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International Journal of Research Automatic Signal and Alarming System To Avoid Engine Overheating

Authors:
  • Hexagon Purus

Abstract and Figures

Modern technology is largely depends on automation and control system. Automation and control system refers the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft, automobile and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. The greatest advantage of automation and control system is that it saves labor. However, it is also used to save energy and materials and to improve quality, accuracy and precision. Because of these advantages, nowadays automation and control system is using in every sector. Automobile sector is not out of it. The aim of this project is to design and to develop such type of automatic control system for an engine which will aid in protecting the engine from overheating by means of alarm and signal through a temperature sensor. This signal and alarming system mainly consists of temperature sensor circuit, micro-controller and LCD. The temperature sensor is fixed to the engine, and operating temperature is measured by this. This produces the alarm and signal when the engine temperature exceeds the set temperature limit. LCD continuously shows the operating temperature of engine.
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International Journal of Research
Available at https://edupediapublications.org/journals
p-ISSN: 2348-6848
e-ISSN: 2348-795X
Volume 03 Issue 13
September 2016
Available online: http://internationaljournalofresearch.org/ P a g e | 962
Automatic Signal and Alarming System
To Avoid Engine Overheating
Md.Sourove akther Momin1*, Mr. Md. Golam Kader2, Pratik
Roy3,Md.Sahid Hasan4, Md. Mufrid Zuhane5
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology,
Khulna-9203, BANGLADESH
E-mail:sur.sor269@gmail.com
Abstract:
Modern technology is largely depends on automation
and control system. Automation and control system
refers the use of various control systems for
operating equipment such as machinery, processes in
factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching
on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of
ships, aircraft, automobile and other applications
with minimal or reduced human intervention. The
greatest advantage of automation and control system
is that it saves labor. However, it is also used to save
energy and materials and to improve quality,
accuracy and precision. Because of these
advantages, nowadays automation and control
system is using in every sector. Automobile sector is
not out of it. The aim of this project is to design and
to develop such type of automatic control system for
an engine which will aid in protecting the engine
from over-heating by means of alarm and signal
through a temperature sensor. This signal and
alarming system mainly consists of temperature
sensor circuit, micro-controller and LCD. The
temperature sensor is fixed to the engine, and
operating temperature is measured by this. This
produces the alarm and signal when the engine
temperature exceeds the set temperature limit. LCD
continuously shows the operating temperature of
engine.
Keywords: Automation; Control; Overheating;
Automobile
1.Introduction
Generally, normally engines are designed to
operate within a normal temperature range. For the
proper emissions control, good fuel economy and
performance a relatively constant operating
temperature is very essential. But problems can arise
when the engine run hotter than normal that
resulting in engine overheating. Engine overheating
is mainly caused by loss of coolant due to leaks in
the cooling system. Other causes include a loose or
broken fan belt, a defective water pump, clogged
water jackets or radiator tubes, blocked radiator
airflow, a defective radiator hose and a defective
thermostat or fan clutch[1]. Also, late ignition or
valve timing, lack of engine oil, overloading the
engine or high speed, high-altitude or hot-climate
operation can cause engine overheating[4]. Freezing
of the coolant could cause lack of the coolant
circulation so that local hot spots and boiling
develop. If a faulty TCS (Transmission-Controlled
Spark) system prevents vacuum advance in any gear,
or if the distributor vacuum advance is defective,
overheating may result. Idling and slow-moving
traffic can also cause the engine to overheat when
combined with other problems[2]. If the engine is
overheated for one of those problems, it may start to
detonate. Then, engine may rattle and ping and lose
power. If detonation occurs continuously, it may
damage the rings, pistons and rod bearings.
Overheating may cause piston scuffing. Engine
overheating can cause an overhead cam to seize and
break. Engine overheating may stress old radiator
and heater hoses and cause them to burst under the
additional pressure[5]. So, it is necessary to take
some steps to avoid engine overheating. For these
automatic signal and alarming system will be helpful.
The system will alert driver by signal before
overheating. It is known that overheating
temperature is greater than 84C for air-cooled
engine and is greater than 70C for water-cooled
engine. So, this system works just before those
temperatures (i.e.83C & 69C respectively).The
design temperature of some engines is 90C to
104C; the temperature parameter can also be set in
this system[6]. The automatic overheating signal and
alarming system is designed to made awareness and
to take proper action and repair.The working
principle in this system is controlled by micro-
controller. Temperature sensor provides input; LCD,
buzzer and LED provide output. Micro-controllers
are often used in automobile industries, because they
are generally used to control a single process and
execute simple instructions[3]. Micro-controllers do
not require significant processing power.
2. Methodology
A temperature sensor is used which can
sense the temperature and read the temperature and
send it to the control board. Control board will be
International Journal of Research
Available at https://edupediapublications.org/journals
p-ISSN: 2348-6848
e-ISSN: 2348-795X
Volume 03 Issue 13
September 2016
Available online: http://internationaljournalofresearch.org/ P a g e | 963
programmed with a microcontroller which will sound
the buzzer alarm and control LED according to the
temperature reading. Microcontroller is used to
control the overall system automatically that reduces
the design and control complexity. At first,
temperature sensor is sensed temperature from the
engine and sent it to the microcontroller. The
microcontroller is programmed and temperature is
shown in LCD. If the temperature is greater than 69
and less than 80 then LED start blinking and buzzer
on/off, LCD display show the temperature. If the
condition fails, then the temperature is again
checked. If the temperature is greater than 79 then
continuous sounds arises and LED switches on and is
shown in LCD. Temperature will be shown in this
system continuously.
Start
Temperature
Input
Temperature Sensor
Microcontroller Controller Unit
Is temp>69 and
temp<80?
Is temp>79 ?
Continuous Sound and LED
on
LCD display to show the
temperature
LED blinking and
Buzzer on/off
Yes
No
Yes
No
Figure 1. Flow chart for the project
Temperature
From Engine Microcontroller LCD Display
Buzzer
Figure 2. Block diagram of the project
3. Components
The components of the system are as
follows:
At mega 8 Microcontroller
Temperature Sensor
LCD Display
Resistors
Variable Resistor
Light Emitting Diode(LED)
Buzzer
MOSFET
Power Supply
4.Circuit Diagrum
The circuit is connected to a 6 volt DC power
supply. Pin 2,3,4,6,11,12,13 of micro-controller AT
mega 8 is connected with LCD via variable resistor.
In temperature sensor pin 1, 2 and 3 are GND, DQ
and VCC respectively. Pin 14 of micro-controller is
directly connected with pin 2 DQ of temperature
sensor. In temperature sensor pin 3 VCC is
connected to the pin 2 DQ via 4.7k resistor and pin 1
is ground. Pin 15 and 16 of micro-controller is
connected to the buzzer and LED respectively. When
temperature is greater than 69, buzzer and LED at
flip-flop stage i.e. LED blinking and buzzer on-off
(Figure 3). When temperature is greater than 79
buzzer and LED continuously on stage (Figure
4).Here any temperature can be set. Outside that
condition the system is continuously show operating
temperature of engine (Figure 5).
Figure 3. Circuit diagram when LED and Buzzer off
Figure 4. Circuit diagram when LED and Buzzer on
flip-flop state
International Journal of Research
Available at https://edupediapublications.org/journals
p-ISSN: 2348-6848
e-ISSN: 2348-795X
Volume 03 Issue 13
September 2016
Available online: http://internationaljournalofresearch.org/ P a g e | 964
Figure 5. Circuit diagram when LED and Buzzer
continuously on
5.Hardware Development and
Construction
At first the suitable programs are developed and
then the programs are simulated by using Proteus
software to check whether the programs were valid
or not. Validation and correction of the simulation is
really necessary. Then the programs are loaded into
the ATmega8 microcontroller by using AVR
software. Then the circuit board is made along with
the microcontroller. The circuit is checked by using
LED lights whether it works perfectly or not. After
accomplishing the hardware it is associated with the
temperature sensor. As it is a demo project and
replicate the alternator by giving power to the system
from a direct source. Now temperature sensor is
connected to the engine from the circuit board. Then
the system is given operating temperature of the
engine and overheating alarm and signal when the
engine temperature exceeds the set temperature limit.
6.Performane Test & Discussion
After design and construction the system
was tested whether all the connection and whole
circuit was working properly or not. The system was
assembled with breadboard. To ensure the proper
functioning of the components Digital millimeters
(DMM) was used.
Figure 6. Testing system
Safety has always been the utmost priority
of all for any invention. During the operation of
internal combustion engine, different abnormality
may rise which can damage the system. One of the
most important facts of them is overheating. In
conventional system, this unwanted abnormality can
be identified by analog procedure i.e. RTD
(Resistance Thermometer Detection). For automobile
engines and various types of other engines, it’s not
possible for the operators to keep this analog system
under observation most of the time of a day. The
dashboard on which the operations take place may
get damaged after an uncertain period of time if not
kept under observation, which may result in
overheating. In this project, programs have been
developed to keep the engines safe from this
overheating. After that, these programs have been
implemented in the circuit built for this particular
project. The circuit has been made on breadboard, so
sometimes loose connection might be occurred. This
problem can be overcome by using PBC board.
Finally, a demo project of engine overheat detection
system has been completed. In figure 7 and figure 9
temperature sensor sets to the air cool petrol and
diesel engine. But in figure 8 it represents that when
the engine near to the overheated temperature the
LED Blinking but buzzer on-off. The figure 10
represents that when the temperature is very close to
the engine overheating temperature the LED light
biking more sharply and buzzer on-off more loudly.
In figure 11 represents that when the temperature is
more than the engine overheating temperature the
LED light biking continuously and buzzer on and
loudly.
International Journal of Research
Available at https://edupediapublications.org/journals
p-ISSN: 2348-6848
e-ISSN: 2348-795X
Volume 03 Issue 13
September 2016
Available online: http://internationaljournalofresearch.org/ P a g e | 965
Figure 7. Temperature Sensor Set in the Air-Cooled
Diesel Engine
Figure 8. LED Blinking and buzzer on-off
Figure 9. Temperature Sensor Set in the Air-Cooled
Petrol Engine
Figure 10. Temperature Sensor Set in the Air-Cooled
Petrol Engine
Figure 11. LED and buzzer continuously on and loudly
7. Conclusion
The automatic signal and alarming system
to avoid engine overheating has been successfully
designed and developed. Compared to other
conventional methods, this system shows excellent
performance with its reliable digital technology and
it is cheaper and durable. The automatic overheat
alarm and signal system is a promising system in
terms of engine temperature response in the sensor,
micro-controller and LCD. Thus the automatic signal
and alarming system for overheating is a big boon as
concerned with the automobile engine, aviation
engine, generator, power plant, nuclear power plant
and industrial applications. It increases engine-life
and saves economical expenses. Based on the survey
result, it is seen that the signal and alarming system
has a rising demand and it is a good asset from the
electronics perspective
8.References
[1] W. H. Crouse, and D. L. Anglin, ”Automotive
Mechanics”, (Tenth Edition); Tata Macgraw-Hill
publishing company limited.
International Journal of Research
Available at https://edupediapublications.org/journals
p-ISSN: 2348-6848
e-ISSN: 2348-795X
Volume 03 Issue 13
September 2016
Available online: http://internationaljournalofresearch.org/ P a g e | 966
[2] R. S. Khurmi, and J. K. Gupta, ”A Text Book Of
Thermal Engineering(S.I. Unit)”, First Edition(Reprint-
2003); S.Chand & Company Ltd. New Delhi.
[3] M. A. Laughton CEng., FIEE D. J. Warne CEng.,
FIEE, “Electrical Engineer's Reference Book”, Sixteenth
edition, Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd.
[4] Edward F. Obert, “ Internal Combustion Engines” ,
Third edition, international Textbook Company,Scranton,
Pennsylvania.
[5] V.P. VASHANDANI,D.S.KUMAR, HEAT
ENGINEERING”,Fourth edition,Metroplitan Book Co
.Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi,India
[6] Prof. Dr.Md. Syed Ali Mollah, “FUNDAMENTALS
OF MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING& IC ENGINE
MAINTANENCE”, First Edition
... In [16] have designed and developed alarming system to avoid engine over heat. The aim of this research is to develop such an automatic control system for an engine that will help protect the engine against overheating by means of a temperature sensor alarm and signal. ...
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Electrical Engineer's Reference Book
  • M A Laughton Ceng
  • Fiee D. J. Warne Ceng
  • Fiee
M. A. Laughton CEng., FIEE D. J. Warne CEng., FIEE, "Electrical Engineer's Reference Book", Sixteenth edition, Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd.
A Text Book Of Thermal Engineering(S.I. Unit)
  • R S Khurmi
  • J K Gupta
R. S. Khurmi, and J. K. Gupta, "A Text Book Of Thermal Engineering(S.I. Unit)", First Edition(Reprint-2003);
Automotive Mechanics
  • W H Crouse
  • D L Anglin
W. H. Crouse, and D. L. Anglin, " Automotive Mechanics ", (Tenth Edition); Tata Macgraw-Hill publishing company limited.
FUNDAMENTALS OF MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING& IC ENGINE MAINTANENCE
  • Prof
  • Dr
  • Md
Prof. Dr.Md. Syed Ali Mollah, "FUNDAMENTALS OF MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING& IC ENGINE MAINTANENCE", First Edition