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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators and shading on seed germination of macadamia nut trees. The experiment was conducted in a seedling production nursery of the company "QueenNut Macadâmia" located in the "Palmeiras" Farm, Dois Córregos, São Paulo (SP) state, Brazil. The Treatments were T1: water (control) under a shading screen, T2: GA4+7 + N-(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine (Promalin®) at 200 mL L⁻¹ under a shading screen, T3: Promalin® at 400 mL L⁻¹ under a shading screen, T4: gibberellic acid (GA3) + kinetin (Kt) + 3- indolebutyric acid (IBA) - Stimulate® at 5 mL kg⁻¹ seeds under a shading screen, T5: Stimulate® at 10 mL kg⁻¹ of seeds under a shading screen, and T6: water (control) under no shading screen. Seeds were soaked in the solutions or in water containing plant growth regulators for 24 hours. Then, they were dried and sown in sand. 450 seeds were used for each treatment. The evaluations began from seedling emergence by counting the total number of seedlings per treatment. A high average of macadamia nut tree seedling emergence was obtained in the treatments GA4+7 + N-(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine (Promalin®) 400 mL L⁻¹ with Sombrite® (75.7%), GA4+7 + N-(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine (Promalin®) 200 mL L-1 (72.6%) Sombrite® and water (control) without Sombrite® (71.5%). © 2016, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights reserved.
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1263
Original Article
Biosci. J., Uberlândia, v. 32, n. 5, p. 1263-1268, Sept./Oct. 2016
PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND SHADE ON EMERGENCE IN
MACADAMIA NUT TREE
REGULADORES VEGETAIS E SOMBREAMENTO NA EMERGÊNCIA DE
PLÂNTULAS DE MACADÂMIA
Renata Cristina Berchol da Silva GARBELINI
1
; Elizabeth Orika ONO
2
;
João Domingos RODRIGUES
2
; Elisangela Clarete CAMILI
3
;
Antonio Renan Berchol da SILVA
3
1. Bióloga, Doutora, Egressa do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas (Botânica) Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio
de Mesquita Filho” - UNESP, Campus de Botucatu, SP, Brasil. renatagarbelini@hotmail.com; 2. Professores, Doutores, Universidade
Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” - UNESP, Campus de Botucatu, SP, Brasil; 3. Professores, Doutores, Universidade Federal
de Mato Grosso - UFMT, Campus de Cuiabá, MT, Brasil.
ABSTRACT:
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators and shading on seed
germination of macadamia nut trees. The experiment was conducted in a seedling production nursery of the company
“QueenNut Macadâmia” located in the “Palmeiras” Farm, Dois Córregos, São Paulo (SP) state, Brazil. The Treatments
were T1: water (control) under a shading screen, T2: GA
4+7
+ N-(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine (Promalin
®
) at 200 mL L
-1
under a shading screen, T3: Promalin
®
at 400 mL L
-1
under a shading screen, T4: gibberellic acid (GA
3
) + kinetin (Kt) + 3-
indolebutyric acid (IBA) Stimulate
®
at 5 mL kg
-1
seeds under a shading screen, T5: Stimulate
®
at 10 mL kg
-1
of seeds
under a shading screen, and T6: water (control) under no shading screen. Seeds were soaked in the solutions or in water
containing plant growth regulators for 24 hours. Then, they were dried and sown in sand. 450 seeds were used for each
treatment. The evaluations began from seedling emergence by counting the total number of seedlings per treatment. A high
average of macadamia nut tree seedling emergence was obtained in the treatments GA
4+7
+ N-(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine
(Promalin
®
) 400 mL L
-1
with Sombrite
®
(75.7%), GA
4+7
+ N-(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine (Promalin
®
) 200 mL L
-1
(72.6%) Sombrite
®
and water (control) without Sombrite
®
(71.5%).
KEYWORDS:
Macadamia integrifolia. Gibberellins. Cytikinins.
INTRODUCTION
The macadamia nut is native species from
Australia. It belongs to the family Proteaceae.
Among the ten species of the genus Macadamia,
which produces edible nuts, the species with the
highest quality is Macadamia integrifolia
(BITTENCOURT, 1965).
Macadamia was brought to Brazil in 1935
to the region of Limeira, São Paulo state, by
Dierberger. The production of seedlings for sale
thus began (DIERBERGE; MARINO NETO, 1985).
Due to a good adaptation and the production
of commercially valuable nuts, macadamia has a
great production potential to São Paulo and national
agriculture (OJIMA, 1983).
Brazil is the fifth country regarding the
number of planted macadamia trees and the seventh
regarding production due to the fact that such plants
are young if compared to countries such as Australia
and Hawaii, the largest producers. Approximately
70-80% of the national production of macadamia
nuts is intended for export mainly due to the lack of
Brazilian consumers (ASSOCIAÇÃO
BRASILEIRA DE NOZ MACADÂMIA, 2005).
Macadamia can be considered one of the
finest nuts in the world. It has a delicate taste and
texture and multiple uses (BUENO, 2009). It can be
consumed fresh or as processed foods such as cakes,
cookies, chocolates and ice cream (STEPHENSON,
2005). Its oil can be extracted and used in the
cosmetic industry as a basis for the manufacture of
creams, soap and moisturizers (TOLEDO PIZA,
2000).
The process of spreading macadamia nuts is
performed by seeds, forming both ungrafted
seedlings and rootstock. However, it has been
suggested that graft propagation is more
economically advantageous (ANDERSEN et al.,
1979; CANN, 1965).
However, the time between seed
germination and formation of rootstocks can be
more than 120 days after sowing. In this sense, the
use of plant growth regulators may be an alternative
to reduce the time required for the production of
seedling, which is 18 months on average.
With the discovery of the effects of
regulators on crops and the benefits provided by
these substances, many compounds and
combinations of them have been studied aiming to
Received: 03/02/16
Accepted: 06/06/16
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Plant growth regulators and shade… GARBELINI, R. C. B. S.et al.
Biosci. J., Uberlândia, v. 32, n. 5, p. 1263-1268, Sept./Oct. 2016
improve qualitatively and quantitatively crop yields
(VIEIRA, 2001).
Auxins have a characteristic action on cell
growth. They act directly by increasing the plasticity
of cell walls providing an irreversible stretch. The
gibberellic acid has a marked effect on the seed
germination process, activating the synthesis of
hydrolytic enzymes that operate in the deployment
of reserve substances. It also induces cell elongation
and cell division. Since cytokinins have a great
ability to promote cell division, they participate in
elongation and differentiation processes, especially
when interacting with auxins (VIEIRA;
MONTEIRO, 2002).
According to Davies (2004), plant
regulatory substances may act alone or in
combination, promoting, inhibiting or modifying
physiological and morphological processes of
plants. These compounds have been used in various
crops such as grapes, soybeans, orange, mango and
beans (VIEIRA; CASTRO, 2004).
Arteca (1995) states that germination can be
defined as a series of events that occur when a seed
is soaked into water, resulting in an increased
metabolic activity and provoking the emergence of
the embryo. For this process to happen, seed
viability and appropriate environmental conditions
should be considered (availability of water, proper
temperature, oxygen, and, in some cases, the effect
of light).
The present study aimed to study the effect
of the application of plant growth regulators and
shading on the emergence of ALOHA 10-14
macadamia used as rootstock and improve the
physiological conditions of the plant.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The experiment was conducted in a
macadamia seedling nursery of the Macadamia
QueenNut company at the farm “Palmeiras” in Dois
Córregos, central region of São Paulo. The city is
located at 22°22' S and 48°20' W at 650 m asl, with
an average annual temperature of 25°C, relative
humidity of 70% and rainfall of 1,250 mm.
The seeds of the species M. integrifolia,
cultivar ALOHA 10-14, used as rootstock, were
collected from a commercial orchard with
approximately 14 years of age. The seeds were
collected after natural fall, that is, on the floor, and
taken to remove the carpel. After weighing, the
result was approximately 153 seeds per kilo.
The treatments were T1: water (control
under Sombrite
®
- shade cloth), T2: GA
4+7
+ N-
(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine (Promalin
®
) 200 mL L
-
1
, T3: Promalin
®
400 mL L
-1
, T4: GA
3
+ IBA + Kt
(Stimulate
®
) 5 mL kg
-1
seeds; T5: Stimulate
®
10 mL
kg
-1
seeds, and T6: water (control, without
Sombrite
®
).
Seeds were soaked for 24 hours as normally
used in farms. In the T1 and T6 treatments, the
seeds were soaked in water only. In the T2 and T3
treatments, seeds were soaked in a solution
containing Promalin
®
. In the T4 and T5 treatments,
after soaking in water, seeds were rinsed, dried and
received doses of Stimulate
®
. Seeds were then
stirred in a closed vessel to obtain a blend
uniformity.
The seeds of the treatments T1, T2, T3, T4
and T5 were sown in sand and covered with a shade
cloth (Sombrite
®
) at 70%, a practice commonly
used. T6 seeds were sown without the shade cloth.
A mixture of GA
4+7
+ N-(phenylmethyl)-
aminopurine, contained in the commercial product
Promalin
®
, was used. It contained 1.8% of
GA
4
+GA
7
and 1.8% of N-(phenylmethyl)-
aminopurine. The mixture gibberellic acid (GA
3
) +
kinetin (Kt) + indole butyiric acid (IBA), contained
in the commercial product Stimulate
®
, was used. It
contained 90 mg L
-1
of Kt, 50 mg L
-1
of IBA and 50
mg L
-1
of GA
3
.
After the treatment, the seeds were dried for
one day and sowed in a sand bank 1 m wide, 15 m
long and 10 cm deep. Seeds were arranged in a 5 cm
spacing. Seeds were 3 cm apart. The seeds were
covered with a layer of approximately 1 cm of sand.
In all treatments, the substrate was daily and
uniformly moistened. The irrigation system was
microsprinkler. The manual removal of weeds was
performed when necessary.
The treatments were observed daily. From
seedling emergence, evaluations performed by
counting seeds and emerged seedlings every two
days per treatment began. A seedling that presented
cotyledons out of the substrate was considered
emerged. With this data, we obtained the average
percentage of seedling emergence.
The process of emergence of macadamia
seedlings was monitored until 140 days after
emergence. After, the process stabilized.
The experiment was completely randomized
with nine replications with fifty seeds each
treatment. The results were submitted to analysis of
variance. To compare means, we used the Tukey
test at 5% probability.
The logistic model, setting as variables
seedling and time, was used for the statistical
analysis of the data using the procedure “proc nlin”
of the software SAS.
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Plant growth regulators and shade… GARBELINI, R. C. B. S.et al.
Biosci. J., Uberlândia, v. 32, n. 5, p. 1263-1268, Sept./Oct. 2016
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The emergence of macadamia seedlings is
slow. The first seedling emerged at 45 days after
sowing, continuing up to 140 days. These results
agree with those reported by Ojima et al. (1976) and
Simão (1971), who also evaluated the germination
of macadamia seeds.
Figure 1 shows the behavior of macadamia
seedling emergence under different treatments. Plant
growth regulators and time were related from the
eighth day after emergence (DAE) when seedlings
emerged in all treatments.
Figure 1. Logistics setting regarding the number of macadamia seedlings (Macadamia integrifolia) emerged
after treatment with plant growth regulators in function of time. Dois Córregos⁄SP.
It was found that T3 provided the highest
number of emerged seedlings (GA
4+7
+ N-
(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine (Promalin
®
) 400 mL L
-
1
with shading), totaling 341 emerged seedlings
(75.7%). In the T2 (GA
4+7
+ N-(phenylmethyl)-
aminopurine (Promalin
®
) 200 mL L
-1
with shading),
327 seedlings emerged (72.6%) followed by T6
(water (control) without shading), with 322
seedlings emerged (71.5%).
Consequently, the treatments T2, T3 and T6
showed the best results for percentage of seedling
emergence (Figure 1).
The results of the T6 treatment (without
shading, control) were very close to treatments with
the application of growth regulators. Thus, the mere
leaving of seeds exposed to the sun, without
protective screens, may increase the percentage of
emergence of macadamia seedlings.
The results are similar to those reported by
Ono et al. (1996), who studied the application of
GA
4+7
+ N-(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine to
macadamia seeds. The authors found an increase in
the percentage of germination of treated seeds.
Moreover, these results agree with those
found by Ferreira et al. (2002) for Annona
squamosa, subsequently verified by Picolotto et al.
(2007), regarding the germination of peach seeds.
Braga (2008) studied the effects of GA
4+7
+ N-
(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine on atemoya plants.
Zucareli (2007) also studied the germination
of Passiflora cincinnata and found that the growth
regulator GA
4+7
+ N-(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine
promotes an increase in germination and emergence
and seedling development.
The positive effects of GA
4+7
+ N-
(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine on macadamia
seedling emergence was probably due to the action
of known gibberellins on seed germination. Such
substances may stimulate germination.
Consequently, emergence due to the formation or
activation of enzymes involved in the breakdown of
reserves contained in the seeds provides the embryo
with such reserves. This stimulates the growth
thereof. On the other hand, cytokinins may have
acted in cell division stimulating the growth of
seedlings. Taiz and Zeiger (2009) reported that the
germination of seeds may require gibberellins for
the activation of the embryo vegetative growth or
the breakdown of the endosperm layer surrounding
the embryo, restricting its growth by mobilizing
energy reserves in the endosperm.
According to Coll et al. (2001), factors such
as light, temperature and other hormones influence
the levels of gibberellins in plants.
The result obtained for the T6 treatment
(water without shading) may be associated with the
presence of light and the interference of
temperature. It is known that such environmental
factors influence speed, uniformity and total number
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Plant growth regulators and shade… GARBELINI, R. C. B. S.et al.
Biosci. J., Uberlândia, v. 32, n. 5, p. 1263-1268, Sept./Oct. 2016
of germinated seeds (CARVALHO; NAKAGAWA,
2012). Ferraz-Grande and Takaki (2006) reported
that the response or sensitivity of seeds to light is
specific to each species.
The response to light varies depending on
the species. It may photoblastic positive, negative or
neutral. The phytochrome is thus responsible for
obtaining light signals that will or will not trigger
the germination of seeds (CASAL; SANCHÉZ,
1998; FERREIRA; BORGETTI, 2004). The
promotion or inhibition of germination by light is
the result of a photo-reversible chemical reaction
controlled by the phytochrome, a protein-based
pigment found in plants in two interconvertible
forms. The exposure of seeds to red light (660 nm)
transforms the phytochrome into its biologically
active form and germination occurs. The absorption
of far-red light (730 nm) transforms the
phytochrome into the red phytochrome form and
germination is blocked (TAIZ; ZEIGER, 2009).
According to the results of this study, it is
proposed that light, temperature and use of
gibberellins may encourage the emergence of
macadamia seedlings. The best results were
obtained with these variables. We can then propose
to the producer planting seedlings without using a
shade cloth as an alternative to encourage the
emergence and avoid unnecessary production costs
and the additional use of a regulated Promalin
®
product for macadamia.
In T4 and T5 treatments, which used GA
3
regulators + IBA + Kt (Stimulate
®
) and 5 to 10 mL
kg
-1
of seeds, respectively, there were lower
emergence rates. A higher dose of the same product
(10 mL kg
-1
of seeds) resulted in the lowest
percentage of emergence obtained throughout the
experiment. Probably, such results were obtained
due to the presence of the Stimulate
®
product
(auxin), since root growth is strongly inhibited by
high concentrations of auxin perhaps because auxins
induce the production of ethylene, an inhibitor of
root growth (TAIZ; ZEIGER, 2009).
These results contradict those found by
Prado Neto et al. (2007) studying genipap. In
contrast, the results agree with those found by Braga
(2008) studying the application of plant growth
regulators on the seed germination of atemoya.
According to Vieira and Castro (2004), the
germination process requires an active participation
of the complex machinery of cell synthesis, which
consists of a series of enzymes, factors, cofactors,
hormonal substances such as gibberellin, auxin and
cytokinin, nucleic acids and other factors still little
known, to provide the energy required for the
several germination activities.
CONCLUSIONS
The best results for the emergence of
seedlings of the cultivar ALOHA 10-14 M.
integrifolia, aiming the precocity and the
improvement of the physiological conditions of
plants, were obtained with the treatment GA
4+7
+ N-
(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine 400 mL L
-1
.
It is recommended the macadamia seeds be
planted in flower beds under a full sun as to
stimulate seedling emergence and avoid the use of a
shade cloth.
RESUMO:
Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos de reguladores vegetais e sombreamento na emergência de
plântulas de macadâmia. O experimento foi conduzido no viveiro de produção de mudas de macadâmia da empresa
QueenNut Macadâmia, na Fazenda Palmeiras no município de Dois Córregos-SP. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: T1.
água (testemunha) com Sombrite®, T2. GA
4+7
+ N-(fenilmetil)-aminopurina (Promalin®) a 200 mL L
-1
com Sombrite®,
T3. Promalin® a 400 mL L
-1
com Sombrite®, T4. GA
3
+ IBA + Kt – Stimulate® a 5 mL kg
-1
sementes com Sombrite®,
T5. Stimulate® a 10 mL kg
-1
sementes com Sombrite® e T6. água (testemunha) sem Sombrite®. As sementes foram
embebidas em água ou nas soluções contendo os reguladores vegetais durante 24h, secas à sombra e semeadas em
sementeiras de areia. Foram utilizadas 450 sementes em cada tratamento. A partir da emergência das plântulas foram
iniciadas as avaliações, realizadas através da contagem do número total de plântulas emergidas por tratamento. Os
melhores resultados na emergência de plântulas de macadâmia foram obtidos nos tratamentos com GA
4+7
+ N-(fenilmetil)-
aminopurina (Promalin®) a 400 mL L
-1
com Sombrite® (75,7%), GA
4+7
+ N-(fenilmetil)-aminopurina (Promalin®) a 200
mL L
-1
(72,6%)
com Sombrite® e água (testemunha) sem Sombrite® (71,5%).
PALAVRAS CHAVE: Macadamia integrifolia. Giberelinas. Citocininas.
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reguladores vegetais. 2007. 103f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências Biológicas) - Instituto de Biociências,
Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, 2007.
... This shows that M. integrifolia seeds need a long time to germinate. Other studies show that the germination process of macadamia seeds without scarification takes 45 to 140 days to achieve stable germination with a percentage of 71.5% [8]. ...
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Macadamia integrifolia is an exotic species in Indonesia. However, based on planting trials in Lake Toba, this species also well adapted on critical land dominated by Imperata cylindrica and produce high economic value fruits, so that potential as a forest and land rehabilitation tree species and community development. Unfortunately, the information on its seed handling for propagation still very limited. Therefore, our research was conducted to determine the effect of various storage condition to maintain the seeds viability. Research was designed using factorial in complete randomized design with three factors and 36 treatments. Each experimental unit consisted of 15 seeds. Results on variance analysis showed that, interaction of Natrium benzoate and charcoal powder treatment with different storage periods over 3 months (12 weeks) was significant on germination value and growth rate. The interaction effects with different storage conditions and different storage periods over 3 months was significant on 50 % limit of germination. During storage of seed, storage treatment and storage period play an important role in determining seed viability.
... Menurut Hamilton, (1957a;1957b) dan Storey & Kemper (1960) cited in Hong et al. (1996, perkecambahan pertama dapat muncul dalam waktu 3-4 minggu, bahkan hingga 6 bulan. Hasil penelitian Garbelini, Ono, Domingos, Camili, & da Silva (2016) menunjukkan proses perkecambahan M. integrifolia membutuhkan waktu 45-140 hari. Lamanya proses perkecambahan tersebut disebabkan karena benih makadamia mempunyai kulit biji atau tempurung yang cukup keras. ...
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em>Macadamia can be propagated using seeds. However, the seed is difficult to germinate due to shell hardness. This study aimed to determine the proper combination of seed scarification needed to break the seed coat using rotational soaking and drying at varied temperatures. The experiment was conducted at Manoko Experimental Station and BPTP of West Java from December 2018 to April 2019, used a Randomized Complete Block Design in 15 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments were: (1) water soak (WS) 24<sup>o</sup>C+drying 35<sup>o</sup>C; (2) WS 35<sup>o</sup>C (first day)+WS 24<sup>o</sup>C+drying 35<sup>o</sup>C; (3) WS 50<sup>o</sup>C ( first day)+WS 24<sup>o</sup>C+drying 35<sup>o</sup>C; (4) WS 35<sup>o</sup>C everyday+drying 35<sup>o</sup>C; (5) WS 50<sup>o</sup>C everyday+drying 35<sup>o</sup>C; (6) WS 24<sup>o</sup>C+drying 40<sup>o</sup>C; (7) WS 35<sup>o</sup>C (first day)+WS 24<sup>o</sup>C+drying 40<sup>o</sup>C; (8) WS 50<sup>o</sup>C (first day)+WS 24<sup>o</sup>C+drying 40<sup>o</sup>C; (9) WS 35<sup>o</sup>C everyday+drying 40<sup>o</sup>C; (10) WS 50<sup>o</sup>C every day+drying 40<sup>o</sup>C; (11) WS 24<sup>o</sup>C+drying 45<sup>o</sup>C; (12) WS 35<sup>o</sup>C (first day)+WS 24<sup>o</sup>C+drying 45<sup>o</sup>C; (13) WS 50<sup>o</sup>C (first day)+WS 24<sup>o</sup>C+drying 45<sup>o</sup>C; (14) WS 35<sup>o</sup>C everyday+drying 45<sup>o</sup>C; and (15) WS 50<sup>o</sup>C everyday+drying 45<sup>o</sup>C. Variable observed were moisture content of seeds, rate and percentage of seeds cracking, and length of seeds radicle. The results showed that alternating temperature during soaking and drying affected seed scarification. The fastest seed breaking rate is 3.27 days in soaking at 50<sup>o</sup>C everyday for 18 hours, with 45<sup>o</sup>C drying temperature for 6 hours, the percentage of seed breaking reached 87.67%.</em
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Macadamia is an endemic species in Queensland’s rainforest and known as one of high economical nut producer. In Indonesia, makadamia cultivated in some research garden in West Java and East Java also can be found in Aeknauli Forest Research in Sipiso-piso. As valuable nut producer, macadamia can be adopted as one of targeted species for restoring Lake Toba through agroforestry scheme. For supporting the successfulness of restoring program using macadamia trees, information on species and seed character was needed, especially about its propagation strategy. But this information still very limited in Indonesia. Therefore, our research was conducted to get information on seed morphology of makadamia and it seed germination process. For seed morphology, data on seed part was quantified through direct observation and measurement. The germination process was quantified through direct observation and its occurrence process. The result on seed morphology showed that macadamia fruit was round shape on ripe condition. The fruit has 2.20 cm diameter average and 8.58 of fruit weight. The seed and endosperm thickness were 0.38cm and 1.54 cm respectively. Makadamia has hypogeal germination type and takes 5-6 months for germinating.
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This book is divided in 18 chapters which cover several aspects related to the germination process, beginning with seed development, seed structure, imbibition, germination kinetics, seed metabolism and dormancy. Indeed, ecological topics as seed dispersal, seed bank, seedling development, and seed technology are also included.
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A satisfactory seed germination followed by a promptly seedling formation, for any fruits species, is desired when aiming reductions at nursery production costs. The research aimed to assess the role of plant regulators (cytokinin associated to gibberellin group) on peach seed germination ( Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) without endocarp. It was used seed of cultivars Okinawa, Capdeboscq e Tsukuba. The commercial products applied were Promalina ® (benziladenina + GA 4 + 7 ) and Pro-Gibb ® (GA 3 ) at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L -1 of the active principle. The seeds were set in Petri dishes lined with filter paper previously moistened in an aqueous solution of fungicide and bactericide and kept at room temperature (±21 oC). ‘Capdeboscq’ provided the best results regarding to seed germination and emergence velocity, at all concentrations of both plant regulators. The use of benziladenina + GA 4 + 7 at 200 and 300 mg L -1 provided the highest germination percentage (80,0% and 78,3%, respectively), and highest index of daily germination velocity (0,078 and 0,081, respectively).
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O presente trabalho foi conduzido no laboratório de sementes e casa de vegetação da UNIOESTE -- Câmpus de Marechal Cândido Rondon -- PR, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido giberélico (GA3) na germinação de sementes e na emergência de plântulas de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa L.), em diferentes recipientes, visando à produção de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela embebição das sementes em sete concentrações de ácido giberélico (0; 50; 100; 250; 500; 750 e 1000 mg.L-1), por 5 horas, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. No campo, os tratamentos foram constituídos das sete concentrações de GA3 e dois tipos de embalagens (bandejas de isopor e sacolas de polietileno), com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. As avaliações do laboratório constaram de porcentagem total de sementes germinadas, dormentes e mortas; porcentagem total de plântulas normais e anormais, e índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG) e do campo, pela porcentagem total de plântulas emergidas; índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas (IVE); altura de plântulas e número de folhas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Verificou-se que o GA3 promoveu o incremento na germinação de sementes de Annona squamosa e que as sacolas de polietileno foram mais adequadas do que as bandejas no desenvolvimento das plântulas na fase inicial.
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Plant hormones play a crucial role in controlling the way in which plants grow and develop. While metabolism provides the power and building blocks for plant life, it is the hormones that regulate the speed of growth of the individual parts and integrate them to produce the form that we recognize as a plant. This book is a description of these natural chemicals: how they are synthesized and metabolized, how they act at both the organismal and molecular levels, how we measure them, a description of some of the roles they play in regulating plant growth and development, and the prospects for the genetic engineering of hormone levels or responses in crop plants. This is an updated revision of the third edition of the highly acclaimed text. Thirty-three chapters, including two totally new chapters plus four chapter updates, written by a group of fifty-five international experts, provide the latest information on Plant Hormones, particularly with reference to such new topics as signal transduction, brassinosteroids, responses to disease, and expansins. The book is not a conference proceedings but a selected collection of carefully integrated and illustrated reviews describing our knowledge of plant hormones and the experimental work that is the foundation of this information. The Revised 3rd Edition adds important information that has emerged since the original publication of the 3rd edition. This includes information on the receptors for auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and jasmonates, in addition to new chapters on strigolactones, the branching hormones, and florigen, the flowering hormone. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. All rights reserved.
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The control of seed germination by red and far-red light is one of the earliest documented phytochrome-mediated processes. Phytochrome is now known to be a small family of photoreceptors whose apoproteins are encoded by different genes. Phytochrome B (phyB) is present in dry seeds and affects germination of dark imbibed seeds but other phytochromes could also be involved. Phytochrome A (phyA) appears after several hours of imbibition and mediates very-low-fluence responses. PhyB and other phytochromes different from phyA mediate the classical low-fluence responses. The phytochrome involved in high-irradiance responses of seed germination (inhibition of germination under continuous far-red) has not been unequivocally established, although phyA is the most likely candidate. Phytochrome can affect embryo growth capacity and/or the constraint imposed by the tissues surrounding the embryo. At least in some species, gibberellins participate in the signalling process. In the field, phyA has been implicated in the perception of light during soil cultivations, and phyB would be involved in the perception of red/far-red ratios associated with the presence of gaps in the canopy. This review describes recent advances in phytochrome research, particularly those derived from the analysis of germination in specific mutants, and their connection with traditional observations on phytochrome control of seed germination.
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, T7 - Stimulate ® a 5 mL L -1 e T8 - Stimulate ® a 10 mL L -1 . As sementes foram dispostas sobre folhas de papel toalha previamente umedecidas com água destilada e levadas para o germinador, regulado a 28ºC, avaliando-se porcentagem de germinação, comprimento da raiz, do hipocótilo e total da plântula 21 dias após a semeadura e Índice de Velocidade de Germinação. Não houve efeito da pré-embebição na germinação das sementes com variação entre 89 a 95%. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a pré-embebição de sementes de jenipapo por 12 horas em 4% GA 3 L (50, 100 e 200 mL L -1) e Stimulate ® (10 mL L -1 ), proporcionam maiores índices de velocidade de germinação. O Stimulate ® 10 mL L- 1 , em pré-embebição por 12 horas proporciona maiores comprimentos das raízes e total das plântulas de jenipapo em relação aos demais tratamentos. Termos para indexação: Genipa americana, ácido giberélico, Stimulate ® , crescimento. ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate the genipap (Genipa americana L.) seed germination and its initial seedling growth, submitted to pre-soaking in regulator and vegetal stimulant. It was arranged in a randomized design with four repetitions of 25 seeds and eight treatments, in which seeds were impregnated for 12 hours: T1 - water, T2 Liquid gibberellins 4% GA3 (GA3 4% L) (50 mL L -1 ), T3 (GA3 4% L) (100 mL L -1 ), T4 (GA3 4% L) (200 mL L -1 ), T5 (GA3 4% L) (300 mL L -1 ), T6 (GA3 4% L) (400 mL L -1 ), T7 - Stimulate® (5 mL L -1 ) e T8 - Stimulate® (10 mL L -1 ). The seeds were disposed on a paper, previously wet with distilled water and taken to the germinator chamber adjusted in 28ºC. There were evaluated the germination percentage, roots length, hypocotyls, and seedling 21 days after the seeding and the Germination Velocity Index. The results had shown that the genipap s seed pre-soaking for 12 hours in GA 3 4% L (50, 10 e 200 mL L -1 ) e Stimulate® (10 mL L -1 ), provides a higher germination velocity index. The Stimulate® 10 mL L -1 , in pre-soaking for 12 hours provides a higher root growth and increase the number of genipap seedlings, comparing with others treatments.
Programa Brazilian Macadamia Export. Boletim informativo
  • Associação
  • De
  • Macadâmia
ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NOZ MACADÂMIA. Programa Brazilian Macadamia Export. Boletim informativo. Dois Córregos, 2005. (Trabalho não publicado).