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Обзор последних изменений в систематике семейства пауков-птицеедов (Theraphosidae Thorell, 1870) в 2014-2016 г.г.

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Abstract

Несмотря на несколько меньшую интенсивность по сравнению с предыдущими годами в описаниях новых видов, родов и других систематических изменениях, тем не менее, в последние несколько лет проведено некоторое количество достаточно крупных ревизий, причём, как среди азиатских (Phlogiellus, Phormingochilus, Cyriopagopus и Lampropelma), так и американских (Aphonopelma, Cyriocosmus, Davus*) и африканских групп (Phoneyusa). При этом если ранее все таксономические исследования проводились преимущественно на основании морфологических данных, то в последнее время также стали привлекаться и молекулярные методы исследования.
Обзор последних изменений в систематике семейства пауков-птицеедов
(Theraphosidae Thorell, 1870) в 2014-2016 г.г.
(Багатуров Михаил, Багатурова Анна: микрозоопарк «Бугагашечка» (г. Санкт-Петербург)
Несмотря на несколько меньшую интенсивность по сравнению с
предыдущими годами в описаниях новых видов, родов и других
систематических изменениях, тем не менее, в последние несколько лет
проведено некоторое количество достаточно крупных ревизий, причём, как
среди азиатских (Phlogiellus,Phormingochilus,Cyriopagopus иLampropelma), так и
американских (Aphonopelma,Cyriocosmus,Davus*) и африканских групп
(Phoneyusa). При этом если ранее все таксономические исследования
проводились преимущественно на основании морфологических данных, то в
последнее время также стали привлекаться и молекулярные методы
исследования.
Вместе с тем, к настоящему времени количество видов птицеедов уже приближается к 1000 (979 видов на
08.10.2016). Однако, несмотря на интенсивное «освоение» таксономии и филогении птицеедов, до сих пор
существует несколько противоречивых взглядов на систематику на уровне подсемейства. В этой ситуации,
отнесение отдельных родов к тому или иному подсемейству, производится в зависимости от автора (G. Schmidt, A.
Smith etc.). В частности большинство исследователей не склонны к выделению самостоятельного
монотипического подсемейства Acanthopelmatinae (или Acanthopelminae) и включают род Acanthopelma в
подсемейство Ischnocolinae.
Согласно непринятой многими авторами концепции два рода Psalmopoeus и
Tapinauchenius SAMM&SCHMIDT, 2010 объединялись в подсемейство
PSALMOPOEINAE (ранее Sinurticatinae). Однако работы, в которых они
обосновывались, имели ряд значительных недостатков (Schmidt G. & Rudloff J.-P.
(2003) и Samm &Schmidt G. (2008)), и вносимые в них изменения до сих пор не
приняты большинством арахнологов. Также, согласно последним изменениям, в
2015 году род Haplopelma был сведён в синонимы к Cyriopagopus (Smith & Jacobi,
2015), однако, внесенные изменения были приняты только буквально на днях (Всемирный каталог Пауков).
В настоящее время многие исследователи также не выделяют самостоятельно монотипическое подсемейства
Poecilotherinae и включают род Poecilotheria в подсемейство Selenocosmiinae в качестве отдельной трибы.
В свою очередь, недавно, подсемейство Selenocosmiinae было разбито на 4 трибы (в случае выделения
Poecilotheriinae в самостоятельное подсемейство - три) трибы: Chilobrachini (1), Phlogiellini (2), Poecilotheriini (3, с
одним родом Poecilotheria. При этом, ряд авторов рассматривают его и в трибе Selenocosmiini) и собственно
Selenocosmiini (4). Однако неделю назад триба Phlogiellini была сведена в синонимы к выделенной и
диагностированной Yamiini.
Список публикаций в 2015-2016 г.г., связанных с таксономическими изменениями в семействе, приводится в
разделе Bibliography англ. версии на сайте Птицееды фауны Мира - Theraphosids of the World – www.tarantulas.su
Согласно указанным работам были произведены следующие основные
(далеко не все) систематические изменения в семействе Пауков-птицеедов:
- описаны следующие новые родовые таксоны: центрально и
южноамериканские Kankuamo, Aguapanela, Bistriopelma, Neoholothele и Magnacarina,
включая новые виды (см. далее).
- восстановлены роды: Bistriopelma,Dolichotele, Barropelma,Acentropelma,
Eurypelmella,Miaschistopus, Neischnocolus,Omothymus, а также много лет спорный
род Davus*, который был также и ревизован.
- описаны следующие новые виды (только 14 в роде Aphonopelma!): мексиканские Magnacarina moderata
Locht, Mendoza & Medina sp. nov. из Наярита и Синалоа; Magnacarina primaverensis Mendoza & Locht sp. nov. и
Magnacarina cancer Mendoza & Locht sp. nov. оба из Халиско. Aphonopelma atomicum sp. n., A. catalina sp. n.,
A. chiricahua sp. n., A. icenoglei sp. n., A. johnnycashi sp. n., A. madera sp. n., A. mareki sp. n., A. moellendorfi sp. n.,
A. parvum sp. n., A.peloncillo sp. n., A. prenticei sp. n., A. saguaro sp. n., A. superstitionense sp. n., and A. xwalxwal sp. n.
– все с территории США; Davus santos sp. nov., Kankuamo marquez из
Колумбии, Pterinopelma felipeleitei из Бразилии, Phrixotrichus pucara,
Hapalotremus martinorum, а также 3 вид рода Euathlus: E. diamante Ferretti, E.
sagei Ferretti b E. tenebrarum Ferretti, 2015 из Аргентины, Cyriocosmus
peruvianus,C. itayensis,C. aueri,C. giganteus из Перу, C. hoeferi из Бразилии, C.
williamlamari иC. nicholausgordoni из Венесуэлы, Phlogiellus kwebaburdeos из
пещер о-ва Полилло (Филиппины), Tmesiphantes mirim из Бразилии,
Neoholothele fasciaaurinigra также из Ю. Америки, Bistriopelma lamasi sp. nov.и
Bistriopelma matuskai из Перу, и др.
- состоялась грандиозная ревизия рода Aphonopelma: из ранее известных более 54 видов в роде остались
только 29 определенных видов, предложены 33 новых синонима, и, как уже упоминалось описано 14 новых
видов. А также установлено 7 сомнительных таксонов (nomen dubium).
- вторая ревизия рода Davus привнесла также глобальные изменения в
родственную группу родов: Metriopelma,Schizopelma,Hapalopus,Cyclosternum,
Lasiodora. Например, виды Metriopelma velox Pocock, 1903, Lasiodora trinitatis
(Pocock, 1903) и L. trinitatis pauciaculeis (Strand, 1916) перенесены в род
Pseudhapalopus Strand, 1907. Вид Metriopelma spinulosum O. Pickard-Cambridge,
1899 перенесён обратно в восстановленный род Acentropelma Pocock, 1901 comb.
rest. вместе с Сyclosternum macropus Ausserer, 1875, Schizopelma sorkini Smith,
1995, and Lasiodora gutzkei Reichling, 1997, перенесенными в свою очередь из рода
Lasiodora Koch, 1850 combs. nov.
Род Neischnocolus Petrunkevitch, 1925 с единственным видом Neischnocolus panamanus Petrunkevitch, 1925, и
также монотипический род Barropelma Chamberlin (1940), с видом Barropelma parvior Chamberlin and Ivie, 1936
восстановлены из синонимов рода Lasiodora. Вид Hapalopus ruiceps Simon, 1891 вынесен из синонима Cyclosternum
pentaloris Simon, 1888 и вместе с видами Cyclosternum fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892 и Metriopelma zebratum
Banks, 1909 перенесены в род Davus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892). И т.п.
- неделю назад вышла публикация, ревизующая род Phlogiellus с описанием
четырёх новых видов: Phlogiellus bogadeki из Гонконга, P. johnrelazoi с
Филиппин, P. pelidnus с Борнео и P. moniqueverdezae из Тайланда. При этом
также были установлены новые диагнозы для видов рода, а также на уровне
триб, когда триба Phlogiellini сведена в синонимы кYamiini. Также ряд видов
перенесены из рода Selenocosmia в род Phlogiellus, а другие, в свою очередь,
наоборот: из рода Phlogiellus в другие роды: Chilobrachys иOrphnaecus -
устанавливая тем самым новые комбинации названий.
- несколько видов переописаны, к примеру, Hapalopus nigriventris (Mello -
Leitão, 1939), Davus fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma zebratum Banks, 1909, Metriopelma drymusetes
Valerio, 1982, Metriopelma breyeri Becker, 1878, Schizopelma bicarinatum F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 и
конспецифичные экземпляры Cyclosternum pentaloris Simon, 1888.
- а виды Brachypelma embrithes (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) и B. angustum Valerio, 1980 перенесены в род
Sericopelma: предполагается считать распространенный в хобби вид, именуемый «B. angustuкак Brachypelma sp.
Любопытно, что оба упомянутых вида в природе не встречаются, т.к. естественные места обитания на большей
части их ареалов в настоящий момент практически уничтожены (являются плантациями или пострадали в
результате хозяйственной деятельности в результате строительства дамбы для Панамского канала).
Также такой популярный вид в хобби как Holothele incei перенесён в новый род Neoholothele – образовав
новую комбинацию Neoholothele incei.
- установлены ряд новых синонимов: Metriopelma drymusetes Valerio, 1982 сведена в синонимы к виду Davus
fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892 syn. nov., а вид Davus mozinna Estrada-Alvarez, 2014 к виду D. pentaloris syn.
nov., 22 вида в роде Aphonopelma;Hapalotremus cyclothorax (Mello-Leitao 1923) признан синонимом вида
Homoeomma montanum (Mello-Leitao, 1923), а Hapalotremus scintillans (Mello-Leitao 1929) - Pachistopelma rufonigrum
Pocock, 1901.
- в рамках проведения ревизии африканских птицеедов (работа продолжается) британец Р. Гэллон перенёс
виды Phoneyusa elephantiasis Berland, 1917 (переописан) Phoneyusa celerierae Smith, 1990 и Phoneyusa efuliensis
Smith, 1990 в род Hysterocrates Simon, 1892.
- установлен новый тип защитных волосков у птицеедов вновь
описанного рода Kankuamo (итого - 7 типов), проведены кладистические
анализы и филогения ряда таксонов, в результате чего, в частности,
окончательно сформировано новое подсемейство Schizmatothelinae,
включающее роды Euthycaelus,Guyruita,Neoholothele,Schismatothele иSickius,
вынесенные из Ischnocolinae.
- также произведены и многие другие изменения в систематике
птицеедов.
====================
2014 году (аналогично предлагалось ранее и Г. Шмидтом (Schmidt, 2005), но не было принято) окончательно выделен из
синонимов рода Cyclosternum (Estrada-Alvarez, 2014) с 3 видами: Davus fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Davus mozinno
Estrada-Alvarez, 2014 и Davus pentaloris (Simon, 1888). Вторая ревизия рода произвела многочисленные другие изменения,
включая описание нового вида - Davus santos.
Review of the recent systematic changes among tarantula spiders of the family Theraphosidae Thorell, 1870 in 2014 -
1016.
(by Mikhail F. Bagaturov, Anna A. Bagaturova; St.-Petersburg, Russia)
Abstract. Systematic of giant spiders of family Theraphosidae is intensively developing, including not only based on
morphological character but also conducting molecular study (Hamilton et al, 2016; Ortiz & Francke, 2016). At present a
number of species is closer to 1000.
In this review the recent changes of systematic of theraphosid spiders observed, problematic and controversy of
questioned subfamily taxa discussed. List of publications of 2015-216 provided and most taxonomic changes of taxa of different
level (species – genus - tribe – subfamily) from late 2014 till present time as well as their phylogeny is discussed.
They are include, but not limited, of new genera descriptions like Magnacarina, Kankuamo, Aguapanela, Bistriopelma
and Neoholothele, and restorations: Bistriopelma,Dolichotele, Barropelma,Acentropelma,Eurypelmella,Miaschistopus,
Neischnocolus, as well as Davus* and Omothymus; lots of new species described: (just 14 only in genus Aphonopelma!):
Aphonopelma atomicum sp. n., A. catalina sp. n., A. chiricahua sp. n., A. icenoglei sp. n., A. johnnycashi sp. n., A. madera sp. n.,
A. mareki sp. n., A. moellendorfi sp. n., A. parvum sp. n., A.peloncillo sp. n., A. prenticei sp. n., A. saguaro sp. n., A.
superstitionense sp. n., and A. xwalxwal sp. n. – all from the USA territory; also new species Davus santos sp. nov., Kankuamo
marquez from Colombia, Pterinopelma felipeleitei from Brazil, Phrixotrichus pucara, Hapalotremus martinorum, and three
species from the genus Euathlus: E. diamante Ferretti, E. sagei Ferretti and E. tenebrarum Ferretti, 2015 from Argentina,
Cyriocosmus peruvianus,C. itayensis,C. aueri,C. giganteus from Peru, C. hoeferi from Brazil, C. williamlamari and C.
nicholausgordoni from Venezuela, Phlogiellus kwebaburdeos from caves of Polillo Island (Philippine), Tmesiphantes mirim from
Brazil, Neoholothele fasciaaurinigra from S. America, Bistriopelma lamasi sp. nov. and Bistriopelma matuskai from Peru,
Phlogiellus bogadeki from Hong Kong, Phlogiellus johnrelazoi from Philippines and many more...
At least four major revisions made of genera Aphonopelma, Davus and Phlogiellus, Haplopelma Lampropelma -
Cyriopagopus resulting with many changes among their closely related taxonomic groups. Also many taxa transferred, some
resurrected and/or synonymised as well as new type of urticating setae found and described; cladistic analysis and phylogeny of
some taxa proposed in these articles.
Etc.
===
In 2014 (was also proposed before by Schmidt, G. in 2005, but not accepted) genus Davus was finally removed from synonymy of genus Cyclosternum (Estrada-Alvarez, 2014)
and consider as valid taxon. It was include tree species: Davus fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Davus mozinno Estrada-Alvarez, 2014 and Davus pentaloris (Simon, 1888). The
recent revision of the genus by Britain Ray Gabriel made a lot of other changes including description of one more new species, the Davus santos, and transfer into the genus other
species from closely related genera.
Список публикаций 2015 - 2016 г.г.
2015
Barrion-Dupo, A. L. A., Barrion, A. T. & Rasalan, J. B. (2015) A new cave-dwelling mygalomorph spider of the genus Phlogiellus
Pocock, 1897 (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Selenocosmiinae) from Burdeos, Polillo Island, Quezon province, Philippines. Philippine Journal
of Systematic Biology 8(2014): 1-15.
Cavallo, P. E. & Ferretti, N. E. (2015) The first Hapalotremus Simon, 1903 (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from Argentina: description
and natural history of Hapalotremus martinorum sp. nov. Journal of Natural History 49(15-16): 873-887.
Fabiano-da-Silva, W., Guadanucci, J. P. L. & DaSilva, M. B. (2015). Tmesiphantes mirim sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from
the Atlantic Forest of Bahia, Brazil, biogeographical notes and identification keys for species of the genus. Zoologia (Curitiba) 32(2): 151-
156. [errata: Zoologia (Curitiba) 32 (6): 541]
Ferretti N., (2015a) On three new Euathlus tarantulas from Argentina and cladistic analysis of the genus. Journal of Arachnology,
43: 313-326
Ferretti, N. (2015b) A new species of Phrixotrichus (Araneae, Theraphosidae) from southwestern Argentina and new distributional
data for P. vulpinus. Iheringia, Série Zoologia 105(2): 252-256.
Ferretti, N., Copperi, S., Schwerdt, L. & Pompozzi, G. (2015a) First record of Vitalius roseus (Mello-Leitão, 1923) (Araneae:
Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae) in Argentina: distribution map, natural history, and sexual behaviour. Arachnology 16(7): 241-243.
Ferretti, N., Copperi, S., Schwerdt, L. & Pompozzi, G. (2015b) First record of Vitalius longisternalis Bertani, 2001 (Araneae,
Theraphosidae) in Argentina and notes on its natural history in Misiones province. Check List 11(5): 1-5.
Gabriel, R. & Longhorn, S. J. (2015) Revised generic placement of Brachypelma embrithes (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936)
and Brachypelma angustum Valerio, 1980, with definition of the taxonomic features for identification of female Sericopelma Ausserer,
1875 (Araneae, Theraphosidae). ZooKeys 526: 75-104.
Gallon, R. C. & Wendt, I. (2015) On the taxonomic placement of four African Phoneyusa species (Araneae, Theraphosidae,
Eumenophorinae). Arachnology 16(8): 298-304.
Guadanucci J. P. L. & D. Weinmann, (2015) Description of Neoholothele gen. nov. (Araneae, Theraphosidae,
Schismatothelinae). Studies of Neotropical Fauna: 1-8
Kaderka, R. (2015a). Bistriopelma, a new genus with two new species from Peru (Araneae: Theraphosidae:
Theraphosinae). Revista Peruana de Biología 22(3): 275-288.
Kaderka R., (2015) The Neotropical genus Cyriocosmus Simon, 1903 and new species from Peru, Brazil and Venezuela (Araneae:
Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae). Journal of Natural History, Vol. 50 (7-8): 393-465 (впервые опубликовано он-лайн, 2015)
Lucas S. M. & Indicatti R. P. (2015) Revalidation of Dolichotele Mello-Leitão and notes on Hapalotremus Simon (Araneae,
Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Enviroment, 50(3): 204-212.
Montes de Oca L., D´Elía G. & Pérez-Miles F., 2015: An integrative approach for species delimitation in the spider genus
Grammostola (Theraphosidae, Mygalomorphae). Zoologica Scripta: 1-12
Nanayakkara, R. P., Ganehiarachchi, G. A. S. M., Vishvanath, N. & Kusuminda, T. G. T. (2015). Discovery of the critically
endangered tarantula species of the genus Poecilotheria (Araneae: Theraphosidae), Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica, from Sri
Lanka. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 8: 1-6
Ortiz, D. & Francke, O. F. (2015). Two new species of Bonnetina tarantulas (Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae) from Mexico:
contributions to morphological nomenclature and molecular characterization of types. Journal of Natural History 49(11-12): 685-707
Perafán, C., Cifuentes, Y. & Estrada-Gomez, S. (2015). Aguapanela, a new tarantula genus from the Colombian Andes (Araneae,
Theraphosidae). Zootaxa 4033(4): 529-542.
Pérez-Miles F. & Perafán C., (2015) Geographic patterns of abdominal urticating setae types in neotropical Tarantulas (Araneae,
Theraphosidae). Boletín de la Sociedad Zoológica del Uruguay, 24 (2): 103-116.
Schmidt G., (2015a) Notes on the Nomenclature of Theraphosids (Araneae, Mygalomorphaae). Tarantulas of the World, 143,
Januar 2015: 13-21.
Schmidt, G. (2015c). Warum Chilocosmia arndsti (Schmidt & von Wirth, 1992), Chilocosmia barensteinerae Schmidt, Hettegger &
Matthes, 2010, Chilocosmia peerboomi Schmidt, 1999, Selenopelma kovariki Schmidt & Krause, 1995 und Phlogius Simon, 1887 (Araneae:
Theraphosidae: Selenocosmiinae) keine Synonyme von Selenocosmia Ausserer, 1871 sind. Tarantulas of the World 143: 32-38
Schmidt, G. (2015d). Erster Nachweis einer Selenocosmia insulana-Subspezies auf Borneo (Araneae, Theraphosidae,
Selenocosmiinae), S. insulana borneoensis ssp. n. Tarantulas of the World 143: 50-55
Schmidt, G. & Barensteiner, R. (2015a). Ein Weibchen von Lampropelma nigerrimum arboricola ssp. n. aus Borneo (Araneae:
Theraphosidae: Ornithoctoninae). Tarantulas of the World 143: 4-9
Schmidt, G. & Barensteiner, R. (2015b). Eine neue Selenocosmia-Spezies von Borneo (Theraphosidae: Selenocosmiinae:
Selenocosmiini). Tarantulas of the World 143: 39-49
Sen, S., Dhali, D. C., Saha, S. & Raychaudhuri, D. (2015). Spiders (Araneae: Arachnida) of Reserve Forests of Dooars: Gorumara
National Park, Chapramari Wildlife Sanctuary and Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary. World Scientific News 20: 1-339:
- Chilobrachys hardwickei Sen et al., 2015: 17, f. 1-8, pl. 12
- Chilobrachys khasiensis Sen et al., 2015: 17, f. 9-14, pl. 12
Smith A. M. & Jacobi M. A., (2015) Revision of the genus Phormingochilus (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Ornithoctoninae) with the
description of three new species from Sulawesi and Sarawak and notes on the placement of the genera Cyriopagopus,Lampropelma and
Omothymus. Journal of the British Tarantula Society, 30 (3): 25-48
Sunil, J. K. & Prasanth, M. T. (2015). New information on Annandaliella travancorica Hirst, 1909 from Western Ghats of India
(Araneae: Theraphosidae). Munis Entomology and Zoology 10(1): 188-193
2016
Bertani R., De Sena Santos A., Diesel Abegg A., Roncolatto Ortiz F. & De Freitas M. A., (2016) First record of the
genus Psalmopoeus (Araneae: Theraphosidae) in Brazil. Check List, 12 (2): 1860
Bertani R. & Leal F., (2016) A new species of Pterinopelma (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from the highlands of the state of Minais
Gerais, Brazil and description of the male of P. sazimai. Zoologia, 33 (1): 1-9
Ferretti, N., Ochoa, J. A. & Chaparro, J. C. (2016). Una nueva especie de Acanthoscurria (Araneae: Theraphosidae:
Theraphosinae) sin órgano estridulador, del sur de Perú. Revista Peruana de Biología 23(2): 89-94
Gabriel, Ray (2016) Revised taxonomic placement of the species in the Central American genera Davus O. Pickard-
Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma Becker, 1878, and Schizopelma F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897, with comments on species in
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