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Natural Cellulose Fiber from Mendong Grass (Fimbristylis globulosa)


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The global waste problems resulting from the use of synthetic fiber are becoming increasing environmental concerns. It would be better if the synthetic fibers give way to the natural fibers as renewable resources for environmental sustainability. New sources of natural fibers are being developed in recent years as natural fibers offer many advantages over synthetic fibers. Mendong grass is one of the natural sources of fiber. It is easy to grow and cultivate, and it offers several harvests from one plantation. The fiber has found many applications for small-scale industries and helps in economic welfare of small farmers. This chapter provides a general overview of mendong grass cultivation and obtaining fiber. The chemical, physical, mechanical, and thermal properties and prospective application of the mendong fiber are also presented. Agricultural crops, forest trees, and other plant species have many uses for the farming community. Plant-based materials have been used traditionally for food and feed. Biobased polymeric products based on green materials such as plant and agricultural stocks are the basis for forming a portfolio of sustainable, eco-efficient
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Chapter 3
Natural Cellulose Fiber from Mendong
Grass (Fimbristylis globulosa)
Heru Suryanto, Solichin Solichin and Uun Yanuhar
Abstract The global waste problems resulting from the use of synthetic ber are
becoming increasing environmental concerns. It would be better if the synthetic
bers give way to the natural bers as renewable resources for environmental
sustainability. New sources of natural bers are being developed in recent years as
natural bers offer many advantages over synthetic bers. Mendong grass is one of
the natural sources of ber. It is easy to grow and cultivate, and it offers several
harvests from one plantation. The ber has found many applications for small-scale
industries and helps in economic welfare of small farmers. This chapter provides a
general overview of mendong grass cultivation and obtaining ber. The chemical,
physical, mechanical, and thermal properties and prospective application of the
mendong ber are also presented.
Keywords Mendong Fiber structure Mechanical properties Thermal
3.1 Introduction
Agricultural crops, forest trees, and other plant species have many uses for the
farming community. Plant-based materials have been used traditionally for food
and feed. Biobased polymeric products based on green materials such as plant and
agricultural stocks are the basis for forming a portfolio of sustainable, eco-efcient
H. Suryanto (&)S. Solichin
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Negeri Malang,
Jl. Semarang 6, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
U. Yanuhar
Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Fisheries and Marine Science,
University of Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran, Malang, Indonesia
©Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016
K.G. Ramawat and M.R. Ahuja (eds.), Fiber Plants, Sustainable Development
and Biodiversity 13, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-44570-0_3
products which compete with synthetic products in market. The production of
chemicals and materials from biobased feedstocks is expected to increase from
todays 5 % level to about 12 % in 2010, about 18 % in 2020, and about 25 % in
2030 (Mohanty et al. 2005). Expectations are that the production of bulk chemicals
from renewable resources could reach 113 million tons by 2050. It represents 38 %
of all organic chemical production (de Jong et al. 2012).
Environmental sustainability-based technology is a global issue to move away
from synthetic material to renewable resources. The synthetic ber beneted human
in various ways. Synthetic bers are very durable and non-degradable, depending
on their composition and the particular application. The disposal of parts made of
synthetic ber, such as composite for packaging containers and trash bags, also
creates an environmental problem. It requires alternative ways to secure sustainable
world development. Renewable biomaterials can be used as an alternative to replace
the synthetic products.
Natural bers have been offering many advantages over the synthetic bers in
recent years. The advantages of natural ber as reinforcement composite are low
price, low density, easy to be separated, abundantly available, renewable,
biodegradable, and no health hazard (Li et al. 2007; Mu et al. 2009). Several
alternatives of ber sources, especially agricultural by-products such as ramie
(Marsyahyo et al. 2008), banana (Venkateshwaran and Elayaperumal 2010), kenaf
(Akil et al. 2011), hemp (Beckermann and Pickering 2008), Sisal (Li et al. 2000),
Indian grass (Liu et al. 2004), Napier grass (Reddy et al. 2009), and Pineapple
leaves (Mishra et al. 2004), have been used to produce cellulose bers.
Traditionally, mendong grass has been used for a long time by the community
for mats, rope bers, and other product such as handbags, baskets, and furniture
mats. In Indonesia, the grass is grown as a crop cultivated in some regions of Java,
Sumatra, and Nusa Tenggara. Estimated production of mendong in Java, Indonesia,
was 14,000 tons/year (Suryanto et al. 2014b). Since it has an economic potency,
mendong needs more intensive cultivation.
3.2 Biology of Mendong Grass (Fimbristylis globulosa)
3.2.1 Taxonomy
Fimbristylis is a genus of sedges that known commonly as a mbristyle, mbry, or
fringe-rush. Several continents have native species, but many species have been
introduced to regions where they are not native. Mendong grass (Fimbristylis
globulosa) was categorized as cyperaceae family and genus of Fimbristylis Vahl.
This species is a synonym of Fimbristylis umbellaris (Table 3.1).
36 H. Suryanto et al.
3.2.2 Ecology
Mendong grass is originated in the Southeast Asia. This plant requires a watery
environment for better growth. Therefore, mendong grass is easily found in the
technically irrigated rice farm or swamps where there is always standing water
year-round (Fig. 3.1). Mendong grass can grow well in the area that has an altitude
of 300700 m above the sea level, provided there is enough water, and exposed to
full sunlight. These plants do not require particular soil types, but it would be better
if planted in the sandy soils. In the marshy soils, mendong plants can also grow
well. Mendong plants require plenty of water similar to the rice plants. Therefore,
the mendong plants should not face water shortage, especially in the dry season.
The mendong plants that lack water will turn yellow producing trunk of inferior
quality. Well-maintained mendong plants ourish and produce good quality stalk
mendong for long term, which are very strong.
Before the harvest is conducted, the water that inundated the plant area is
removed in advance so that the surface of the land is visible and harvesting of
mendong can be done easily. Mendong harvest is done by cutting the stalks
mendong 3 cm above the surface of the ground using the sharp sickle leaving the
clump of roots in the soil. After 1 month, clumps will sprout again and can be
harvested after 3.54.5 months. This cycle is repeated up to 5 times in 2 years.
After that, the plant was dismantled for the processing of land for the next planting.
Farmers can save costs for soil tillage by harvesting ve times the grass from one
sowing. Managing the harvest and post-harvest should be done adequately and
correctly to maintain the quality of mendong straw.
3.2.3 Morphology and Structure
Mendong grass is an annual plant with morphological characteristics such as stalks
green shiny, rhizomes short, brous roots, and grooved (Fig. 3.2). Mendong leaves
Table 3.1 Taxonomy of mendong grass (USDA 2015)
Kingdom PlantaePlants
Subkingdom TracheobiontaVascular plants
Superdivision SpermatophytaSeed plants
Division MagnoliophytaFlowering plants
Class LiliopsidaMonocotyledons
Subclass Commelinidae
Order Cyperales
Family CyperaceaeSedge family
Genus Fimbristylis Vahlmbry
Species Fimbristylis globulosa (Retz.) Kunthglobe mbry
3 Natural Cellulose Fiber from Mendong Grass (Fimbristylis globulosa)37
are often reduced to sessile, hairy on the edges and have a small bula. Mendong
leaves grow on the top of the stem with some strands. Mendong straw is actually a
ower stalk. The straw is compact, slender, hollow, 0.20.4 cm in diameter, and
fast becoming stiff and looks like a cylinder but almost attened beneath the ower
stalk. Straw length can reach 1.51.7 m. This straw is harvested and used in the
manufacture of various goods for human needs.
Mendong straw contains ber bundles, vascular bundles, xylem, phloem, and
aerenchyma (Fig. 3.3a). The most mendong bers are located under the epidermis.
Some bers present near the vascular bundles in the middle of the straw. Fibers are
a bit at shaped with varied length, and pores can be seen on the ber wall. In the
transverse sections, the straw consists of 512 vascular bundles which mostly
located in the center of the straw (Fig. 3.3a, b). The ber bundle consists of some
individual bers (Fig. 3.3f, g). Each ber has a lumen, middle lamella, primary
wall, and a secondary wall (Fig. 3.3d). The primary wall is usually very thin
(<1 lm), but the secondary wall is thick. It is composed of three layers, consists of
microbrils with a different orientation that contains larger quantities of cellulose
molecules (*80 %). This wall is the main contributor to the overall properties of
ber. The microbrils present parallel to each other forming a steep helix around
the cell (Akil et al. 2011).
Fig. 3.1 Mendong grass in land (a), harvest of mendong grass (b), and dried mendong grass (c)
38 H. Suryanto et al.
3.3 Mendong Fiber Properties
3.3.1 Chemical Composition
The plant contains large amounts of water due to its semiaquatic habitat. Based on
the dry weight of the plant, all plant-based polymers were composed of sugars
(carbohydrates) in combination with lignin and with lower amounts extractable
proteins, starch, and inorganic materials. These chemicals are present in outer cell
wall layer consists of primary and secondary wall. The chemical composition varies
in each plant, even in the different parts of the same plant and in different plants
depending upon geographic location, age, climate, and soil conditions (Rowell et al.
Fig. 3.2 Mendong grass: asingle mendong grass, bower, and croot
3 Natural Cellulose Fiber from Mendong Grass (Fimbristylis globulosa)39
Fig. 3.3 Structure of mendong ber: adry mendong straw cutoff, bcomponent of fresh mendong
straw, cber bundle in dry mendong straw, dber bundle in wet mendong straw (observed by
optic microscope), eextracted mendong ber, fsingle-ber bundle, and gsingle-cell ber (SEM
40 H. Suryanto et al.
The properties of ber are inuenced by the chemical composition, particularly
cellulose. Cellulose determines the strength of bers because the cellulose has a
high modulus of 45 GPa in the plant (Mwaikambo and Ansell 2006).
Hemicellulose is a polysaccharide with low molecular weight. It often forms
copolymers with glucose, glucuronic acid, mannose, arabinose, and xylose. It may
take the form of random, amorphous branched, or nonlinear structure with low
strength. Hemicellulose easily hydrolyzed by dilute acid or alkali, or enzyme
hydrolysis (Summerscales et al. 2010). At the plant ber level, hemicellulose serves
as a matrix for cellulose (Bergander and Salmen 2002) and responsible for moisture
absorption, both bio- and thermal degradation of the bers.
Lignin provides rigidity to the plants. It is present localized to the luminal
surface and around porous wall area to maintain the strength of the wall and helps
transport water. Lignin is resistant to microorganisms attack due to the presence of
aromatic rings, which provides resistance to the anaerobic processes (Bismarck
et al. 2005). Lignin is thermally stable but responsible for the UV degradation of the
bers (Yi et al. 2010; Akil et al. 2011). Lignin strength is 100 times higher com-
pared with hemicellulose at 70 % moisture level (Cousins 1976); thus, lignin can
inuence the ber structure, properties, and morphology.
The mendong ber is composed of cellulose of 72.14 %, hemicellulose 20.2 %,
lignin 3.44 %, extractive matter 4.2 %, and moisture of 4.25.2 %. Table 3.2
shows a comparison of chemical content of others bers with the mendong ber. It
is clear from these data that the mendong ber has high cellulose content but lower
than established ber such as cotton and ax.
Table 3.2 Chemical content of mendong ber as compared to other natural bers
Fiber Cellulose
content (%)
Mendong 72.14 20.2 3.44 4.2 4.25.2 Suryanto et al.
Cotton 8590 13 0.7
810 Foulk et al.
Flax 85 9 4 2 8.7610 Foulk et al.
Jute 5863 2024 1215 10.99 Wang et al.
64 8 28 9.8 Reddy and
Yang (2006)
Sea grass 57 28 5 10 Davies et al.
3 Natural Cellulose Fiber from Mendong Grass (Fimbristylis globulosa)41
3.3.2 Physical Properties
The mendong ber bundle is consist of some single-cell ber having 9.16 and
923 lm diameter and length, respectively (Suryanto et al. 2014b). The mendong
ber varies in shape and diameter. The average diameter of the ber is 33.4 lm
with the aspect ratio and density of 101 and 0.892 g/cm
, respectively (Table 3.3).
The physical properties of mendong are dependent on the species, maturity, and
fertilization and site of growth. Comparison of physical properties of other bers is
shown in Table 3.3. The mendong ber has low density compared with cotton, ax,
rice straw, jute, and sea grass ber.
Biober can be regarded as a composite of cellulose brils, formed in a matrix of
lignin and hemicelluloses (Jayaraman 2003). The structure and the properties of the
bers are inuenced by both dimension and arrangement in ber bundle. High
aspect ratio of bers will improve the modulus and strength by optimizing stress
transfer between the matrix and the cellulose.
The total content of cellulose and non-cellulose ber constituents determines the
structure, properties, and affect to the crystallinity (Reddy and Yang 2005). The
mendong ber was arranged by the crystalline structure of cellulose. The
semicrystalline cellulose structure of mendong produced three peaks at 2hof 16.5°,
22.5°, and 34.5°. The third peak at 34.5° corresponds to 1/4 of the length of one
cellobiose unit and arises from ordering along the ber direction. It is sensitive to
the alignment of the chains into brils (Cheng et al. 2011). The amorphous com-
ponent showed the little-diffracted intensity around 18 (Fig. 3.4). The peaks showed
reections at crystal planes of (011), (002), and (400). Widening at the 16.31° refer
to non-cellulose materials such as hemicellulose and lignin in the bers. The major
intensity at an angle 2h= 22.5° has the same angle relative to the structure of
cellulose Ib(2h= 22.3°). Thus, the structure of the cellulose bers is cellulose Ib
mendong in which the unit Ibcellulose structure is monoclinic (Bismarck et al.
2005). Both crystallinity and crystalline index of the mendong ber were 70.7 and
58.6 %, respectively (Table 3.4), and the cellulose bers extracted from the
Table 3.3 Physical properties of mendong ber as compared to other natural bers
Fiber Density
Fiber aspect
ratio (average)
Mendong 0.892 33.8 ±5.6 101 Suryanto et al. (2014b)
Cotton 1.51.6 1238 1919 Gassan and Bledzki (1999) and Rouison
et al. (2004)
Flax 1.5 40600 1000 Gassan and Bledzki (1999), Foulk et al.
(2011) and Rouison et al. (2004)
1.36 416 74 Reddy and Yang (2006), Abe and Yano
(2009) and Rowell et al. (2000)
Jute 1.3 26.0 100 Gassan and Bledzki (1999), Park et al.
(2006) and Rowell et al. (2000)
Sea grass 11.5 5 Davies et al. (2007)
42 H. Suryanto et al.
mendong have crystallinity and crystalline index for 85.8 and 83.5 %, respectively.
It indicates that the ber mendong contains non-crystalline materials such as
hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin which should be cleaned to make the bers strong.
3.3.3 Mechanical Properties
The mechanical properties of natural bers were affected by the ber structure,
chemical composition, and numbers of defects in a ber. Mendong straw has
enough strength homogeneous up to a length of 60 cm from the base of the stem
with a coefcient of variation of <15 %. After 60 cm, the strength of the straw has a
variation that is too high (>20 %), as shown in Table 3.5.
Fig. 3.4 Diffractogram of both ber and cellulose of mendong
Table 3.4 Structure of mendong ber as compared to other natural bers
Fiber Crystallinity
index (%)
size (nm)
angle (deg)
Mendong 70.7 58.6 14.3 22.2 Suryanto et al. (2014a)
Cotton 78.7 68 57Ioelovich and Leykin (2008)
Flax 77 70 5.4 510 Kaith and Kalia (2008) and
Bismarck et al. (2005)
Rice straw 62.8 57 3.75 19.4 Reddy and Yang (2006)
Jute 68.89 65.8 29.25 16.9 Wang et al. (2009),
Mwaikambo (2009) and
Sinha and Rout (2009)
3 Natural Cellulose Fiber from Mendong Grass (Fimbristylis globulosa)43
The mendong ber had tensile strength, elastic modulus, and the specic
strength of 452 MPa, 17.4 GPa, and 507 kN m/kg, respectively (Table 3.5). The
mendong ber has a relatively high tensile strength, and ber mendong has a lower
density so that the specic strength of the mendong ber is over cotton, rice straw,
and sea grass ber, but lower than jute and ax ber (Table 3.6).
3.3.4 Thermal Properties
Thermal properties of the mendong ber were observed by thermogravimetric test.
The heat resistance of the ber can be seen from the decomposition process.
Curvesloss of mass and the mass loss were obtained using a sample of approxi-
mately 20 mg of sample (powdered mendong ber), with an inert gas (Argon), the
Table 3.5 Strength distribution along mendong straw from base to top
Distance from the base (cm) Load at break (N) Coefcient of variation (%)
010 74.0 9.6
1020 98.7 8.6
2030 100.1 1.6
3040 94.8 13.7
4050 89.1 8.0
5060 87.3 10.2
6070 78.9 20.4
7080 71.2 32.1
8090 59.1 22.9
90100 52.8 20.9
Table 3.6 Mechanical properties of mendong ber as compared to other natural bers
Fiber Tensile
(kN m/kg)
Mendong 452 ±47 17.4 ±3.9 507 Suryanto et al. (2014a,b)
Cotton 287597 5.512.6 179398 Gassan and Bledzki (1999) and
Rouison et al. (2004)
Flax 3451035 27.6 230690 Gassan and Bledzki (1999), Foulk
et al. (2011) and Rouison et al. (2004)
450 26 331 Reddy and Yang (2006), Abe and
Yano (2009) and Rowell et al. (2000)
Jute 1316 91.9 1012 Gassan and Bledzki (1999), Park
et al. (2006) and Rowell et al. (2000)
Sea grass 573 ±120 1 458 Davies et al. (2007)
44 H. Suryanto et al.
heating rate of 10 °C/min. The mendong ber decomposition test results are shown
in Fig. 3.5.
Based on Fig. 3.5, it is observed that the decomposition of the samples is a
exothermic process of chemical reaction that releases a signicant amount of heat
and shows the break down of organic material (Sonibare et al. 2005). The
decomposition by thermal degradation of the whole sample shows four main stages
associated with degradation of the mendong ber. The rst step is the initial
devolatilization, characterized by the rst basin in the reduction rate curve. This
stage is related to the release of water content, and volatile compounds are very
light (Chen et al. 2011). Devolatilization at the mendong ber occurs at tempera-
tures up to 164 °C. The second step is a transition period, which is indicated by the
rate of mass loss. This is relatively stable and shows the decrease in release of
volatile compounds and start of degradation of the ber. This stage occurs until the
temperature reaches 250 °C. In third step, the ber decomposes rapidly, and the
decomposition of complete biomass occurs at 321 °C temperature, which further
decomposes until temperature reaches exact 350 °C. The fourth step is the slow
combustion reaction. Residual mass shows a very slow decomposition which is
characterized by low mass loss and the amount of mass that is relatively stable up to
700 °C temperature.
From Fig. 5, it is observed that the ber mendong is less resistance to heat
degradation as the mass is lost at a constant rate until the temperature reaches 250 °C.
When it is compared to other bers, this temperature is lower than bagasse (273 °C)
Fig. 3.5 Decomposition curve of the mendong ber in an inert atmosphere (Argon) with a heating
rate of 10 °C/min
3 Natural Cellulose Fiber from Mendong Grass (Fimbristylis globulosa)45
(Han et al. 2010), napier grass ber (280 °C) (Reddy et al. 2009) and higher than
maize ber (211 °C) (Bavan and Kumar 2012).
3.4 Mendong Grass Utilization
3.4.1 Mendong Grass as Phytoremediation Plant
Metal hyper-accumulator plants can accumulate and tolerate greater metal con-
centrations in shoots than those usually found in non-accumulators, without visible
symptoms. Over 400 of hyper-accumulator plants have been reported and include
members of the families Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cyperaceae,
Flacourtiaceae, Cunoniaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Violaceae, and
Euphorbiaceae (Gratão et al. 2005).
Several cultivated plant species (maize, rice, and sugar beet) have been estab-
lished to use as metal phytoremediation (Poniedzialek et al. 2010). Plants of several
grass families are also used for phytoremediation (Żurek et al. 2013). Vetiver grass
(Vetiveria zizanioides) can absorb and promote biodegradation of organic wastes
(2,4,6-trinitroluene, phenol, ethidium bromide, benzo[a]pyrene, atrazine, and heavy
metals (Danh et al. 2009; Chen et al. 2004). Cyperaceae plants are capable of
improving soil and water contaminated by heavy metals and toxic materials. Some
species of Fimbristylis were applied as phytoremediation plants, which are
Fimbristylis globulosa (Kurnia et al. 2004;Saad et al. 2011), Fimbristylis cymosa
(Paquin et al. 2006), Fimbristylis dichotoma (Muhammad et al. 2013), Fimbistylis
miliacea L. (Akutam et al. 2014), and Fimbristylis littoralis (Nwaichi et al. 2015).
3.4.2 Mendong Straw as Craft Material
Mendong straw is used for several craft items such as woven handicrafts and wicker
crafting mats, hats, ropes, bags, wallets, fancy paper, and others. A good mendong
straw has good length and exibility. Once harvested, the mendong straw is dried in
the sun, for 46 h in dry season or for several days in rainy season. Drying twice
produces good quality mendong straw. The rst drying is performed immediately
after the harvest, while the second drying is conducted after the rst drying and
soaking in water overnight. After coloring, mendong is used to make into various
forms of handicrafts as shown in Fig. 3.6.
46 H. Suryanto et al.
3.4.3 Mendong Fiber as Reinforcement in the Polymer
The natural ber has several advantages if applied in polymer composites because
they are low price, low density, can be easily separated, abundantly available,
renewable, biodegradable, and have no health hazard (Li et al. 2007; Mu et al.
2009). Fiber from crop plants such as ramie, jute, and hemp have already been
established as reinforce ber for the composite. Some of these bers from crop have
Fig. 3.6 Craft product from mendong straw: arope, bmat, cbag, and dtting basket
3 Natural Cellulose Fiber from Mendong Grass (Fimbristylis globulosa)47
applied as reinforcement in the polymer composite such as rice straw (Reddy and
Yang 2006), wheat straw (Reddy and Yang 2007a), Indian grass (Liu et al. 2004),
switch grass (Reddy and Yang 2007b), and napier grass (Reddy et al. 2009).
High specic strength is the characteristic of the mendong ber which is worthy
to explore as reinforcement material in the polymer composite. The high specic
strength is making it suitable for lightweight composites with applications in the
eld of road transport as a complementary component. Before its use for composite
reinforcement, mending ber should be soaked in sodium hydroxide solution with a
concentration of 5 % for 2 h to increase the strength of the ber as well as cleaning
of ber surface. Such treatment increases ber strength to about 10 % (Suryanto
et al. 2014a). As reinforcement composite, the mendong ber has a critical length of
630 lm in matrix epoxy and interface shear strength of 11.1 MPa (Suryanto et al.
2015). This value is lower than hemp ber in polypropylene matrix (Beckermann
and Pickering 2009) and ramie ber in polypropylene matrix (Awal et al. 2011).
This low value of critical ber length indicates the better stress transfer of the
mendong ber as reinforcement in the polymer composite. With the low (0.63 mm)
critical length of ber and the convenience in the extraction process, the processing
to make composite is easier with these bers.
3.4.4 Mendong Fiber as Source of Microcrystalline
Microcrystal cellulose (MCC) is cellulose with ne size. Microcrystal cellulose had
been used in different elds such as both binder and ller in medical tablets, fat
replacer and stabilizer in the food industry, and a composite material in the plastic
industry (Terinte et al. 2011). It was characterized by the size (diameter in
micrometers) of the bers. These bers consist of crystalline cellulose that has a
width of about 5 nm and a length of about 2030 nm (Leppänen et al. 2009).
Usually, MCC is obtained from woody pulp. It means that it is produced from
the trees following deforestation. There is a need for environment-friendly process
with slowdown of the fast global deforestation. The use of plants having short life
cycle, such as mendong grass, needs to be encouraged. The initial research was
conducted with by extracting MCC from cellulose bers of mendong through a
chemical extraction sequence (Fig. 3.7). The results obtained show MCC with a
crystallinity of 83 %. This value is lower by 3 % compared with the commercial
MCC (Suryanto et al. 2013).
48 H. Suryanto et al.
3.5 Conclusion
Mendong grass is the plant with a potential future that has a variety of applications
for the needs of community. This plant has been successfully characterized in the
biological structure, its properties such as physical, mechanical, chemical content,
and thermal degradation in comparison with other natural bers. Because of high
cellulose content and specic strength, mendong ber is an excellent material to be
used in the elds of biocomposites and handicrafts, as well as a source of cellulose
microcrystal. Exploitation of this plant needs to be done so that this plant can be
applied to other elds.
Acknowledgments Gratefulness to the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education,
Indonesia, through the competitive research Grant 2013 and the fundamental research Grant with
Contract No. 9.4.3/UN32.14/LT/2015.
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... Mendong Biogeotextile can absorb water and increase the weight in wet conditions because of their fiber's component dominated by cellulose. According to Suryanto et al. (2016) [10], Mendong straw has cellulose content up to 72% of the total weight. According to ANOVA, there were significantly different among the increasing weight of bio-geotextile in wet condition depending on the different treatment of layers. ...
... Cellulose is hygroscopic, meaning it can absorb water molecules, and many of its chains contain a hydroxyl group (OH) that can form a hydrogen bond with water. Fiber can bind water in a variety of ways, including hydrogen bonds [12]. Hydrogen bonds are formed when hydrogen (H) is bound to an element with high electronegativities, such as carbon (C), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F). ...
... Mendong is a type of grass, a family of Cyperaceans with short rhizomes, fibrous roots, and grooved. This plant is used to make traditional mats such as ropes, bags, hats and wallets because of its high fiber and its low cost [17]. Estimated production of Mendong in Java is about 14.000 tons per years [18]. ...
... Mendong fibers have a higher crystallinity and crystalline size than straw fibers and wheat stalks [18]. Until now, Mendong also used as phytoremediation plant, microcrystalline cellulose, and polymer composite [17]. Thus, Mendong is considered to have potential as charcoal as it has relatively high content of cellulose. ...
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This study aims to find alternative low-cost, easy and environmental-friendly adsorbent materials to eliminate SO2 gas, by utilizing Mendong plants as activated charcoal. Therefore, need to know the ability of this low-cost adsorbent in term of optimum concentration, adsorption efficiency, and the adsorption capacity of the charcoal to eliminate SO2. Mendong plants were prepared with a modified tool and macerated with ZnCl2 2.5% (w/v) for 24 hours. Then, the adsorption process with artificial SO2 waste was conducted for 1 hour. UV-Vis Spectrophotometer was used to determine the gas concentration. The results showed that the highest concentration of absorbed SO2 gas (Ct) is at the initial gas concentration 4.4006 µg/mL (mass Na2S2O3 0.015 g), with 3.008 µg/mL of gas is absorbed. The gas adsorption efficiency is 70.53% at the variation of initial gas concentration of 4.1400 µg/mL. While, the adsorption capacity of activated ZnCl2- Mendong stem charcoal is 92.1123 (µg/g). The results of the characterization by FTIR showed that the Mendong plant ZnCl2- activated charcoal is polar and aromatic, verified by the absorbance of hydroxyl group and aromatic skleleton of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.
... Struktur kimia lignin sampai saat ini belum secara tepat dipastikan tetapi hampir semua gugus fungsional dan unit bangun molekul belum teridentifikasi. Lignin memiliki kekuatan mekanis 100 kali dibandingkan penurunan massa tersebut yang diperoleh dari pengujian termogravimetri dengan jumlah sampel sekitar 20 mg sampel serbuk serat mendong, dengan gas inert (Argon), pada laju pemanasan 10 o C/menit.Gambar 3Grafik dekomposisi dari serat mendong pada kondisi inert (Argon) dengan laju pemanasan 10 o C/menit[19] Berdasarkan Gambar 3, dapat diamati bahwa dekomposisi sampel adalah proses reaksi kimia yang hebat yang melepaskan banyak kalor dan menunjukkan terjadinya pemecahan secara termal bahan organik sampel[20]. Dari kurva dekomposisi akibat degradasi termal dari keseluruhan sampel, ada 4 tahapan utama berkaitkan dengan degradasi akibat reaksi dekomposisi serat mendong.Tahap 1 adalah devolatilisasi awal, ditandai dengan adanya cekungan pertama di kurva laju pengurangan. ...
... Kekuatan spesifik dari serat mendong lebih tinggi dari serat jerami padi, serat jerami gandum, sisal, sabut kelapa, tebu, rumput laut, tetapi lebih rendah dari serat rumput alfa, serat sanseviera dan rami (Tabel 4).Serat adalah substrat lignoselulosa yang memiliki struktur heterogen dan menunjukkan pola spektral dengan penyerapan relatif tajam pada bilangan gelombang gelombang tertentu yang menunjukkan keberadaan suatu gugus kimia. Gugus fungsional serat mendong yang mampu terdeteksi pada uji FTIR antara lain ditunjukkan pada Gambar 6 dan Tabel 5.Gambar 6 Diagram hasil analisis dengan spektroskopi FTIR pada serat mendong[19] Tabel 5 Gugus fungsi pada serat yang terdeteksi melalui uji spektroskopi FTIR Bilangan gelombang (cm -1 ) ...
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Pendahuluan Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, bahan-bahan alam telah banyak diaplikasikan dalam bentuk biokomposit pada berbagai peralatan teknologi. Langkah ini telah mendorong berbagai industri untuk mencari bentuk baru dari biokomposit yang dapat menggantikan bahan komposit konvensional [1]. Tanaman Mendong (Fimbristylis globulosa) merupakan sejenis rumput, satu famili dari Cyperacea, termasuk tanaman yang tumbuh di lahan basah, di daerah yang berlumpur dan memiliki air yang cukup, dan biasanya tumbuh dengan panjang lebih dari 100 cm. Secara tradisional tanaman mendong telah digunakan sejak lama oleh masyarakat sekitar, biasanya diolah untuk digunakan sebagai tikar dan tali serat mendong sehingga potensi ekonomis serat mendong cukup baik serta mudah dibudidayakan. Mengingat potensi yang besar dari tanaman mendong maka di upayakan meningkatkan peran serat mendong tidak hanya sebagai barang tradisional, tetapi ditingkatkan fungsinya menjadi bahan baku komposit serat alam. Morfologi Mendong dan Serat Mendong Morfologi batang mendong ditunjukkan pada Gambar 1. Rumput mendong memiliki karakteristik morfologi antara lain: memiliki akar serabut, batang hijau mengkilap, beralur, berongga, diameter batang antara 0,2-0,4 cm. Batang Mendong memiliki rongga di bagian tengahnya, dengan serat yang dominan terletak di tepi serat tertutup dinding epidermis. Sebagian kecil serat ditemukan dalam saluran vaskular dibagian tengah batang mendong. Bentuk dan ukuran serat bervariasi. Pada potongan melintang, terlihat bahwa batang mendong terdiri dari 5-12 bundel vaskular. Pembuluh sebagian besar terletak di wilayah tengah batang (Gambar 1a). Bundel serat teramati pada jaringan kulit dibawah jaringan epidermis (Gambar 1b). Dari pengukuran diketahui bahwa ukuran bundel serat rata-rata sebesar 33.8±5.6 µm. Bundel serat terdiri dari beberapa serat sel tunggal dengan struktur seperti lumen, dinding serat termasuk dinding primer dan sekunder serta lamella tengah (Gambar 1c dan 5.1d). Dinding primer biasanya sangat tipis (< 1 µm), sedangkan dinding sel sekunder terdiri dari tiga lapisan. Lapisan ini terbentuk dari orientasi yang berbeda dari selulosa fibril berukuran paling tebal dan merupakan penyumbang utama (80%) dari sifat serat secara keseluruhan. Lapisan sekunder dibentuk oleh mikrofibril, yang mengandung sejumlah besar molekul selulosa. Mikrofibril terletak sejajar satu sama lain dan melilit membentuk heliks disekitar sel [2]. Diduga bahwa sudut mikrofibril (MFA) serat mendong adalah sebesar 22,2°.
... Mendong (Fimbristylis globulosa) is a type of grass that grows in wetland areas and usually grows up to more than 100 cm in the length. Traditionally, the mendong straws have been used for rope, mats, and other product like baskets, furniture, and handbags [5]. The mendong grass has the potency as fiber sources because of the production of mendong estimated 14,000 tons every year in Java, Indonesia [6]. ...
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the disposal of synthetic fiber is very difficult to be degraded and cause problems in the environment. The renewable materials have potency as an alternative material for replacing the synthetic material in the composite product. This study was to determine the critical fiber length of mendong fiber embedded in the epoxy composite. The methods were the extraction of mendong fiber from straw, pull out test methods, and morphology analysis of pull out test using scanning electron microscope. Results show that mendong fiber had shear strength of 11 MPa and indicate a critical fiber length of 630 µm. The low critical fiber length of mendong embedded in epoxy matrix indicate a good adhesion properties of mendong in epoxy matrix. It recommends that mendong fibers can apply as reinforcement in the epoxy composite in the form of short fiber.
... Bahan yang berasal dari tanaman telah digunakan secara tradisional untuk makanan dan pakan. Produk polimer berbasis bahan hijau seperti tanaman pertanian merupakan dasar untuk membentuk produk yang eco-efisien dan berkelanjutan, dan bersaing dengan bahan-bahan sintesis (Suryanto et al., 2016). Serat alami telah menunjukkan keunggulan dalam beberapa tahun terakhir. ...
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1. PENDAHULUAN Tanaman pertanian, pohon-pohon hutan, dan jenis tanaman lainnya memiliki banyak kegunaan untuk komunitas pertanian. Bahan yang berasal dari tanaman telah digunakan secara tradisional untuk makanan dan pakan. Produk polimer berbasis bahan hijau seperti tanaman pertanian merupakan dasar untuk membentuk produk yang eco-efisien dan berkelanjutan, dan bersaing dengan bahan-bahan sintesis (Suryanto et al., 2016). Serat alami telah menunjukkan keunggulan dalam beberapa tahun terakhir. Keunggulan dari serat alami dibandingkan dengan serat sintetis adalah harganya murah, densitas rendah, mudah lepas, bahan terbarukan dan terbiodegradasi dan tidak berbahaya bagi kesehatan. Akibatnya, ada peningkatan upaya untuk mengeksplorasi serat alam baru dan penggunaan serat tanaman oleh sektor industri yang berbeda, seperti komposit untuk aplikasi otomotif dan untuk menggantikan serat sintetis (Suryanto et al., 2014a). Beberapa alternatif serat alam dari tanaman yang sudah dieksplorasi antara lain serat jerami, jerami padi, serat rerumputan seperti rumput switch, rumput India, rumput napier, dan rumput mendong. Beberapa serat tersebut telah diterapkan sebagai penguat komposit polimer (Suryanto et al., 2015). Serat-serat alam dapat dikelompokan berdasarkan pada sumbernya yaitu berasal dari tanaman, binatang atau mineral. Serat tanaman terdiri atas selulosa, sementara serat hewan (rambut, sutera, dan wol) terdiri atas protein-protein. Serat tanaman meliputi serat kulit pohon (atau stem atau sklerenkima halus), daun atau serat-serat keras, benih, buah, kayu, sereal gandum, dan serat-serat rumput lain. Banyak diantara serat-serat alam ini, telah dikembangkan sebagai penguat dalam bahan komposit. Bahan-bahan komposit serat alam telah meningkat penggunaan karena harganya relatif murah, mampu untuk didaur ulang dan dapat bersaing dengan baik berdasarkan kekuatan per berat dari material. Serat yang berasal dari tanaman, pada umumnya dikelompokkan menjadi 2 kelompok, yaitu serat non-kayu dan serat kayu. Serat non-kayu dibagi menjadi (Suryanto et al., 2012): 1. Jerami, contoh: jagung, gandum, dan padi;
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Musa acuminata stem is an agricultural waste that has good economic potential. For this reason, efforts are needed to increase the saba banana tree not only as waste, but also to increase its function into natural fiber raw materials for polyester matrix composite reinforcement. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of Musa acuminata stem fibre (MASF) from North Lombok Regency, Indonesia Country as a reinforcement for polyester matrix composites. In this study, the fiber (specimen), taken from pseudo stem Musa acuminata, which consists of three layers: outer, middle and inner stem. The ratting process is done mechanically using a fiber extraction machine. To remove impurities in the fiber, alkaline treatment was carried out, by soaking for 24 hours in a 5 % NaOH solution. To determine the characteristics, a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) test was carried out for MASF morphology analysis, chemical compound content testing, heat resistance testing, and fiber tensile strength testing. The results showed that the MASF of the outer layer pseudo-stem has a strong character. Fiber morphology is different, between the outer, middle and inner layers pseudo-stems. The cellulose content (73.12 %) was higher than the fiber of Fimbristylis globulosa, hemp, jute, rice straw, wheat straw, seaweed, sorghum straw, coir, and alpha grass. Less resistant to heat degradation because mass loss occurs at a constant rate up to 245 °C. The highest MASF, in the outer pseudo-stem layer it is 40–50 cm from the base stem. Its characteristics are better than other natural fibers so that its potential can be further developed as a reinforcement for polymer matrix composites
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With ever increasing environmental awareness, renewable raw materials for textile and composite industry have become an important alternative to reduce the use of petroleum-based non-biodegradable fibers in various applications such as marine, automotive, sports and aerospace. Therefore, it is highly critical to understand the chemistry, structure, and properties of novel plant fibers. Natural fibers have been used for various purposes since ancient times. Numerous research and review papers were published on harvesting, production, properties and potential applications of conventional natural fibers. Sustainability, renewability, and recyclability issues increased the use of novel natural fibers globally. New applications such as natural fiber reinforced biodegradable composites also increased the importance of investigations on new natural fibers. This review paper considers extraction methods, fiber structure, chemical, physical and mechanical properties of novel cellulosic fibers. Fiber chemical constituents, functional groups, and surface hydrophilicity were discussed in terms of chemical properties. Physical properties of the cellulosic fibers such as density, crystallinity, maximum thermal degradation, mechanical performance and surface morphology were also discussed. Additionally, mechanical performance of new plant fibers was performed by comparing between some properties of common and recently characterized cellulosic fibers. The brief information about life-cycle assessment, sustainability, recycling, and biocomposite application of the novel plant fibers is also presented. According to the best our knowledge on literature review, this review may be unique to provide detailed information about recently characterized cellulosic fibers. This survey will be helpful to researchers who have interest in novel ligno-cellulosic fibers and fiber reinforced composites.
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Pendahuluan: Kelemahan dari komposit konvensional adalah terjadinya shrinkage dan stress polimerisasi. Penggunaan serat sebagai bahan pengisi pada resin komposit dapat menurunkan kontraksi polimerisasi. Berdasarkan penelitian sebelumnya serat sabut kelapa memiliki daya antibakteri yang cukup baik karena mengandung golongan senyawa metabolit sekunder yaitu tanin, flavonoid, dan polifenol. Selain itu juga memiliki beberapa senyawa, antara lain asam elagat, asam galat, epikatekin, dan katekin yang juga diperkirakan memiliki aktivitas sebagai anti bakteri. Serat sabut kelapa tidak dapat digunakan secara langsung dalam bentuk aslinya sehingga dibutuhkan modifikasi untuk membersihkan serat. Tujuan penelitian menganalisis perbandingan daya antibakteri serat selulosa sabut kelapa (Cocos nucifera L.) pada konsentrasi berbeda terhadap S. mutans. Metode: Jenis penelitian true experimental dengan desain penelitian posttest only control design. Ekstraksi serat selulosa dari sabut kelapa melalui proses bleaching kemudian sintesis selulosa menggunakan NaOH dan urea selanjutnya di nukleasi dengan etanol sebagai anti solvent organik dan dikeringkan dengan proses sublimasi. Pengujian aktivitas antibakteri menggunakan metode sumur difusi dengan dua konsentrasi uji yaitu kelompok 1 menggunakan anti solvent etanol 70% dan, pada kelompok 2 menggunakan etanol 96%. Kontrol negatif menggunakan aquadest steril. Selanjutnya diamati dan diukur diameter zona hambat dengan jangka sorong. Data yang diperoleh diuji statistik menggunakan independent t-test. Hasil: Daya antibakteri kelompok sampel yang diberi perlakuan etanol 96% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kelompok sampel etanol 70%. Hasil uji independent t-test menunjukkan bahwa nilai p yang signifikan p=0,000
Conference Paper
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Hotong Buru (S. italica) is a kind of cogon grass originating from the island of Buru, this plant produces seeds that are used as a very potential alternative food for rice because this plant can grow on various types of soil, even on sandy soils. Proximate analysis is a chemical test to determine the nutrient content of a feed or a feed raw material. Also, Hotong seeds have a protein content of around 11.2% and about 2.4% fat, while rice has a protein content of around 4.5% and 1-2% fat, which means that the protein and fat content of Hotong seeds are higher than the protein and fat content that is in rice. Judging from the carbohydrate content, the content of Hotong seeds is around 73%, almost the same as the carbohydrate content in rice, which is around 70-80%. This research was conducted to determine the nutritional content of Hotong Buru as a culinary ingredient. The research was conducted in the area of South Buru Regency, namely processing Hotong Buru as a culinary ingredient, and in Baristand Ambon, namely proximate analysis. The results of the proximate analysis of 10 types of Hotong Buru in culinary preparations, resulted in the discovery of carbohydrate content with an average of 75.04, protein content with an average of 17.98, fat content with an average of 6.54, and fiber content with an average of 3.67, this proves that the nutritional content of culinary Hotong Buru is very high and can be used as the right staple substitute for rice.
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This study investigated the ability of Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S.T. Blake (Poaceae), Cyperus ligularis L. (Cyperaceae), Commelina erecta L. (Commelinaceae), Mariscus umbellatus (Rottb.) Vahl (Cyperaceae), Fimbistylis miliacea L. (Cyperaceae) and Torulinium odoratum L. (Cyperaceae) to clean up various levels of used motor oil (UMO) contaminated soils. The plants were grown in 2 kg garden soils treated to 0%, 1%, 5% and 10% levels of UMO contamination. The plant growth parameters, chlorophyll contents and dry weight of test plants were measured. The phytoremediation ability of these test plants were assessed by measuring the uptake of hydrocarbons in terms of total hydrocarbon content (THC) as well as their percentage degradation values. There was significant (P < 0.05) reduction in leaf chlorophyll contents and dry weights of the test plant species planted in UMO contaminated soils. THC as well as the percentage uptake (or degradation) of hydrocarbons were both lowest in C. ligularis but highest in T. odoratum in all cases. The phytoremediation potential of test plants was highest in soils contaminated with 5% UMO. Based on the results of this study, all test plants with the exception of C. ligularis were potentially capable of undertaking phytoremediation. However, B. bladhii and T. odoratum proved most effective in the uptake and degradation of UMO. © 2014 The Ecological Society of Korea. All rights are reserved.
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A field experiment investigating the removal and/or uptake of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and specific metals (As, Cd, Cr) from a crude oil polluted agricultural soil was performed during the 2013 wet season using four plant species: Fimbristylis littoralis, Hevea brasilensis (Rubber plants), Cymbopogom citratus (Lemon grass), and Vigna subterranea (Bambara nuts). Soil functional diversity and soil-enzyme interactions were also investigated. The diagnostic ratios and the correlation analysis identified mixed petrogenic and pyrogenic sources as the main contributors of PAHs at the study site. A total of 16 PAHs were identified, 6 of which were carcinogenic. Up to 42.4 mg kg(-1) total PAHs was recorded prior to the experiments. At 90 d, up to 92% total PAH reduction and 96% As removal were achieved using F. littoralis, the best performing species. The organic soil amendment (poultry dung) rendered most of the studied contaminants unavailable for uptake. However, the organic amendment accounted for over 70% of the increased dehydrogenase, phosphatase, and proteolytic enzymes activities in the study. Overall, the combined use of soil amendments and phytoremediation significantly improved the microbial community activity, thus promoting the restoration of the ecosystem.
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Highly heavy metal (HM) polluted soil from non-ferrous mine and smelter in Poland (further named as “Waryński”) were used in pot experiment for six grass varieties. Growing media with three different amounts of “Waryński” soil (0, 33 and 100 %) mixed with unpolluted field soil were used. The grass varieties showed significant differences in ability to accumulateHMfrom soil. Performed measurements proved proportional reduction of plant growth with increasing amount of polluted soil in the growing medium: 100 % Waryński soil inhibited plant growth so strongly that it was not useful for further analysis. Depending on the variety, it has been estimated that using different grass varieties, it could be possible to extract: 2.6–10.2 g of lead, 10.2–34.2 g cadmium and 250–2,562 g zinc, as calculated for total grass yield from 1 ha.
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The effects of the AC electric field treatment on the interfacial shear strength of mendong fiber-reinforced epoxy composites were investigated. For this purpose, the epoxy (DGEBA) with a cycloaliphatic amine curing agent was treated by the AC electric field during the curing process. The heat generated during the epoxy polymerization process was monitored. Structure of the epoxy was studied by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscope, respectively. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was also measured using a single fiber pull-out test. XRD analyzes indicated that the treatment of AC electric fields was able to form a crystalline phase of epoxy. IFSS of the mendong fiber-reinforced epoxy composites was optimum increased by 38% in the AC electric fields treatment of 750 V/cm.
A novel robust non-woven sisal fibre preform was manufactured using a papermaking process utilising nanosized bacterial cellulose (BC) as binder for the sisal fibres. It was found that BC provides significant mechanical strength to the sisal fibre preforms. This can be attributed to the high stiffness and strength of the BC network. Truly green non-woven fibre preform reinforced hierarchical composites were prepared by infusing the fibre preforms with acrylated epoxidised soybean oil (AESO) using vacuum assisted resin infusion, followed by thermal curing. Both the tensile and flexural properties of the hierarchical composites showed significant improvements over polyAESO and neat sisal fibre preform reinforced polyAESO. These results were corroborated by the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the (hierarchical) composites, which showed an increased storage modulus and enhanced fibre-matrix stress transfer. By using BC as binder for short sisal fibres, added benefits such as the high Young's modulus of BC, enhanced fibre-fibre and fibre-matrix stress transfer can be utilised in the resulting hierarchical composites.