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Abstract

This paper introduces human energy harvesting medium access control (MAC) protocol (HEH-BMAC), a hybrid polling MAC suitable for wireless body area networks powered by human energy harvesting. The proposed protocol combines two different medium access methods, namely polling (ID-polling) and probabilistic contention access, to adapt its operation to the different energy and state (active/inactive) changes that the network nodes may experience due to their random nature and the time variation of the energy harvesting sources. HEH-BMAC exploits the packet inter-arrival time and the energy harvesting rate information of each node to implement an efficient access scheme with different priority levels. In addition, our protocol can be applied dynamically in realistic networks, since it is adaptive to the topology changes, allowing the insertion/removal of wireless sensor nodes. Extensive simulations have been conducted in order to evaluate the protocol performance and study the throughput and energy tradeoffs.

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... For the CC schemes in [17,18], in particular, the ST harvests energy from a received signal transmitted by the PT, and acts as a relay for the PN. In [20][21][22][23][24], energy harvesting by sensors in wireless sensor networks is investigated. Sensors are able to harvest energy from human bodies [20,21], neighboring wireless sensors [22,23], and power beacon stations [24]. ...
... In [20][21][22][23][24], energy harvesting by sensors in wireless sensor networks is investigated. Sensors are able to harvest energy from human bodies [20,21], neighboring wireless sensors [22,23], and power beacon stations [24]. In [25], energy harvesting from jammers and interference is presented. ...
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... The authors in [10] proposed a Hybrid Energy Harvesting polling Media Access Control protocol (HEH-BMAC) for WBANs in which energy is harvested through the human body. The proposed protocol works on priority operation for sensor nodes and provides flexibility for the network. ...
... Some assumptions are considered for the simulations as follows [6,9,10]: ...
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... Nevertheless, the slots allocation does not ponder the traffic varieties in different user priorities. The hybrid protocols such as [28][29][30][31][32][33][34] combines the advantages of TDMA and CSMA mechanisms achieving high channel utilization. Reference [30] divides the superframe into downlink and uplink frame, and the uplink frame is further subdivided into a contention access period and contention free period. ...
... Reference [30] divides the superframe into downlink and uplink frame, and the uplink frame is further subdivided into a contention access period and contention free period. An energy-aware hybrid access scheme named HEH-BMAC exploits energy harvesting at sensor nodes has been presented in [31]. The HEH-BMAC considers energy level of sensor nodes that a reserved polling access phase is for nodes with high energy level while a random access phase is for nodes with low energy level. ...
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Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) can provide real-time and reliable health monitoring, attributing to the human-centered and sensor interoperability properties. WBANs have become a key component of the ubiquitous eHealth (electronic health) revolution that prospers on the basis of information and communication technologies. The prime consideration in WBAN is how to maximize the network lifetime with battery-powered sensor nodes in energy constraint. Novel solutions in Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are imperative to satisfy the particular BAN scenario and the need of excellent energy efficiency in healthcare applications. In this paper, we propose a hybrid Lifetime Extended Directional Approach (LEDA) MAC protocol based on IEEE 802.15.6 to reduce energy consumption and prolong network lifetime. The LEDA MAC protocol takes full advantages of directional superiority in energy saving that employs multi-beam directional mode in Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) and single-beam directional mode in Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) for alternative in data reservation and transmission according to the traffic varieties. Moreover, the impacts of some inherent problems of directional antennas such as deafness and hidden terminal problem can be decreased owing to that all nodes generate individual beam according to user priorities designated. Furthermore, LEDA MAC employs a Dynamic Polled Allocation Period (DPAP) for burst data transmissions to increase the network reliability and adaptability. Extensive analysis and simulation results show that the proposed LEDA MAC protocol achieves extended network lifetime with improved performance compared with IEEE 802.15.6.
... Finally, an energy-aware hybrid access scheme that exploits energy harvesting at the wireless nodes has been presented in [84,85]. The proposed scheme, HEH-BMAC combines two different access methods: (i) a reserved, collision-free polling access phase for nodes with high energy level and more urgent data; and (ii) a probabilistic random access phase for nodes with low energy level. ...
... Collision-free access TDMA for periodic allocations [79,80,90,91,94,97,103,104] Tree-based distributed scheduling [81] Hybrid access Contention phase for access request [82] (contention-based/collision-free) Distributed queuing with collision-free data transmission [83] Energy-aware polling and probabilistic hybrid access [84,85] Preamble sampling, Polling at predefined wake-up times [86,87] minimizing idle listening Polling with dynamic learning of wake-up times [88] Polling through secondary receiver [89] Synchronization ...
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... A comprehensive survey on the major characteristics, research issues, and challenges in WBANs for patient monitoring from a practical design and implementation perspective was provided in the works of [4,5]. Additionally, several previous works in the literature were proposed to investigate the energy-saving technologies from the aspects of the media access control (MAC) protocol design, power control, and cross-layer resource allocation strategies to make efforts to prolong the lifetime of WBANs [6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. In the work of [7], the authors presented a time division multiple access (TDMA)-based technique to improve WBANs' reliability and energy efficiency by adaptively synchronizing nodes while tackling channel and buffer status. ...
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... Besides the two aforementioned industry standards, there are other BSN MAC protocols [13][14][15][16][17][18][19] designed by the academic or industrial community. However, these protocols are designed for general applications with heavy traffic. ...
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... In [24], a cloud-assisted RLNC-based MAC protocol was proposed to speed up the information flow between patient-worn sensors and the medical data center. In [25,26], a MAC protocol and a QoS control scheme are specially designed for energy-harvesting WBANs. However, these protocols are not optimized for transmitting the emergency data or the other urgent data. ...
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Targeting the medical monitoring applications of wireless body area networks (WBANs), a hybrid medium access control protocol using an interrupt mechanism (I-MAC) is proposed to improve the energy and time slot utilization efficiency and to meet the data delivery delay requirement at the same time. Unlike existing hybrid MAC protocols, a superframe structure with a longer length is adopted to avoid unnecessary beacons. The time slots are mostly allocated to nodes with periodic data sources. Short interruption slots are inserted into the superframe to convey the urgent data and to guarantee the real-time requirements of these data. During these interruption slots, the coordinator can break the running superframe and start a new superframe. A contention access period (CAP) is only activated when there are more data that need to be delivered. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed MAC protocol in WBANs with low urgent traffic.
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