins, and ellagic acid, for treating such diseases and disorders. This review discusses the herbal approach, bioactive compounds, and their mechanism for treating obesity.
... H. sabdariffa Linn. has been known as anti-obesity because it has prevented or reduced bodyweight in obese rats (Anna Sheba & Ilakkia, 2016;J. K. Kim et al., 2007;Omar et al., 2018). ...
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Background: Obesity is a cause of FGF21 resistance, which affects the browning and thermogenesis process of the adipose tissue. Decreased receptor expression is influenced by miR-34a, whose expression is increased in obesity. While FGF21-based therapies have been widely investigated, the potential activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. extract (HSE) against FGF21 resistance is unknown. Objective: This study aims to determine the effects of HSE on the expression of miR-34a and FGF21 receptors in white adipose tissue. Methods: This experimental study used 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats and divided into four groups: Control (N); diet-induced-obesity rats (DIO); DIO rats with HSE 200 mg/kgBW/day and DIO rats with HSE 400 mg/kgBW/day. Rats were fed a high-fat diet for 17 weeks. HSE was administered daily for 5 weeks. The administration of HSE 400 mg/kgBW/day resulted in the equivalent expression of miR-34a to that of the control (p > 0.05). Results: FGFR1 receptor expression was also similar to controls (p > 0.05). Beta-klotho expression was significantly lower than that of control (p < 0.05) but equivalent to that of DIO rats (p < 0.05). Conclusions: H. sabdariffa has the potential to reduce FGF21 resistance in DIO rats through the suppression of miR-34a expression and an increase in the number of FGFR1 and beta-klotho receptors in adipose tissue.
... These herbs and spices included: anise, basil, black pepper, caraway, cardamom, chili pepper, cinnamon, clove, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel, fenugreek, garlic, ginger, hibiscus, lemongrass, marjoram, nigella, nutmeg, oregano, parsley, peppermint, rosemary, saffron, sage, spearmint, tarragon, thyme and turmeric [Table 1 -adapted from Vázquez-Fresno et al. (2019) and European Spice Association (ESA) (2019). Out of 30, 25 herbs and spices were selected based on the reports by Vázquez-Fresno et al. (2019) on the estimated consumption volume in North America and Europe and an additional five culinary herbs and spices (cardamom, coriander, garlic, hibiscus and nigella) that are commonly used by people for weight loss were also included for the review based on previous reviews which suggested these herbs and spices to have some anti-obesity effects (Hasani-Ranjbar, Jouyandeh, & Abdollahi, 2013;Jungbauer & Medjakovic, 2012;Mofrad, Milajerdi, Koohdani, Surkan, & Azadbakht, 2019;Mohtashami & Entezari, 2016;Mousavi et al., 2018;Sheba & Ilakkia, 2016;Shekarchizadeh-Esfahani, Arab, Ghaedi, Hadi, & Jalili, 2020). ...
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The aim of this article was to systematically review literature on clinical trials investigating the effects of culinary herbs and spices on obesity in adults. Relevant articles were searched through the electronic databases using predefined search terms. Thirty commonly used herbs and spices for weight loss were selected based on the literature. Out of 33 intervention studies that were eligible for inclusion in the review, 24 studies reported statistically significant (P < 0.05) reductions in obesity indices either compared to baseline or to the placebo. Overall, eight herbs/spices were reported to be beneficial in regards to obesity in the eligible literature including basil (on BW and BMI), cardamom (on BW, BMI and WC), cinnamon (on BW, BMI, BFP and WC), coriander (on BMI), garlic (on BMI and WC), ginger (on BW, BMI, WC and HC), nigella (on BW, BMI, WC, BFP and HC) and turmeric (on BW, BMI, BFP and WC).
... 6 Moreover, some of the currently available anti-obesity pharmaceutical drugs are subject to being abuse, 7 expensive with severe side effects, and not suitable for usage for a long period. 8 New insight into the management of obesity involves the use of phenolic compounds. This is due to their ability to attenuate inflammation, drug resistance, and angiogenesis. ...
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Background: Urolithins are gut microbiota-derived polyphenol metabolites, produced following the consumption of pomegranate, berries, and nuts. Recent studies have shown the potentials of these metabolites on reducing triglycerides accumulation in cultured hepatocytes and adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the ability of both urolithin A (Uro-A) and urolithin B (Uro-B) to attenuate obesity and associated symptoms in a high-fat diet-induced obesity model in rats. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Group 1 was fed on a normal diet while groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed on a high-fat diet for 10 weeks. After this, groups 3 and 4 were treated with 2.5mg/kg body weight of Uro-A and Uro-B intraperitoneally, respectively. Body weight, serum lipid profile, hepatic antioxidant activity, hepatic lipid accumulation, fecal lipid content, and the expressions of genes involved in lipogenesis and hepatic ER stress were quantified. Results: Indeed, a high-fat diet resulted in increased body weight, visceral adipose tissue mass, and oxidative stress in rats. However, treatment with both Uro-A and Uro-B decreased body weight and visceral adipose tissue mass. These metabolites restored hepatic antioxidant capacity and decreased lipid accumulation in addition to an increase in fecal fat excretion. Moreover, both Uro-A and Uro-B treatment downregulated the expression of LXRα and SREBP1c; involved in de novo lipogenesis while upregulating PPARα expression for increased fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, Uro-A and Uro-B decreased the expression of PERK and IRE1α; which are involved in hepatic ER stress. Taken together, our results showed the potentials of Uro-A and Uro-B in mitigating obesity symptoms and they could thus provide promising roles in the future as functional anti-obesity candidates.
... Furthermore, it exhibits extensive antibacterial properties. Its purplish sepals (calyx and epicalyx) rich in anthocyanin are used economically in food (Jam and Jelly) and cosmetic industries as a source of natural coloring agent [19]. ...
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Objective: The aim of the present study was to screen phytochemical constituents and evaluate antimicrobial and synergistic antimicrobial properties of leaves and stem of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Methods: The extraction was done by cold maceration method using 80% aqueous methanol. The antimicrobial efficacy and synergistic antimicrobial activity were carried out by disc diffusion assay against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrate, protein, alkaloids, phytosterols, flavonoids, and diterpenes in both the leaves and stem extracts while saponins, phenol, and tannins were found to be present only in the leaf extract. Both the extracts inhibited the tested bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 10 mg/ml. Aqueous methanolic extract of leaf showed higher antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa and also exhibited synergistic activity with the antibiotic chloramphenicol against S. aureus. Conclusion: The present study concludes that H. sabdariffa is a potential source of bioactive components and also provides information on synergistic activity of leaf extract. The results can contribute to the development of potent antibacterial agents. INTRODUCTION From time immemorial traditional culture in the world is associated with medicinal plants. These medicinal plants are exploited as a source of ingredients in traditional medicine. They contain vast array of phytoconstituents for combating chronic and infectious diseases and ailments. These phytoconstituents are probably secondary metabolites playing an integral role for the survival of plants including growth regulation, inter-and intra-specific interactions, and protection against predators and infection [1,2].
Article
Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and Syzygium cumini extract (SCE) have been used in traditional medicine due to their hypoglycemic, antidiabetic, anti-obesity and antioxidant activities. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of these extracts, as well as to evaluate their toxicities. The phytochemical profiles were obtained by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analyses. Pharmacological screening, motor activity, motor coordination and acute toxicity were evaluated by administering HSE or SCE (oral or intraperitoneal routes) at different doses to mice. The anti-obesity effects were examined by assessing the decrease in food intake and body weight loss in Wistar albino rats and by gastrointestinal transit in Swiss albino mice. Sibutramine was used as the positive control. Both extracts showed no toxic effects. At the end of 7 days of treatment, we observed that SCE and HSE reduced the weight gain and food intake of the treated rats in relation to the controls. Sub-chronic treatment revealed that HSE, SCE and sibutramine had the best effect 7 and 14 days after starting treatment. After 28 days, the SCE group showed less weight gain and reduced food consumption compared to the HSE group and controls. In addition, intestinal transit was increased in the HSE group, which is probably due to the high fiber content of the extract and may explain its anti-obesity properties. Myricetin glycosides were found in high levels in SCE and low levels in HSE, which may be the main compounds associated with the anti-obesity effect found in SCE. It is not possible to suggest an effective dose without conducting a preclinical toxicology study. We recommend clinical studies that evaluate the efficacy and safety, as well as the effect of discontinuing the extracts.
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Hibiscus sabdariffa is an annual dicotyledonous herbaceous shrub plant popularly known as "zobo" in Nigeria which is an indigenous edible medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic medicine in India, China and Thailand. The purpose of this studies is to investigate the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf extract on liver marker enzymes such as AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and ALP (alkaline phosphatase), for its hepatoprotective effect in phenobarbitone-induced rats. Phenobarbitone treated rats showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the levels of circulatory AST, ALT and ALP. These changes were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in rats treated with HSEt and phenobarbitone. These results indicate that HSEt offers hepatoprotection by influencing the levels of liver markers in phenobarbitoneinduced rats and this could be due to its free radical scavenging property and the presence of natural antioxidants.
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The present study envisages the antigenotoxic property of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) calyx extracts that is presumably attributed to its antioxidant properties. The dried calyx extracts of Roselle were administered to male albino mice at doses of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight for 7 days followed by a single dose of interperitoneal (i.p.) injection of sodium arsenite (2.5 mg/kg body weight) and the extent of DNA damage was analysed by widely used Comet assay. The results revealed that the calyx extract of Roselle inhibited the DNA damage induced by sodium arsenite in a dose dependent manner. The presence of phytochemical constituents such as polyphenols and flavonoids were ascribed to the observed changes. The antioxidant efficacy was substantiated by applying Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2, 2-di(4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays.
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Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (sorrel) has been widely used in the development of tropical beverages and folk medicine. This study's objective was to investigate the anti-obesity potential of sorrel calyx extracts (methanol and water) on 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells. Phytochemical content, antioxidant potential as DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing an-tioxidant power (FRAP) and enzyme (α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and pancreatic lipase) inhibitory activities were determined in sorrel methanol extracts (SME) and sorrel water extracts (SWE). Effect of SWE and SME on lipid accumulation, lipolysis and apoptosis were tested in 3T3-L1 adipo-cyte differentiation and maintenance stage of cells at selected concentrations (200-1000 µg/ml) was studied. The total phenolic (GAE mg/100g dry weight) and total flavonoid (mg catechin equi/ 100g dry weight) contents in SME and SWE were 158.31 and 317.27 and 90.77 and 100.08. DPPH% inhibition (IC-50-mg/ml) and FRAP (mmol Fe [II]/100g dry weight) were 0.82 and 0.33 and 1799.13 and 2296.38 for SWE and SME, respectively. SME and SWE inhibited α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and pancreatic lipase activities by more than 40% at 4mg/ml. Significant (p < 0.05) reduction in lipid accumulation and increased glycerol release in 3T3-L1 cells was observed at concentrations ranged from 600 mg/ml of both extracts. Treating cells with SME-1000 µg/ml at differentiation resulted inhibition (p < 0.05) of lipid accumulation by 45% compared to untreated cells. Highest (p < 0.05) (35%) decrease in triglyceride content as well as higher glycerol release was seen in cells exposed to SME at the differentiation stage. Sorrel extracts induced apoptosis in adipocytes at higher concentrations with prominent effect of treating cells at differentiation stage. The results of this study showed effect of sorrel extracts in reduction of lipid accumulation and increase in lipo-lysis of 3T3-L1 cells.
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Hibiscus sabdariffa has gained attention for its antioxidant activity. There are many accessions of H. sabdariffa in the world. However, information on the quantification of antioxidant compounds in different accessions is rather limited. In this paper, a liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) method for simultaneous determination of five antioxidant compounds (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, and isoquercitrin) in H. sabdariffa leaves was developed. The method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The validated method has been successfully applied for determination of the five analytes in eight accessions of H. sabdariffa. The eight accessions of H. sabdariffa were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The investigated accessions of H. sabdariffa were rich in rutin and exhibited strong antioxidant activity. The two accessions showing the highest antioxidant activities were from Cuba (No. 2) and Taiwan (No. 5). The results indicated that H. sabdariffa leaves could be considered as a potential antioxidant source for the food industry. The developed LC-Q-TOF-MS method is helpful for quality control of H. sabdariffa.
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Obesity is well recognized as a global public health concern and the quest continues to explore natural product-based novel therapeutics. Bauhinia purpurea finds its place in traditional medi-cine as an effective anti-ulcer, antiplatelet, wound healing and hypolipidemic agent. The present study investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea (EEB) on the changes in body weight, lean mass, fat free mass, fat percent, tissue and plasma lipid profiles, plasma glucose, insulin and insulin resistance as well as on the activity of amylase, lipase, leptin and adiponectin levels in high caloric diet (HCD) induced obese rats. After induction of obesity with HCD, rats were administered orally with EEB (100, 200 and 300 mg • kg −1 BW) or orlistat (5 mg • kg −1 BW) once daily for 42 days. HCD substantially increased the body weight, fat free mass, fat percent, glucose, insu-lin resistance, tissue and plasma lipid profiles (Except HDL), leptin and the activities of amylase and lipase. EEB at a dose of 300 mg • kg −1 BW exerted its therapeutic effects similar to orlistat in decreasing body weight, insulin resistance, levels of glucose, leptin, plasma and tissue lipids, li-pase and amylase but increasing HDL and adiponectin in HCD fed obese rats, which could be due to bioactive factors present in EEB, as revealed by LC-MS analysis. These findings suggest that EEB administration suppresses high-caloric-diet-induced obesity and it can be developed as a poten-tial candidate for the treatment of obesity and associated complications.
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Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs, roselle; Malvaceae) has been used traditionally as a food, in herbal drinks, in hot and cold beverages, as a flavouring agent in the food industry and as a herbal medicine. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as some clinical trials provide some evidence mostly for phytochemically poorly characterised Hs extracts. Extracts showed antibacterial, anti-oxidant, nephro- and hepato-protective, renal/diuretic effect, effects on lipid metabolism (anti-cholesterol), anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive effects among others. This might be linked to strong antioxidant activities, inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE), and direct vaso-relaxant effect or calcium channel modulation. Phenolic acids (esp. protocatechuic acid), organic acid (hydroxycitric acid and hibiscus acid) and anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside) are likely to contribute to the reported effects. More well designed controlled clinical trials are needed which use phytochemically characterised preparations. Hs has an excellent safety and tolerability record.
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Obesity is associated with a great diversity of diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our previous report suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) had a metabolic-regulating and liver-protecting potential. In this study, we performed a clinical trial to further confirm the effect of HSE. Subjects with a BMI ≧ 27 and aged 18-65, were randomly divided into control (n = 17) and HSE-treated (n = 19) groups, respectively, for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of HSE reduced body weight, BMI, body fat and the waist-to-hip ratio. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was lowered by HSE. Anatomic changes revealed that HSE improved the illness of liver steatosis. Ingestion of HSE was well tolerated and there was no adverse effect during the trial. No alteration was found for serum α-amylase and lipase. The clinical effect should mainly be attributed to the polyphenols of HSE, since composition analysis showed that branched chain-amino acids, which is associated with obesity, is not obviously high. In conclusion, consumption of HSE reduced obesity, abdominal fat, serum FFA and improved liver steatosis. HSE could act as an adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver.
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Aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-obesity activity of chloroform:methanol extract of P. integrifolia (CMPI) in mice fed with cafeteria diet. Female Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups, which received normal and cafeteria diet, standard drug simvastatin (10 mg/kg) and CMPI (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for 40 days. Parameters such as body weight, body mass index (BMI), Lee index of obesity (LIO), food consumption, locomotor behavior, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), atherogenic index, organ weight and organ fat pad weight were studied for evaluating the anti-obesity activity of P. integrifolia. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint profile of chloroform-methanol extract was also studied using quercetin as the reference standard. There was a significant increase in body weight, BMI, LIO, food consumption, organ weight (liver and small intestine), organ fat pad weight (mesenteric and peri-renal fat pad) and in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL with a significant decrease in locomotor behavior (ambulation, rearing, grooming) and HDL level in cafeteria diet group. Animals treated with CMPI showed dose dependent activity. P. integrifolia (200 mg/kg) supplementation attenuated all the above alterations, which indicates the anti-obesity activity. HPLC fingerprint profile of CMPI showed two peaks in the solvent system of 50 mm potassium diphosphate (pH-3 with ortho phosphoric acid): Methanol (30:70 v/v) at 360 nm. Present findings suggest that, CMPI possessed anti-obesity activity that substantiated its ethno-medicinal use in the treatment of obesity.
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Obesity is the most prevalent health problem affecting all age groups, and leads to many complications in the form of chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus Type 2 and stroke. A systematic review about safety and efficacy of herbal medicines in the management of obesity in human was carried out by searching bibliographic data bases such as, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex, for studies reported between 30th December 2008 to 23rd April 2012 on human or animals, investigating the beneficial and harmful effects of herbal medicine to treat obesity. Actually we limited our search to such a narrow window of time in order to update our article published before December of 2008. In this update, the search terms were “obesity” and (“herbal medicine” or “plant”, “plant medicinal” or “medicine traditional”) without narrowing or limiting search items. Publications with available abstracts were reviewed only. Total publications found in the initial search were 651. Total number of publications for review study was 33 by excluding publications related to animals study. Studies with Nigella Sativa, Camellia Sinensis, Crocus Sativus L, Seaweed laminaria Digitata, Xantigen, virgin olive oil, Catechin enriched green tea, Monoselect Camellia, Oolong tea, Yacon syrup, Irvingia Gabonensi, Weighlevel, RCM-104 compound of Camellia Sinensis, Pistachio, Psyllium fibre, black Chinese tea, sea buckthorn and bilberries show significant decreases in body weight. Only, alginate-based brown seaweed and Laminaria Digitata caused an abdominal bloating and upper respiratory tract infection as the side effect in the trial group. No other significant adverse effects were reported in all 33 trials included in this article. In conclusion, Nigella Sativa, Camellia Synensis, Green Tea, and Black Chinese Tea seem to have satisfactory anti-obesity effects. The effect size of these medicinal plants is a critical point that should be considered for interpretation. Although there was no report for side effect in these trials, we believe that safety of these plants still remains to be elucidated by further long-term studies.
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Background. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (HS), a member of malvaceae family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its effect on reducing serum lipids is mentioned in several studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in reducing the serum's lipids in hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods. Ninety hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to receive Hibiscus Sabdariffa (HS) tea or black tea for 15 days. The patients were asked to drink the tea within 20 minutes following its preparation. This process had to be repeated two times, daily. Patient's FBS and lipid profile were collected at the first visit day (day 0) and on the day 30. Results. There was no significant differences between pre and post experiment values within the two groups. An upward trend in total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL cholesterol was evident in both groups. The increase in total and HDL cholesterol in both groups relative to their initial values were significant. Conclusion. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is probably a safe medicinal plant. No significant harmful changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN, serum creatinine, Na and K levels were observed within 15 days after the discontinuation of the medication.
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The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents.
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Dietary fatty acids in the sn-2 position are preferentially absorbed as monoacylglycerols. To determine whether thy also have more important biologic effects, rats were fed for 2 and 4 mo a purified diet containing native palm oil, interesterified palm oil, native lard or interesterified lard. Interesterification that increased or decreased the level of fatty acids in position 2 depending on the fat, resulted in significant corresponding changes in the fecal excretion of saturated fatty acids. Fecal excretion of saturated fatty acids was associated with significant changes in some plsma fatty acids. Interesterification in lard resulted in significantly lower plasma triglycerides, and in palm oil, increased platelet aggregation induced by ADP. Lipemia, platelet aggregation and associated plasma fatty acids (palmitic, heneicosanoic and docosahexaenoic acids) were significantly affected only by dietary fatty acids at the sn-2 position. Even without changes in absorption, only linoleic acid in position 2 was correlated with the plasma concentration of the corresponding longer chain arachidonic acid. These results in rats confirm that the fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) in position 2 of dietary triglycerides play a crucial role in the metabolism and biologic effects of these fatty acids.
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Four lignans, boehmenan H [2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamoyloxy)propyl]-3-hydroxymethyl-7-methoxybenzodihydrofuran], boehmenan K [2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-[3-(4-hydroxycinnamoyloxy)-1-propenyl]-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamoyloxymethyl)-7-methoxybenzodihydrofuran], threo-carolignan H [threo-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamoyloxy)propyl]-2-methoxyphenoxy]-1,3-propanodiol], and threo-carolignan K [threo-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamoyloxy)-2-[4-[3-(4-hydroxycinnamoyloxy)-1-propenyl]-2-methoxyphenoxy]-1-propanol] as well as several other lignans, aldehydes and a tyramine derivative were isolated from the acetone extract of core of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus). All the structures were established by spectroscopic methods. The hitherto unreported 13C NMR spectra of some compounds are also presented and discussed. 2D NMR techniques have allowed the revision of certain previously reported 13C NMR assignments of some scarce naturally occurring compounds.
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Two new acyclic phenylpropane lignanamides, grossamide K and erythro-canabisine H, and the naphthol glucoside 2,5-dimethyl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylnaphthol, along with six known compounds were isolated from the acetone extract of bark of Hibiscus cannabinus. All structures were established by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques, which allowed the correction of certain previously reported 13C NMR assignments of grossamide.
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The present study quantitatively investigated the antioxidant effects of the aqueous extracts from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa LINN. (roselle) in vitro using rat low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Formations of the conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) were monitored as markers of the early and later stages of the oxidation of LDL, respectively. Thus, we demonstrated that the dried calyx extracts of roselle exhibits strong antioxidant activity in Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation of LDL (p<0.05) in vitro. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on LDL oxidation was dose-dependent at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 5 mg/ml. Moreover, 5 mg/ml of roselle inhibited TBARs-formation with greater potency than 100 microM of vitamin E. In conclusion, this study provides a quantitative insight into the potent antioxidant effect of roselle in vitro.
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Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is an edible medicinal plant, indigenous to India, China and Thailand and is used in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. Alcoholic extract of HS leaves (HSEt) was studied for its anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant effects in brain tissues of ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Oral administration of HSEt (250 mg kg(-1) body weight) significantly normalizes the levels of ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine and non-protein nitrogen in the blood. HSEt significantly reduced brain levels of lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HP). However, the administered extract significantly increased the levels of antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in brain tissues of hyperammonemic rats. This investigation demonstrates significant anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant activity of HS.
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Context: The association of body mass index (BMI) with cause-specific mortality has not been reported for the US population. Objective: To estimate cause-specific excess deaths associated with underweight (BMI <18.5), overweight (BMI 25-<30), and obesity (BMI > or =30). Design, setting, and participants: Cause-specific relative risks of mortality from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) I, 1971-1975; II, 1976-1980; and III, 1988-1994, with mortality follow-up through 2000 (571,042 person-years of follow-up) were combined with data on BMI and other covariates from NHANES 1999-2002 with underlying cause of death information for 2.3 million adults 25 years and older from 2004 vital statistics data for the United States. Main outcome measures: Cause-specific excess deaths in 2004 by BMI levels for categories of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and all other causes (noncancer, non-CVD causes). Results: Based on total follow-up, underweight was associated with significantly increased mortality from noncancer, non-CVD causes (23,455 excess deaths; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11,848 to 35,061) but not associated with cancer or CVD mortality. Overweight was associated with significantly decreased mortality from noncancer, non-CVD causes (-69 299 excess deaths; 95% CI, -100 702 to -37 897) but not associated with cancer or CVD mortality. Obesity was associated with significantly increased CVD mortality (112,159 excess deaths; 95% CI, 87,842 to 136,476) but not associated with cancer mortality or with noncancer, non-CVD mortality. In further analyses, overweight and obesity combined were associated with increased mortality from diabetes and kidney disease (61 248 excess deaths; 95% CI, 49 685 to 72,811) and decreased mortality from other noncancer, non-CVD causes (-105,572 excess deaths; 95% CI, -161 816 to -49,328). Obesity was associated with increased mortality from cancers considered obesity-related (13,839 excess deaths; 95% CI, 1920 to 25,758) but not associated with mortality from other cancers. Comparisons across surveys suggested a decrease in the association of obesity with CVD mortality over time. Conclusions: The BMI-mortality association varies by cause of death. These results help to clarify the associations of BMI with all-cause mortality.
Article
Hibiscus sabdariffa is known for delicacy and also for medicinal properties. The present paper deals to study the phytochemical screening of Hibiscus sabdariffa for various medicinally important compounds and their quantification. In the present investigation it was found that phenols, alkaloids, tannins, flavanoids, Saponin are present in leaves, stem and root of the plant. TLC analysis also confirmed these results. Quantitative analysis of stem leaves and root shows best results in which phenolics have been found to be present more in leaf of the plant. However, alkaloids are present in all parts of the plant.
Article
Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn, is an annual herbaceous shrub, cultivated for its flowers although leaves and seeds have also been used in traditional medicine. The calyces of the plant are used as a refrigerant in the form of tea, to make jellies and jams. The plant is reported to contain proteins, fats, carbohydrates, flavonoids, acids, minerals and vitamins. The plant has been reported to have antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic, anticancer and antioxidant properties. The present paper is an overview on its phytochemical and pharmacological properties reported in the literature.
Article
In order to find new pancreatic lipase (PL) and α-amylase inhibitors from natural sources for the treatment of obesity and related diseases as diabetes mellitus II, 23 medicinal plants with weight-reducing, serum glucose-reducing or related potential were investigated. Methanolic and water extracts of the plants were evaluated by using two in vitro test systems. Our findings have shown that the methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) showed high inhibitory activities to PL (IC50 : 35.8 ± 0.8 µg/mL) and α-amylase (IC50 : 29.3 ± 0.5 µg/mL). Furthermore, the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae) showed a high anti-lipase (IC50 : 152.0 ± 7.0 µg/mL) and the aqueous extract a high anti-amylase (IC50 : 139.4 ± 9.0 µg/mL) activity. This work provides a priority list of interesting plants for further study with respect to the treatment of obesity and associated diseases. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), a plant long used as a soft drink and medical herb in Taiwan, has been found to reduce blood lipids in animals. To investigate the cholesterol-lowering potential of H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) in human subjects, a clinical study was conducted using an oral preparation of HSE capsules. The study consisted of 42 volunteers who were observed over a period of 4 weeks. The volunteers ranged from 18 to 75 years old with a cholesterol level of 175 to 327 mg/dL. Subjects were randomly assigned to 3 groups: group I (1 capsule of HSE during each meal), group II (2 capsules), and group III (3 capsules). Serum cholesterol levels were determined at baseline before the study commenced and at 2 and 4 weeks of the treatment period. In general, taking HSE led to a significant decrease in serum cholesterol level in subjects from groups I and II after 4 weeks. After HSE had been administered for 2 weeks, serum cholesterol levels were found to be lower in all groups (P < .05 for groups I-III) compared with baseline values by 7.8% to 8.2%. A similar response was observed, a reduction in serum cholesterol level by 8.3% to 14.4%, after 4 weeks of taking the supplement. It is important to note that the serum cholesterol level for 71% of group II volunteers was significantly lowered with a mean reduction of 12% (P < .05). We conclude that a dosage of 2 capsules of HSE (with a meal) for 1 month can significantly lower the serum cholesterol level. The observation of lowered serum cholesterol in these subjects suggests that HSE may be effective in hypercholesterolemic patients.
Article
Abstract This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of two varieties (red and white) of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) calyces on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), with the aim of providing the possible mechanism for their antidiabetes properties. Aqueous extracts were prepared (1:100 w/v) and the supernatant used for the analysis. The extracts caused inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in vitro.The IC(50) revealed that the red variety (25.2 μg/mL) exhibited higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than the white variety (47.4 μg/mL), while the white variety (90.5 μg/mL) exhibited higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than the red variety (187.9 μg/mL). However, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of both calyces were higher than that of their α-amylase. In addition, the red variety possessed higher antioxidant capacity as exemplified by the (•)OH scavenging abilities, Fe(2+) chelating ability, and inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced pancreatic lipid peroxidation in vitro. The enzyme inhibitory activities and antioxidant properties of the roselle extracts agreed with their phenolic content. Hence, inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, coupled with strong antioxidant properties could be the possible underlying mechanism for the antidiabetes properties of H. sabdariffa calyces; however, the red variety appeared to be more potent.
Article
In the United States, obesity among adults and overweight among children and adolescents have increased markedly since 1980. Among adults, obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or greater. Among children and adolescents, overweight is defined as a body mass index for age at or above the 95th percentile of a specified reference population. In 2003-2004, 32.9% of adults 20-74 years old were obese and more than 17% of teenagers (age, 12-19 y) were overweight. Obesity varies by age and sex, and by race-ethnic group among adult women. A higher body weight is associated with an increased incidence of a number of conditions, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and with an increased risk of disability. Obesity is associated with a modestly increased risk of all-cause mortality. However, the net effect of overweight and obesity on morbidity and mortality is difficult to quantify. It is likely that a gene-environment interaction, in which genetically susceptible individuals respond to an environment with increased availability of palatable energy-dense foods and reduced opportunities for energy expenditure, contributes to the current high prevalence of obesity. Evidence suggests that even without reaching an ideal weight, a moderate amount of weight loss can be beneficial in terms of reducing levels of some risk factors, such as blood pressure. Many studies of dietary and behavioral treatments, however, have shown that maintenance of weight loss is difficult. The social and economic costs of obesity and of attempts to prevent or to treat obesity are high
Article
Hibiscus sabdariffa L extract (HSE) is an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L flowers that is used as a local soft drink and medical herb in Taiwan. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been shown to increase the incidence of atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the antioxidative activity of HSE on LDL oxidation by examining relative electrophoretic mobilities (REM) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The data revealed an inhibitory effect of HSE on Cu2+-mediated REM and TBARS. HSE exhibited a remarkable ability to reduce cholesterol degradation and ApoB fragmentation. Overall, HSE showed a high potency to inhibit the production of oxidized LDL induced by copper and, specifically, to reduce serum triglycerides in high-fructose diet (HFD) fed rats and serum cholesterol in high-cholesterol diet (HCD) fed animals. The levels of LDL and the ratio of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) to HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were reduced by HSE in both hyperlipidaemia models. Based on these findings, we suggest that HSE may be used to inhibit LDL oxidation and to prevent various types of hyperlipidaemia in HFD- or HCD-fed rats. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
The antioxidant activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of three varieties of sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa), as well as their potential for reducing blood viscosity, were studied in vitro. The samples screened were two red [(traditional red (TRED) and early bearing red (ERED)] and one white (WHTE) mature Hibiscus varieties. Antioxidant activity was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy using a model liposome system. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity was measured using cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) enzymes by monitoring the rate of oxygen uptake in prostaglandin synthesis. Antioxidant activity was the highest overall in the red varieties compared to the white. The methanol extract from the three varieties had the highest activity. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the three varieties of sorrel showed higher COX-1 enzyme inhibition than COX-2 and therefore had high potential to decrease blood viscosity. There was no COX-1 or COX-2 inhibition in the hexane extract. These findings support the ethnomedicinal use of H. sabdariffa in Africa and the Caribbean for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and hypertension.
Article
Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) was shown to lower the plasma lipid level and reduce the liver damage. In the present study, we investigated if Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols (HPE) exerted a hypolipidemic effect and its putative mechanism on liver. HPE exhibited more potency to decrease plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol than the crude extract HSE, and increased HDL cholesterol dose-dependently. It decreased the lipid content of hepatocyte through the activation of AMPK and reduction of SREBP-1, thus inhibiting the expression of fatty acid synthase and HMG-CoA reductase. LDLR and LDL binding of HepG2 cells were enhanced when treated with HPE. In conclusion, HPE is worthy of being further investigated and could be developed as an adjunctive for hepatic lipid control and hypolipidemic therapy.
Article
Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of the extracts of leaves and calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were investigated by studying their in vitro inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation and in vivo effects on cholesterol induced hyperlipidemia. Highest antioxidant activity was exhibited by ethanolic extract of calyces followed by ethanolic extract of leaves followed by aqueous extract of leaves of H. sabdariffa. In cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic model, groups of rats treated with extracts of calyces and leaves of H. sabdariffa showed a significant decrease in the serum TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TAG values alongwith an increase in serum HDL-C levels. The treated groups also showed significant decrease in the atherogenic index, LDL-C: HDL-C risk ratios, and in the levels of SGOT, SGPT and ALP activities compared to cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic control group. Significant antihyperlipidemic activity was shown by ethanolic extract of calyces, followed by ethanolic extract of leaves. It was observed from the histopathological findings that rats fed with H. sabdariffa extracts showed decrease in granular degeneration caused by cholesterol feedings. Results suggest that the ethanolic extracts of calyces and leaves of H. sabdarifa containing polyphenols and flavanols possess significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities.
Article
In summary, an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure can explain approximately 80% of the variance in body weight gain in this dietary model of obesity. Several metabolic variables appear to contribute to differences in energy balance. A high RQ and an inappropriate suppression of glucose production by insulin appear to be linked to the increase in energy intake that occurs when obesity-prone rats are provided with the high-fat diet. In addition, early tissue enzymatic differences in obesity-prone versus obesity-resistant rats may contribute to differences in energy expenditure and/or to differences in nutrient partitioning. In this dietary model, susceptibility to dietary obesity involves a metabolic environment that includes a high RQ and a reduced ability of insulin to suppress glucose appearance (FIG. 9). However, this environment does not lead to obesity nor to a measurable difference in body weight gain when the susceptible rats are eating a low-fat diet. The high-fat diet is a necessary catalyst for the observed variability in body weight gain and the development of obesity. As a catalyst, the high-fat diet results in an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure in some, but not all, rats. This imbalance interacts with the permissive metabolic environment (tissue enzymatic profile favoring carbohydrate utilization and lipid storage) to produce obesity on the high-fat diet. Later, in the HFD feeding period, the rate of weight gain is not significantly different between OP and OR rats, although net fat accumulation remains greater in the former group. It is interesting that this later period is characterized by a reduction in the difference in both RQ and energy intake between OP and OR rats. Thus, during the later stages of HFD feeding, the discrepancy in both energy balance and nutrient balance between OP and OR rats is reduced. This dietary model of obesity is relevant to human obesity. While the prevalence of obesity is high, the majority of people are not obese. The high prevalence of obesity may be due to environmental catalysts that interact with inherent behavioral and metabolic characteristics that favor nutrient retention. Resistance to obesity can be achieved by avoiding these environmental catalysts, by having inherent characteristics that prevent nutrient retention, or both. Our work suggests that the complete understanding of obesity will require not only the identification and functional significance of the genes that determine the inherent capacity of the behavioral and metabolic systems, but also the role of environmental catalysts in determining where and how these systems operate.
Article
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid [(-)-HCA] is the principal acid of fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia, Garcinia indica, and Garcinia atroviridis. (-)-HCA was shown to be a potent inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.8), which catalyzes the extramitochondrial cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA: citrate + ATP + CoA --> acetyl-CoA + ADP + P(i) + oxaloacetate. The inhibition of this reaction limits the availability of acetyl-CoA units required for fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis during a lipogenic diet, that is, a diet high in carbohydrates. Extensive animal studies indicated that (-)-HCA suppresses the fatty acid synthesis, lipogenesis, food intake, and induced weight loss. In vitro studies revealed the inhibitions of fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis from various precursors. However, a few clinical studies have shown controversial findings. This review explores the literature on a number of topics: the source of (-)-HCA; the discovery of (-)-HCA; the isolation, stereochemistry, properties, methods of estimation, and derivatives of (-)-HCA; and its biochemistry, which includes inhibition of the citrate cleavage enzyme, effects on fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis, effects on ketogenesis, other biological effects, possible modes of action on the reduction of food intake, promotion of glycogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and lipid oxidation, (-)-HCA as weight-controlling agent, and some possible concerns about (-)-HCA, which provides a coherent presentation of scattered literature on (-)-HCA and its plausible mechanism of action and is provocative of further research.
Article
The effects of a mixture of the Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin (SRCD) on the development of obesity were examined. We studied the effects of SRCD on the elevation of plasma triacylglycerol levels induced by oral administration of a high-fat (HF) liquid diet to male Sprague-Dawley rats. The plasma triacylglycerol concentration was significantly lower in the SRCD-treated rats than in the control rats 4 h after HF diet administration (P<0.05). In a study of female C57BL/6 mice that consumed a solid HF diet containing 0, 0.2 or 0.5% SRCD ad libitum for 8 wk, the increases in body weight and visceral fat mass were less in those fed the diet supplemented with 0.5% SRCD than in those fed the HF diet (P<0.05). In male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a solid HF diet with or without 0.2% SRCD and restricted in energy intake to that of rats fed a normal diet for 35 d, the increases in body weight and visceral fat mass were smaller in the SRCD-supplemented rats (P<0.05). In addition, the energy efficiency and the plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations were lower in the mice and rats that were administered SRCD than in those fed the HF diet alone (P<0.05). The inhibitory effects of SRCD on HF diet-induced obesity may be attributable to the inhibition of carbohydrate and lipid absorption from the small intestine. Therefore, SRCD may suppress the accumulation of visceral fat and the glucose intolerance that accompany this type of obesity.
Article
Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a tropical beverage material and medical herb, is used commonly as in folk medicines against hypertension, pyrexia, inflammation, liver disorders, and obesity. This report was designed to investigate the inhibitory mechanisms of hibiscus extract on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The possible inhibitory pathways that regulate the adipocyte differentiation contain the adipogenic transcription factors, C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma, PI3-kinase, and MAPK pathway. In this study, we examined whether hibiscus extract affected the adipogenesis via these three pathways. To differentiate preadipocyte in adipocyte, confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with the hormone mixture including isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). Hibiscus extract inhibited significantly the lipid droplet accumulation by MDI in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated dramatically the protein and mRNA expressions of adipogenic transcriptional factors, C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma, during adipogenesis. The increase of phosphorylation and expression of PI3-K/Akt during adipocytic differentiation was markedly inhibited by treatment with hibiscus extract or PI3-K inhibitors. Furthermore, the phosphorylation and expression of MEK-1/ERK known to regulate the early phase of adipogenesis were clearly decreased with the addition of hibiscus extract. Taken together, this report suggests that hibiscus extract inhibits the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of PI3-K/Akt and ERK pathway that play pivotal roles during adipogenesis.
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A 44-year-old woman desires weight reduction. She has a history of hypertension, daytime somnolence, and osteoarthritis. Her weight is 215 lb (98 kg), her waist circumference is 40 in. (102 cm), and her body-mass index is 32.7. Her blood pressure is 140/92 mm Hg. What would you advise?
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