Article

Evaluating the potential benefits of cucumbers for improved health and skin care

Authors:
  • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-University of Tripoli
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Abstract

Epidemiological and nutritional studies indicate that cucumbers, a fruit in the cucurbitaceae family, have numerous benefits internally, externally and even emotionally. As a food, cucumbers offer superior hydration, as they are about 95% water. They have been used for decades for their anti-inflammatory benefits on skin, soothing properties for digestion, and other therapeutic uses. The following contribution offers an overview of cucumbers, specifically, their use to augment cellular water and address common conditions (i.e.: skin discoloration and aging, cardiovascular and cancerous diseases, bone health, inflammation, and connective tissue disorders).

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... The fruits of the cucumber plant C. sativus consist for more than 90% of water [97], and contain, among others, vitamin K, B vitamins, as well as vitamin C and other antioxidants such as β-carotene, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds [98,99]. The high water contents is considered beneficial to the skin [97,100], while the antioxidants may protect the skin from the effects of ageing [101,102]. ...
... The fruits of the cucumber plant C. sativus consist for more than 90% of water [97], and contain, among others, vitamin K, B vitamins, as well as vitamin C and other antioxidants such as β-carotene, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds [98,99]. The high water contents is considered beneficial to the skin [97,100], while the antioxidants may protect the skin from the effects of ageing [101,102]. For these reasons, C. sativus fruits, fruit extracts, fruit water, fruit juice, and seed extracts are abundantly used as skin-conditioning agents and included in numerous cosmetic formulations [97,100,103]. ...
... The high water contents is considered beneficial to the skin [97,100], while the antioxidants may protect the skin from the effects of ageing [101,102]. For these reasons, C. sativus fruits, fruit extracts, fruit water, fruit juice, and seed extracts are abundantly used as skin-conditioning agents and included in numerous cosmetic formulations [97,100,103]. A few are foundations, facial and eye makeup, face and neck products, cleansing products, skin-hydrating products, bath foams, soaps and detergents, facial peel-off masks, hair care products, nail care products, body and hand lotions, and products for skin rejuvenation [97,100,103]. ...
... Many of these antioxidants have been used in making skincare formulations and have contributed to skin rejuvenation [1]. Cucumber extracts, which are rich in vitamins, such as vitamin A and C, and antioxidants, have been proven to have various effects on the skin, such as soothing of irritated skin, moisturization, anti-inflammatory, sebum secretion inhibitory, and melanin synthesis inhibitory effects [2][3][4]. As a superfood for the skin, cucumber extract has been added to various skin care products, such as toner, lotion, and cream. ...
... Even though vitamin C in cucumber extract was lost during fermentation, fermented cucumber extract was compensated with a range of compounds at high concentration, which have significant value in skincare. It can be said that the skincare value of fermented cucumber extract was substantially increased compared to the original cucumber extract that is already wellknown for its benefit [2,3]. ...
... Even though vitamin C in cucumber extract was lost during fermentation, fermented cucumber extract was compensated with a range of compounds at high concentration, which have significant value in skincare. It can be said that the skincare value of fermented cucumber extract was substantially increased compared to the original cucumber extract that is already well-known for its benefit [2,3]. ...
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Magnesium is an essential element involved in various biochemical processes in the human body. In addition to oral supplementation, topical magnesium application is another conventional form of magnesium delivery for the treatment of skin diseases and muscle inflammation. Cucumber extract is a well-known superfood for human skin. It has been widely used in various skincare product lines because of its known benefits to the skin. The benefit of cucumber extract to the human skin would be significantly enhanced if the cucumber extract was fermented to convert the reducing sugars to beneficial organic acids. In this study, we developed a protocol for lactic acid fermentation of cucumber extract using hydromagnesite as a neutralizing agent. Various lactic acid bacteria were screened for fermentation of cucumber extract. The best fermenting performance was observed with Lactobacillus paracasei, which could convert approximately 13 g/L of reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) to lactic acid and a minor amount of acetic acid within 2 days of incubation. The final fermented cucumber extract contains magnesium in the form of salts of organic acids, which have high absorption ability and bioavailability. The product is a potent ingredient for producing dermal magnesium products.
... Karenanya, mentimun banyak dimanfaatkan dalam bidang kuliner, medis, maupun kosmetik (Murad, 2016). Sementara itu, produksi mentimun di Indonesia terus mengalami penurunan seiring dengan berjalannya waktu dengan menyempitnya lahan pertanian (Anonim, 2017). ...
Article
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Penelitian tanggapan pertumbuhan dan hasil mentimun (Cucumis sativus L.) terhadap umur pangkas dan pemberian mulsa di lahan pasir pantai ini dilaksanakan di lahan pasir pantai Samas, tepatnya di Patihan, Gadingsari, Sanden, Bantul, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta yang terletak pada ketinggian 2 hingga 10 m di atas permukaan laut, sebagian wilayahnya sendiri berbatasan langsung dengan pesisir selama bulan Mei hingga Juli 2019. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh umur pangkas dan pemberian mulsa terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil mentimun. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan petak terbagi faktorial 2x4 dengan 3 blok sebagai ulangan. Faktor utama adalah pemulsaan, yaitu dimulsa dan tidak dimulsa, dengan anak faktor berupa umur pangkas pucuk yaitu tanpa dipangkas, dipangkas 14 hst, dipangkas 21 hst, dan dipangkas 28 hst. Data yang didapat kemudian diolah dengan anova, kemudian perbedaannya diuji lanjut dengan Tukey pada signfikansi 5%. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa tidak ada interaksi antara pengaruh pemulsaan dan umur pangkas pucuk. Perlakuan pemulsaan memberikan nilai yang lebih tinggi pada parameter volume akar dan jumlah daun yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan tanaman yang tidak diberi perlakuan pemulsaan. Perlakuan umur pangkas hanya memberikan pengaruh terhadap panjang tanaman yang lebih pendek pada perlakuan umur pangkas 21 dan 28 hst. Dengan demikian, petani dapat melakukan pemangkasan pada umur 28 hst untuk mendapatkan tanaman mentimun yang lebih pendek.
... Different types of vegetable and fruit crops, which are related to melons, such as watermelon, cantaloupe and honeydew are a relatively low-calorie food at just about 15 calories per cup and are about 95% water. It contains high levels of lignans, vitamin K cucurbitacins and their derivatives, flavonoids, antioxidants such as beta carotene and vitamin C, and B vitamins, among other trace elements and minerals [2] [3]. Cucumber has an important role in cooling of skin. ...
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The present investigation was designed to isolate, characterization of pathogenic bacteria from leaf spot disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and evaluation of its biological control management. Yellow pigment Xanthomonas like bacterial colonies were observed on LB agar medium after streaking and incubation at 37ºC for16 hours. Isolated bacteria were identified as Xanthomonas campestris on the basis of morphological, physiological and biochemical tests. The isolated bacterium was gram negative rod shaped and yellow in color. It showed positive result for some biochemical test like Catalase test, MacConkey test, Potassium Hydroxide test while negative result to Urease test and Kovac's oxidase test. In Triple Sugar Iron agar test and Kligler Iron Agar test the isolated bacteria fermented carbohydrates. SIM test confirms the motility of the bacteria with no indole formation and no H2S gas production. The antibiotic and antibacterial sensitivity was determined by disc diffusion method. The antibiotic Cefotaxime revealed highest 43 mm diameter of zone of inhibition against the isolated bacteria. The extract of Allium sativum showed highest 17mm diameter of zone of inhibition against isolated bacteria. This investigation should be helpful for future detection of the pathogenic bacteria and its biological control.
... Different types of vegetable and fruit crops, which are related to melons, such as watermelon, cantaloupe and honeydew are a relatively low-calorie food at just about 15 calories per cup and are about 95% water. It contains high levels of lignans, vitamin K cucurbitacins and their derivatives, flavonoids, antioxidants such as beta carotene and vitamin C, and B vitamins, among other trace elements and minerals [2] [3]. Cucumber has an important role in cooling of skin. ...
... The consumption of cucumbers may reduce the risk of aging and skin discoloration, cancerous and cardiovascular diseases and inflammations, and supportthe bone strength. Additionally, cucumbers can be used to treat sunburns and wrinkles and used as a skin brightener and moisturizer (Murad and Nyc, 2016). Usually, consumer judges the cucumber quality on the basis of freshness and appearance at the purchase time. ...
... This clearly indicates that most Liberians do not receive adequate and nourishing nutrition and the recommended calories intake in their daily diet. A typical Liberian meal consists of rice, dumboy, fufu or GB with palm butter, palava sauce, meat stew, vegetable gravies, bean or kitteley or bitter ball torborgee, red oil or fried potato greens, cabbage soup, eddo soup, cassava leave soup, peanut soup, fish or meat pepper soup, pumpkin soup, fever leave soup, okra soup, etc [19,20]. And it is evident that most Liberians eat their best meals on July 26 (Liberia's Independence Day Celebration), December 25 (Christmas Day) and January 1 (New Year Day) or by extension during traditional weddings or marriage ceremonies or graduation events or poro and sande society bush graduation parties [13]. ...
... The fruit is commonly harvested while still green and are used as raw, cooked or pickled ( (Reshma & Hossain, 2011;Shah et al., 2015). Fresh cucumber is a good source of water, minerals, carbohydrates, protein, lipid, iron, vitamin, fibre and antioxidants (Rashid, 1999;Murad & Nyc, 2016). ...
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Studies on insects associated with cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) in Bamunka-ndop (North-West, Cameroon) under field conditions were conducted in 2017 and 2018 from April to July. The insect species diversity, the relative abundance, the frequency of visits and guilds were recorded on the plant from 7 am to 6 pm in a 2 hours time slots. Insects were found on the stem, leaves and flowers of Cucumber. There were 10 insect species belonging to 4 Orders. Out of these, four species belonged to Hymenoptera (54.15%), whereas the Coleoptera (33.18%), the Orthoptera (7.83%) and the Diptera (4.84%) owned two species each. Formica sp. being the most represented insect (24.42%) followed by A. mellifera (21.66%). Nectarivorous, pollinivorous, stems and leaves feeders and flowers and leaves feeders were found on the crop. The peak of activities of all the insect species was situated between 10 am and 12pm even though the temperature and the relative humidity of the study site appear not to affect their activities on the plant. These studies therefore indicated that the insects associated to cucumber should be exploited to work on their activities on cucumber and enhancing yield and quality of the fruits.
... However, cucumber is a very temperature-sensitive commodity. When the temperature is lower than 10 • C, many chilling injury (CI) symptoms, such as surface pitting, water spots, scale depressions, tissue collapse and decay, are prone to occur in cucumber [2]. CI symptoms reduce the shelf life of cucumber fruit and caused huge economic losses. ...
Article
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Although low-temperature storage could maintain the quality of fruits and vegetables, it may also result in chilling injury (CI) in cold-sensitive produce, such as cucumbers. This can seriously affect their quality.” The antioxidant capacity, energy metabolism and proline metabolism of cucumbers treated with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were studied in this assay. The outcomes displayed that H2S treatment effectively reduced CI and delayed the increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. In addition, the H2S-treated cucumber fruit exhibited higher L* and hue angle values, as well as nutrients such as ascorbic acid (AsA). The H2S-treated fruit showed lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher antioxidant enzyme activities. Meanwhile, H2S treatment also increased the activities of the essential enzymes involved in energy metabolism, including cytochrome C oxidase (CCO), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), H+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, which improved the energy supply. H2S induced higher ornithine δ-aminotransferase (OAT) and Δ-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activities, and reduced proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, promoting the accumulation of proline. These results indicated that H2S could alleviate CI in the cucumber fruit by modulating antioxidant capacity, energy metabolism and proline metabolism, thereby extending the shelf life of postharvest cucumbers.
... In Poland, cucumber production under covers (in greenhouses and plastic tunnels) is carried out in an area of over 1000 hectares and results in harvesting about 300,000 tonnes of fruits per year [2,3]. Cucumber fruits are a low-calorie, alkaline component of the human diet, containing numerous minerals (including potassium, calcium and magnesium), vitamins (e.g., K, C, folate), carotenoids, flavonoids and triterpenes [4,5]. plant active substances, carotenoids belong to the groups of special interest as vitamin A precursors, antioxidants and potential anti-cancer agents [26]. ...
Article
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Supplemental lighting with light-emitting diode (LED) lamps and/or high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps was applied to increase the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus and thus productivity of greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a high-wire growing system. The colocalisation of the chlorophyll of PSII (located mainly in grana) and carotenoid fluorescence signals in chloroplasts of cucumber leaves was studied under confocal microscopy. Leaf anatomy and some chemical quality traits (dry matter, chlorophyll, carotenoids, total soluble solids, total sugars and nitrate reductase activity) as well as selected chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were also investigated and subjected to the multidimensional principal component analysis together with the data on fruit yield. Under LED lighting, a lower correlation between the occurrence of chlorophyll and carotenoid fluorescence signals was observed, especially in older (lower-located) leaves, which may have resulted from changes in the distribution of carotenoids within chloroplasts and/or relative concentrations of chlorophyll and carotenoids. Compared to toplighting with HPS lamps, most commonly used in commercial greenhouse cucumber production, the application of LED interlighting, especially in combination with LED toplighting, led to the increase in chlorophyll and carotenoid content and photosynthetic performance index in older leaves, which was related to the increased cucumber productivity.
... Chitwan district was 457 ha and 6626.5 metric tonnes, respectively with the productivity of 14.5 mt ha -1 in 2015/16 [2]. Cucumber is high in water and low in calories, fat, cholesterol and sodium, which have been used for their anti-inflammatory benefits on skin, soothing properties for digestion and other therapeutic uses [3]. ...
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Cucurbit fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett) is a pest of cucurbits, such as summer squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) and bittergourd (Momordica charantia L.). Yield as well as quality of crop is significantly reduced by B. cucurbitae damage in cucurbit fields. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of net house and mulching on the incidence of B. cucurbitae on cucumber production from June to August 2017 in Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized block design (RCBD) with four replications and five treatments such as i) untreated (no plastic mulch+ no net house + no insecticide spray), ii) black plastic mulch + no net + deltamethrin 1% EC + triazophos 35% EC at a rate of 2 ml/liter spray, iii) reflective plastic mulch only, iv) black plastic mulch only, and v) net house + black mulch + no insecticide spray. The net house with black mulching treatment totally restricted the adult cucurbit fruit fly to enter in the cucumber field. The lowest cucurbit fruit fly population was recorded in deltamethrin 1% EC+ trizophos 35% EC at a rate of 2 ml/liter treated plot along with black mulch, however there was no significant effect either of black or reflective plastic mulch only. The highest fruit fly damage (15.50%), ovary damage (8.44 %), post-set damage (7.86 %), harvest damage (14.35%) were recorded in untreated plot. The highest marketable yield was recorded inside the net house with black plastic mulch (59.08 mt ha⁻¹) followed by reflective plastic mulch (42.95 mt ha⁻¹) and the lowest in untreated plot (28.35 mt ha⁻¹). Fruit fly damage was not recorded in net house with black mulch (0.00 %) followed by black mulch with deltamethrin + triazophos plot (3.46%). Economic analysis showed the benefit cost ratio of 1.43 in net house. The cost of net house construction is expensive, however higher yield and quality production without use of insecticides can be achieved in net house production system, which in the long run is beneficial to the farmers and the environment.
... [Bmim][Cl] was selected as one of the most commercially widespread ionic liquids from the imidazolium class, while [Dmim][Cl] was chosen as a typical representative of surface-active ionic liquid with pronounced lipophilicity. Tomato and cucumber were chosen for the study due to their short vegetation, fast growth and high biomass production, but also because both vegetables are grown worldwide and are important for the food processing industry (Murad and Nyc, 2016). Up to the available knowledge, there are no studies concerning the effect of [Bmim][Cl] and [Dmim][Cl] on the growth and chemical composition of tomatoes at harvest. ...
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Imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) have unique and tunable features with high potential in industrial use. However, the utilization of the ILs in industrial processes has recently arisen the question of their disposal and the effect on the environment. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of two commercial imidazolium-based ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim][Cl]) and 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Dmim][Cl]) on the growth and chemical composition of widely grown vegetables - tomato and cucumber. Different concentrations (10, 100 or 1000 mg L⁻¹) of [Bmim][Cl] and [Dmim][Cl] were applied to the soil on which tomato was cultivated. After the harvest of tomato fruits, the same soil was used to grow and analyze the growth and chemical composition of cucumber. ILs significantly reduced shoot biomass and yield of tomato and significantly changed concentrations of N, K, Ca, Fe and Mn in the leaves, whereas concentrations of P, Cu and Zn were at the level of respected controls. The number of fruits of cucumber, grown on the soil previously treated with ILs, was significantly reduced along with yield, and mineral composition of leaves was significantly altered, with the exception to Cu. [Dmim][Cl] in general affected both tomato and cucumber more than [Bmim][Cl]. The application of IL with a longer alkyl substituent ([Dmim][Cl]) increased the temperature inside the tomato canopy and accelerated the senescence of plants.
... The inclusion of aloe vera gel in commercial hand sanitizers aims to improve fibroblast activity leading to collagen synthesis while also conferring some protection from harmful ultraviolet radiation (Surjushe et al. 2008;Heggers et al. 1996;Chithra et al. 1998). On the other hand, cucumber is believed to moisturize the skin, inhibit melanin synthesis, and to have anti-inflammatory, anti-irritant, anti-wrinkling, and skin-brightening effects (Akhtar et al. 2011;Murad and Nyc 2012;Hooda 2015). Carrot is the ideal vitaminized food and several of its constituents such as ascorbic acid and beta-carotene, in addition to phenolic compounds, can help in maintaining the integrity of the skin and connective tissues (Sharma et al. 2012). ...
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This study aimed to achieve an in vitro quantification of the effects of composition and formulation factors on the killing rates of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. The killing rates of 85% ethyl alcohol (ET) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) were studied under different conditions such as pH, electrolyte concentration, or inclusion of herbal extracts (cucumber, carrot, and aloe vera), a quaternary ammonium compound, or thickener over different time intervals. Changes in the activities were retested after 3 months as an indication of stability. From two-way ANOVA, both the time of exposure and the sanitizer type affected the activity against Staphylococcus aureus ( P = 0.001 for both alcohols), whereas for Escherichia coli , time of exposure was significant ( P = 0.027), while sanitizer type was less significant ( P = 0.063) . Extreme pHs, the presence of ions, and the inclusion of additives such as benzalkonium chloride (BAC), plant extracts, or carbomer impacted the 3-month activity of the samples differently. Important differences existing in the activities of ET and IPA, as a function of formulation factors or use conditions have been quantified using in vitro methods. Formulations should best be tailored for particular purposes and the all-purpose hand sanitizer may not exist. Graphic Abstract
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Cucurbitacins and their derivatives are triterpenoids found in medicinal plants known for their diverse pharmacological and biological activities, including anticancer effects, throughout human history. Although initial attention to cucurbitacin as a potential anticancer drug withered for decades, recent discoveries showing that cucurbitacin is a strong STAT3 (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription-3) inhibitor have reclaimed the attention of the drug industry one more time. There is increasing evidence showing that some cucurbitacins not only inhibit the JAK-STAT pathway, but also affect other signaling pathways, such as the MAPK pathway, which are also known to be important for cancer cell proliferation and survival. Moreover, some reports have shown the synergistic effect of cucurbitacins with known chemotherapeutic agents, such as doxorubicin and gemcitabine. In this review, we will summarize the recent discoveries regarding molecular mechanisms of action of cucurbitacins in human cancer cells and discuss the possibilities of cucurbitacin as a future anticancer drug in clinical settings.
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Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family like melon, squash and pumpkins. It is a popular vegetable crop used in Indian traditional medicine since ancient times. This vegetable is very high in water content and very low in calories. It has potential antidiabetic, lipid lowering and antioxidant activity. Cucumber has a cleansing action within the body by removing accumulated pockets of old waste materials and chemical toxins. Fresh fruit juice is used for nourishing the skin. It gives soothing effect against skin irritations and reduces swelling. Cucumber also has the power to relax and alleviate the sunburn's pain. The fruit is refrigerant, haemostatic, tonic and useful in hyperdipsia, thermoplegia etc. The seeds have also cooling effect on the body and they are used to prevent constipation. Several bioactive compounds have been isolated from cucumber including cucurbitacins, cucumegastigmanes I and II, cucumerin A and B, vitexin, orientin, isoscoparin 2''-O-(6'''-(E)-p-coumaroyl) glucoside, apigenin 7-O-(6''-O-p-coumaroylglucoside) etc. Despite huge exploration of cucumber in agricultural field, comparatively very few studies have been published about its chemical profile and its therapeutic potential. This article reviews the therapeutic application, pharmacological and phytochemical profile of different parts of C. sativus. In this review we have explored the current phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge available with this well known plant and several promising aspects for research on cucumber.
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As a reduction of water spaces is expected in the elderly because of fat-free mass loss, disease is often associated with increased hydration. The present study compared water spaces and cellular hydration in adults, healthy and diseased aged patients. An open study was conducted in 6 geriatric wards and a nutrition laboratory involving 85 aged diseased persons, 68 healthy elderly adults, and 35 adults. Total body water (TBW, H(2)(18)O dilution), extracellular water (ECW, Bromide dilution), and fat-free mass (FFM, body density and Siri's equation) were measured directly whereas intracellular water (ICW = TBW - ECW) and body cell mass (FFM - ECW) were obtained by calculations. FFM, TBW, and ICW were higher in adults than in the 2 other groups and in the elderly than in aged patients. ECW was higher in aged patients than in healthy elderly participants. The proportion of TBW made of ECW or ICW was the same in adults and in healthy elderly persons. A higher proportion of TBW was composed of ECW, and a lower proportion of TBW was composed of ICW, in diseased patients compared with the 2 other groups. The proportion of ICW in body cell mass was also lower in diseased patients. Diseased elderly persons display reduced ICW and expanded ECW. A cellular dehydration is suggested.
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Alterations in collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycans contribute to cutaneous changes seen in aging skin. A randomized, controlled, single-blind study was conducted with 53 female volunteers who were supplied with an oral supplement containing glucosamine, amino acids, minerals, and various antioxidant compounds. Hydration properties of the skin as well as textural analysis of the women's fine lines and wrinkles were assessed following 5 weeks intake of the oral supplement and results were compared with those of a control group of 12 individuals who did not take the supplement. There was a statistically significant reduction (34%) in the number of visible wrinkles as measured by the silflo replicas (P < 0.01) and a reduction (34%) in the number of fine lines (P < 0.06) in the group of women who took the supplement. No significant changes in epidermal hydration were observed in either the control or study groups. The use of an oral supplement containing glucosamine, minerals, and various antioxidant compounds can potentially improve the appearance of visible wrinkles and fine lines. It does not, however, affect epidermal hydration.
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Intakes of specific nutrients and food groups have been shown previously to be related to ovarian cancer risk, but no studies, to our knowledge, have emphasized the effect of phytochemical intakes on this cancer. We conducted a case-control study of diet and ovarian cancer in western New York involving 124 primary, histologically confirmed ovarian cancer cases and 696 population-based controls, frequency matched to cases on age and county of residence. Diet was assessed with a detailed food-frequency questionnaire. Nutrient and phytochemical intakes were calculated from published food composition data. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI for risk of ovarian cancer with each nutrient, phytochemical and food group were estimated with unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, total months menstruating, difficulty becoming pregnant, oral contraceptive use, menopausal status and energy intake. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, reduced risks were observed for women in the highest quintile of intake of dietary fiber (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.20-0.94), total carotenoids (OR 0.33, 95% CI, 0.16-0.68), stigmasterol (OR 0.42, 95% CI, 0.20-0.87), total lignans (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.21-0.85), vegetables (OR 0.47, 95% CI, 0.23-0.97) and poultry (OR 0.45, 95% CI, 0.22-0.92). These results support a protective effect on ovarian cancer of phytoestrogen intakes, and our results support the hypothesis that a plant-based diet may be important in reducing risks of hormone-related neoplasms.
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Recent in vitro, animal, and epidemiological studies suggest that dietary lignans may be chemopreventive, potentially through anti-estrogenic, anti-angiogenic, pro- apoptotic, and anti-oxidant mechanisms. In this article, we review lignan food sources and metabolism, proposed anti-carcinogenic mechanisms, and the evidence for a role of lignans in breast, colon, and prostate cancer prevention from animal and epidemiologic literature. Although a number of in vitro and animal studies support a role for lignan-rich foods and purified lignans in the modulation of cancer events of the breast, prostate, and colon, epidemiological studies, sparse and often retrospective in nature, offer inconsistent findings. The most support for a role of lignans in cancer is observed for premenopausal breast cancer. Additional epidemiological studies that use a prospective design and well-developed food databases and questionnaires are needed to adequately evaluate the role of lignans in cancer prevention.
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Application of vitamin K (vitK) to the skin has been used for suppression of pigmentation and resolution of bruising. However, there is no report concerning the extent of its penetration in the skin. In this study, we investigated the in vitro skin penetration and transdermal delivery of vitK, and whether these parameters may be enhanced by lipid-based drug delivery systems. The lipid formulation used in this study contains monoolein (MO), which is structured as a liquid crystalline phase, named hexagonal phase. The skin penetration of vitK was assessed in vitro using porcine ear skin mounted in a Franz diffusion cell. VitK (2.5%, w/w) was incorporated in either of three formulations: liquid vaseline, MO-based hexagonal phase gel (MO-vitK-water at 77.5/2.5/20, w/w/w) and MO-based nanodispersion of hexagonal phase (MO-vitK-poloxamer-water at 15/2.5/0.9/81.6, w/w/w/w). When vaseline was used, vitK was delivered mainly to the stratum corneum (SC): 9.50+/-0.97 microg/cm(2) of vitK was delivered to the SC at 12 h post-application, whereas 4.90 +/- 1.28 microg/cm(2) of vitK was delivered to the epidermis (E)+dermis (D) at the same time point. The hexagonal phase gel and the nanodispersion delivered approximately 2 times more vitK to the SC and 2.0-3.7 times more vitK to the [E+D] than the vaseline solution. The nanodispersion (but not the gel) also increased the transdermal delivery of vitK at 9 h ( approximately 3-fold increase). These results demonstrate that the topical delivery of vitK incorporated in a lipophilic vehicle is small, but it may be enhanced by MO-based systems, which might be useful to increase the effectiveness of topical vitK therapy.
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UV radiation (UVR) is a complete carcinogen that elicits a constellation of pathological events, including direct DNA damage, generation of reactive oxidants that peroxidize lipids and damage other cellular components, initiation of inflammation, and suppression of the immune response. Recent dramatic increases in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancers are largely attributable to higher exposure of an aging population to UVR. Therefore, the development of cellular strategies for intrinsic protection of the skin against the deleterious effects of UVR is imperative. Here we show that erythema resulting from UVR is a comprehensive and noninvasive biomarker for assessing UVR damage and can be precisely and easily quantified in human skin. Topical application of sulforaphane-rich extracts of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts up-regulated phase 2 enzymes in the mouse and human skin, protected against UVR-induced inflammation and edema in mice, and reduced susceptibility to erythema arising from narrow-band 311-nm UVR in humans. In six human subjects (three males and three females, 28–53 years of age), the mean reduction in erythema across six doses of UVR (300–800 mJ/cm² in 100 mJ/cm² increments) was 37.7% (range 8.37–78.1%; P = 0.025). This protection against a carcinogen in humans is catalytic and long lasting. • erythema • nicotinamide:quinone oxidoreductase 1 • skin tumor • chemoprotection
Modern Herb. Tigers Books International London
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Antiwrinkle herbal drugs
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Inclusive Health: A Professional Compendium
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The Next Generation of Skin
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Murad, H. Skin Immunity, The Next Generation of Skin. Les Nouvelles Esthetiques & Spa. 2008; 7:130-136.
Botanical study of skin lightening agents
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The frustrating decades of biological aging theories and the hopes for the future
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Nagy IZs. The frustrating decades of biological aging theories and the hopes for the future. Anti-Aging Bulletin. 2003; 4(16):22-31.
Dietary supplementation as a nutrition intervention strategy to increase intracellular water and phase angle
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Murad H, Jankicevic J. Dietary supplementation as a nutrition intervention strategy to increase intracellular water and phase angle. Orlando, FL. American College of Nutrition 48th Annual Meeting and Conference, 2007.
Pomegranate extract both orally ingested and topically applied to augment the SPF of sunscreens
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Murad H, Shellow W. Pomegranate extract both orally ingested and topically applied to augment the SPF of sunscreens. Cosmetic Dermatology. 2001;10.
Conquering cultural stress: the ultimate guide to anti-aging and happiness
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The membrane hypothesis of aging
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