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The application of nanotechnology in different areas of food packaging is an emerging field that will grow rapidly in the coming years. Advances in food safety have yielded promising results leading to the development of intelligent packaging (IP). By these containers, it is possible to monitor and provide information of the condition of food, packaging, or the environment. This article describes the role of the different concepts of intelligent packaging. It is possible that this new technology could reach enhancing food safety, improving pathogen detection time, and controlling the quality of food and packaging throughout the supply chain.
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Review Article
Intelligent Packaging Systems: Sensors and Nanosensors to
Monitor Food Quality and Safety
Guillermo Fuertes,1,2 Ismael Soto,3Raúl Carrasco,3Manuel Vargas,4
Jorge Sabattin,1,5 and Carolina Lagos6
1Industrial Engineering Department, University of Santiago de Chile, Avenida Ecuador 3769, Santiago de Chile, Chile
2Facultad de Ciencias Econ´
omicasyAdministrativas,UniversidadCentraldeChile,LordCochrane417,SantiagodeChile,Chile
3Electrical Engineering Department, University of Santiago de Chile, Avenida Ecuador 3519, Santiago de Chile, Chile
4Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Andres Bello, Antonio Varas 880, Santiago de Chile, Chile
5Departamento de Matem´
aticas y F´
ısica, Facultad de Ingenier´
ıa y Administraci´
on, Universidad Bernardo O’Higgins,
AvenidaViel1497,Ruta5Sur,SantiagodeChile,Chile
6Faculty of Management and Economics, University of Santiago de Chile, Avenida Libertador Bernardo O’Higgins 3363,
Santiago de Chile, Chile
Correspondence should be addressed to Guillermo Fuertes; guillermo.fuertes@usach.cl
Received  April ; Accepted  September 
Academic Editor: Stephane Evoy
Copyright ©  Guillermo Fuertes et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
cited.
e application of nanotechnology in dierent areas of food packaging is an emerging eld that will grow rapidly in the coming
years. Advances in food safety have yielded promising results leading to the development of intelligent packaging (IP). By these
containers, it is possible to monitor and provide information of the condition of food, packaging, or the environment. is article
describes the role of the dierent concepts of intelligent packaging. It is possible that this new technology could reach enhancing
food safety, improving pathogen detection time, and controlling the quality of food and packaging throughout the supply chain.
1. Introduction
Globalization and dynamism in the exchange of products,
along with reduced time for selection/cooking with fresh
ingredients, and the growing interest in health safety and
environment are the main challenges and enhance the devel-
opment of new improved packaging concepts []. According
to [], among packaging optimization strategies to reduce
food waste, there are size diversication to help consumers
buy the right amount and new packaging designs to prevent
thelossofscentandtheappropriatemoisturecontent[].
e safety of food products is one of the main objectives
of food law. Quality control in food manufacturing is closely
related to technology, physical and sensory attributes of the
product, the microbiological safety, the chemical composi-
tion, and nutritional value [].
e functions of the packages include protection, con-
tainment, communication with the user, ergonomics and
marketing (Figure ). Containment means ensuring the right
quantities of products to avoid spills. e communication
functionisregulatedbylawandtheproperdisplaywillinu-
ence the consumer acceptance of the product. e informa-
tion must contain features such as weight, origin, ingredients,
nutritional value, precautions for use, mode of transport, and
recycling or disposal. Trademarks used packaging and labels
for promotion, marketing, and product sales []. Ergonomics
in the consumption of a food product is related to minimizing
physical eort and discomfort to transport, store, use, and
dispose of the container []. It has been shown that the
physical characteristics and improved containment aspect of
food packaging are expectations that aect sales of products
and consumer attitudes [].
According to [], the global market for active and intelli-
gentpackagingwilldoublebetweenand,growingat
an annual rate of % until , reaching US , million,
and later at an annual rate of , %, reaching US ,
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Journal of Sensors
Volume 2016, Article ID 4046061, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4046061
Journal of Sensors
engineering
Nanoscale reaction
Heat/mass transfer Nanobiotechnology Molecular synthesis
Communication ErgonomicsProtection Containment Marketing
(materials)
Processing
packaging
Smart
functions
Packaging
Active
packaging
Food
technology
science &
materials
Nanostructured
Indicators
Time and Temperature
Nanoparticles
Nanoemulsions
Nanocomposites
identication
Radio frequency
Integrity indicators
Freshness indicators
Sensors and nanosensors
F : Application matrix of nanotechnology in food science and technology.
million in . e global demand for electronic smart
packaging will grow to over . billion in the next decade
[]. Several relevant markets are forecasted for this type
of packaging over the next decade; the most important is
United States, with an annual growth of .%, reaching US
, million, followed by Japan, the second largest market,
reachingasizeofUS,million;Australia,US,mil-
lion; UK, US , million; and nally Germany, US ,
million.
2. Smart Packaging Concepts
IP is any type of container that provides a specic func-
tionality beyond function physical barrier between the food
product and the surrounding environment []. Knowing
information about the product quality, the packaging or the
environment establishes a bond of responsibility throughout
the food supply chain (storage, transport, distribution, and
sale). IPs are packaging technologies that through internal
and external indicators monitor interaction between the
food, the packaging, and the environment []. is type of
packaging analyzes the system, processes information, and
presents it, without generally exerting any action on the food.
ere are two ways in the intelligent packaging systems,
supporting data systems (bars labels or radiofrequency iden-
tication plates) used to store or transmit data and indicators
of incidents or biosensors in packaging that allow control of
theenvironmentandproductpackaging[].
Consumers increasingly need to know what ingredients
or components are in the product and how the product
should be stored, used, and discarded aer use. Smart tags
and stickers, for example, will be able to communicate
directly with the customer via thin lm devices that provide
visual information. Many companies have deployed IP solu-
tions on the market (Table ).
T : Commercial applications available on the market IP.
Applications Tra d e n a m e Company
Time and
Temperature
Indicators
Cook-Chex Pymah Corp.
TimestripTimestrip Plc
Colour-erm Colour-erm
MonitorMarkM, Minnesota
OnvuCiba Specialty Chemical and
FreshPoint
Fresh-CheckTem p t i m e Co r p .
ermax ermographic
Measurements Ltd.
CheckPointVitsab
Integrity
indicators
NovasInsignia Technologies Ltd.
Timestrip Timestrip Ltd.
Best-byFreshPoint Lab
O2SenseFreshPoint Lab
Ageless EyeMitsubishi Gas Chemical Inc.
Freshness
indicators
Fresh Tag COX Technologies
SensorQDSM NV and Food Quality
Sensor
RipeSense RipSenseand ort Research
Radio frequency
identication
EasylogCAEN RFID Srl
Intelligent Box Mondi Pic
CS Convergence Systems Ltd.
Temptr i p Temptrip LLC
3. Applications
3.1. Time and Temperature Indicators. Because of their sim-
plicity, low cost, aordability, and eciency, Time and Tem-
perature Indicators (TTI) have been widely used to monitor
Journal of Sensors
Fresh Used soon Should not be used
(a)
1
3
6
Life in service
6 months
(b)
TTI
9860 D 01 2345
Index
10C (50F), 1 week
(c)
Do not use if the
circle is pink
(d)
F : Schematic representation of the TTI. (a) Fresh-Check; (b)
Timestrip; (c) MonitorMark; (d) CheckPoint.
and translate consumer quality of foodstus []. A prereq-
uisite for the eective implementation of a control system
based TTI is the kinetic study and modeling of loss ratios food
quality and response []. Dierent types of TTI trade have
been developed on the enzymatic base and polymeric and
biological reactions []. To ensure the safety and quality of
food products that need a certain temperature, it is important
to monitor changes in the parameters of temperature and
time from production to the nal consumer [, ]. TTI can
be placed in transport containers or individual containers
as a small sticker; an irreversible chemical change will be
reected if the food is exposed to a dierent recommended
temperature [] (Figure ). TTI are particularly important
for the quality and safety of chilled or frozen food, where
cold storage is a critical control point during the transport
and distribution [].
3.2. Integrity Indicators. e gas composition in the package
may change due to the interaction of food with the environ-
ment. Gas indicators are a useful means of controlling the
toxic composition of the gases produced from decomposing
food in a food container that can endanger the health of
consumers []; as a control measure, a change occurs in the
indicator color by chemical or enzymatic reaction (Figure ).
e tag is activated at the time of consumption, the seal is
broken when a timer goes o, and a color change is expe-
rienced over time []. Indicators must be in direct contact
with the gaseous environment immediately surrounding the
Pink
Oxygen-free package
Blue
(0.1% or less)
Oxygen-free
package
Oxygen is
present
Absence of oxygen
Presence of oxygen
2-3hours aer oxygen level has reached oxygen-free status (25 C)
About 5minutes aer contact with oxygen (25C)
F : Schematic representation of the leak indicators.
food in a container. e presence of oxygen may indicate
that the package was sealed incorrectly, is leaking, or has
been tampered with. Reference [] describes the synthesis
and manufacture of a nontoxic surface coating activated
by exposure to molecular oxygen of a substrate through
the irreversible formation of colored spots. Plastic optical
uorescent lms are highly sensitive for the detection of gases
and dissolved CO2[]. e detection of CO2in modied
atmosphere (MAP) and conventional packaging have gained
considerable attention in the industry IP [].
3.3. Freshness Indicators. A freshness indicator directly indi-
cates the quality of the product; it is usually in the form of
labels on the container. Typically, these indicators focus on
thedetectionoftherstkindofchange(pH,gascomposition,
etc.). ese changes are detected by the indicators and
transformed into a response, usually a color response which
can be easily measured and correlated with the freshness of
food.
is response can be conditioned by the modications of
substances that are related to the metabolism of microorgan-
isms, such as the occurrence of volatile nitrogen compounds,
amines, organic acids, carbon dioxide, ethanol, glucose,
or sulfur compounds during storage indicating microbial
growth [].
is type of indicators is based on indirect detection
of metabolites through color indicators (e.g., pH) or based
on direct detection of metabolites by biosensors. COX
Technologies solutions company launched the Fresh Tag
indicator (colorimetric indicator that informs users about the
formation of volatile amines in shery products) but this
product was removed from the market in  []. Label
sensor is manufactured based on methyl red; red/methyl
cellulosemembraneworksontheincreaseinpH,dueto
volatile amines decomposition. It was successfully used as a
sensor label for real-time monitoring of fresh meat of broiler
chicken []. RipeSenseis the rst intelligent sensor label
that changes color to indicate the ripeness of the fruit []. It
works through the reaction of the aromas released by the fruit
as it ripens; initially it is red and then graduates to orange and
nally yellow, depending on the selection of the desired level
of maturity when it comes to eating the fruit (Figure ).
e indicator SensorQdeveloped by DSM NV (pH
sensor based on anthocyanins capable of reporting formation
of biogenic amines in microbiological origin meat) is an
indicatoroffreshnessforspoilageofsh.isconsistsof
Journal of Sensors
See when it is ripe
Crisp
Firm
Juicy
Read the sensor
F : Schematic representation of the RipeSense indicator.
a polymer matrix which contains a solution with green
dye bromocresol sensitive to the pH, by monitoring colour
changes in the compounds volatile, on the basis of the
quantity of amines []. is last freshness indicator did
not achieve a successful commercialization. Additionally, the
authors in [] developed a new colorimetric sensor for
monitoring the deterioration of sh meat.
3.4. Radio Frequency Identication (RFID). RFID tags are an
advanced form of support data information that can identify
andlocateaproductwithaspecialtagthatemitsradio
waves. ese are classied into four types: active, passive,
semiactive, and semipassive, depending on the power supply
for communication and other functions. ese devices may
becoupledtoanarticle,box,container,orpalletandtherefore
canbeidentiedandtracked[].RFIDtagscanbereadfrom
several meters away and beyond the line of sight []; active
RFID have a reading range of m or more and also have
a battery that enables them to communicate autonomously.
Passive tags have no internal power supply; therefore, they
arenotabletocommunicateuntiltheemissionofanRFID
reader is activated. e radio frequency eld produced by the
reader provides enough power to the integrated circuit of the
label, to be able to reect energy to the reader. Its transmission
range can reach as much as m. RFID systems are classied
depending on the frequency range used: low frequency
(LF), between  and . KHz; high frequency (HF),
. MHz; ultrahigh frequency (UHF), – MHz; and
active frequency or microwave frequency, . GHz. RFID
technologies are grouped within systems called automatic
identication (Auto ID).
RFID is still an expensive alternative on top of several
obstacles to overcome implementation in certain sectors,
% data reliability, and specic limitations (short-range,
narrow bandwidth, and low power) []. e long-term
vision is able to print RFID labels directly onto paper or plas-
tic instead of silicon, while investments in the components
(sensors, tags, antennas, readers, connectors, cables, net-
works, controllers, soware, and consulting and implemen-
tation processes) are expensive. Currently, inkjet printed cir-
cuits have a very low resolution and cover large surface areas
compared to traditional circuits [].
RFID systems consist of two major components:
transponder or tag and interrogator or reader, which create
wireless data transmission. Each RFID tag applied to food
packaging transmits the identication information to a
reader, which allows communication with the RFID tag. e
tag then transmits information back to the reader []. is
information in most cases is passed to a computer (Figure ).
Readers are available as handheld computers or xed devices
that can be placed in strategic locations. According to [],
RFID tags can be read-write (you can add information to the
label or write on existing data) or read-only (information
stored during manufacturing process).
Many advances have been made in this eld such as the
development of a pH sensor embedded in a radio frequency
transmitter without batteries, for in situ monitoring of dete-
rioration processes of sh products []; RFID tag to control
the freshness of meat []; RFID tag with an optical oxygen
indicator for use in MAP []; RFID tag with a temperature
sensor, a gas sensor, a reader, and a server, making up a
tracking system for the freshness of pork []; RFID tag with
sensors capable of measuring temperature, humidity, and the
presence of volatile amine compounds, to estimate cod sh
freshness []; RFID tag along with CO2and oxygen sensor
for monitoring the freshness of vegetables []; system real-
time evaluation of the freshness of packaged milk, marketing,
and distribution using RFID tags [].
4. Contribution of Nanotechnology in the
Monitoring of Food Security
Nanotechnology involves the study, design, creation, syn-
thesis, manipulation, and application of materials, devices,
and functional systems through the control and exploitation
of phenomena and properties of matter on a very small
scale, usually between  and  nanometers’ length. e
new packaging technologies will depend on the develop-
ment of nanomaterials and nanoparticles; these may include
nanoparticles, nanotubes, fullerenes, nanobers, nanocylin-
der, and nanosheets []. e unique optical and electronic
properties of this nanomaterial enable the development of a
new generation of electronic devices, for example, nanotran-
sistors to build future nanoprocessors and nanomemory [],
nanobattery [], and nanosensors [, ].
Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary powerful tool for
the development of intelligent packaging systems. It has been
predicted that nanotechnology will have an impact on at least
Journal of Sensors
Microchip
RFID tag
RFID middleware
RFID antenna
(1) Broadcasting of the signal by
the antenna
(4) e antenna reads the
data and sends it to
the reader
(5) e reader sends the
information for
data processing
(6) e computer sends data
based on information
stored in the tags
(2) e tag receives
signal and is loaded
(3) e loaded identication tag
sends the response back to
the reader
Reader
Shopping cart
antenna
Integrated
F : Schematic representation of the RFID system.
 trillion in the world economy by , creating a demand
for  million employers in various industries [].
For the development of IP, the integration and the techno-
logical advancement of the sensors, nanosensors, and indica-
tors are essential. ese three terms are used interchangeably,
but they are not. A sensor/nanosensor measures only certain
aspects, while an indicator integrates measurement and
display. e sensors and nanosensor must be connected to
a device for signal transduction of the receptor, while an
indicator directly provides qualitative or semiquantitative
information of the quality for a visible change [].
Nanotechnology enables the application of nanosensors
in the food packaging to control their quality, during the
variousstagesofthelogisticprocess,andtoensureproduct
quality to the nal consumer []. Nanotechnology through
IP can help in providing authentication, tracking, and locat-
ing product features to avoid falsication, adulteration, and
prevention in the diversity of products intended for a specic
market []. ere are still many concerns for consumers of
food nanotechnology; one of the most important is the uncer-
tainty of the behavior of nanoparticles in the body and the
toxic eects they could have. For this, it is necessary to estab-
lish a set of protocols and regulations on the food security of
IP implications. e use of nanotechnology depends on the
market and the geographical position; Chinas consumers are
more willing to accept new technologies, while consumers in
Switzerlandtendtobelessresponsive[].
4.1. Sensors and Nanosensors. anks to technological
advances and the research design, the fabrication of
nanoscale components is a reality. Such components are
used to set up basic structural and functional devices
called nanomachines (NM), whose size is expressed in
nanometers and unit of length equals a billionth part of a
meter ( nm = −9 m). Generally, sensors/nanosensors are
placed in food packaging to control internal and external
conditions of food []. From a microbiological point of
view, the main objective is to reduce nanosensors pathogen
detection time from days to hours or even minutes. Several
authorshaveworkedinthedevelopmentofnanosensors.
eseNMareusedinthedetectionofmolecules,gases,
and microorganisms and detection by surface enhanced
Raman spectroscopy (SERS) []; nanosensors in raw bacon
packaging for detecting oxygen []; electronic tongue
for inclusion in food packaging consisting of an array of
nanosensors extremely sensitive to gases released by spoiled
food, giving a clear and visible sign if the food is fresh or
not []; use of uorescent nanoparticles to detect pathogens
and toxins in food and crops [], for example, detection
of pathogenic bacteria in food (Salmonella typhimurium,
Shigella exneri, and Escherichia coli O157: H7), based on
functionalized quantum dots coupled with immunomagnetic
separation in milk and apple juice []; nanosensors to detect
temperature changes [, ], where food companies like
Kra Foods are incorporating nanosensors that detect the
prole of a food consumer (likes and dislikes), allergies, and
nutritional deciencies []; nanosensors for the detection of
organophosphate pesticide residues in food []; nanosensors
to detect humidity or temperature changes due to moisture
[]; sensor for detecting Escherichia coli in a food sample,
Journal of Sensors
by measuring and detecting scattering of light by cellular
mitochondria []; biosensor for instantly detecting
Salmonella in foods [] and sensor to detect CO2as a direct
indicator of the quality of the food []; biosensor for the
detection of the pathogen food, Bacillus cereus []. Research
and development in nanosensors have led to important
scientic advances that enable a new generation of these
NM. Nanosensors researches applied to IP are in their early
stages of development.
4.1.1. Communication between Nanosensors and eir Applica-
tion in Intelligent Packaging. e IP incorporating nanosen-
sors will have great benets for the food industry. ese
NM in the form of tiny chips invisible to the human eye
areembeddedinfoodorincontainers,foruseaselectronic
bar code, which allows for the monitoring of food in all its
phases (production, processing, distribution, and consump-
tion) []. ere is no record of any investigation that extends
this monitoring process until the last stage.
Communication between NM is a promising technology
that ensures the development of new devices capable of
performing basic and simple tasks at nanolevel (computing,
data storage, detection, and triggering) [].
e nanosensors have a limited eld of measurement;
therefore, the development of the wireless nanosensor net-
works (WNSNs) is essential for the IP industry. Such net-
works are a set of nodes of nanosensors dynamically self-
organizingnecessarilyinawirelessnetworkwithpossible
use in any preexisting infrastructure []. WNSN is in its
early stages of research and development for application in
IP. However, matrices sensitive to gases released by spoiled
food are developing nanosensors.
One major drawback is the limited energy that can be
stored in a nanosensor speck in contrast to the energy
required by the device to communicate. Recently, novel
collecting energy mechanisms have been proposed to replen-
ishenergystoredinnanodevices.Withthesemechanisms,
WNSNs can overcome the bottleneck and even have innite
life (perpetual WNSNs) []. For now, the limitations of size
and power of nanodevices limit the applicability of wireless
communication.
Oneofthemostrecentalternativesisbasedontheuseof
graphene, a nanomaterial of one-atom thickness, which was
rst obtained experimentally in  []. Graphene enables
wireless communication between nanosystems, because of
its ability to support surface plasmon polariton (SPP) in the
terahertz frequency range []. e main dierence between
classical plasmonic antennas and graphene-based plasmonic
antennas is that SPP waves in graphene are observed at
frequencies in the Terahertz Band, for example, two orders of
magnitudebelowSPPwavesobservedingoldandothernoble
materials []. e SPP waves require less energy making the
communication between NM feasible [, ].
5. Conclusions
e current advance of nanotechnology has a high potential
benet to society especially for the food industry. e
development of intelligent packing systems is an emerging
eld that will focus on food security and will grow exponen-
tiallyinthecomingyears.efutureoffoodsecuritydepends
largely on the technological advancement of nanosensors,
integration of a nanosensor in a food container, and generat-
ing breakthroughs in IP solutions. is new packaging system
can assist in the detection, monitoring, tracking, recording,
and communication throughout the supply chain. e inter-
connection of nanosensors can extend the capabilities of a
single nanosensor by allowing it to cooperate and share infor-
mation; thus, the WNSNs will have a major impact on almost
all areas of our society and change our daily lives. Currently,
these networks are at an early stage of research and develop-
ment; an example of this is the limitations that exist in the
nanocommunication and the nanobatteries. e commer-
cialization of this technology is linked to the advancement of
printed electronics for mass production; it is expected that
smart labels and smart packaging will reach low cost relative
to the food product.
Competing Interests
e authors declare that there is no conict of interests
regarding the publication of this paper.
Acknowledgments
e authors acknowledge the nancial support of the “Center
for Multidisciplinary Research on Signal Processing” (CON-
ICYT/ACT Project) and the USACH/DICYT SG
Project and also the industrial designer Alexander Pereira, for
his help in the design of the gures.
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Chapter
The new dimensions of food packaging are influenced by consumer preferences for food safety, innovations, and convenience. In an era of technological advances, food packaging has evolved into smart packaging. Both active and intelligent food packaging as an important component of smart packaging provides the customers with an optimum food product experience. Active food packaging aims at improving the shelf‐life of the product by addition of certain components into the package. While intelligent packaging helps the food product to navigate the product cycle until it reaches the consumer. Intelligent food packaging includes tools that help during the product cycle, for example, indicators, RFID tag, barcode labels, and biosensors. A few of the different types of indicators used in intelligent food packaging include time‐temperature indicators, leak indicators, freshness indicators, gas indicators, and pH indicators. Advantages of intelligent food packaging include monitoring the internal environment of the package, monitoring the logistics of the product, protection from theft, improving pathogen detection, increased product value, reduction in food wastage while extending the shelf life and providing convenience to the consumer while expanding market. The application of nanotechnology along with further research can ensure sustainable and commercially viable consumer accepted intelligent food packaging.
Book
Full-text available
The monograph: Current Trends in Quality Science – consumer behavior, logistic, product management, contains descriptions of recent research in management science and quality. The papers collected in this issue cover all aspects of product quality from a multidisciplinary perspective. The subject matter contained in 34 articles by individual authors allows us to distinguish several directions of research that relate to the quality of products and services. All the papers are in line with the issue of sustainable development. To achieve sustainable development, coherence is needed between three key elements: economic growth, social inclusion and environmental protection. They are interrelated and all are essential to the well-being of individuals and whole societies. In this monograph, the first group of issues concerns studies related to consumers’ market behaviour, especially their market behaviour during the difficult period of the Cowid -19 virus pandemic. Among the topics of the publications there are also studies directly related to the pandemic, i.e. sustainable consumption of Covid -19 filter masks. Other studies describe analyses of consumers’ attitudes towards food and non-food products. Another group of studies deals with consumer behaviour and innovative packaging solutions, as well as perception and research on the use of techniques for assessing environmental aspects related to the product over its life cycle (LCA studies). The last group of papers concerns the subject of waste management, food safety and protection management and quality research on innovative products and services. All publications contain the theme of quality research in the conditions of sustainable development and economy, quality oriented to individual customer satisfaction and benefiting the economy, society and environment. Hanna Śmigielska
Article
An IoT infrastructure to continuously monitor the fresh food supply chain can quickly detect food quality and contamination issues and thereby reduce costs and food wastage. This, in turn, involves several challenges including the development of inexpensive quality/contamination sensors to be deployed in a fine grain manner in the food boxes, technologies for sensor level communications, online data management and analytics, and logistics driven by such analytics. In this paper, we study the issues related to the communication among sensing modules deployed in the fresh food boxes and thereby an automated localization of the boxes that may have quality/contamination issues. In this context we study the near-field magnetic induction (NFMI) based communication and localization, as the ubiquitous RF communications suffer high attenuation through the water/mineral rich tissue media. An accurate localization of the sensors inside boxes within the food pallets is very challenging in this environment. In this paper we propose a novel magnetic induction based localization scheme, and show that with a small number of anchor nodes, the localization can be done without any errors for boxes as small as 0.5 meter on the side, and with small errors even for boxes half as big.
Article
Agrochemicals are products that, due to their hazardous nature and high cost, need to be monitored. The management of agrochemical packaging is generally precarious, and the supply chain needs more control due to its reverse characteristic. Traceability in the supply chain usually uses one sensor and not a combination of multiple sensors. The proposed model allows one to trace agrochemicals with reliable and immutable information coming from various sensors, solving problems of unreliable traceability, product theft, and product tampering. Unlike related work, this model contributes with a proposal segmented in modules that focus on security and scalability in controlling used packaging. In this case, the proofs of concept indicate detection of the opening movement of the safe cabinet from 5 lux (unit of illuminance) and movement of packages after a radius of 2 cm, and the data sending time between the model layers was around 1 second. The positive aspects are benefits for detecting intact products and packages openly within the production process and persistently; other benefits include better use of assets and management of the production chain, real‐time production data collection, classification, grouping, and prediction of events. Monitoring the packaging reverse chain and the possibility of transaction auditing. Benefits include better use of assets and management of the production chain, real‐time production data collection, classification, grouping, and prediction of events generated by the production operation, and persistence of this information for future transactions and audits. Farmers and society benefit from making production and supply chains cleaner and safer and reducing the risk of costly and environmental accidents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Food safety and human health are closely interlinked. In recent years, many developments have been made in food technology to detect changes in food during spoilage and in methods to prevent it. Biosensors are highly efficient, sensitive, and low-cost devices which can detect their targets even at very low amounts within a short period of time with high accuracy. Thus, a variety of biosensors such as immunosensors, optical biosensors, microfluidic surveillance devices, and colorimetric biosensors are used in the food industry for detection of contaminants. In addition, new technologies such as blockchain and IoT-based smart technology are being used to enhance food traceability and food safety by eliminating counterfeit products. These technologies are also useful for improving inventory management, reducing wastage of food, ensuring food supply chain integrity, verifying labels’ claims, and improving food industry supplier selection. In this chapter, we will be discussing the recent advances in technologies used in food industries for the surveillance and monitoring of food contamination.
Article
Background Intelligent packaging and point-of-use devices designed to monitor food quality and package integrity, as well as assist in food authentication, are currently unaffordable to the food industry due to costly conventional fabrication methods, namely inkjet printing, gravure printing, and screen-printing technologies. Another major hinderance is the availability and use of safe food-friendly materials to produce the smart components (i.e., sensors, indicators, and tags) that monitor these parameters. Recently, however, additive manufacturing (stereolithography and extrusion-based 3D printing) has emerged as a cost-effective solution for the fabrication of these smart systems from materials deemed safe and food-friendly by internationally recognised food regulation agencies. Scope and approach This study emphasises the importance of utilising intelligent food packaging. Regular food packaging allows potential tampering, contamination, and food fraud to go undetected. Intelligent food packaging, however, allows for real-time communication on the state of a food product and would assist in food defense and ensure consumers receive food products of the highest quality. Unfortunately, consumers are currently unwilling to shoulder the costs associated with intelligent food packaging and point-of-use devices fabricated using conventional approaches. This review explores 3D printing as a viable alternative. Key findings and conclusions A 3D printing approach to the fabrication of intelligent packaging and point-of-use devices allows for the development of highly sensitive, self-indicating, multifunctional smart components using biocompatible nontoxic materials more cheaply than conventional fabrication methods. This would make intelligent food packaging more ubiquitous and, in turn, reduce food waste and prevent consumers from ingesting unfit food products.
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COVID-19, which is thought to be transmitted from infected animals to humans as a zoonotic disease, plays an important role in food safety and public health. Inappropriate, defective, and unsuitable food safety systems ignoring it play a key role in the spread of the disease. Controlling food safety from farm to fork provides access to healthy and high quality foods in the protection of health and the prevention of diseases. Making new effective and applicable standards and principles in the food safety system worldwide may be preventing possible diseases, risks, especially at epidemic level. In this context, official authorities, food businesses, and supply chain officials should take an active role to reform the process. Consequently, both food safety and free trade principles may be more efficient under common global food safety systems for public health.
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Nanotechnology applications are expanding in numerous industrial sectors including the food industry. Numerous applications of nanotechnologies in food packaging industries have been proposed to convey antimicrobial barrier properties that prevent food putrefaction, augmenting mechanical properties such as emulsification, foaming, and water-binding capacity, enhancing physicochemical properties of biopolymers that are used as food packaging materials and those that enhance thermal stability and crystallinity. This chapter focuses on smart and intelligent packaging systems used in certain food industries. The smart packaging is capable of eliciting a response to external environmental stimulus thus carrying out an intelligent function of detecting, sensing, recording, tracing, communicating, and applying scientific logic thereby facilitating decisions on shelf life, safety, and quality improvement. The nanosensor systems embedded in these packaging systems have facilitated improved shelf life, the freshness of food and integrity of packaging materials.
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Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is a plant highly recognized in ancient traditional medicine, in particular the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The rhizomes, part of the plant commonly used, contain curcumin, the main active principle in the plant, a polyphenolic compound with potential pharmacological activities, but with very low solubility and bioavailability. Curcumin nanoformulations have shown the ability to overcome the natural barriers that limit their use and this review briefly shows the most relevant aspects in the development of different nanoformulation platforms for curcumin and the results obtained in preclinical and clinical studies.
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A theoretical wireless nanosensor network (WNSN) system that gives information about the food packaging condition is proposed. The protection effectiveness is estimated by measuring many factors, such as the existence of microorganisms, bacteria, gases, and contaminants. This study is focused on the detection of an antimicrobial agent (AA) attached on a polymer forming an active integrated package. All monitoring technologies for food conservation are analyzed. Nanobiosensor nanomachine (NM), which converts biological or chemical signals into electrical signals, is used. A mathematical model, which describes the constituent’s emigration from the package to food, is programmed in MatLab software. The results show three nanobiosensors forming a WNSN. The nanobiosensors are able to carry out the average concentration for different spots in the package. This monitoring system shows reading percentages in three degrees and different colors: excellent (green), good (cyan), and lacking (red). To confirm the utility of the model, different simulations are performed. Using the WNSNs, results of AA existing in food package (FP) through time were successfully obtained.
Article
Background Microbial contamination and lipid and protein oxidation are major concerns for meat and meat products in terms of food safety and quality deterioration. The meat quality and safety properties are highly dependent on packaging materials and technologies. Scope and approach To achieve longer shelf life, active packaging and intelligent packaging have been developed to change the conditions of the package, impart information, monitor the product supply chain, and provide anti-counterfeit functionality. This will effectively enhance food safety and quality and consequently increase the product value, convenience, and consumer satisfactions. This review analyzes the recent developments in active and intelligent packaging in the meat industry, in both research and commercial domains. The global patents and future research trends are also discussed. Key findings and conclusions Active and intelligent packaging offer great opportunities for enhancing meat safety, quality, and convenience, and consequently decrease the number of retailer and consumer complaints. Some important factors such as legislation concerns (e.g. migration of active substances from packaging materials, labelling), economics and consumers' preferences should be considered to successfully implement antimicrobial and intelligent packaging solutions in the meat industry.
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Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed-matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefl y discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed-matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high-energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick, and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications. © 2010 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited and published by World Scientific Publishing Co. under licence. All Rights Reserved.
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to study different possibilities for implementing easy-to-use and cost-effective micro-systems to detect and trace expelled gases from rotten food. The paper covers various radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies and gas sensors as the two promoting feasibilities for the tracing of packaged food. Monitoring and maintaining quality and safety of food in transport and storage from producer to consumer are the most important concerns in food industry. Many toxin gases, even in parts per billion ranges, are produced from corrupted and rotten food and can endanger the consumers’ health. To overcome the issues, intelligent traceability of food products, specifically the packaged ones, in terms of temperature, humidity, atmospheric conditions, etc., has been paid attention to by many researchers. Design/methodology/approach – Food poisoning is a serious problem that affects thousands of people every year. Poisoning food must be recognized early to prevent a serious health problem.Contaminated food is usually detectable by odor. A small gas sensors and low-cost tailored to the type of food packaging and a communication device for transmitting alarm output to the consumer are key factors in achieving intelligent packaging. Findings – Conducting polymer composite, intrinsically conducting polymer and metal oxide conductivity gas sensors, metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) gas sensors offer excellent discrimination and lead the way for a new generation of “smart sensors” which will mould the future commercial markets for gas sensors. Originality/value – Small size, low power consumption, short response time, wide operating temperature, high efficiency and small area are most important features of introduced system for using in package food.
Article
Not so long ago, barcodes were introduced they were a marvelous innovation, allowing the use of a scanner to read off important information. This was a great time saver, as it eliminated the need for a human to enter information on an item in question - a scanner could send the information directly to a computer in a form it could use. In this way, a store could track the amount of milk brought in and sold. But suppose, instead of a bar code, there was a way that the milk could not only identify itself and its price, but tell whether it is approaching its expiry date or even if it has been stored at an incorrect temperature at any time. That is where RFID chips come in!.
Book
Modified Atmosphere Packaging for Fresh-cut Fruits and Vegetables provides comprehensive. coverage of all aspects of modern MAP technologies for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Coverage begins with the general MAP concept and application by introducing the concept of MAP, how MAP works for fresh-cut produce and the benefits and shortfalls of MAP in its application. The book then discusses the basic aspects of MAP - packaging materials and machinery. In these sections, the book addresses not only the general information about MAP materials, but also supplies examples to introduce the new packaging films and their successful application in produce and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Unique chapters and sections in the book include relevant patents for MAP, commercial practices and MAP packaging machinery. Generally, packaging machinery is only included in books specifically covering packaging engineering. Coverage of this important aspect is included in the book since fresh-cut manufacturers spend much more time in the day-to-day operations on packaging machinery and systems as compared to packaging film materials. In the final section, Modified Atmosphere Packaging for Fresh-cut Fruits and Vegetables highlights the latest developments in the packaging industry and how they could impact the fresh-cut industry.
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Many industries require irreversibly responsive materials for use as sensors or detectors of environmental exposure. We describe the synthesis and fabrication of a non-toxic surface coating that reports oxygen exposure of the substrate material through irreversible formation of colored spots. The coating consists of a selectively permeable rubber film that contains the colorless organic precursors to darkly pigmented synthetic melanin. Melanin synthesis within the film is triggered by exposure to molecular oxygen. The selectively permeable rubber film regulates the rate of oxygen diffusion, enabling independent control of the sensitivity and response time of the artificial melanosome, while preventing leaching of melanin or its precursors.