ArticlePDF Available

Antinociceptive Properties of Methanolic Bark Extracts of Terminalia brownii in Wistar Rats

Authors:

Abstract

Background: The barks of the medicinal plant, Terminalia brownii, are widely used in African folk medicine for the management of pain. However, this ethno-medicinal allegation has not been scientifically validated. This study was therefore designed to verify the antinociceptive potential of the methanolic bark extract of T. brownii in Wistar rats (Rattus novegicus). Methods: Fresh barks of T. brownii were obtained from Kitui County, Kenya with the guidance of a residential herbalist. The study used thirty 2-3 months old male Wistar rats, weighing 140-150 g. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups; three control groups (normal, negative and positive) and three experimental groups (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg extract treatment). Each group had five rats. The analgesic properties of the extract were evaluated on formalin-induced pain and diclofenac was used as the standard drug. Results: The methanolic bark extracts of T. brownii demonstrated significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05) by reducing the paw licking time by between 4.62%-44.96% in the early phase and 35.77%-58.89% in the late phase. Diclofenac reduced the paw licking time by 44.79% in the early phase and 55.33% in the late phase. Conclusion: Our study results strongly support the antinociceptive activity of the barks of T. brownii and rationalize the traditional use of the barks in management of pain.
Antinociceptive Properties of Methanolic Bark Extracts of Terminalia brownii in
Wistar Rats
Jane W Mbiri1*, Sichangi Kasili2, Patrick D Kisangau2, Michael N Musila3, Mathew N Piero3 and Wilton M Mbinda4
1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya
2Department of Biology, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya
3Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kenyatta University, Kenya
4Department of Physical Sciences, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Karatina University, Kenya
*Corresponding author: Jane W Mbiri, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, South Eastern Kenya University, P.O.
Box: 170-90200, Kitui, Kenya, Tel: +245-704-428 355; Email: jane7mbiri@gmail.com
Received date: August 10, 2016; Accepted date: August 26, 2016; Published date: August 29, 2016
Copyright: © 2016 Mbiri WJ, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Abstract
Background: The barks of the medicinal plant, Terminalia brownii, are widely used in African folk medicine for
the management of pain. However, this ethno-medicinal allegation has not been scientifically validated. This study
was therefore designed to verify the antinociceptive potential of the methanolic bark extract of T. brownii in Wistar
rats (Rattus novegicus).
Methods: Fresh barks of T. brownii were obtained from Kitui County, Kenya with the guidance of a residential
herbalist. The study used thirty 2-3 months old male Wistar rats, weighing 140-150 g. The rats were randomly
divided into 6 groups; three control groups (normal, negative and positive) and three experimental groups (50, 100
and 150 mg/kg extract treatment). Each group had five rats. The analgesic properties of the extract were evaluated
on formalin-induced pain and diclofenac was used as the standard drug.
Results: The methanolic bark extracts of T. brownii demonstrated significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05) by
reducing the paw licking time by between 4.62%-44.96% in the early phase and 35.77%-58.89% in the late phase.
Diclofenac reduced the paw licking time by 44.79% in the early phase and 55.33% in the late phase.
Conclusion: Our study results strongly support the antinociceptive activity of the barks of T. brownii and
rationalize the traditional use of the barks in management of pain.
Keywords: Antinociceptive; Methanolic bark extract;
Terminalia
brownii
; Wistar rats
Introduction
Pain is an unpleasant sensory aiction and emotional experience
usually associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described
in terms of such damage [1]. Pain ranges from mild irritation, through
sensations of pricking and itching to unbearable sensations like
throbbing and stabbing [2]. In response to external noxious stimuli
such as chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal stimuli, the
nervous system triggers behavioral responses that help in protection or
avoidance of tissue damage [3]. Pain therefore represents the principal
symptom for the diagnosis of numerous disease conditions and is
extensively accepted as one of the signicant determinants of quality of
life [4]. Non-steroidal anti-inammatory drugs like piroxicam,
diclofenac, meloxicam, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, indomethacin, among
others are the conventional drugs commonly prescribed for the
management of pain [5]. However, long term use of these drugs is
unsatisfactory in terms of ecacy, tolerability, toxicity and
aordability [4,6]. Opoids like morphine, fentanyl, nalorphine, and
hydromorphone are also used for the management of pain [7]. Opoids
bind to and modulate the descending and ascending pathways related
to pain [8].
However, Opoids have been reported to cause adverse side eects
like respiratory depression, constipation, sexual dysfunction, nausea
and muscle rigidity [7]. Search for alternative remedies for pain is
therefore inevitable due to the limitations associated with the
conventional analgesics. Medicinal plants derivatives have been
suggested to be better alternatives since they are more eective, more
aordable, associated with fewer side eects and readily available
[9,10].
Terminalia brownii
(Combretaceae) is an important medicinal
plant that is widely used in African traditional medicine [11]. It is
found in Eastern and Central Africa; Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan, Ethiopia
and Democratic Republic of Congo [12].
Terminalia brownii
is used as
a folklore remedy for back and rheumatic pains, tooth-ache, tonsillitis,
cough, typhoid and snake bites [13-16]. As part of our interest in
search for pharmacological eect of natural products for the
management of pain and because
T. brownii
is widely used a pain
remedy, this work focused to conrm the popular use of this plant by
assessing the antinociceptive eects of its methanolic bark extract in
animal models.
Journal of Pain & Relief Mbiri et al., J Pain Relief 2016, 5:5
DOI: 10.4172/2167-0846.1000261
Research Article OMICS International
J Pain Relief, an open access journal
ISSN:2167-0846
Volume 5 • Issue 5 • 1000261
Materials and Methods
Collection and preparation of plant materials
Fresh barks of
T. brownii
were obtained from Kitui County, Kenya
with the guidance of a residential herbalist. e bark samples were
identied and authenticated at the East African Herbarium. e study
was conducted for one month at the Kenyatta University’s
Biochemistry and Biotechnology laboratory. e samples were cleaned
using running tap water, cleaved into small pieces and shade dried
until completely dry at room temperatures. An electric mill was used
to grind the dry samples into ne consistent powder. e powdered
materials were kept at room temperature away from direct sunlight in
closed dry paper bags until use.
Extraction
e powder was macerated with 100% methanol for 2 days at room
temperature. Aer ltration, the extract was concentrated using a
rotary evaporator (Buchi rotary evaporator, Sigma Aldrich,
Switzerland), before storing the crude extract in airtight containers at
4°C.
Experimental animals
Wistar rats (2-3 months old) weighing 140-180 g were used in this
study [17]. e animals were housed under a controlled temperature
(25 ± 2°C) on a 12 h light/12 h dark photoperiod cycle and allowed to
acclimate for 7 days. e rats were fed on standard rodent pellets and
provided with water ad libitum. We conducted the present study in
accordance with the international rules accepted for the care and use of
experimental animals in laboratories [18] and the guidelines provided
by our Institution’s Ethics Committee. A research permit (No.
NACOSTI/P/16/48885/11446) was also obtained from the National
Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation.
Determination of the antinociceptive activity
To investigate the possible antinociceptive properties of methanolic
bark extracts of
T. brownii
, formalin-induced pain was used according
to the method described by [19] with some modications. e
antinociceptive activity of the extract was compared to diclofenac
(Bhumi Pharmaceuticals, Gujarat, India), the reference drug. e
experimental rats were partitioned into 6 groups of 5 rats each and the
treatments’ summary is as presented in (Table 1).
Group Status Treatment
I Normal control None
II Negative control Formalin+DMSO
III Positive control Formalin+15 mg/kg diclofenac+DMSO
IV Experimental group A Formalin+50 mg/kg extract+DMSO
V Experimental group B Formalin+100 mg/kg extract+DMSO
VI Experimental group C Formalin+150 mg/kg extract+DMSO
DMSO=10%; Formalin=2.5%
Table 1: Treatment procedure used for evaluation of the anti-
nociceptive activities of methanolic bark extracts of
T. brownii
in
Wistar rats.
To induce nociceptive eect, 0.1 ml of 2.5% formalin was
administered subcutaneously into the sub plantar region of the le
hind paw leading to nociceptive behaviors of biting, licking and liing
[20].
Formalin (Shijiazhuang Xinlongwei Chemical Co., Ltd., Hebei,
China) was administered thirty minutes aer the various treatments
were given. One rat at a time was placed in a transparent glass cage to
allow proper observation of the nociceptive behaviors. e time that
the rats spent licking and biting the injected paw was scored in two
distinct phases. e early phase was scored for the rst ve minutes
aer formalin injection and the late phase was scored 15-30 minutes
aer formalin injection.
e following formula was then used to calculate percentage
inhibition of paw licking;
[(C-T)/C] *100
Where;
C- e vehicle treated control group value for each phase
T - e treated group value for each phase
Data analysis
All data obtained was analyzed using ANOVA with Minitab
statistical computer soware v.17 (Minitab Inc., Pennsylvania, U.S.A).
Means were separated using Tukey’s Honest Signicant Dierence test
at a condence level of 95% (p ≤ 0.05).
Results
e administration of the methanolic bark extract of
T. brownii
reduced the formalin-induced pain in both early and late phases and
this was indicated by the reduction in paw licking time (Table 2). In
the early phase, treatment with the extract at the dose levels; 50, 100
and 150 mg/kg bw exhibited a dose dependent trend and reduced paw
licking time by 4.62%, 23.59% and 44.96% respectively (Table 2).
In addition, the reference drug (diclofenac) reduced the paw licking
time by 44.79%. e antinociceptive eects extract at the dose levels of
50, 100 and 150mg/kg bw were signicantly dierent amongst each
other (p<0.05, Table 2). At the dose level of 150 mg/kg bw, the extract
was comparable to the standard control drug (p>0.05, Table 2).
e extract at the dose levels of 100 and 150 mg/kg bw was
signicantly dierent from the negative and normal control groups
(p˂0.05, Table 2). In this phase, the extract at the dose level of
150mg/kg bw manifested the maximum antinociceptive activity.
In the late phase, the methanolic bark extracts of
T. brownii
exhibited a dose dependent response on the formalin-induced pain.
e standard drug and the extract at the dose levels of 50, 100 and 150
mg/kg bw reduced the paw licking time by 55.33%, 35.77%, 49.79%
and 58.89 respectively (Table 2).
e antinociceptive eect of the extract at the dose levels of 100 and
150mg/kg was not signicantly dierent (p>0.05, Table 2). However,
Citation: Mbiri WJ, Kasili S, Kisangau DP, Musila NM, Piero NM, et al. (2016) Antinociceptive Properties of Methanolic Bark Extracts of
Terminalia brownii in Wistar Rats. J Pain Relief 5: 261. doi:10.4172/2167-0846.1000261
Page 2 of 5
J Pain Relief, an open access journal
ISSN:2167-0846
Volume 5 • Issue 5 • 1000261
the antinociceptive activity of the extract at the dose levels of 100 and
150 mg/kg bw was signicantly dierent from the antinociceptive
activity of the extract at the dose level of 50 mg/kg (p˂0.05, Table 2).
e antinociceptive activity of the extract at dose levels 100 and 150
mg/kg bw was comparable to that of the reference drug, diclofenac
(p>0.05, Table 2). e extract at the three dose levels was signicantly
dierent from the negative and normal control groups (p˂0.05, Table
2). In this phase, the extract at the dose level of 150 mg/kg bw
manifested maximal antinociceptive activity.
Group Treatment Paw Licking Time After Treatment (Sec)
Early Phase Late Phase
Normal control None 0.00 ± 0.00d
(100.00%)
0.00 ± 0.00d
(100.00%)
Negative control Formalin+DMSO 117.00 ± 4.11a
(00.00%)
191.20 ± 4.80a
(00.00%)
Positive control Formalin+diclofenac+DMSO 64.60 ± 2.29c
(44.79%)
85.40 ± 3.78c
(55.33%)
Experimental Group A Formalin+50 mg/kg bw+DMSO 111.60 ± 4.34a
(4.62%)
122.80 ± 4.89b
(35.77%)
Experimental Group B Formalin+100 mg/kg bw+DMSO 89.40 ± 4.43b
(23.59%)
96.00 ± 5.44c
(49.79%)
Experimental Group C Formalin+150 mg/kg bw+DMSO 64.40 ± 5.95c
(44.96%)
78.60 ± 7.11c
(58.89%)
Values were expressed as Mean ± SEM for the five rats per group. Statistical comparisons were made within a column and values with the same superscript were not
significantly different by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test (p˃0.05). Values in brackets indicate percentage paw licking inhibition.
Table 2: Anti-nociceptive activity of the methanolic bark extracts of
T. brownii
in Wistar rats.
Discussion
e antinociceptive activity of the methanolic bark extract of
T.
brownii
was evaluated on formalin-induced pain in the le hind paw
of male Wistar rats. Acute thermal assays like the hot plate, tail ick
and Hargreave’s tests are other models that have been used to screen
for the antinociceptive activities of various agents [21]. Acetic acid can
also be used to induce pain [22]. However, the formalin assay was
chosen over other models because it has the potential to mimic human
clinical pain conditions [23] with the freely moving unrestrained
animals allowing for the observation of spontaneous pain-related
responses [24]. Formalin produces a response in two distinct phases
and this allows researchers to model both acute and chronic pain using
a single noxious chemical.
Formalin evoked a biphasic pain response; phase I known as
neurogenic pain and phase II also known as inammatory pain [22].
e rst phase starts from 0-10 minutes aer formalin injection [25]
and mediators such as amino acids and kinins [22] are released. is
phase results when the primary aerent sensory neurons are directly
activated [24] and therefore, drugs that act mainly on the central
nervous system, can inhibit neurogenic pain [25]. e second phase
starts from 20-30 minutes aer formalin injection leading to the
release of inammatory mediators like bradykinin, histamine,
prostaglandins, ILs and TNF-α [25]. is phase reects both the
peripheral input and sensitization of the spinal cord sensitization [22]
and it’s sensitive to peripherally-acting drugs like NSAIDs and
corticosteroids [25].
In the present study, 2.5% formalin was injected into the le hind
paw of the experimental animals. is concentration of formalin was
chosen because it evokes a maximum response and according to [26],
higher concentrations of formalin may lead to other behavioral
responses that may interfere with the primary antinociceptive
behavior. Under normal physiological conditions, rats tend to lick their
forepaws [27] and so as to show that the paw licking was entirely due
to formalin, the hind paw was chosen.
e methanolic bark extracts of
T. brownii
demonstrated a
signicant antinociceptive activity by reducing the paw licking time in
both phases. ese results showed that the extract was able to inhibit
the activation of the primary aerent sensory neurons and the release
of inammatory pain mediators. It can therefore be suggested that the
methanolic bark extracts of
T. brownii
contain centrally and
peripherally acting analgesic phytochemicals. ese results are similar
with the results of previous studies that have evaluated and revealed
the antinociceptive activities of other medicinal plants like the studies
by [28-30].
e dose levels of the extract used in this study were 50, 100 and 150
mg/kg bw and were in a similar dose range used by [27,31,32]. e
three dose levels of the methanolic bark extracts of
T. brownii
produced a dose-dependent response to the formalin-induced pain
and this kind of response was also obtained by [33]. In the present
study it was observed that the extract at the lower dose levels of 50 and
100 mg/kg bw was not as eective as the higher dose level of the
extract, 150 mg/kg bw. is could be explained by the fast metabolism
and clearance of the eective principle(s) that was/were in a low
concentration in these lower dose levels of the extract [34]. It can also
Citation: Mbiri WJ, Kasili S, Kisangau DP, Musila NM, Piero NM, et al. (2016) Antinociceptive Properties of Methanolic Bark Extracts of
Terminalia brownii in Wistar Rats. J Pain Relief 5: 261. doi:10.4172/2167-0846.1000261
Page 3 of 5
J Pain Relief, an open access journal
ISSN:2167-0846
Volume 5 • Issue 5 • 1000261
be suggested that at the dose level of 150 mg/kg bw, the extract
demonstrated the highest antinociceptive activity due to the presence
of a sucient concentration of the eective principle(s) in the extract.
e phytochemical composition of
T. brownii
has been widely
studied and various phytochemical constituents have been armed to
exist in this medicinal plant. ey include saponins, polyphenols,
avanoids, phytosterols, tannins, coumarins, alkaloids, terpenoids,
phenols, and steroids [35-37]. Several compounds have also been
identied in various extracts of
T. brownii
including; betulinic acid, β-
sitosterol, arjungenin, stigmasterol, monogynol A [38], seven ellagic
acid derivatives, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-sitosterol and an
oleanane-type triterpenoid [9].
e antinociceptive properties of some of these secondary
metabolites have been revealed. Flavonoids exhibit antinociceptive
activity [39]. Flavonoids inhibit the activity of the enzyme endo-
peroxidase (prostaglandin synthetase) leading to a reduction of the
synthesis and release of prostaglandins, a pain mediator [33].
Prostaglandins are involved in pain perception; therefore, agents that
inhibit their synthesis are possible remedies for pain. Several studies
have also revealed that alkaloids, saponins and terpenoids do possess
antinociceptive properties [34,40-42]
e present study therefore suggests that the antinociceptive eect
of the methanolic bark extracts of
T. brownii
could be due to the
activity avonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and saponins that have been
conrmed to be present in this medicinal plant. One limitation of this
study is that biochemical tests were not conducted to determine the
eects of the methanolic bark extract of
T. brownii
on internal organs
like the liver and the kidney. However, we recommend this as an area
of further research.
Conclusion
Our study showed a signicant dose-dependent antinociceptive
activity of the methanolic bark extracts of
T. brownii
in both early and
late phases. e antinociceptive activity of this extract is probably
associated with the presence of phytochemical secondary metabolites
that were able to inhibit the activation of the primary aerent sensory
neurons and the release of inammatory pain mediators. e extract’s
antinociceptive eect was comparable to that of diclofenac, reference
drug. In addition, the antinociceptive eect of the extract was
maximum at the dose level of 150 mg/kg bw in both the early and late
phases. e methanolic bark extracts of
T. brownii
can therefore be
used to develop new formulations against pain as alternative
medication to the conventional drugs used to manage pain. Our study
therefore provides a scientic conrmation on the ethno medicinal
claim of the use of
T. brownii
barks as a pain remedy.
Acknowledgement
We acknowledge the Department of Biochemistry and
Biotechnology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kenyatta
University, Nairobi, Kenya, for allowing us to conduct this study in
their facilities.
References
1. Bannerman PG, Mirsky R, Jessen KR, Timpl R, Duance VC (1986) Light
microscopic immunolocalization of laminin, type IV collagen,nidogen,
heparan sulfate proteoglycan and bronectinin the enteric nervous
system of rat and guinea pig. J Neurocytol 5: 432-443.
2. Watson T (2008) Electrotherapy: evidence-based practice. (12th edn.)
Elsevier Health Sciences.
3. Patel NB (2010) Physiology of pain. Guide to pain management in low-
resource settings.
4. Cruz MP, Andrade CM, Silva KO, de Souza EP, Yatsuda R, et al. (2016)
Antinoceptive and Anti-inammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract,
Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiora (Willd.) Poir
(Leguminosae). PloS one 11: e0150839.
5. Modi C, Mody S, Patel G, Dudhatra G, Avinash K, et al. (2012)
Toxicopathological Overview of Analgestic and Anti-inammatory
Drugs in Animals. Journal of Applied Phamaceutical Science 2: 149-157.
6. Amaral MIG, Silva MR, Aquino-Neto PF, Teixeira-Neto BA, Moura CT, et
al. (2007) Biologica and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 30: 12-17.
7. Trescot AM, Helm S, Hansen H, Benyamin R, Glaser SE, et al. (2008)
Opioids in the management of chronic non-cancer pain: an update of
American Society of the Interventional Pain Physicians’(ASIPP)
Guidelines. Pain physician 11: S5-S62.
8. Trescot AM, Datta S, Lee M, Hansen H (2008) Opioid pharmacology.
Pain Physician 11: S1333-S1354.
9. Robinon MR, Zhang X (2011) e World Medicine Situation (Traditional
Medicines: Global Situation, Issues and Challenges). Geneva, World
Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
10. Bordgers R, Nascimento MVM, de Carvalho AAV, Valadares MC, de
Paula JR, et al. (2013) Antinociceptive and anti-inammatory activities of
the ethanolic extract from synadenium umbellatum pax. (Euphorbiaceae)
leaves and its fractions. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative
Medicine ID: 715650.
11. Machumi F, Midiwo JO, Jacob MR, Khan SI, Tekwani BL, et al. (2013)
Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiplasmodial investigations of
Terminalia brownii. Natural Product Communications 8: 761-764.
12. Mbwambo ZH, Moshi MJ, Masimba PJ, Kapingu MC, Nondo RS (2007)
Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia
brownii roots and stem. BMC complementary and Alternative Medicine
7: 1-5.
13. Khalid HS, El-Kamali HH, Elmanan AA (2007) Trade of Sudanese
natural medicinals and their role in human and wildlife health
care. Cropwatch Newsletter 10: 1-15.
14. Njagi EN, Wanjau RN, Ngari FW, Gikonyo NK (2014) Herbal materials
used in management of oral conditions in Nairobi, Kenya 8: 36-42.
15. Salih E, Fyhrquist P, Hiltunen R, Vuorela H (2014) Antimycobacterial
eects of African medicinal plants Terminalia brownii and Terminalia
laxiora. Planta Medica 80: 122.
16. Kidane B, van Andel T, van der Maesen LJG, Asfaw Z (2014) Use and
management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic
communities in southern Ethiopia. Journal of ethnobiology and
ethnomedicine 10: 1.
17. Khan H, Saeed M, Gilani AH, Muhammad N, Haq IU, et al. (2013)
Antipyretic and anticonvulsant activity of Polygonatum verticillatum:
comparison of rhizomes and aerial parts. Phytotherapy Research 27:
468-471.
18. Wolfensohn S, Lloyd M (1998) Handbook of laboratory animal
management and Welfare. (2nd edn). Blackwell science Ltd, Oxford UK:
169-216.
19. Hunskaar S, Hole K (1987) e formalin test in mice: dissociation
between inammatory and non-inammatory pain. Journal of Pain 30:
103-114.
20. Tjolsen AB, Hunskaar OG, Rosland SJ, Hole K (1992a) e formalin test:
an evaluation of the method. Journal of Pain 51: 5-17.
21. Allen J, Yaksh T (2004) Assessment of Acute ermal Nociception in
Laboratory Animals. Pain Research: Methods and Protocols 99: 11-23.
22. Spindola HM, Vendramini-Costa DB, Rodrigues MT, Foglio MA, Pilli
RA, et al. (2012) e antinociceptive activity of harmicine on chemical-
induced neurogenic and inammatory pain models in mice.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 102: 133-138.
Citation: Mbiri WJ, Kasili S, Kisangau DP, Musila NM, Piero NM, et al. (2016) Antinociceptive Properties of Methanolic Bark Extracts of
Terminalia brownii in Wistar Rats. J Pain Relief 5: 261. doi:10.4172/2167-0846.1000261
Page 4 of 5
J Pain Relief, an open access journal
ISSN:2167-0846
Volume 5 • Issue 5 • 1000261
23. Ibironke G, Ajiboye K (2007) Studies on the Anti-inammatory and
Analgesic Properties of Chenopodium Ambrosiodes Leaf Extracts in
Rats. International Journal of Pharmacology 3: 111-115.
24. McNamara CR, Mandel-Brehm J, Bautista DM, Siemens J, Deranian K, et
al. (2007) TRPA1 mediates formalin-induced pain. Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences 104: 13525-13530.
25. Hassani FV, Rezaee R, Sazegara H, Hashemzaei M, Shirani K, et al. (2015)
Eects of silymarin on neuropathic pain and formalin-induced
nociception in mice. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 18: 715-720.
26. Clavelou P, Dallel R, Orliaguet T, Woda A, Raboisson P (1995) e
orofacial formalin test in rats: eects of dierent formalin concentrations.
Pain 62: 295-301.
27. Mwangi BM, Gitahi SM, Njagi JM, Mworia JK, Aliyu U, et al. (2015) Anti-
inammatory Properties of Dichloromethane: Methanolic Leaf Extracts
of Caesalpinia volkensii and Maytenus Obscura in Animal Models. J Pain
Relief 4: 191.
28. Silva JC, Araújo CS, de Lima-Saraiva SR, de Oliveira-Junior RG, Diniz
TC, et al. (2015) Antinociceptive and anti-inammatory activities of the
ethanolic extract of Annona vepretorum Mart.(Annonaceae) in rodents.
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 15: 197-206.
29. Mothana R, Alsaid M, Khaled JM, Alharbi NS, Alatar A, et al. (2016)
Assessment of antinociceptive, antipyretic and antimicrobial activity of
Piper cubeba L. essential oil in animal models. Pak J Pharm Sci. 29:
671-677.
30. Safari VZ, Kamau JK, Nthiga PM, Ngugi MP, Orinda G, et al. (2016a)
Antipyretic, Antiinammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Aqueous
Bark Extract of Acacia Nilotica (L) Delile in Albino Mice. Pain Manage
Med 2: 1-7.
31. Safari VZ, Ngugi MP, Orinda G, Njagi EM (2016 b) Anti-pyretic, Anti-
inammatory and Analgesic Activities of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Urtica
Dioica (L) in Albino Mice. Medicinal & Aromatic Plants 2: 50-57.
32. Ishola IO, Agbaje EO, Adeyemi OO, Rakesh S (2014) Analgesic and anti-
inammatory eects of the methanol root extracts of some selected
Nigerian medicinal plants. Journal of Pharmaceutical Biology 52:
1208-1216.
33. Chatterjee A, Sen B, Das S, Chatterjee TK (2015) Anti-inammatory and
analgesic activity of methanolic xtract of medicinal plant Rhodiola rosea
rhizomes. International Journal of Pharmacolology Resesearch and
Review 4: 1-8.
34. Maina GS, Kelvin JK, Maina MB, Muriithi NJ, Kiambi MJ, et al. (2015)
Antinociceptive properties of dichloromethane: methanolic leaf and root
bark extracts of Carissa edulis in rats. JPHYTO 4: 106-112.
35. Kareru PG, Keriko JM, Gachanja AN, Kenji GM (2008) Direct Detection
of Triterpenoid Saponins in Medicinal Plants. Afr J Tradit Complement
Altern Med 5: 56-60.
36. Periasamy P, Alemayehu Y, Tarekegn W, Sintayehu B, Gebrelibanos M, et
al. (2015) Evaluation of in Vivo Central Analgesic Activity and
Prelimnary Phytochemical Screening of Methanolic Extract of Terminalia
brownii Leaves. IJPBS 5: 49-53.
37. Mbiri JW, Kasili S, Patrick K, Mbinda W, Piero NM (2016) Anti-
inammatory properties of methanolic bark extracts of Terminalia
brownii in Wistar albino rats. International Journal of Current
Pharmaceutical Research 8: 3.
38. Opiyo S, Manguro L, Owuor P, Ochieng C, Ateka E, et al. (2011)
Antimicrobial compounds from Terminalia brownii against sweet potato
pathogens. e Natural Products Journal 1: 116-120.
39. Hossinzadeh HM, Ramezani M, Fedishei M, Mahmoudi (2002) Anti-
nociceptive, anti- inammatory and acute toxicity eects of Zzhumeria
majdae extracts in mice and rats. Phytomedicine 9: 135-41.
40. Kaleem W, Muhammad N, Qayum M, Khan H, Khan A, et al. (2013)
Antinociceptive activity of cyclopeptide alkaloids isolated from Ziziphus
oxyphylla Edgew (Rhamnaceae). Fitoterapia 91: 154-158.
41. Hassan HS, Sule MI, Musa MA, Emmanuel AA, Ibrahim, et al. (2010)
Analgesic and anti-inammatory activities of the saponins extract of
Carissa edulis root in rodents. IJBCS 4: 1310-1317.
42. Chindo B, Anuka J, Isaac E, Ahmadu A, Tarfa F, et al. (2010) Saponins are
involved in the analgesic and anti-inammatory properties of Ficus
platyphylla stem bark. IJBCS 4: 415-423.
Citation: Mbiri WJ, Kasili S, Kisangau DP, Musila NM, Piero NM, et al. (2016) Antinociceptive Properties of Methanolic Bark Extracts of
Terminalia brownii in Wistar Rats. J Pain Relief 5: 261. doi:10.4172/2167-0846.1000261
Page 5 of 5
J Pain Relief, an open access journal
ISSN:2167-0846
Volume 5 • Issue 5 • 1000261
... In Ethiopia it is locally known as "Weiba" in Tigrigna and "Abalo" in Amharic. 13 T. brownii is one of the medicinal plants extensively used for treatment of various ailments in Eastern, Southern, and Western Africa. Traditional healers in Ethiopia use the various parts of the plant for treatment of diabetes, jaundice, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and yellow fever. ...
... 11,16 Previous studies indicated that different parts of T. brownii have been shown to exhibit varieties of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic, in vitro antimicrobial and antiplasmodial, central analgesic, and radical scavenging activities. 13,14,[17][18][19][20] Although T. brownii has been traditionally used for management of diabetes and its complication in the Ethiopian folklore medicine, scientific study that supports its traditional claim has not been carried out yet. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic effect of the crude extract and solvent fractions of T. brownii stem bark. ...
... The dried extract was transferred into a vial and kept in a refrigerator until used. 13 Solvent fractions were prepared by liquid-liquid partitioning method. Thirty grams of the crude extract was suspended in 200 mL of distilled water in separatory funnel and it was then partitioned successively with 200 mL of different solvents of increasing polarity, starting from n-hexane, followed by chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, each three times. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that imposes a huge health and economic burden on societies. Because the currently available medications have many drawbacks, it is important to search for alternative therapies. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicines are ideal candidates. Hence, this study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic activity of crude extract and solvent fractions from the stem bark of Terminalia brownii Fresen. (Combretaceae) in mice. Materials and methods: The in vitro α-amylase inhibition assay was performed using the chromogenic 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA) method while the antihyperglycemic activity was assessed using three mouse models: streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, normoglycemic mice, and oral glucose challenged mice. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at a dose of 150 mg/kg and animals with fasting blood glucose level (BGL) >200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug. Fasting BGL and body weight were used to assess the antidiabetic activity. The result was analyzed using GraphPad Prism software version 8 and one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test with p<0.05 considered as statistically significant. Results: The crude extract of T. brownii at all tested dose levels (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg) showed a significant BGL reduction in all the three animal models. Moreover, the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (at 500 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.01) reduced the BGL in the streptozotocin induced diabetic model. The crude extract and different solvent fractions also showed a dose-dependent in vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity and improvement of body weight. Conclusion: T. brownii crude extract and its solvent fractions showed a significant antihyperglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic mice, hypoglycemic activity and improvement of oral glucose tolerance in normal mice.
... Nociception refers to the neural processes of encoding and processing noxious stimuli, which results from the stimulation of sensory fibres by noxious stimuli. Pain is often the main symptom in the clinical diagnosis of various human and animal diseases [1]. As a component of the human immune and inflammatory response system, pain is experienced when sensory signals are transmitted to the nervous system to cause a motor reaction toward harmful stimuli [2]. ...
... Pain remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the current drugs used to treat pain cannot fully relieve pain due to inadequate effectiveness, especially in chronic pain [6]. Moreover, the use of opioid analgesics, NSAIDs, and corticosteroids in pain management normally present moderate-to-severe adverse effects and drug dependence [1,6]. Hence, the need for new analgesics is essential. ...
Article
Full-text available
Persicaria lanigera is used traditionally to treat pain. The antinociceptive properties of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Persicaria lanigera (PLE) were evaluated in rats and mice. Mice were pretreated orally with PLE (30, 100, and 300 mg kg−1) and evaluated for antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-, glutamate-, and formalin-induced nociception models. Additionally, mechanical hyperalgesia models were used to evaluate PLE’s influence on TNF-α- and IL-1β-induced hyperalgesia in rats. In the acetic acid-induced nociception model, 100 mg kg−1 PLE exhibited the highest antinociceptive activity of 95.13 ± 9.52% at p
... It has been previously reported that shaf contains antimycobacterial compounds of diverse polarities and can be used for tuberculosis treatment (Salih et al., 2018). Mbiri et al. (2016) demonstrated an antinociceptive activity of the barks of shaf and rationalize the traditional use of the barks in the management of pain. The volatiles from E. hirta leaves showed secondary strongest inhibition (27.8 and 38.7% of hypocotyl and radicle growth of lettuce, respectively). ...
Article
Leaf, fruit, wood, and gum of fifty-five plants collected in Sudan were evaluated by Dish pack method for their allelopathic activity through volatile chemicals using lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as a receptor plant. Several potential plants with high allelopathic activity, such as Terminalia brownie, Euphorbia hirta, Diospyros mespiliformis, Corchorus olitorius, Adansonia digitata, Hibiscus sabdariffa, were determined. Baobab (A. digitata) leaves demonstrated relatively higher inhibition (23. 9 and 21.5% of hypocotyl and radicle respectively) than most of the screened plant species. Identification of the volatile compounds using headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 1-decyne as the main volatile compound naturally released from dried baobab leaves. EC50 (50% growth inhibition) of radicle and hypocotyl growth of lettuce seedlings by authentic 1-decyne was determined in the headspace air using by GC-MS with Cotton Swab method at the concentration of 0.5 ng/ml. The obtained results could fully explain the plant growth inhibitory activity of baobab volatiles by the presence of 1-decyne. Thus, in this study, we first identified 1-decyne as a new volatile allelochemical from baobab leaves. 1-decyne might be an important allelochemical for the survival of baobab in Africa and our findings may also offer a potential for future development of new volatile plant growth modulator.
... Flavanoids for example, can inhibit degranulation of neutrophil, hence diminishing arachidonic acid production [33] . In addition, flavanoids interfere with production of pain mediator postglandlins, by inhibiting the enzyme endoperoxidase [34] . Similarly, some alkaloids have antiinflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties [35] . ...
Article
Full-text available
The plant of the species Caesalpinia volkensii has diverse traditional use. This review aims at providing an overview of the plants traditional utility and scientific potential in managing both infectious and lifestyle diseases. It focuses on the plants hypoglycaemic activity, anti-malarial, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflamatory activity. The review also looks at the antimicrobial property of the plant, phytochemical analysis and safety.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The barks of the medicinal plant, Terminalia brownii, are widely used in African folk medicine for the management of pain. However, this ethno-medicinal allegation has not been scientifically validated. This study was therefore designed to verify the antinociceptive potential of the methanolic bark extract of T. brownii in Wistar rats (Rattus novegicus). Methods: Fresh barks of T. brownii were obtained from Kitui County, Kenya with the guidance of a residential herbalist. The study used thirty 2-3 months old male Wistar rats, weighing 140-150 g. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups; three control groups (normal, negative and positive) and three experimental groups (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg extract treatment). Each group had five rats. The analgesic properties of the extract were evaluated on formalin-induced pain and diclofenac was used as the standard drug. Results: The methanolic bark extracts of T. brownii demonstrated significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05) by reducing the paw licking time by between 4.62%-44.96% in the early phase and 35.77%-58.89% in the late phase. Diclofenac reduced the paw licking time by 44.79% in the early phase and 55.33% in the late phase. Conclusion: Our study results strongly support the antinociceptive activity of the barks of T. brownii and rationalize the traditional use of the barks in management of pain.
Article
Full-text available
Terminalia laxiflora and Terminalia brownii are used in African traditional medicine for treatment of infectious diseases and their symptoms, such as venereal diseases, cough, inflammations, eye diseases and skin disorders (1). T. laxiflora has not been studied before for antibacterial activity, and to the best of our knowledge there exists only one earlier study on antibacterial effects of T. brownii (2). Because of this we have evaluated these plant species for their potential as sources of antibacterial agents. Extracts of stem wood and bark of T. laxiflora and T. brownii, obtained using sequential extraction and solvent partition, were investigated for their antibacterial activities against the human pathogenic Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of all the investigated plants gave in general the best antimicrobial effects, with the exception of a chloroform extract of T. laxiflora stem wood, which gave outstanding effects against P. aeruginosa (Figure 1). Ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark of T. laxiflora gave MIC values of 39 µg/ml against P. aerginosa, and were more effective than gentamycin (MIC 62 µg/ml) against this bacterial strain. Promising MIC values of 156, 312 and 625 µg/ml of an ethyl acetate extract of the stem wood of T. laxiflora were recorded against P. aeruginosa, M. luteus and S. aureus, respectively. Low MIC values of 156 µg/ml were also recorded for ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of the stem wood of T. brownii against M. luteus. Fig. 1: Antibacterial effects of stem bark and wood extracts of T. laxiflora and T. Brownii T.L.w, T laxiflora stem wood; T.L.b, T laxiflora stem bark; T.b.w, T brownii stem wood; T.b.b, T brownii stem bark: CHCl3, chloroform extract; EtOAc, ethyl acetate extract; aqueous, aqueous extract; amp, ampicillin; gent, gentamicin; tetra, tetracycline; pen, penicillin; M.l. Micrococcus luteus; S.a, Staphylococcus aureus; P.a, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; S.e, Staphylococcus epidermidis. Results as diameter of inhibition zones in mm (n = 4). References: [1] Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine. Press Stuttgart, Germany. [2] Mbwambo, Z. H. et al, 2007. Complementary and Alternative Medicine 7 (9), 1 – 5.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of methanolic bark extract of Terminalia brownii in Wistar albino rats (Rattus novegicus). Methods: The experimental animals were divided into six groups of five rats each; normal control, negative control, positive control and three experimental groups. Carrageenan was used to induce inflammation. Diclofenac was used as the reference drug, and the three experimental groups were treated with the extract at the dose levels of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg bw. The extract was screened for the presence or absence of selected phytochemical secondary metabolites using standard procedures. Results: The methanolic bark extracts of T. brownii significantly [p ˂ 0.05] reduced the carrageenan-induced paw edema by between 1.57%-20.41% while diclofenac reduced it by between 11.12%-25.33%. Phytochemical screening of the extract indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, steroids and terpenoids. Conclusion: The present study revealed that T. brownii bark extract is a potential candidate for the development of a novel anti-inflammatory formulation.
Article
Full-text available
Acacia nilotica has been used to manage several diseases including pain, inflammation and fever. However, its efficacy has not been scientifically validated. The aim of this study therefore is to investigate the antinociceptive, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of its aqueous extracts. The plant extract was collected from Loita division, Narok county in Kenya. A total of 96 albino mice with an average weight of 20 g was used for this study. Antinociceptive activity was determined by use of formalin−induced writhing test. A writhe was recorded by a stopwatch following the stretching of the abdomen and/or stretching of at least one hind limb. Anti-inflammatory activity was established by a formalin induced inflammation test. Hourly changes in paw sizes and reduction of edema around the paw was determined using a venier calipers. Antipyretic activity was carried out using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia. Temperature of each mouse was determined rectally by thermal probe thermometer. The aqueous leaf extracts of A. nilotica reduced pain, inflammation and fever mostly at dose 150 mg/kg body weight. Based on these findings it was concluded that the present study has demonstrated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic potential of aqueous leaf extracts of A. nilotica in albino mice and will serve as good bio-resource for generating readily available herbal formulations that are more effective in the treatment of pain, inflammation and fever conditions which are cheaper than the conventional synthetic drugs and have no side effects.
Article
Full-text available
Urtica dioica has been used to manage several diseases including pain, inflammation and fever. However, its efficacy has not been scientifically validated. The aim of this study therefore is to investigate the analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of its aqueous extracts. The plant extract was collected from Loita division, Narok County in Kenya. A total of 96 albino mice with an average weight of 20 g were used for this study. Analgesic activity was determined by use of formalin−induced writhing test. A writhe was recorded by a stopwatch following the stretching of the abdomen and/or stretching of at least one hind limb. Anti-inflammatory activity was established by a formalin induced inflammation test. Hourly changes in paw sizes and reduction of edema around the paw was determined using a venier calipers. Antipyretic activity was carried out using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. Temperature of each mouse was determined rectally by thermal probe thermometer. The aqueous leaf extracts of Urtica dioica reduced pain, inflammation and fever mostly at dose 150 mg/kg body weight. Based on these findings it was concluded that the present study has demonstrated the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic potential of aqueous leaf extracts of Urtica dioica in albino mice and will serve as good bio-resource for generating readily available herbal formulations that are more effective in the treatment of pain, inflammation and fever conditions which are cheaper than the conventional synthetic drugs and have no side effects.
Article
Full-text available
The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret (Leguminosae family), popularly known as "jurema preta" in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil) for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT) and solvent soluble fractions (hexane-H, DCM-D, EtOAc-E and BuOH-B) of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin) and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test); and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test). Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8), with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100-200 mg/kg), in the second phase of the formalin test (50-200 mg/kg), and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg). EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg), reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg), respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B) and anti-inflammation (H, D, E). Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg). Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin. More studies should be conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of this compound. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the antinociceptive activity of the M. tenuiflora fractions and the bioactive isolated compound sakuranetin in vivo. © 2016 Cruz et al. This This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Article
Aim This study was carried out to document the medicinal plants used in management of oral health and diseases by traditional medical practitioners in Nairobi County, Kenya. Methods An ethnomedicinal survey was conducted using a standard questionnaire and informal discussion to collect information from traditional medical practitioners, traders and vendors of medicinal plants used in oral care practice. Results This study identified 35 species from 24 families, commonly used by the traditional medical practitioners in Nairobi to manage oral health and diseases in Nairobi County. Conclusion There are various plants that are used by traditional medical practitioners to manage oral diseases either singly or in combination.
Article
This study was designed to investigate the possible antiniciceptive, antipyretic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil obtained from the fruits of Piper Cubeba (L.). To assess the antinociceptive and antipyretic activities, three doses (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) were tested in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, tail flick reaction and hot-plate and Brewer's yeast-induced hyperpyrexia test models in animals. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity was examined using agar diffusion method and broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The Piper Cubeba essential oil (PCEO) showed a marked antinociception (17, 30 and 54%) and an increase in reaction time in mice in the flick tailed and hot-plate tests. The brewer's yeast induced hyperpyrexia was decreased in a dose dependent manner. PCEO also exhibited a strong antimicrobial potential. These findings confirm the traditional analgesic indications of P. cubeba oil and provide persuasive evidence and support its use in Arab traditional medicine.
Article
Phytochemical evaluation of Terminalia brownii extracts led to the isolation of five compounds namely β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, monogynol A, betulinic acid and arjungenin. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and physical methods as well as by comparison with literature data. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the extracts and isolates were investigated against fungi and bacteria which infect sweet potato. Ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest (p ≤ 0.05) antifungal and antibacterial activities compared to n-hexane and methanol ones. Streptomyces ipomoeae was more susceptible to ethyl acetate extract (inhibition zone, 18.6 mm) than streptocycline used as a positive control. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the isolates ranged between 50 and 200 μg/ml with the lowest MIC value of 50 μg/ml being observed with betulinic acid against Aspergillus niger and S. ipomoea.
Article
Acacia nilotica has been used to manage several diseases including pain, inflammation and fever. However, its efficacy has not been scientifically validated. The aim of this study therefore is to investigate the antinociceptive, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of its aqueous extracts. The plant extract was collected from Loita division, Narok county in Kenya. A total of 96 albino mice with an average weight of 20 g was used for this study. Antinociceptive activity was determined by use of formalin−induced writhing test. A writhe was recorded by a stopwatch following the stretching of the abdomen and/or stretching of at least one hind limb. Anti-inflammatory activity was established by a formalin induced inflammation test. Hourly changes in paw sizes and reduction of edema around the paw was determined using a venier calipers. Antipyretic activity was carried out using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia. Temperature of each mouse was determined rectally by thermal probe thermometer. The aqueous leaf extracts of A. nilotica reduced pain, inflammation and fever mostly at dose 150 mg/kg body weight. Based on these findings it was concluded that the present study has demonstrated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic potential of aqueous leaf extracts of A. nilotica in albino mice and will serve as good bio-resource for generating readily available herbal formulations that are more effective in the treatment of pain, inflammation and fever conditions which are cheaper than the conventional synthetic drugs and have no side effects.