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Participatory varietal selection of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) for yield and yield components in Dabat district, Ethiopia

Authors:
  • GIZ/Green Innovation Center-Ethiopia
  • LIVES project, Amhara region, Ethiopia

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Wudpecker Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 1(7), pp. 270 - 274, August 2012 Available online at http://www.wudpeckerresearchjournals.org 2012 Wudpecker Research Journals Participatory varietal selection of faba bean (Vicia fabaL.) for yield and yield components in Dabat district, Ethiopia 1Tafere Mulualem, 1Tadesse Dessalegn, and 2Yigzaw Dessalegn 1 Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. 2 Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Accepted 30 June 2012 Faba bean is one of the important field crops in the highlands of Ethiopia. Several improved faba bean varieties has been released by agricultural research centers. However, farmers depend on few low yielding local faba bean varieties. Participatory variety selection was initiated to evaluate the performance of alternative improved faba bean varieties and select better varieties for further seed production. The study was conducted at Dabat district at four volunteer farmers’ fields during 2010 main cropping season. Ten improved varieties were evaluated under farmers’ participatory varietal selection. Randomized complete block design with all three replications on one farmer field as grandmother and one replication each at three other farmers’ fields as mother trials was used. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed among varieties in plant height, number of pods per plant, number of nodes per plant, number of pods per node, hundred seed weight and grain yield per hectare. The yield ranged from 4.5 q ha-1 to 24.9 qha-1 with the grand means of 11.2 q ha-1, SELALE (24.9 qha-1), WAYU (22.0 qha-1) and DOSHA (13.16 qha-1) varieties were the top yielding varieties. Farmers’ ranked the varieties that performed well under their circumstances. Based on farmer’s evaluation and selection plus researchers’ recommendations, DOSHA, WOLKI and WAYU varieties were found promising under Dabat condition. Key words: Ethiopia, faba bean, participatory, varietal selection.
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Wudpecker Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 1(7), pp. 270 - 274, August 2012
Available online at http://www.wudpeckerresearchjournals.org
2012 Wudpecker Research Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Participatory varietal selection of faba bean (Vicia faba
L.) for yield and yield components in Dabat district,
Ethiopia
1
Tafere Mulualem, 1Tadesse Dessalegn, and 2Yigzaw Dessalegn
1Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
2Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
Accepted 30 June 2012
Faba bean is one of the important field crops in the highlands of Ethiopia. Several improved faba bean
varieties has been released by agricultural research centers. However, farmers depend on few low
yielding local faba bean varieties. Participatory variety selection was initiated to evaluate the
performance of alternative improved faba bean varieties and select better varieties for further seed
production. The study was conducted at Dabat district at four volunteer farmers fields during 2010
main cropping season. Ten improved varieties were evaluated under farmers participatory varietal
selection. Randomized complete block design with all three replications on one farmer field as
grandmother and one replication each at three other farmers fields as mother trials was used.
Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed among varieties in plant height, number of pods per
plant, number of nodes per plant, number of pods per node, hundred seed weight and grain yield per
hectare. The yield ranged from 4.5 q ha-1 to 24.9 qha-1 with the grand means of 11.2 q ha-1, SELALE (24.9
qha-1), WAYU (22.0 qha-1) and DOSHA (13.16 qha-1) varieties were the top yielding varieties. Farmers
ranked the varieties that performed well under their circumstances. Based on farmers evaluation and
selection plus researchers recommendations, DOSHA, WOLKI and WAYU varieties were found
promising under Dabat condition.
Key words: Ethiopia, faba bean, participatory, varietal selection.
INTRODUCTION
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is originated in the Near East
and is one of the earliest domesticated legumes after
chickpea and pea. Ethiopia is considered as the
secondary center of diversity and also one of the nine
major agro-geographical production regions of faba bean
(Asfaw Telaye et al., 1994). At present, faba bean is the
third most important cool-season food legume in the
world (Torres et al., 2006). Faba bean is used as human
food in developing countries and as animal feed in
industrialized countries. Faba bean is widely used as a
good sources of protein, starch, cellulose and minerals
(Haciseferogullari et al., 2003) for human in developing
*Corresponding author E-mail: tafere_mulualem@yahoo.com.
countries. It provides essential amino acids (particularly
lysine) that are not present in sufficient quantities in
staple cereal corps (Giller, 2001). In Ethiopia, faba bean
is the leading protein source for the rural people and
used to make various traditional dishes (Senayit and
Asrat, 1994). Moreover, it provides large cash for
producers and foreign exchange for the country (Desta
Beyene, 1988).
Ethiopia is one of the largest faba bean producing
countries in the world only second to China
(Hebblethwaite et al., 1993). Faba bean is grown as field
crop throughout the highlands and is most common in
Wayina Dega between the altitudes 1800 m.a.s.l and
2400 m.a.s.l (Asfaw Telaye, 1985). Over 90% of the total
crop land is cultivated by small scale farmers using
traditional practices. Farmers select seeds for various
271 Wudpecker J. Agric. Res.
traits and purposes, and also exchange seeds through
traditional networks (PGRC, 1995). Therefore, Ethiopian
farmers have skill, knowledge and experience on crop
variety selection and conservation. The Amhara region
has the favorable climate and potential for faba bean
production.
Crop production did not keep pace with the population
growth in Ethiopia. Among the major factors attributed to
low crop production is the unavailability of better cultivars.
Crop production under varied agro-ecological conditions
of the country would require modern varieties that fit to
diverse ecologies. The existing breeding and seed
multiplication capacity does not fully meet the critical
constraints of varieties and seeds leading to stagnated
production and decline in per capita food availability
(PGRC, 1995).
Farmers as well as Seed Producer Cooperatives
(SPCs) are highly demanding better yielding varieties to
maximize their product, and improve the livelihood of
their families. Participatory Varietal Selection (PVS) has
been proposed as an option to the problem of fitting the
crop to a multitude of both target environments and
users preferences (Ceccarelli et al. 1996). It is worth
mentioning that although farmer participation is often
advocated on the basis of equity, there are sound
scientific and practical reasons for farmer involvement to
increase the efficiency and the effectiveness of a
breeding program (Ceccarelli and Grando, 2002).
The present investigation was conducted with the
objectives to evaluate and select faba bean varieties for
high yield and other agronomic traits through farmers
participation in decision making during the selection
process.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experimental Materials and Design
The experiment was conducted in farmers field in Wokinzuria
kebele of Dabat district during 2010 main cropping season. Dabat is
located at 12° 59' 3" N and 37° 45' 54" E in Amhara National
Regional State, North Gondar Zone. It receives an average annual
rainfall of about 1100mm.The average annual maximum and
minimum temperatures are 19.9°C and 8.58°C, respectively. The
major soil type is vertisol having water logging problems. Nine
released faba bean genotypes were obtained from Holleta
Agricultural Research Center and one local check was used for the
study (Table 1). The trial was laid down in randomized complete
block design with all three replication in one farmer field as for
grandmother trial.
Other three farmer fields were planted with one replication each
considered as mother trials. Grandmother and mother trial
approach is analogous with that of mother baby trial except the
options for the baby trials are increased with more number of
varieties. Each genotype was planted in four rows of 4m row length
with 0.4m spacing between rows. The distance between blocks and
plots was 1.5m and 0.6m, respectively. DAP fertilizer was applied at
the recommended rate of 100 kg/ha. The whole DAP was applied at
sowing. Sowing was done by hand drilling at the seed rate of 40
seeds per row or 160 seeds per plot.
Data Collected
Agronomic data were collected on plot and plant basis from the
grandmother trial. Hundred seed weight (g), plant height (cm),
number of nodes per plant, number of pods per node, and number
of pods per plant, were evaluated on five randomly taken plants
from the middle two rows in each plot. Biological yield (g) for each
plot and grain yield (g) of the middle two rows in each plot was
measured and converted to quintal per hectare for analysis.
Farmers evaluation and selection data were collected on plot basis
from the three mother trials i.e., farmers were grouped around each
host farmer of the trials.
Data Analysis
The researchers recorded agronomic data were subjected to the
analysis of variance (Gomez and Gomez, 1984) using Statistical
Analysis Software (SAS, 1999). Farmers selection data were
analyzed using simple ranking method in accordance with the given
value (De Boef and Thijssen, 2007). Simple ranking is a tool often
used to identify promising varieties based on farmers preferences.
The ranking procedure was explained for farmer participants and
then each selection criterion was ranked from 1 to 5 (5 = very good,
4 = good, 3 = average, 2 = poor and 1 = very poor) for each variety.
Ranking was done on consensus where differences are resolved
through discussion (De Boef and Thijssen, 2007).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Agronomic traits of grandmother trial
Agronomic traits i.e., plant height, plant height to the first
node, days to flowering, days to maturity, number of
nodes per plant, number of pods per node, number of
pods per plant diseases (chocolate spot), hundred seed
weight, grain yield, and biological yield were analyzed
(Table 3). The genotypes significantly (P < 0.05) varied
for plant height. Plant height ranged from 74.0 to 104.7
cm (Table 2). WAYU was the tallest genotype (104.7 cm)
followed by SELALE (100.3 cm) and WOLKI (95.9 cm).
The shortest variety was GEBELCHO (74.0 cm).
Highly significant differences (P < 0.01) were also
observed among genotypes for days to flowering, days to
maturity and hundred seed weight. The difference in days
to flowering among genotypes ranged from 55 days
(DEGAGA) to 63 days (GEBELCHO). SELALE (61 days)
and WAYU (60 days) were the second and third late
flowering genotype, respectively. Days to maturity ranged
from 138 days (CS20DK) to 143 days (GEBELCHO) with
the grand mean of 140 days (Table 2). Early maturing
genotypes complete their life cycle in relatively shorter
period. Thus, early maturing genotypes have the
advantage or adaptable over the late once in
environments where rain begins late and ends early.
Chocolate spot was the major faba bean disease
observed and genotypes had shown significant (p<0.05)
Mulualem et al. 272
Table 1. List of faba bean varieties tested.
No
Variety name
1 DEGAGA
2 MOTI
3 GEBELCHO
4 CS 20 DK
5 DOSHA
6 WOLKI
7 HOLETTA - 2
8 WAYU
9 SELALE
10 EH99051-3
Table 2. Mean values of different agronomic traits for grandmother trial.
Genotype
CS
DF
DM
GYD
NPP
PPN
PPP
PHT
HOLETTA-2 31.6ab 57cde 139c 5.7cd 56.7d 15.3b 1.8c 7.9bc 79.3cd
DOSHA 20.0c 58bcd 140bc 13.2b 75.6ab 16.6b 2.4bc 9.7bc 95.2abc
EH99051-3 30.0ab 57de 139c 9.7bcd 83.1a 17.4b 1.6c 6.9c 84.2bcd
CS20DK 33.3a 57de 139c 7.0cd 70.8abc 16.8b 1.7c 4.7c 76.1d
WOLKI 20.0c 59bcd 140bc 11.2bc 63.6bcd 15.5b 2.1c 8.9bc 95.9abc
SELALE 28.3ab 61ab 141ab 24.9a 53.0de 19.5ab 3.0ab 17.3a 100.3ab
GEBELCHO 28.3ab 63a 143a 4.5d 81.2a 15.9b 1.8c 4.9c 74.1d
DEGAGA 25.0bc 55e 140bc 8.0bcd 60.7cd 15.4b 1.9c 12.8ab 82.7cd
WAYU 20.0c 60abc 141ab 21.9a 42.3e 23.4a 3.3a 18.4a 104.7a
MOTI 25.0bc 58cde 139c 5.4d 74.8ab 16.7b 1.7c 4.4c 76.8d
Mean
26.17 57 140 11.1 66.2 17.2 2.1 9.6 86.9
LSD
(5%)
8.03 3.12 1.74 5.54 13.21 5.04 0.91 5.80 17.57
CV (%)
17.90 3.1 0.72 28.97 11.63 17.04 24.74 35.25 11.78
CS=Chocolate spot (%), DF=Days to flowering (days), DM=Days to maturity (days), GYD=Grain yield (qh.-1), HSW=Hundred seed weight (gm),
NPP=Nodes per plant (no.), PPN=Pods per node (no.) PPP=Pods per plant (no.) PHT=Plant height (cm), LSD=Least Significant Difference,
CV=Coefficient of Variation.
Table 3. Analysis of variance for agronomic traits of grandmother trials.
Sources of
variation
d.f.
Mean squares
DF
DM
NPP
PPN
PPP
PHT
CS
GYD
Replication 2 1.23 1.03 19.84 0.46 10.50 642.42 10.83 34.33 6.62
Genotype 9 14.74** 5.36** 18.61
NS
1.007* 76.970** 371.24* 74.17* 522.17** 148.54**
Error 18 3.307 1.033 8.64 0.284 11.438 104.91 21.94 59.31 10.43
NS=Non-Significant,*=Significant at 0.05 probability level, ** = Significant at 0.01 probability level df=degree of freedom, DF=Days to flowering,
DM=Days to maturity, NPP=Nodes per plant, PPN=Pod per plant, PPP=Pods per plant, PHT=Plant height, CS=Chocolate spot, HSW=Hundred seed
weight, GYD=Grain yield.
level of variation in resistance. DOSHA, WOLKI and
WAYU were less affected (20%) by chocolate spot while
the severity was high for CS20DK, HOLETTA-2 and
EH99051-3. The season had extended rainfall and was
favorable for chocolate spot development. Hanounik
(1979) and Dereje et al. (1994) reported prolonged
rainfall is conducive for chocolate spot development
leading to complete crop loss. However, the yield
performance of DOSHA, WOLKI and WAYU was better
than local varieties under the same conditions.
Significant variation (P < 0.05) was observed among
varieties in pod number per node. Higher pod number per
node was recorded for SELALE (3) and WAYU (3.3) and
the lowest was for EH99051-3 (1) and CS20DK (1).
Varieties also showed highly significant differences (P <
0.01) in grain yield performance (Table 3). Grain yield
ranged from 4.5 q ha-1 to 24.9 qha-1 with the grand mean
of 11.1 q ha-1. SELALE (25 q ha-1), WAYU (22 q ha-1) and
273 Wudpecker J. Agric. Res.
Table 4. Sum of scores at three farmer sites for each trait, overall mean value of each selection criterion and ranking of
genotypes.
Farmer's criteria
Variety PES OAP STS NOB SS Total Mean Rank
HOLETTA-2 9 8 8 10 13 48 9.6 6
DOSHA 14 12 12 15 15 68 13.6 1
EH99051-3 11 10 8 10 8 47 9.4 7
CS20DK 8 8 7 7 13 43 8.6 8
WOLKI 13 13 15 13 12 66 13.2 2
SELALE 11 12 15 12 7 57 11.4 4
GEBELCHO 8 7 10 8 10 43 8.6 8
DEGAGA 8 8 8 10 7 41 8.2 9
WAYU 12 12 15 12 12 63 12.6 3
MOTI 13 8 8 10 15 54 10.8 5
PES=Plant Establishment, OAP=Overall Performance, STS=Stem Strength, NoB=Number of Branches, SS=Seed Size; Rating
of the performance of variety for a given criteria: 5= very good, 4= good, 3= average, 2= poor and 1 = very poor.
DOSHA (13.2 q ha-1) were the top yielding while MOTI
(5.37 q ha-1) and GEBELCHO (4.5 q ha-1) were the lowest
yielding varieties. The most commonly used varieties in the
area were CS20DK and DEGAGA which produced low
yields of 7 and 8 q ha-1, respectively. Hence, the result
clearly showed that high yielding varieties such as
SELALE, WAYU, and DOSHA could be best substitutes
than CS20DK and DEGAGA and can be introduced in
seed production and distribution.
Farmers variety evaluation and criteria
Selection was carried out at four different growth stages
by organizing a field day at each stage i.e. at vegetative,
flowering, physiological maturity, and harvesting.
Farmers selection criteria were plant establishment
(PES), stem strength (STS), number of branches (NOB),
overall performance (OAP) and seed size (SS). The
evaluations mean score value for each genotype ranged
from 5.6 to 9.2 (Table 4). DOSHA (9.2) scored the highest
value and the lowest was scored by DEGAGA (5.6). WOLKI
(9.0) and WAYU (8.4) were ranked second and third best
varieties by farmers, respectively. Both women and men
were participated in the selection process.
Every farmers group, comprising women and men,
made discussion during selection. The results obtained
from farmers evaluation in the three mother trials are
presented in Table 4. However, different varieties were
selected by farmers at different vegetative stages of the
plant due to their performances in the field at selection
time or stage. However, including post harvest criteria,
best varieties namely DOSHA, WOLKI and WAYU were
selected as top ranking in all groups as final selections or
adapted varieties. The same varieties had better
performance and found to be promising from the analysis
of researchers collected data. The study showed that
participatory approaches played a significance role which
is equivalent with conventional plant breeding (http://
siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2008/Resources/W
DR_00_book.pdf).
According to Joshi et al., (2001) varieties developed for
specific niches may be capable of spreading to other
distant and different environments; in many cases they
are unlikely to spread as readily as varieties that have
specifically been developed to have wide adaptation. The
present study also demonstrated this.
Farmers and the researcher used different parameters
and methods to evaluate the tested genotypes. It is
obvious that farmers have demonstrated the ability to
select well-adapted and preferred varieties under their
circumstances using their own criteria. A range of
improved varieties should be available for selection under
their participation. Researchers must consider farmers
selection traits in their varietal development such as seed
yield, seed size and overall field performance. Generally,
the variety should have high yield potential, tolerance to
biotic and abiotic stresses and have good marketability
and consumer preferences.
Conclusion
Participatory varietal selection is the selection by which
farmers evaluate finished or near-finished products from
plant breeding programs on their own farms. Once
identified, the seed of farmer-preferred cultivars needs to
be rapidly multiplied and cost-effectively supplied to
farmers. SELALE, WAYU, DOSHA, and WOLKI gave the
highest grain yield and showed better performance in
other agronomic traits than a local check (CS20DK) in the
present study. Thus, these varieties are found to be well
adapted to Dabat conditions among the ten tested
varieties in both the researchers and farmers selection
criteria.
Farmers exposure to evaluate and select new varieties is
an advantage to exploit their potential knowledge of
identifying adapted varieties that best meets their interest
which further helps to include such selections in their
varietal portfolio for seed production. The interaction of
researchers and farmers will also help to design research
objectives to overcome rejection of varieties developed
by researchers alone, enhances the acceptance of
varieties and reduces costs associated with variety
development. Most farmers also recognized well that
improved cultivars will perform better if accompanied by
recommended cultural practices.
The current selection process also demonstrated that
farmers were capable of selecting important traits for
grain yield (yield components) and based on those traits
demonstrated to identify superior varieties adapted to
their locality. Generally, PVS was effective and reliable
for identifying appropriate cultivars through partnership
with resource-poor farmers.
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... Understanding farmers' preferences for crop attributes and their incentives to grow diverse varieties are critical to the success of on-farm conservation (di Falco et al. 2010). Many farmers still depend on a few varieties and mostly prefer to grow their own varieties due to its better selling price locally, environmental adaptability (resistance to drought, poor soil and frost occurrences), cooking quality, better suit with their production system, and yield stability of the variety despite occurrences of disease and pest problems (Tafere et al. 2012). ...
... Although, there are several improved faba bean varieties released by research centres, many farmers still grow their own varieties. This may be due to its better selling price locally, lack of improved varieties, environmental adaptability (resistance to drought, poor soil and frost occurrences), cooking quality, better suit with their production system, and yield stability of the variety despite occurrences of disease and pest problems (Tafere et al., 2012). ...
... The low yield of these varieties might be due to the inherent genetic variation (Sharifi, 2015) and shortage of moisture during 2018 growing seasons. In line with this result, Tafere et al. (2012) reported that grain yield of ten faba bean varieties ranged from 450 to 2490 kg ha -1 in which Selale (2500 kg ha -1 ), Wayu (2200 kg ha -1 ) and Dosha (1320 kg ha -1 ) were the top yielding while Moti (537 kg ha -1 ) and Gebelcho (450 kg ha -1 ) were the lowest yielding varieties. ...
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Frost is a major abiotic stress of winter type faba beans (Vica faba L.) and has adverse effects on crop yield. Climate change, far from reducing the incidence of frost events, is making these phenomena more and more common, severe, and prolonged. Despite the important interaction that the environment has in the tolerance of faba bean to frost, this trait seems to have good levels of heritability. Several QTLs for frost tolerance have already been reported, however, a more robust identification is needed to more precisely identify the genomic regions involved in faba bean tolerance to sub-zero temperatures. Several pea (Pisum sativum L.) and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula L.) frost tolerance QTLs appear to be conserved between these two species, furthering the hypothesis that the genetic control of frost tolerance in legume species might be more generally conserved. In this work, the QTL mapping in two faba bean recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations connected by a common winter-type parent has led to the identification of five genomic regions involved in the control of frost tolerance on linkage groups I, III, IV, and V. Among them, a major and robust QTL of great interest for marker-assisted selection was identified on the lower part of the long-arm of LGI. The synteny between the faba bean frost tolerance QTLs and those previously identified in other legume species such as barrel medic, pea or soybean highlighted at least partial conservation of the genetic control of frost tolerance among different faba bean genetic pools and legume species. Four novel RILs showing high and stable levels of tolerance and the ability to recover from freezing temperatures by accumulating frost tolerance QTLs are now available for breeding programs.
... In addition, Hibist, local variety and local variety with farmer practice have been selected as the promising varieties by scoring 27, 24 and 35 values respectively at Agro Bali : Agricultural Journal e- ISSN 2655-853X Vol. 4 No. 2: 145-158, July 2021 Meket district (Table 8). In line to this finding (Wondimu, 2016) and (Tafere et al., 2012) stated that the lower value score the 1 st ranked variety by farmers selection. Generally, the result of farmers' preference analysis showed that farmers were ranking the accredited preference criteria pair-wisely and then considered the rank as weight. ...
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The study was basically focused on demonstration of bread wheat technologies for wider demand-driven technology diffusion in major wheat growing area in high land of eastern Amhara. The objectives were in order to evaluate and demonstrate improved bread wheat variety with their production package to the farming community and assess farmers and extension workers reaction towards improved bread wheat technology. The activity was conducted in main season 2019/2020 at Jama and Meket districts. The fact that wheat production and productivity in the region as well as in the particular study area low because farmers are using low yielding, disease and pest resistant local varieties. The improved bread wheat variety was demonstrated along with the local variety at 12 farmers' fields. Yield data, economic data, farmers’ perception and preferences were collected throughout the demonstration stages and data were analyzed by using ANOVA, partial budget analysis and preference ranking. The results of ANOVA showed that yield and yield related parameters statistically significant at the probability level of 0.01% and 0.05% among treatments. The highest mean yield was recorded from "Hibist" with improved management 2.49 ton/ha and 1.42 ton/ha at Jama and Meket districts respectively followed by local with improved management and the lowest was from local with farmers practices. Furthermore, the result of partial budget analysis show that the use of improved and local variety with recommended package more profitable with the MRR of 1.96 and 0.81 than farmer practices at Jama district and 74.26 and 9.26 at Meket district respectively. Farmer preference analysis improved & local variety with improved management ranks 1st and 2nd at Jama respectively while reverse at Meket and lastly ranks farmer practices at both districts. Generally, improved bread wheat with recommended package has higher yield advantage, financial feasibility and social acceptance than control and farmer practices, it is recommended to be scale out for further dissemination.
... They understand also as an opportunity to large number of improved faba bean varietal choices on their own resources and enhance all farmers' access to crop varieties and increase variety diversity. Besides, it allows varietal selection in targeted areas at cost-effective and also in less time, which helps for easy adoption and dissemination of released varieties in larger areas [6][7][8]. It is also a selection process of testing released or promising genotypes in farmer's field, includes research and extension methods to deploy genetic materials at on-farm experiment [8]. ...
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... It also p plays a significant role for Ethiopian farmers as a source of food, feed and cash crop [11]. It also plays a great role as cash crop, important sources of dietary protein and they correct important amino acid deficiencies and also improves soil fertility [2] It is the most important cool-season food legume in Ethiopia in terms of coverage, production, foreign exchange earnings, protein source, soil amelioration and cropping system [27]. ...
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The depth of sowing is important in maximizing the potential of seedling emergence and crop growth. Too shallow sowing results in poor germination due to inadequate soil moisture at the top soil layer. On the other hand, deep sowing can also significantly reduce crop emergence and growth. It would create the emergence seedling had less performance and productive which means when it is too deep is not able lift its cotyledon above the soil, soil born diseases and insects have damage their seedling. These factors limit the crop yield potential right from the starting of the growing. An important objective of seeding for improved crop performance is putting seeds at a desired depth. Seeds should be sown at a depth that increases the likelihood of germination, emergence and improved growth. Thus, this study examined the effect of different sowing depths on germination and growth faba bean (Gorra variety) at Fitche, central Ethiopia. A randomized complete block design arrangement with three replications was used for the experiment. The treatments consisted of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm sowing depths. Analysis of variance showed significant effect of depth of sowing on Gorra faba bean variety germination and growth. Sowing at a depth of 8 cm showed better germination percentage, fast emergence and produced the tallest plant having the highest number of leaves per plant. 12 cm sowing depth (i.e. the deepest sowing depth) showed poor germination percentage (65.7%), late emergence (7 days) and gave the shortest plant (13.53 cm) with the lowest number of leaves per plant (21). Therefore, better germination, emergence and improved growth, Gorra faba bean variety should be sown at a depth of 8 cm.
... To circumvent these problems and to achieve better results, responsive adaptive research trials should be established with actively participating farmers under full guidance of extension workers (Ogwal-Kasimiro et al., 2012). In fact, farmers' participation in technology development is costeffective way of identifying farmer-preferred technology and then to ensure the adoption (Tafere et al., 2012). In order to resolve paradoxes in the extension system, the scale wide on-farm evaluation was launched comprising improved faba bean technology in one side and the local cultivar with local practice in the other side. ...
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This scale-wide participatory evaluation was designed to assess farmers' technology preference and stakeholders' linkage on top of estimating the advantage and efficiency of improved faba bean technology over the local practice. On-farm experiment and assessment were conducted using 100 farmers who allocate 0.25-0.5ha of land in Wag-lasta dryland. Planting and other agronomic standards were applied as per the technological recommendation. Required quantitative and qualitative data collected at farm and farmer level using quadrants and checklist, respectively. Cost-benefit analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyse the quantitative data. Qualitative data such as farmers' technology preference and stakeholders' linkage were assessed in simple ranking matrix and SWOT analysis. The improved faba bean technology provided mean grain yields of 1340 and 590 kg ha-1 in Lasta and Sekota districts, respectively. It has thus a 31.4% and 38.9% yield advantage and penalty over the local practice, in that order (p<10%). The improved technology had a profit of 5.3ETB in Lasta, and below the local practice in Sekota district for each 1ETB investment. Among parameters, improved technology's vegetative performance, seed size and yield were convinced farmers in Lasta district. Therefore, results from the improved technology in both districts would provide lesson for future breeding and adaptation programs to apprehend the desired traits and yield-limiting dynamics accordingly. The SWOT analysis also revealed that some strategies are pertinent to strength actors' linkage in extension system via using strengths and opportunities to overcome weaknesses and threats.
Chapter
Grain legumes encompass species of great food importance, worldwide. The sustainable intensification of these crops demands the optimization of various agronomic practices and inputs, being the “variety” and “seed” components, as two of the most crucial factors affecting productivity in legume-based systems. Unfortunately, the level of adoption of improved varieties and the use of quality seeds are still limited by the most of small farmers from developing countries. Participatory Breeding (PB) is a strategic and integrative approach that has provided hundreds adapted varieties of minor legumes in countries lacking robust seed systems. On the other hand, the participatory variety selection (PVS) is a variant that contributes to the faster adoption of novel legume varieties obtained from conventional programs. The objective of this chapter is to review some general aspects behind these successful approaches and how they could contribute to legume intensification. Indeed, the number of varieties generated and adopted through participatory approaches, although difficult to quantify in numbers, could overcome much limitations of those released by conventional programs, investing less time and valuable resources. At the light of the current climate change challenges, PB and PVS, could have a greater impact on productivity if they are connected to an efficient seed supply system at local level, like Community Seed Banks (CSBs). We hypothesize that the integration of these three strategies will increase productivity, resilience and assure a better exploitation of legumes with positive implications for food security in low-income farm systems.
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Ethiopia is considered as the secondary centre of faba bean diversity. However, the extent of its diversity at present time is not well known in the eastern Hararghe Zone. Therefore, survey study was conducted from December 2018 to March 2019 to identify patterns of on-farm diversity of faba bean farmers’ varieties and their use; and to assess production attributes, constraints, and role of gender in the production and management of faba bean farmers’ varieties in eastern Hararghe Zone. Two stratified agro-ecological zones (Tepid moist mid-highland, M3 and Tepid sub-humid mid-highland, SH3) were selected from the zone. Three Kebeles from each agroecologies were randomly selected. From each Kebele, 12 general informants and two key informants based on their gender and wealth status were selected, making a total of 72 general and 12 key informants, a total of 84 informants. Structured and semi-structured questionnaires were used for the general and key informants, respectively. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics using R (version 3.5.2) software. Eight farmers’ varieties of faba bean were identified. Highest varietal diversity (Hꞌ = 1.35) was recorded at Gara Abdula kebele of M3 while the lowest diversity value (Hꞌ = 0.81) was at Obi Kutir 1 kebele of SH3. Variety Safisa was reported for its highest market price (32.8 ETB kg ⁻¹ ) and variety Dabale was the highest yielder (1900 kg ha ⁻¹ ). Most farmers (94%) use traditional seeds and 72% of farmers grow faba bean on < 0.125 ha land area. Baqela Faranji was the widely (33%) cultivated variety. Diseases (100%), weeds (89%) and land shortage (85%) were the main faba bean production constraints. Roles of male adult and female adult family members take the upper hand in all faba bean production and post-harvest management activities. In conclusion, expansion of chat crop and shortage of land are the major reasons for low faba bean diversity.
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This book reviews "participatory" or "collaborative" plant breeding and presents case studies. It also addresses three key issues: (1) what is the nature of plant breeding knowledge, in theory and practice?; (2) in what ways are farmers' and plant breeders' knowledge similar or different?; and (3) what are the implications for successful plant breeding initiatives? The purpose of this book is to examine the nature of and relationship between the knowledge of farmers and of scientists, and how these can be best integrated in plant breeding. In the past, farmers' knowledge of local biodiversity has often been underutilized, but currently there is an increased recognition of the importance of farmer participation or collaboration. It is divided into two sections, farmer plant breeders and collaboration (5 chapters) and scientific plant breeders and collaboration (6 papers).
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Farmers in stressful environments have benefitted little from the spectacular yield increases obtained by formal (or institutional) breeding programs based in environments which are naturally favorable or can be profitably made favorable by using inputs. Interactions between genotype and environment (GxE) are one of the main reasons for the failure of formal breeding to serve small, resource-poor farmers. Formal breeding has frequently adopted a negative interpretation of GxE interactions by selecting for broad adaptation and replacing locally adapted landraces with input responsive cultivars ill adapted to low input and stress conditions. By contrast, a positive interpretation of GxE interactions implies the exploitation of specific adaptation by direct selection in the target environment. To exploit specific adaptation international breeding programs need to decentralize breeding activities and encourage national programs to use their locally adapted germplasm. A second vital step is to obtain farmers' participation in selection so as to take full advantage of their indigenous and specialized knowledge of the crop and the environment. Farmers' participation in selection under their own environmental and agronomic conditions will not only benefit the selection process but will also speed up the transfer and adoption of new varieties without the involvement of complex, bureaucratic and often inefficient mechanisms of variety release, seed certification and production, and extension activities. Such mechanisms, commonly introduced from industrialized countries along with the breeding methodologies and philosophies of formal breeding programs, are not used by most resource-poor farmers as their main supply of seed. Most of the seed and information used by these farmers is either generated on the farm, or acquired from neighbors or purchased from local markets. Informal sources of seed and information must be fully understood and exploited if resource-poor farmers are to benefit from formal plant breeding.
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Outline to the guide Within our training programmes on local management of agrobiodiversity, participatory crop improvement and the support of local seed supply participatory tools get ample attention. Tools are dealt with theoretically, are practised in class situations, but are also applied in field study assignments. The objectives of practising participatory tools in training on local agrobiodiversity management and related to that the objectives of this guide are many. However, the current guide book has the following key objective being to provide professionals working in a genetic resources management, crop improvement and seed sector development context a kit with a diversity of tools developed for participatory learning and action that have been adapted to their specific context. In addition to this main goal, we aim to enhance those professionals’ creativity and flexibility in conducting group oriented, participatory learning and action types of diagnosis, research planning and implementation, and monitoring and evaluation with agrobiodiversity, plant breeding and seed projects. We used the handbook as developed by Frans Geilfus , which covers 80 tools for participatory development as an important base for this tools guide. A selection of tools from Geilfus and others have been adapted in a series of participatory instruments that can support agrobiodiversity management, crop improvement and seed sector development. The structure is basically derived from this book. The examples and selection of tools have been inspired on actual experiences during courses on participatory crop improvement, seed sector development, and local management of agrobiodiversity as organised by Wageningen International over the last 10 years. Some other tools are derived form other sources. The tools have been tested in local projects in various countries in South America (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela), West Africa (Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon and Côte d’Ivoire), Ethiopia, Nepal and India. The guide has been designed is such a way that it is easy to use as a reference in the field. The sequence of the tools is similar to that often used in participatory analysis, starting with general tools, moving to tools providing more details on specific topics, and going up to more analytical tools that can be applied with communities, but also can assist the facilitation team in analysing (after the diagnosis) the information gathered. However, which tools to apply, what type with whom, in what sequence, depends very much on the setting and the objectives of the exercise. Please, consider this no recipe book, but rather a kit with tools you can or may use. We consider the guide an inspiration to encourage you in adapting, merging and thereby designing your own tools.
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Acceptable rice varieties for high-altitude areas of Nepal were bred by participatory plant breeding (PPB). One of the most adopted varieties, Machhapuchhre-3 (M-3), performed much better in the formal trials system than the products from centralised breeding and was released in 1996. From 1996 to 1999, the spread of M-3 was monitored in high-altitude villages along with unreleased variety Machhapuchhre-9 (M-9), derived from the same cross. The study was done by interviewing individual households, groups, and field verification. Both M-3 and M-9 spread from farmer-to-farmer and through interventions by Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) and Government Organisations (GOs). Their adoption had steadily increased and their spread commenced five to six years earlier than would have been the case in a conventional system. The PPB programme was decentralised – all selection was in only two villages in the same valley – but this did not result in specific adaptation. The varieties were adopted in distant villages situated at much lower altitudes to the original PPB sites and the greatest yield advantage of the varieties over the local landraces was also at these lower altitudes.
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Food legumes are extensively grown in Ethiopia and constitute a major part of the diet of rural and urban populations. In Ethiopia, research on grain legumes has concentrated mainly on improving yields through selection, breeding, and the use of improved agronomic practices. In this paper, past work on the biological nitrogen fixation of grain legumes is reviewed and the need for further, intensive research stressed. Particular emphasis is placed on the introduction of effective Rhizobium strains into productive crop systems.
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Faba beans are adversely affected by numerous fungal diseases leading to a steady reduction in the cultivated area in many countries. Major diseases such as Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta fabae), rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae), chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae), downy mildew (Peornospora viciae) and foot rots (Fusarium spp.) are considered to be the major constraints to the crop. Importantly, broomrape (Orobanche crenata), a very aggressive parasitic angiosperm, is the most damaging and widespread enemy along the Mediterranean basin and Northern Africa. Recent mapping studies have allowed the identification of genes and QTLs controlling resistance to some of these diseases. In case of broomrape, 3 QTLs explained more than 70% of the phenotypic variance of the trait. Concerning Ascochyta, two QTLs located in chromosomes 2 and 3 explained 45% of variation. A second population sharing the susceptible parental line also revealed two QTLs, one of them likely sharing chromosomal location and jointly contributing with a similar percentage of the total phenotypic variance. Finally, several RAPD markers linked to a gene determining hypersensitive resistance to race 1 of the rust fungus U. viciae-fabae have also been reported. The aim of this paper is to review the state of the art of gene technology for genetic improvement of faba bean against several important biotic stresses. Special emphasis is given on the application of marker technology, and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis for Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in the species. Finally, the potential use of genomic tools to facilitate breeding in the species is discussed. The combined approach should expedite the future development of lines and cultivars with multiple disease resistance, one of the top priorities in faba bean research programs.
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In this study, some chemical and physical properties of faba bean (Vicia faba L. Var. major) grown up in Antalya region have been determined. Chemical properties such as dry matter, total energy, crude protein, crude cellulose, crude oil, mineral elements––Ca, P, K, Na, S, Al, Ba––and physical properties such as dimensions, weight, thickness, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, bulk density, volume, porosity, projected area, 1000 grain mass, terminal velocity and the rupture strength of grains involved in the study.The total energy, crude protein, crude cellulose and crude oil contents (as percentage in dry matter) of faba bean are found as 18.87 MJ/kg, 29.63%, 6.39% and 1.06% respectively, and all elements determined in the research are listed in the text. The values of length, width, thickness, weight, geometric mean diameter and sphericity of faba bean are determined as 20.39, 14.54, 7.86 mm, 1.31 g, 13.25 mm and 0.651 for 10.90% moisture content, respectively. In the some moisture content, projected area, volume, 1000 grain mass, bulk density, kernel density, porosity and terminal velocity were measured as 2.79 cm2, 1210 mm3, 1349.34 g, 608.17 kg/m3, 1248 kg/m3, 51.48%, 4.94 m/s respectively. In addition, the rupture strength values of faba bean grains were varied between 310.83 and 542.38 N.
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The second edition of this book, first published in 1991 and intended for students and researchers, contains revised and updated material on the theory and practice of nitrogen fixation in tropical cropping systems. There are 15 chapters in 3 parts. Part I, Introduction, contains 5 chapters on tropical environments (climate, soils and cropping systems), nitrogen fixing organisms, the process of nitrogen fixation, assessment of the role of nitrogen fixation, and cycling of nitrogen in tropical cropping systems. Part II, Tropical crops and cropping systems, comprises 7 chapters on freeliving, root-associated and endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria of cereal crops and grasses, cyanobacteria and Azolla as green manure for wetland rice, grain legumes, legumes as green manures and cover crops, forage legumes, understorey legumes and shade trees in plantation crops, and nitrogen fixing trees in agroforestry. Part III, optimizing nitrogen fixation, includes 3 chapters on environmental constraints, approaches to enhancement, and future impacts on nitrogen fixation in tropical agriculture. A list of common names and subject index are included.