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Toxicity and repellency effect of some indigenous plant extracts against lesser grain borer,Rhyzopertha Dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae)

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p> Context: Insect bio assay and repellency test can play a vital role in special environmental conditions. Objectives: To screen out the insecticidal potency of some plant extracts to control the adult lesser grain borer by insect bioassay and repellency tests. Materials and Methods: Toxicity test of five indigenous plant extracts with three concentrations were conducted against Rhizopertha dominica. Insect mortality was recorded at 24, 48, and 72 HAT. For residual toxicity test, insect mortality was recorded at 1, 2, 7, 15 and 21 DAT. The repellent activities were evaluated using the filter paper impregnation method and the data were counted at hourly intervals up to 6th hour. In all cases ten insects per replication were tested and each treatment was replicated thrice. The collected data were statistically analyzed. Results: Among the tested plant extracts, neem showed the highest toxic and repellent effects against the lesser grain borer. All the doses applied had direct toxicity, residual and repellency effects while 8% dose showed the highest response. The order of toxicity was found as neem > biskatali > karabi > akanda > ata. Mortality percentages were directly proportional to the time after treatment. Conclusion: This study proved that the leaf extract of indigenous plants like neem, biskatali, karabi ata and akanda can be used to protect stored grain pests. J. bio-sci. 22: 31-39, 2014</p
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J. bio-sci. 22: 31-39, 2014 ISSN 1023-8654
http://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JBS/index
TOXICITY AND REPELLENCY EFFECT OF SOME INDIGENOUS PLANT EXTRACTS
AGAINST LESSER GRAIN BORER, RHYZOPERTHA DOMINICA (F.) (COLEOPTERA:
BOSTRYCHIDAE)
Md Arifuzzaman, Md Adnan Al Bachchu, Most. Omme Kulsum, Roushan Ara
Department of Entomology, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University,
Dinajpur, Bangladesh
Abstract
Context: Insect bio assay and repellency test can play a vital role in special environmental conditions.
Objectives: To screen out the insecticidal potency of some plant extracts to control the adult lesser
grain borer by insect bioassay and repellency tests.
Materials and Methods: Toxicity test of five indigenous plant extracts with three concentrations were
conducted against Rhizopertha dominica. Insect mortality was recorded at 24, 48, and 72 HAT. For
residual toxicity test, insect mortality was recorded at 1, 2, 7, 15 and 21 DAT. The repellent activities
were evaluated using the filter paper impregnation method and the data were counted at hourly intervals
up to 6th hour. In all cases ten insects per replication were tested and each treatment was replicated
thrice. The collected data were statistically analyzed.
Results: Among the tested plant extracts, neem showed the highest toxic and repellent effects against
the lesser grain borer. All the doses applied had direct toxicity, residual and repellency effects while 8%
dose showed the highest response. The order of toxicity was found as neem > biskatali > karabi >
akanda > ata. Mortality percentages were directly proportional to the time after treatment.
Conclusion: This study proved that the leaf extract of indigenous plants like neem, biskatali, karabi ata
and akanda can be used to protect stored grain pests.
Key words: Mortality, repellency, residual effect, petroleum ether, Rhizopertha dominica.
Introduction
Losses due to insect infestation are the most serious problem in storage, particularly in villages and towns of
developing countries like Bangladesh. Storage loss may also be significant in developing countries (70%)
(Kavita 2004). It has been estimated that about 15-20% of the world agricultural production is lost every year
due to insect infestation (Wright 1985). In Bangladesh, the annual grain losses cost over taka 100 cores
(Alam 1971) whereas in India losses caused by insects accounted for 6.5% of stored grain (Kumar 2009).
The climate and storage conditions, especially in the tropics, are often highly favorable for insect growth and
development (Jacobson 2004). Their attacks reduce both the quantity and quality of stored seed. Sometimes
moulds grow in the insect infested food grain and these moulds produce a chemical substance called
aflatoxin which is reported to be associated with the liver cancer of human being (Singh 1983). Rhizopertha
dominica Fab. (Coleptera: Bostrichidae) is the most common and injurious to stored grains having an
important position among the storage pests. It is a field-to-store pest and cause economic damage (Adedire
2001). Both the adults and grubs causes’ serious damage to stored grains and stored products and adult
beetles are more harmful which destroy healthy grains and reduced them to frass. They destroy far more
than they consume.
Corresponding author Email: adnan_hstu@yahoo.com, aabachchu1975@gmail.com
Arifuzzaman et al.
32
Synthetic chemical pesticides have been used for many years to control stored grain pests (Salem et al.
2007). Fumigation of stored food grains with toxic gases is effective but not applicable at the farm level
because the storage structures are not airtight. Furthermore, control of insects by insecticides has serious
drawbacks, such as the toxic residues on stored grains, development of resistance by target species, pest
resurgence and lethal effects on non-target organisms in addition to direct toxicity to users and health hazard
(Adedire and Lajide 2003, Adedire et al. 2011, Ileke and Oni 2011, Udo, 2011, Ileke and Olotuah 2012, Ileke
and Bulus 2012). This situation indicates the need for safe but effective, biodegradable pesticides with no
toxic effects on non-target organisms for pest control in storage. Recently, there is a steady increase in the
use of indigenous plant products as a cheaper and ecologically safer means of protecting stored products
against infestation by insects (Ashamo and Odeyemi 2001, Oni and Ileke 2008, Akinkurolere et al. 2009,
Ileke et al. 2012) and this lead to the present study.
Materials and Methods
Preparation of plant extracts
Fresh leaves of ata (Annona reticulate L.), karabi (Nerium oleander L.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.),
biskatali (Polygonum hydropiper L.) and akanda (Calotropis gigantean L.) leaves extracts were used against
R. dominica in the laboratory, Entomology Department, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology
University, Dinajpur during April to December 2012. They were collected around the HSTU campus. They
were washed in running water and kept in laboratory for 7 days air drying. After drying they were made
powder separately by an electric grinder. The extracts were prepared according to (Chitra et al. 1993) with
minor modifications. For making extracts, 100 g of different plant powders were dissolved in 300 ml of
petroleum ether solvent and stirred for 30 min. in a magnetic stirrer. The mixture was allowed to stand for 72
hours and shaking several intervals. It was filtered through a filter paper (Whatman no. 1) and to evaporate
the solvents. The condensed extracts were preserved in tightly corked-labeled bottles and stored in a
refrigerator until their further use.
Collection of wheat grains
Healthy wheat grains, Triticum aestivum (L.) were purchased from the local market of Dinajpur town, cleaned
thoroughly and sun dried. The grains were cooled at 8-10% moisture level and stored at room temperature
in air tight plastic bag for experimental use.
Mass rearing of Rhyzopertha dominica
R. dominica were collected from the naturally infested wheat grains from the local market of Dinajpur and
was mass reared in the laboratory at ambient room temperature (28±0.5oC) in glass jars (47 cm height × 4
cm dia). Approximately 200 adults were released in each glass jar containing 500 g of wheat grains and the
mouth was closed with a piece of cloth fastened with rubber band to prevent contamination and escape of
insect. After oviposition, the adults were separated from the grains by sieving and seeds along with eggs
were left in the container for emergence of next generation. The newly emerged adults (1-7- days- old) were
collected and again allowed for oviposition with new grains in different containers to maintain a stock culture
of the test insect. The process was containing for getting enough pest throughout the study.
Evaluation of toxicity of different plant extracts
Toxicity test were conducted according to (Talukdar and Howse 1993) with minor modifications. The
extracted materials were weighed and dissolved in petroleum for making different concentration (4.0, 6.0 and
8.0 % along with control). Pilot experiments were done to obtain the appropriate dose. Before applying
extracts to the thorax of the insect, 10 minutes chilling were done with 4 0C in refrigerator. Then 1 µl of
prepared solution was applied to the dorsal surface of each insect using a micropipette (volume digital
micropipets, bio-rad, India). Ten insects per replication were treated and each treatment was replicated
Effect of some indigenous plant extracts on R. dominica
33
thrice. In addition, the same numbers of insects with petroleum ether solvent only were treated as control.
After treatment, the insects were transferred into petridishes (9 cm diameter). Mortality was recorded after
24, 48, and 72 hours treatment (HAT) (Talukdar and Howse 1993). The data were corrected according to
Abott's (1987) formula.
Determination of residual effect
Three different concentrations of each plant-extract were prepared with the petroleum ether solvent. Then 1
ml of prepared solution was applied to 50g wheat and mixed properly. After 10 minutes air-dried five pairs (1
–day- old) insects were released into the pot containing plant extracts treated wheat grain and then pot was
covered with perforated lid. Three replications were maintained for each of the concentration of the individual
plant extracts along with control. All treated pots were kept at ambient temperature (28 ± 0.5°C) in the
laboratory. Mortality was recorded at 1, 2, 7, 15 and 21 DAT (days after treatment).
Detection of repellency
First of all, the Whatman No. 1 filter papers were cut into two half. With the help of a pipette 1 ml solution of
each plant extract was applied to one half of the filter paper and only petroleum ether solvent was used for
another half as control. The treated half and control half was then air-dried. Ten insects were released at the
centre of each petridish with a cover. For each plant extract and each dose three replications were used. The
insect present on each portion were counted at hourly intervals up to 6th hour. The data were expressed as
percentage repulsion (%PR) by the following formula (Talukdar and Howse 1994):
% PR = (NC - 50)
2
Where, % PR = percentage repulsion, NC = percentage of insects present in the control half.
Positive (+) values expressed repellency and negative (-) values attractency. The average values were
categorized according to the following scale (McDonald et al. 1970)
Class Class Repellency (%)
0 > 0.01 to 0.1 III 40.1 to 60
I 0.1 to 20 IV 60.1 to 80
II 20.1 to 40 V 80.1 to 100
Statistical analysis
The collected data were statistically analyzed by completely randomized design (CRD) using MSTAT
statistical software. The treatment mean values were adjusted by Duncun’s New Multiple Range Test
(DMRT) and mortality data subjected to probit analysis.
Results and Discussion
Effects of direct toxicity against lesser grain borer
Mortality was differed significantly (p<0.001) among all the concentration level at different time interval of
different plant extracts. All plant extracts except Kkarabi achieved hundred percent mortality at 72 HAT in
8.0% concentrations. Average mortality percentage of indicated that neem leaf extract (98.90 %) possessed
the highest toxic effect followed by biskatali (94.43%) and karabi (56.63%) possessed the lowest toxic effect
(Table 1). The order of toxicity of five plant extracts were found as neem > biskatali > akanda > ata > karabi.
The above findings revealed that all tested plants extracts are toxic against lesser grain borer and the neem
plant extracts showed the highest toxic effect. This finding agreed with Ileke and Bulus (2012) who work with
the response of R. dominica to powders and extracts of Azadirachta indica and Piper guineense seeds and
showed that adult mortality increased both concentration of powders and extracts.
Arifuzzaman et al.
34
Table 1. Interaction effects of plant extract and concentration on lesser grain borer at different HAT (Hours
after treatment).
% Insect mortality (HAT) Plant extracts
used Concentrations (%) 24 48 72 Average
0.0 0.00h 0.00g 0.00i 0.00
4.0 40.00d 76.67bc 80.00bc 65.57
6.0 56.67c 90.00ab 100.0a 82.23
Neem
8.0 96.67a 100.0a 100.0a 98.90
0.0 0.00h 0.00g 0.00i 0.00
4.0 16.67fg 23.33f 40.00ef 26.67
6.0 40.00d 76.67bc 90.00ab 68.90
Biskatali 8.0 83.33b 100.0a 100.0a 94.43
0.0 0.00h 0.00g 0.00i 0.00
4.0 3.33gh 3.33g 20.00h 8.90
6.0 16.67fg 36.67ef 46.67de 33.37
Karabi
8.0 33.33de 60.00d 76.67c 56.63
0.0 0.00h 0.00g 0.00i 0.00
4.0 23.33ef 23.33f 26.67gh 24.43
6.0 36.67de 63.33cd 73.33c 57.77
Akanda
8.0 76.67b 96.67a 100.0a 91.10
0.0 0.00h 0.00g 0.00i 0.00
4.0 16.67fg 23.33f 33.33fg 24.43
6.0 33.33de 43.33e 56.67d 44.47
Ata
8.0 60.00c 86.67ab 100.0a 82.20
0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 -
13.24 14.98 11.98 -
P- value
LSD
CV (%) 4.29 4.06 3.90 -
HAT = Hours after treatment, Mean followed by column the same letter(s) did not differ significantly at 5% level by DMRT.
Probit analysis for direct toxicity
The LD50 values of neem (6.958 µg), biskatali (8.444 µg), karabi (9.191 µg), akanda (10.589 µg) and ata (14.522
µg) at 24 HAT (Table 2) indicated that neem leaf extract was found to be highly toxic. Similarly, neem leaf extract
maintain its highest toxicity at 48 and 72 HAT. The results obtained in this probit study showed that all the tested
plants would be more or less effective for controlling lesser grain borer but neem was most effective. The lowest
LD50 values of neem plant extract indicated that the highest toxic effects against lesser grain borer to suppress their
population growth in treated wheat grains. Some researchers who had earlier evaluated A. indica powder and
extract as botanical insecticides and grains protectant had found them to be effective against S. zeamais and C.
maculatus (Onu and Baba 2003, Ileke and Oni 2011, Ileke and Bulus 2012). The toxicity of neem to stored
products insects has been attributed by various authors to the presence of many chemical ingredients such as
triterpenoids, which includes azadirachtin, salanin, meliantriol (Mbailao et al. 2006, Ileke and Oni 2011).
Effect of residual toxicity against lesser grain borer
The effects of residual toxic of plant extracts, doses and time revealed that neem plant extract possessed the
highest residual effect (average mortality, 98.97%) followed by biskatali (average mortality 95.20 %) against lesser
grain borer at maximum dose (8.0 %). Mortality percentages were differed significantly between plant extracts and
doses (Table 3). The toxic effect of five plant extracts was: neem > biskatali > karabi > akanda > ata.
Effect of some indigenous plant extracts on R. dominica
35
Table 2. Relative toxicity (by probit analysis) of different plant extracts treated against lesser grain borer at
24, 48 and 72 HAT.
Name of the plant extracts No. of insect
used LD 50 values (µg) 95 % fiducially limits γ2 values
24 HAT
Neem 90 6.958 3.646 - 13.278 0.0055
Biskatali 90 8.444 4.251 - 16.770 0.0514
Karabi 90 9.191 4.262 - 19.822 0.0943
Akanda 90 10.589 4.827 - 23.226 0.1735
Ata 90 14.522 3.644 - 57.870 0.3752
48 HAT
Neem 90 1.448 0.021 - 97.257 0.0439
Biskatali 90 3.709 1.716 - 8.013 0.0015
Karabi 90 5.771 4.4933 - 7.412 0.2081
Akanda 90 6.349 4.947 - 8.148 0.0476E-04
Ata 90 9.342 5.466 - 15.966 0.1611
72 HAT
Neem 90 2.744 1.630 - 4.755 0.3102
Biskatali 90 2.784 1.449 - 5.195 0.0730
Karabi 90 3.432 2.131 - 5.528 0.0339
Akanda 90 4.127 2.940 - 5.794 0.1356
Ata 90 5.924 4.989 - 7.034 0.0116
HAT= Hour after treatment, Values were based on three concentrations, three replications of 10 insects each, χ2 = Goodness of fit, the
tabulated value of χ2 is 5.99 (d. f=2 at 5% level).
Table 3. Interaction effects of plant extract and concentration on the lesser grain borer at different DAT
(Days after treatment).
% Insect mortality (DAT) Plant extracts
used Concentratio
ns (%) 1 DAT 2 DAT 7 DAT 15 DAT 21 DAT Average
0.0 0.00h 0.00f 0.00g 0.00i 0.00i 0.00
4.0 40.00d 56.67d 76.67bc 78.33bc 80.00bc 66.33
6.0 55.67c 75.33c 90.00ab 96.00ab 100.0a 83.40
Neem
8.0 94.33a 95.67a 100.0a 100.0a 100.0a 98.97
0.0 0.00h 0.00f 0.00g 0.00f 0.00i 0.00
4.0 15.67fg 20.33e 23.33f 29.67g 55.00ef 28.80
6.0 38.00d 46.33c 76.67bc 85.67a 93.00ab 67.93
Biskatali
8.0 83.33b 92.67b 100.0a 100.0a 100.0a 95.20
0.0 0.00h 0.00f 0.00g 0.00f 0.00i 0.00
4.0 20.33ef 22.33e 23.33f 25.33ef 36.67gh 25.60
6.0 35.33de 46.67cd 63.33cd 69.67c 79.33c 58.87
Karabi
8.0 74.67b 88.67b 96.67a 100.0a 100.0a 92.00
0.0 0.00h 0.00f 0.00g 0.00f 0.00i 0.00
4.0 13.67fg 21.67e 22.33f 34.67e 35.33fg 25.53
6.0 30.33de 40.67c 48.33e 54.67c 59.67d 46.73
Akanda
8.0 58.33c 76.67b 89.67ab 95.33bc 100.0a 84.00
0.0 0.00h 0.00f 0.00g 0.00f 0.00i 0.00
4.0 7.33gh 9.33f 12.33g 16.67f 20.00h 13.13
6.0 16.33fg 25.67de 39.67ef 45.33de 49.67de 35.33
Ata
8.0 35.67de 49.67c 66.00d 70.00c 80.67c 60.40
P- value 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 -
LSD 14.24 14.98 15.98 13.98 12.98 -
CV (%) 5.29 6.20 7.06 4.65 3.90 -
DAT = Days after treatment, Mean followed by the same letter(s) did not differ significantly at 5% level by DMRT.
Arifuzzaman et al.
36
Probit analysis for residual toxicity
The LD50 values of neem (18.543 µg), biskatali (29.817 µg), karabi (30.937 µg), akanda (34.883 µg) and ata
(31.204 µg) at 1 DAT (Table 4) indicated that neem plant extracts possessed the highest toxicity while lowest in
akanda against the test insect. Similarly, neem plant extract maintained its highest toxicity at 2, 7, 15 and 21 DAT.
The chi-square ( 2
) values of different plant extracts at different hours after treatment were insignificant. It is clear
that neem leaf extracts possessed the highest toxicity in controlling lesser grain borer. The compound azadirachtin
may work as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGRs) interfering with ecdysone which prevents immature insects from
molting (Soon and Bottrell 1994).
Table 4. Relative toxicity (by probit analysis) of different plant extracts treated against lesser grain borer at
1, 2, 7, 15 and 21 DAT.
Name of the plant
extracts No. of insect
used LC 50 values
(µg) 95 % fiducially limits γ2 values
1 DAT
Neem 90 18.543 2.721 – 126.347 0.019
Biskatali 90 29.817 1.071 – 830.053 0.051
Karabi 90 30.937 1.388 - 689.277 0.095
Akanda 90 34.883 1.432 – 849.918 0.023
Ata 90 31.204 1.648 – 590.492 0.082
2 DAT
Neem 90 11.446 3.591 – 36.476 0.097
Biskatali 90 12.573 3.974 – 39.774 0.241
Karabi 90 19.754 2.579 – 151.281 0.214
Akanda 90 31.204 1.648 – 590.492 0.082
Ata 90 15.259 4.986 – 246.693 0.052
7 DAT
Neem 90 5.941 4.833 – 7.302 0.378
Biskatali 90 6.312 5.131 – 7.765 0.405
Karabi 90 8.267 5.983 – 11.421 0.103
Akanda 90 11.057 7.065 – 17.303 0.238
Ata 90 10.243 6.164 – 17.023 0.339
15 DAT
Neem 90 4.431 3.580 – 5.482 0.240
Biskatali 90 4.508 3.500 – 5.803 0.139
Karabi 90 5.412 4.609 – 6.354 0.559
Akanda 90 8.224 6.663 – 10.149 0.001
Ata 90 6.240 5.325 – 7.312 0.002
21 DAT
Neem 90 3.765 2.829 – 5.010 0.341
Biskatali 90 3.803 2.849 – 5.076 0.217
Karabi 90 5.259 3.268 – 5.549 0.629
Akanda 90 6.429 5.381 – 7.679 0.973
Ata 90 4.849 3.879 – 6.062 0.005
DAT= Day after treatment, Values were based on three concentrations, three replications of 10 insects each, χ2 = Goodness of
fit, the tabulated value of χ2 is 5.99 (d. f=2 at 5% level).
Effect of repellency on lesser grain borer
Mean repellent effect of different plant extracts in different dose level on lesser grain borer is presented in Table 5.
The repellency was influenced by the concentration of extracts. The rate of the extract and the repellency class
were found I to V in all five plant extracts.
Effect of some indigenous plant extracts on R. dominica
37
Table 5. Repellency effect of different plant extract and their doses on lesser grain borer at different HATs.
Repellency rate (%) at six different HATs Plant
extracts
used Dose
(%) 1st hour 2nd hour 3rd hour 4th hour 5th hour 6th hour Average Repel.
class
0.0 0.00f 0.00e 20.00de 0.00c 0.00f 0.00g 3.30 І
4 33.33a-f 26.67b-e 20.00de 26.67bc 26.67c-f 26.67d-g 26.67 ц
6 53.33a-d 26.67b-e 33.33c-e 20.00c 33.33b-f 13.33fg 30.03 ц
Neem
8 66.67ab 53.33ab 100.0a 93.33a 86.67a 93.33a 82.20 V
0.0 0.00f 20.00b-e 20.00de 0.00c 0.00f 0.00g 6.70 І
4 26.67b-f 40.00a-d 40.00b-e 26.67bc 53.33a-d 66.67a-d 42.20 ш
6 60.00a-c 40.00a-d 46.67b-d 73.33ab 80.00a 80.00ab 63.33 ІV
Biskatali
8 53.33a-d 26.67b-e 13.33de 46.67bc 20.00d-f 33.33c-g 32.23 ц
0.0 0.00f 0.00e 0.00e 40.00bc 0.00f 0.00g 6.70 І
4 26.67b-f 66.67a 73.33a-c 46.67bc 60.00a-c 66.67a-d 56.67 ш
6 6.66ef 60.00a 46.67bcd 40.00bc 13.33ef 20.00e-g 31.13 ц
Karabi
8 40.00a-f 46.67a-c 26.67de 26.67bc 60.00a-c 53.33a-f 42.20 ш
0.0 0.00f 0.00e 80.00ab 0.00c 0.00f 20.00efg 16.70 І
4 46.67a-e 66.67a 46.67b-d 46.67bc 66.67ab 33.33c-g 51.13 ш
6 73.33a 33.33a-e 40.00b-e 40.00bc 13.33ef 60.00a-e 43.33 ш
Akanda
8 33.33a-f 60.00a 33.33c-e 33.33bc 40.00b-e 40.00b-g 40.00 ш
0.0 20.00c-f 0.00e 0.00e 20.00c 0.00f 0.00g 6.700 І
4 13.33d-f 20.00b-e 13.33de 33.33bc 20.00d-f 33.33c-g 22.23 ц
6 20.00c-f 6.66de 20.00de 6.66c 40.00b-e 66.67a-d 26.67 ц
Ata
8 46.67a-e 13.33c-e 20.00de 33.33bc 20.00d-f 73.33a-c 34.43 ц
P- value 0.0867 0.0439 0.0002 0.0071 0.0002 0.0021 -
Lsd 36.33 28.70 36.95 39.76 33.25 38.76 -
CV (%) 4.91 3.23 4.48 3.63 3.52 3.12 -
SE 12.69 10.02 12.91 13.89 11.61 13.54 -
Mean followed by the same letter(s) did not differ significantly at 5% level by DMRT.
The highest mean repellency (82.20%) was found in neem extract at 8% dose whereas lowest (3.30%) in control
treatment. With the progress of time, the repellency effect decreased in maximum cases. Neem products repel
insects, stop their feeding, inhibit reproduction and cause other interruptions (Schmutterer 1990). Jilani and Saxena
(1990) observed that the repellency of compounds with low molecular weights and high volatility decreased rapidly
over time.
Conclusion
The present study revealed that the highest mean repellency was observed in neem extract for lesser grain borer,
R. dominica. This study is proved our traditional use of leaves of neem, biskatali, karabi ata and akanda to protect
stored grain pests.
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... The use of such traditional products needs further exploration. Another example is Neem that is known to be effective against grain weevils (Ilesanmi and Gungula, 2010), grain borers (Arifuzzaman et al., 2014), cowpea beetles (Radha and Susheela, 2014) and lepidopteran pests (Ahmad et al., 2012b). Similarly, insecticidal potential of P. guineense plant extracts (Oparaeke et al., 2018), P. nigrum (L.) (Daba et al., 2017), Polygonum hydropiper L. (Gurjar et al., 2012;Taleb and Salam, 2005), Cuminum cyminum L. , Anethum graveolens L., Allium sativum L. (Udo, 2005), Myristica fragrans, and Vitex negundo L. has been established against stored grain pests (Haryadi and Rahayu, 2002). ...
Chapter
Environmental pollution and our survival are among the biggest challenges of future as pollution and contamination of natural resources are adversely affecting global livelihood. Global warming, greenhouse gas emission due to industrialization and urbanization, and residual chemicals being applied in industries and agricultural sector are taking 100 million lives per annum. Critical increase in health risks due to carcinogenic compounds by 20% is another effect of living in polluted habitats. Statistics suggest that till 2050, if no sustainable measures are taken, the world rain forests will diminish resulting into loss of biodiversity. Global warming is resulting into decline in world glacier reserves causing a noticeable rise of 3.3 mm in sea levels annually. Demographic growth and urbanization and industrialization, and agricultural developments are major environmental sustainability challenges and future strategies to mitigate their effects have been discussed in detail. We have discussed the conservation and restoration strategies and have put much of the emphasis to sustainable approaches toward environmental restoration. This chapter also explains the future perspectives of environmental sustainability and the scope of novel industrial and agricultural developments leading toward environmental sustainability. Using recent literature and a case study, we have elaborated the role of ecological pest management and industrial development that need to be focused toward sustainable environmental protection.
... Maize weevil infests maize grains both in field as well as during storage conditions. Maize weevil causes grain losses ranging from 20 to 90% during storage and it may infest 80 percent stored maize [2,5]. The maize weevil caused 37.51% grain damage and 33.23% weight losses in Dera Ismail Khan and its adjacent Punjab province areas [6]. ...
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A new commercial formulation, F2, was evaluated as a protectant of stored wheat, stored maize, and stored rough (paddy) rice. This formulation comprises the technical active ingredients 0.03% deltamethrin, 0.37% piperonyl butoxide, and 0.95% chlorpyriphos-methyl, plus 10% mineral oil and 88.0% of the diatomaceous earth Protect-It®. Tests were conducted with dust and slurry formulations at 50 and 100 ppm, 57% and 75% relative humidity, and 22°C, 27°C, and 32°C. On wheat, survival of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), ranged from 0% to 30.0%, survival of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), was 0–6.2%, and survival of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), was 0–97.5%. Few F1 adults of any of the three species were found in the treated samples. Survival of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky), on treated corn was 0–32.5%, while survival of T. castaneum was 0–88.7% in the 50-ppm dust and slurry treatments, and 0–51.4% in the 100-ppm treatments. Again, few F1 adults of either species were found in treated maize. Survival of R. dominica on treated rough rice averaged 0–4.1% and survival of S. oryzae on treated rice was 0–48.8%, but the majority of weevils that survived were in one replicate. F1 adults in the treatments ranged from 0 to 24.4. Results show that the combination insecticidal product F2 was extremely effective on all three commodities at the rate of 100 ppm, as either a dust or slurry, and could be used as a commodity protectant.