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Is There Scientific Evidence that Panax Promotes Hair Growth?

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Trichology and Cosmetology
Open Journal http://dx.doi.org/10.17140/TCOJ-1-101
Trichol Cosmetol Open J
Frederico EHFF1*; Sá-Caputo DC2; Dionello CF3; Cardoso ALBD3; Morel, DS3; Maiworm
A4; Guimarães CAS4; Santos R4; Guedes-de-Aguiar EO4; Gonçalves CR3; Carvalho-Li-
ma RP5; Kutter CR5; Machado-Rocha L4; Pereira FG4; Brandão-Sobrinho-Neto S5; Jaña-
Rosa A4; Neves RF4; Moreira-Marconi E3; Paineiras-Domingos LL3; Costa-Cavalcanti
RG5; Almeida-Farias C4; Souza PL4; Paoli S4; Presta GA4 and Bernardo-Filho M4
1Programa de Pós-graduação em Biociências, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara
Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 20551-030, RJ, Brazil
2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisiopatologia Clínica e Experimental, Faculdade de
Ciências Médicas, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 20551-030,
RJ, Brazil
3Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Uni-
versidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 20551-030, RJ, Brazil
4Laboratório de Vibrações Mecânicas e Práticas Integrativas e Complementares, Departa-
mento de Biofísica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade
do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 20551-030, RJ, Brazil
5Mestrado Prossional em Saúde, Medicina Laboratorial e Tecnologia Forense, Universidade
do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Av. Marechal
Rondon, Rio de Janeiro, 20950-003, RJ, Brazil
*Corresponding author
Éric H.F.F. Frederico
Laboratório de Vibrações Mecânicas e
Práticas Integrativas e Complementares
Departamento de Biofísica e Biometria
Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara
Gomes
Universidade do Estado do Rio de
Janeiro
Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, fundos,
4º andar
20551031, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Tel/Fax: 55-21-28688332
E-mail: ericfrederico@msn.com
Article History
Received: February 23rd, 2016
Accepted: March 14th, 2016
Published: March 14th, 2016
Citation
Frederico EHFF, Sá-Caputo DC,
Dionello CF, et al. Is There Scientic
Evidence that Panax Promotes Hair
Growth? Trichol Cosmetol Open J.
2016; 1(1): 1-7. doi: 10.17140/TCOJ-
1-101
Copyright
©2016 Frederico EHFF. This is an
open access article distributed un-
der the Creative Commons Attribu-
tion 4.0 International License (CC
BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction
in any medium, provided the origi-
nal work is properly cited.
Volume 1 : Issue 1
Article Ref. #: 1000TCOJ1101
Is There Scientic Evidence that Panax
Promotes Hair Growth?
Page 1
Systematic
Review
ABSTRACT
In cosmetology, although the use of natural products can be considered as a fancy,
research related to the hair growth has been considered. Some synthetic products, as minoxidil
and nasteride have been used to stimulate the hair. However, several important side effects
have been reported with these drugs. Natural products are gaining popularity mainly due to,
in general, their fewer side effects and better formulation strategies. Hair loss is a dermato-
logic disorder and urges the necessity of alternative treatments with hair growth promoting
potential, as the medicinal plants. Among the medicinal plants used to treat the hair loss and to
promote the hair growth, there is the Panax ginseng. The purpose of this study was to review
the published researches concerning the use of Panax ginseng in investigations involving the
hair growth using the PubMed database. Eight studies have reached the inclusion criteria to be
analyzed. Considering the selected papers, there is a predominance of experimental procedures
with the compound ginsenoside. The aim of the works was mainly related to investigation on
the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for hair growth in presence of Panax gin-
seng or a compound related to this natural product. The number of publications in PubMed with
the keyword Panax ginseng involving hair growth is about 0.43 %. The results indicate that
Panax ginseng has stood out as a promising natural source with relevant effects in treatment
of hair loss, despite the small number of publications selected involving the keywords “Panax
ginseng” AND “hair loss”. Putting together the ndings, it is concluded that the use of Panax
ginseng and its chemical products could be an important strategy to manage the loss hair.
KEYWORDS: Panax ginseng; Hair loss; Hair growth; Ginsenoside.
INTRODUCTION
In cosmetology are considered studies and applications of the beauty treatments. Skin
care, cosmetics, hairstyling, manicures/pedicures and electrology are subjects related to the
cosmetology. Trichology is that branch of dermatology involved with scientic investigations
of the health of hair and scalp.1
Trichology and Cosmetology
Open Journal http://dx.doi.org/10.17140/TCOJ-1-101
Trichol Cosmetol Open J
Healthy skin is an excellent barrier maintaining balance
between the internal and external environment of the body. In the
skin are found several structures with different functions, as the
hair.2 Hair loss, in general, is an undesirable disorder in which
the hair falls out from skin areas where they are usually pres-
ent, such as the scalp and the body. This loss interferes with the
many useful biologic functions of the hair, including sun protec-
tion (mainly to the scalp) and dispersal of sweat gland products.
As hair cover to the scalp has psychological importance in our
society, patients with hair loss suffer tremendously. In cosmetol-
ogy, although the use of natural products can be considered as a
fancy, research related to the hair growth has been considered.3
The causes of hair loss are controversial and there is
no agreement about the main factors that cause the loss of hair,
which is a universal complaint. It affects the both genders and
depends on the race since the humankind existed.3,4 Among the
factors that can contribute to the hair loss include (i) genetic pre-
disposition, (ii) hormonal factors, (iii) disease states and (iv) the
use of chemotherapeutic agents.5
Various medical treatments aimed at arresting the pro-
gression of the hair loss have become available (i) surgical treat-
ments are constantly being rened and (ii) medications, such as
minoxidil and nasteride, that are the only two drugs approved
by the Food Drug Administration (FDA), USA for hair growth
in men.
The treatment of hair loss depends on the knowledge
of its etiology and of the progression of this undesirable condi-
tion. Angiogenesis (through endogenous substances), androgen
antagonism, vasodilatation through potassium channel opening
5-α reductase inhibition and modulation of hair cycle are some
of the non-surgical therapeutic strategies for the hair growth pro-
motion.6,7
Minoxidil is the only drug available for women with
androgenetic alopecia. Besides having hair growth promotion
effect, therapy with the synthetic drug has become questionable
due to their occasional lack of efcacy, safety and their potential
side effects.3
Integrative and complementary practices involve sev-
eral procedures in healthcare. These practices are related to the
disease prevention and health promotion.8,9 Some of them are
related to the Traditional Chinese Medicine, as phytotherapy and
acupuncture.8 In the phytotherapy are used medicinal plants in
different forms. The utilization of natural products, as the me-
dicinal plants in the art of healing is an ancient form of treatment
of different diseases.9
In cosmetology, research related to the use of herbal
medicines for hair growth has been considered.5 Moreover, Patel
et al3 have pointed out that various medicinal plants have been
used for care of the hair and hair growth potential activity. Con-
sidering the hair loss (alopecia), Patel et al3 reported that there
are various causes for this loss and the phenomenon related to
this, it is still poorly known. Natural products are gaining popu-
larity mainly due to, in general, their fewer side effects. Herbal
medicines have been widely used for alopecia treatment since
ancient times as reported in Ayurveda, Chinese and Unani sys-
tems of medicine.
Kumar et al10 reported that the hair grows from follicles
of the dermis and it is found exclusively in mammals. Zhang et
al11 described that the hair is a complex lamentous biomaterial
that has a structure with many layers including, from outside
in, the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all bound by the cell
membrane.
In mammals, hair plays a vital role in thermal insulation
and for social and sexual communication, both visually and as a
means for dispersing scents secreted by skin glands. Humans are
relatively hairless compared to other mammals and human hair
has no known signicance for survival of species. However, it
remains an important cosmetic asset.12
Among the medicinal plants used to treat the hair loss
and to promote the hair growth, there is the Panax ginseng. Gin-
seng radix is the steamed and dried root of Panax ginseng.13-15
Panax ginseng is traditionally used as an important
medicinal herb worldwide for more than 5,000 years.16 It is a
semishade perennial plant originally from the Eastern Asia re-
gions. It belongs to the family Araliaceae, and is known to pos-
sess various pharmacological effects, such as anti-inammatory,
antioxidation, antitumor, antidiabetic and antihepatotoxicity.17,18
In addition, Matsuda et al19 have reported that Panax ginseng is
able (i) to improve the constitutional tendencies to poor body
condition, (ii) to promote appetite, (iii) to increase vitality and
(iv) to reduce over sensitivity to cold. It contains several chemi-
cal components, as ginsenosides, essential oil, sesquiterpenes,
polyacetylenes, polysaccharides, peptidoglycans, steroid, cho-
line, vitamin- B, C, E, fatty acid, carbohydrates, and amino ac-
ids. Moreover, it is reported that a 70% methanolic extract from
red ginseng seems to have superior activity to that of the white
ginseng in a hair growth-promoting assay using mouse vibrissal
follicles in organ culture. The activity is credited to the saponin
component of ginseng.
Studies revealed that ginseng acts as a 5-α reductase
inhibitor.6,7 Ginsenosides Ro enhances in vivo hair re-growth
based on their inhibitory activity against 5-α reductase in the
androgenetic alopecia model.20
As authors have demonstrated the possibility of me-
dicinal plants act in the process involving the hair loss and/
or hair growth,21,22 the purpose of this study was to review the
published researches concerning the use of Panax ginseng in in-
vestigations involving the hair growth. Considering the ndings
described in the literature, it is hypothesized an improvement in
the hair growth due to the Panax ginseng.
Page 2
Trichology and Cosmetology
Open Journal http://dx.doi.org/10.17140/TCOJ-1-101
Trichol Cosmetol Open J
METHODS
Search Strategy and Selection of the Studies
This systematic review of scientic studies followed
the guidelines of the Transparent Reporting of Systematic Re-
views and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA statement).23 One database
was systematically searched for experimental trials in vivo and
in vitro. The papers were searched in the PubMed, (http://www.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) on February 14th, 2016. The search
was performed using the keyword (i) Ginseng radix”, (ii)
“hair loss”, (iii) “hair growth”, (iv) “Ginseng radix” AND “hair
growth”, (v) “”Ginseng radixAND “hair loss”, (vi) “Medicinal
plants” AND “hair growth”, (vii) “Medicinal plants” AND “hair
loss”, (viii) Panax ginseng”, (ix) Panax ginseng” AND “hair
growth” and (x) “Panax ginseng” AND “hair loss”.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
A systematic selection of the articles was carried out by
three independent examiners based on the following inclusion
criteria: (i) Biological activity: hair growth activity of Panax gin-
seng; (ii) Plant material: extract from Panax ginseng; (iii) Study
design: experimental trials in vitro and/or in vivo (with Panax
ginseng); (iv) Language: articles written in English. In addition,
ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological surveys, case reports,
expert opinion or consensus statements were excluded, as those
have used Panax ginseng mixed with other product.
RESULTS
Table 1 shows the number of publications found in the
PubMed involving the keywords that were searched. It is pos-
sible to verify a strong interest in studies involving “hair loss”
and “hair growth”, with more than three thousands papers. It is
also observed that about 0.43% and 0.19% of the articles with
the keyword Panax ginseng are related to “hair growth” and
“hair loss”, respectively.
According to a previously set strategy, literature search-
es involving the keywords Ginseng radixAND “hair growth”,
Ginseng radix” AND “hair loss”, “Panax ginseng” AND “hair
growth”, “Panax ginseng” AND “hair loss”, “medicinal plants”
AND “hair growth” and “medicinal plants” AND “hair loss” re-
sulted in 29 articles. Eight publications met the inclusion criteria
and were included in the nal review after thorough analysis
(Figure 1).
It is possible to see in Table 2 the aim, the experimental
model used and the plant material or the chemical compound
Figure 1: Flow diagram of the search strategy comprising the identication of potentially relevant
material, and preliminary screening and nal selection of the studies included in this review (based
on PRISMA statements).
Keyword Number of publication
Ginseng radix” 266
Ginseng radix” AND “hair growth” 1
Ginseng radix” AND “hair loss” 0
“hair growth” 3,162
“hair loss” 3,627
“Medicinal plants” AND “hair growth” 8
“Medicinal plants” AND “hair loss” 7
Panax ginseng” 2,083
Panax ginseng” AND “hair growth” 9
Panax ginseng” AND “hair loss” 4
Table 1: Number of publications (database PubMed) involving
Panax ginseng and hair growth/hair loss.
Page 3
Trichology and Cosmetology
Open Journal http://dx.doi.org/10.17140/TCOJ-1-101
Trichol Cosmetol Open J
related to the Panax ginseng ginsenoside.13,20,21 of the selected
papers. There is a predominance of experimental procedures
with the compound Only one study14 does not specify what part
of the plant/chemical compound that was used. The aim of these
selected works was mainly related to investigation on the mo-
lecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for hair growth in
presence of a chemical component of the Panax ginseng.
It is possible to see in Table 3 the results and conclu-
sion of the selected studies. Despite the different protocols and
procedures, the results indicated a hair growth due the treatment
with Panax ginseng. According the majority of the studies13-15,24
the Panax ginseng seemed to be effective in the treatment of hair
growth.
DISCUSSION
In cosmetology, several subjects are related to the study
and application of the beauty treatments have been considered;
such as skin care, cosmetics, hairstyling, manicures and pedi-
cures, and electrology. Concerning to the cosmetology, trichol-
ogy is involved with scientic investigations of the health of hair
and scalp.1 The skin is a barrier in the body to maintain the bal-
ance between the internal and external environment of the body,
and the hair is found in it.2 Hair loss, in general, is an undesir-
able disorder and strategies to avoid the hair loss and to promote
the hair growth are desirable. Among these strategies, the use of
medicinal products would be considered.19-21
Reference Aim Experimental procedure Plant material/chemical
component
(13)
To investigate the molecular and cellular
mechanisms responsible for HG promoting
effect of GRe in vitro and in vivo.
Investigation of the HG in animals. Isolation
and culture of C57BL/6 mouse vibrissa HFs.
Cell culture and western blot analysis. High
quality mRNA extract and NGS. MA datasets
and systemic analysis.
GRe
(26)
To investigate the synergistic effect of each
Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum
sieboldii (Miq.) F. Asiasari radix, and
Panax ginseng for HG potential on nude
mice, as these mutant mice genetically
lack hair.
Chromatographic analysis. Toxicity studies.
Treatment protocol of extracts on nude mice.
Measurement of hair density and length.
Evaluation of hair existing area. Histologic
assessment of HG. BrdU
immunohistochemistry.
Dried roots (Panax
ginseng)
(15)
To identify the molecules through which
Rg3 stimulates HG. The thymidine
incorporation for measuring cell
proliferation was determined.
Culture of human dermal papillae cells.
Thymidine incorporation assay. RNA isolation.
MA. Real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry.
Image acquisition and protein quantication.
Ginsenoside Rg3
(14)
To investigate the hair growth efcacy and
safety of KRG in AA comparing
corticosteroid ILI alone patient group with
ILI with KRG taking patient group using
Folliscope 2.5 for 12 weeks.
Phototrichogram. Expert panel assessment of
global photographs. Korean red ginseng
(24)
To determine how ginsenosides prevent
HL and investigate the effects of
ginsenosides on cell genesis in different
phases of adult HFs, using BrdU as a
marker for dividing cells.
BrdU labeling. Immunohistochemical staining. Ginsenosides Rb1 and
Rd
(25)
To evaluate the effects of FPG on
proliferation and apoptosis of human hair
DPCs.
Cells and growth condition. Cell viability
assay. Immunoblot analysis. HG activity in
vivo
Ginsenoside Re (5.99%)
was revealed as the
major component of the
extract.
(19)
This report deals with the HG promoting
effect of Ginseng Radix on vibrissal HFs
(excised from the upper lip region of mice)
in order to explore resources involved in
the acceleration and promotion of HG.
Organ culture of mouse vibrissal HFs.
Measurement of length of vibrissal HFs.
Red Ginseng or white
ginseng and
ginsenosides
(27)
To investigate the effect of the water
fraction of Panax ginseng on apoptosis
and the formation of medullary cell in the
HFs of irradiated mice
Adult N:GP(s) mice with HFs synchronously
in the middle of the HG cycle received doses
of gamma-radiation. HFs were analyzed
either 12 hours after irradiation with 2 Gy in
the experiment on the apoptosis, or 3 days
after 3 Gy in the experiment on the forming
medulla. The number of medullary cells per
unit length (100 microns) was measured by H
and E staining. Apoptosis was detected by a
non ISEL technique and H and E stain applied
to histologic sections.
Water fraction of Panax
ginseng
BrdU – 5-bromo-2’ deoxyuridine, NGS – next-generation sequencing, ILI – intra-lesional injection, KRG – Korean red ginseng, HFs – hair follicles, HG – hair growth,
HL – hair loss, Gy – gray, H – hematoxylin, E – eosin, ISEL – isotopic in situ DNA end-labeling, GRe – ginsenoside Re, MA – Microarray, N:GP(s)
Table 2: Information about the aim, experimental procedure and plant material or chemical component related to the Panax ginseng used on the selected studies.
Page 4
Trichology and Cosmetology
Open Journal http://dx.doi.org/10.17140/TCOJ-1-101
Trichol Cosmetol Open J
The utilization of natural products, as the medicinal
plants is an ancient form of treatment of different diseases.28
This consideration justies more studies about the mechanism of
action and the efcacy of these natural products to be validated
scientically.29 Various medicinal plants have been used for care
of the hair and they promote hair growth.3 It is also observed
that about 0.43% and 0.19% of the articles with the keyword
Panax ginseng are related to “hair growth” and “hair loss”,
respectively (Table 1). Eight studies have reached the inclusion
criteria to be analyzed (Figure 1).
In almost all of these investigations, the conclusions in-
dicated that Panax ginseng or some chemical compound seemed
to be effective in the treatment of hair growth.13,19,24,27 Begum et
al26 had shown some results about hair growth indicating pos-
sible effects of the various medicinal plant extracts, and among
them, the Panax ginseng.
Due to, in general, their fewer side effects and better for-
mulation strategies, the natural products are gaining popularity.
Panax ginseng have stood out as a promising natural source with
relevant effects in treatment of hair loss,13,15 despite the small
number of publications in the PubMed database involving the
keyword Panax ginseng AND “hair loss”, as shown in Table 1.
The chemical components of the plant used were simi-
lar in most of studies using the dried roots (Table 2), namely
ginsenoside who is the major bio-active ingredients included in
Panax ginseng. The aim of these selected works was mainly in-
vestigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for
hair growth. As it was shown in Table 2, different experimental
procedures were used.
The main ndings of the selected papers reveal the im-
portance of the Panax ginseng in improving hair growth. There-
Reference Results Conclusion
(13)
Topical treatment of GRe increased the hair shaft length and hair existent
time, comparable to the minoxidil. GRe stimulated hair shaft elongation
in the ex vivo cultures of vibrissa HFs isolated from C57BL/6 mouse.
Systemic transcriptome analysis by next generation sequencing
demonstrated that TGF-β-pathway related genes were selectively
down-regulated by treatment of GRe in vivo, and the same treatment
suppressed TGF-β induced phosphorylation of ERK in HeLa cells.
GRe is the effective constituent in the ginseng
on hair promotion via selective inhibition of
the HG phase transition related signaling
pathways, TGF-β signaling cascades.
(26)
The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased.
HG area was visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. Mice treated with
Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng had hair loss. Histomorphometric
observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number
of HFs. The presence of follicular keratinocytes was conrmed by BrdU
labeling, S-phase cells in HFs.
Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals
strongly displayed incomparability of hair
growth promotion activity than others. Thus,
the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be
used as an effective, alternative, and
complementary treatment against HL.
(15)
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed dose-depen-
dent increases in VEGF mRNA levels on treatment with Rg3.
Immunohistochemical analysis showed that expression of VEGF was up-
regulated by Rg3 in human DP cells and in mouse HFs. CD8 and CD34
were also up-regulated by Rg3 in the mouse HFs.
It may be concluded that Rg3 might increase
HG through stimulation of HF stem cells and it
has the potential to be used in HG products.
(14)
At the 12th week after initiation, the result of expert panel assessment
of global photographs showed improvement. The hair density and hair
thickness, measured by Folliscope 2.5, also showed a tendency of some
improvement.
The efcacy of KRG in the treatment of AA
and recommend KRG as a useful complimen-
tary food for gaining efcacy of treatment for
AA was observed.
(24)
Treatment with ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd increased cell proliferation in
both anagen and telogen of HFs. Investigation of p63 demonstrated that
up-regulation of p63 expression in the matrix and outer root sheath might
be one of the mechanisms by which ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd promote
cell proliferation in HFs.
Ginsenoside promotes hair growth through
p63 induction in follicular keratinocytes and
indicates that ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd might
be developed as a therapeutic agent for the
prevention of HL.
(25)
FPG extract signicantly increased the proliferation of DPCs in dose and
time dependent manners. FPG extract also enhanced Bcl-2 expression
and decreased Bax expression compared with control. Signicant
elongations of anagenphase during hair cycle after application of FPG
were evaluated by photographical and histological observations
FPG extract improves the cell proliferation of
human DPCs through anti apoptotic
activation. Topical administration of FPG
extract might have hair regeneration activity
for the treatment of HL.
(19)
Panax ginseng, ginsenoside-Rb1 (G-Rb1) exhibited activity, but
ginsenoside-Rg1 (G-Rg1) and -Ro (G-Ro) were ineffective.
Additionally, 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg3 (20(S)-G-Rg3) formed by the
processing of red ginseng from the crude root of Panax ginseng Panax
ginseng also showed HG promoting activity.
These results indicate that Ginseng Radix
possesses hair growth promoting activity, and
its bioactive components are partially
attributable to the ginseng saponin
components.
(27)
Ginseng administration before irradiation resulted in a suppression of
apoptosis, as shown by a reduced number of cells stained with ISEL for
fragmented DNA, both i.p. (0.3 mg/head) and p.o. (2 mg/ml of drinking
water) treatment. Ginseng treatment increased the number of medullary
cell per unit length as compared with the vehicle treated mice.
The water fraction of ginseng can exert a
potent effect on the recovery of the HFs by its
combined effects on proliferation and
apoptosis of the cells in the HF.
Table 3: Results and conclusion of ndings reported on the selected studies.
BrdU – 5-bromo-2’ deoxyuridine, NGS – Next-generation sequencing, ILI – Intra-lesional injection, KRG – Korean red ginseng, HFs – Hair follicles, HG – Hair growth,
HL – hair loss, Gy – gray, H – hematoxylin, E – eosin, ISEL – Isotopic in situ DNA end-labeling, GRe – ginsenoside Re, VEGF – Vascular endothelial growth factor,
ISEL – Isotopic in situ DNA end-labeling, TGF-β – transforming growth factor beta, ERK – Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases, FPG – Fructus Panax ginseng, DPC
– Dermal papilla cells.
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Open Journal http://dx.doi.org/10.17140/TCOJ-1-101
Trichol Cosmetol Open J
fore it might be developed as a therapeutic agent for the preven-
tion of alopecia. The studies on the hair follicle, demonstrate that
it undergoes successive cyclic periods of growth, involving an
(i) active growing phase (anagen) during which the previous hair
is shed, (ii) a small transitionary regressive phase (catagen) and
(iii) a dormant resting phase (telogen),10 which allows the fol-
licle to produce different types of hair in response to hormonal
changes. Each strand of hair on the human body is at its own
stage of development. Once the cycle is complete, it restarts and
a new strand of hair begins to form.
The ndings with Panax ginseng are important due to
the fact that minoxidil and nasteride used for treatment of an-
drogenic alopecia may have side effects.30 The associated ad-
verse events with the use of these synthetic compounds include
erythema, scaling, pruritus, gynaecomastia, dermatitis, itching
or skin rash. In consequence, due to these undesirable side ef-
fects, alternative products have been investigated to treat the
alopecia, as the natural products.31
The current study has several limitations that must be
considered in the interpretation of the ndings in this review.
It is suggested to take care in generalizing these results due to
the analyzed publications have methodological variations con-
cerning to the experimental procedure utilized, and design of
the protocols. In addition, although we have tried to retrieve the
articles following the selected keywords, it was not retrieved all
the papers identied for inclusion, including articles that were
not published in English and articles published in journals that
were not indexed in the PubMed database.
The ndings reported in this study are also relevant
considering that the management of alopecia is a target of a
steadily growing multi-billion dollar market worldwide. Great
opportunities are associated with pharmaceutical hair loss man-
agement, but still there is no radical improvement in the avail-
ability of specic therapies. In this case, the results with Panax
ginseng could be important to have alternative chemical prod-
ucts to manage the loss hair.
CONCLUSION
Putting together the ndings described in this study and
considering the results in the publications, it is possible to con-
clude and to suggest that the use of Panax ginseng could be suit-
able to try to improve the hair growth. However, it is important
to consider the limited number of publications available in the
PubMed involving searches evaluating the hair growth effect of
Panax ginseng.
CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS: None.
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I, Krasowska D. The inuence of selected ingredients of dietary
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... Recently, ginseng has been decocted with hot water to obtain more active ingredients, including main water-soluble components [2]. In addition, ginseng extract has also been used for diverse purposes in cosmetology to obtain health benefits [4], such as the prevention of hair loss or promotion of hair growth. Ginseng extract and ginsenosides, such as ginsenoside Rb1, have been shown to promote the growth of in vitro cultured human hair follicle cells [5,6]. ...
... However, ginseng extract and individual components have not been fully explored for the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for the ginseng extract-or component-mediated beneficial effects on hair growth because ginseng extract consists of a variety of components such as ginseng saponins, acidic polysaccharides, and other components. Although ginsenoside is one of the primary components of ginseng, the mode of action underlying its hair growthepromoting effect is still unclear because it does not have a specific extracellular membrane or intracellular target protein [4]. ...
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