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... The detailed findings for the measurement model and cut-off criteria are shown in Table 1. Next, we assessed the efficiency of the design measures by measuring the individual Cronbach alpha Ca coefficient, with the resulting estimates varying from 0.832 to 0.935, all of which were higher than the recommended standard of 0.7 (Nunnally, 1994). A CFA was then carried out to test the cumulative measurement model to ascertain the convergent and discriminant validity. ...
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The aim of this study is to investigate the drivers of brand extension attributes and its impact on intention to purchase brand extensions mediated by emotional consumer-brand relationship (ECBR). Data was collected from Chinese university students with the help of questionnaire. Structure equation modeling was applied with the help of AMOS to analyze collected data. Results depict that brand attribute association has significant impact on intention to purchase luxury brands extension. Results further explain that emotional consumer-brand relationship mediates the relationship between brand attribute associations and purchase intention of brand extensions. Furthermore, results indicate that brand commitment moderates the relationship between brand attribute associations, emotional consumer-brand relationship and intention to purchase brand extensions. This study provides an intensive knowledge of the association that exists between the intent to buy luxury brands’ extension and ECBR. This study focuses on the heart versus mind distinction, which is integral to the research on the relationship between consumers and brands. This study provides useful insights to brand managers to use strategies that enhance the bond between emotional and cognitive factors customers associate with a particular brand. Luxury brand managers ought to balance emotionality and rationality to create and capitalize on unique associations with customers.
... Items' reliability was determined using the values of Cronbach's alpha. The values were greater than the minimum tolerable value of 0.70, validating the reliability of the data (Nunnally, 1994). The consistency of variables' items was determined using the composite reliability (CR). ...
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Digital green innovations are being implemented in manufacturing to help organizations achieve sustainability by adopting sustainable development practices (SDPC). However, little is known about the impact of the information management process (IMP) on organizations’ digital green innovation. To address this gap, we devised a multidimensional framework based on the resource-based view (RBV) theory that serves as a basis for sculpting how the IMP captured and sustained organizational digital green innovation via SDPCs. 533 respondents from big and medium-sized manufacturing businesses in China were surveyed, and data were analyzed using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. The study makes numerous significant findings. Firstly, the SDPC’s dimensions (environment, economic, and social) are considerably improved by the IMP’ dimensions (acquisition, dissemination, and application). Secondly, SDPC’s dimensions are critical for attaining organizations’ digital green innovation. Thirdly, SDPCs’ implementation mediates the linkage between the IMP and organizations’ digital green innovation. Our findings suggest that investing in and implementing cutting-edge technology and sustainable practices are critical for long-term success. Still, soft issues, such as organizational information management, are equally critical in today’s information-based economy. Finally, in light of the study findings, we present theoretical and managerial implications.
... Ensuite, chacune des deux listes de mots a montré une très bonne cohérence interne, l'alpha de Cronbach se retrouvant à l'intérieur de l'intervalle de 0,70 et 0,95, critère reconnu pour attester d'une cohérence interne adéquate (Nunnally et Bernstein, 1994;Terwee et al., 2007). Ceci signifie que les items de chacune des listes de mots du TELEQ corrèlent bien entre eux et qu'ils semblent donc mesurer le même construit, c'est-à-dire la voie phonologique pour la liste de pseudomots et la voie lexicale pour la liste de mots irréguliers. ...
Article
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La majorité des outils d'évaluation de lecture de mots employés au Québec sont européens et ne permettent pas d'évaluer adéquatement les habiletés de lecture des enfants québécois, en raison de leur inadéquation sur les plans linguistique et psychométrique. Pour répondre à ce manque d'outils adaptés, le Test d'évaluation du langage écrit québécois a été créé. Cette étude vise à présenter les performances d'élèves du primaire au sous-test « Lecture de mots et de pseudomots » du Test d'évaluation du langage écrit québécois et à décrire ses qualités psychométriques. Cent-dix-neuf enfants francophones normolecteurs de la 2 e à la 6 e année ont complété l'outil et d'autres tests évaluant les habiletés de lecture. L'outil a ensuite été réadministré deux à six semaines plus tard. La précision et la vitesse de lecture des enfants augmentaient en fonction du niveau scolaire. Les résultats indiquent que l'outil présente une bonne fidélité test-retest et une excellente cohérence interne. Les performances au sous-test « Lecture de mots et de pseudomots » corrélaient significativement avec celles obtenues aux autres outils évaluant les habiletés de lecture, indiquant une validité concordante satisfaisante. En conclusion, cette prévalidation suggère que le sous-test « Lecture de mots et de pseudomots » est un outil pertinent pour l'évaluation des voies lexicale et phonologique de la lecture auprès des enfants québécois de niveau primaire.
... Additionally, composite reliability (CR) and AVE of all measurement items were found below the acceptable levels of 0.6 and 0.5, respectively (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988;Fornell & Larcker, 1981). The Cronbach's α coefficient for each construct measurement was above 0.7 (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994;Hair et al., 2010). Table 2 represents the mean, standard deviation (SD), and correlation coefficients for each construct. ...
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The purpose of this paper is to examine how loyalty programs designed by retail stores affect customer retention. The present study is one of the few empirical studies finding the role of different loyalty programs that help to build customer retention. The study also seeks to explore the moderation role of customer perceived value between intrinsic motivation - customer retention and extrinsic motivation - customer retention. The researchers employed a quantitative research design to collect data from the 350 respondents who purchased goods from the retail chain/departmental stores in Bangladesh. The collected data are then analyzed using structural equation modeling. The result of their findings indicated that the size of the organizational reward has a positive effect on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation; further extrinsic motivation has a significant relation to customer retention. Surprisingly, no support was found for the positive impact of intrinsic motivation on customer retention. Customer perceived value (CPV) is critical as a moderator in building client retention, which improves the positive association between extrinsic motivation and customer retention. CPV, on the other hand, was found to mitigate the negative link between intrinsic motivation and client retention.
... As shown in Table 4, all standardized factor loadings of each construct are greater than 0.7, and the AVE values of all constructs are well above the suggested value of 0.5. All CR values are greater than 0.7, reaching acceptable reliability (Nunnally, 1978). Hence, convergent validity of the measurement model is confirmed (Fornell & Larcker 1981). ...
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Different from most existing studies in the literature, this study proposes and empirically examines an integrated model to understand user experience and behavior based on actual experiences with a real-world MaaS platform. Specifically, the relationships among perceived service features (i.e. platform and mobility services), perceived value, satisfaction, and behavioral intention of existing MaaS users were examined using a survey sample of 363 existing MaaS users in Taiwan. Results reveal that the most important variable explaining intention to use MaaS is mobility benefits derived from using MaaS, more so than cost/economic benefits, access to greater information, and ease of transaction. MaaS operators need to prioritize service features that offer access to newer modes, more frequent services, covering greater network areas. While other measures such as discounted pricing, provision of dynamic and real-time information, integrated ticketing and payment are valuable, they are unlikely to prove popular with consumers unless the MaaS service can offer a substantial benefit in terms of access to new and expanded transport services. Implications and recommendations for future research are also discussed.
... This indicates that all the questions have convergent validity. The composite reliability of all the constructs ranged from 0.836 to 0.965, exceeding the 0.7 recommended by Nunnally (38), indicating that all constructs are internally consistent. Finally, all average variance extracted (AVE) ranged from 0.564 to 0.666, exceeding the 0.5 suggested by Hair et al. (39) and Fornell and Larcker (40), indicating sufficient convergent validity for all constructs. ...
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In recent years, the proportion of middle-aged and elderly people in Taiwan has gradually increased and has already surpassed that of advanced countries such as Europe, the United States and Japan, therefore, the health of middle-aged and elderly people is a topic that needs attention. This is because physical deterioration or illness can lead to a decline in quality of life and create a medical burden on the individual and society. This study investigated the common symptoms of sleep apnea in middle-aged and elderly people (over 40 years old), and developed a self-test subjective perception model, using “daytime sleepiness” and “sleep quality” as influencing factors, and “attention” as mediating variables to verify the effect with sleep apnea symptoms. An online electronic questionnaire was conducted and distributed through social media and groups of friends in Taiwan. A total of 541 valid questionnaires were collected and analyzed in three stages: Descriptive Analysis, Measurement Model Validation, and Structural Equation Model. The research processes of the study showed that the sample fitted the normal distribution and the measurement model conformed with convergent reliability and discriminant validity. The research results were found that “sleep quality” had a significant negative effect on sleep apnea symptoms. “Daytime sleepiness” had a positive effect on sleep apnea symptoms. “Daytime sleepiness” had a negative effect on sleep apnea symptoms through the “attention” mediator. Finally, through the questionnaire, we hope to make the middle-aged people aware of themselves, so that they can seek early medical treatment if there are signs and symptoms of sleep apnea symptoms.
... Cronbach's Alpha is one of the most commonly used index of reliability estimate for assessing the internal consistency reliability of the survey items, or in other words, the extent to which survey items correlate with each other in measuring the same theoretical construct. A reliability Alpha coefficient of 0.70 or higher has been recommended to be acceptable by [129]. In the current study, the alpha coefficient has been calculated to vary between 0.772 and 0.895 (Table 1), this provides clear evidence that all constructs demonstrate adequate reliability index. ...
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Covid-19 pandemic is unleashing unprecedented digital revolution in educational systems, making mobile-enabled learning is unavoidable alternative option, especially in developing countries whereby university students have no option but to use smartphones for learning as desktop and laptop computers are becoming less popular at homes. To achieve the objectives of this study, this study extends the UTAUT model by incorporating three different mechanisms to enhance the UTAUT environment to investigate mobile learning adoption and enrich both theory and practice. The UTAUT theory was extended by incorporating three exogenous variables (perceived compatibility, perceived image, and perceived mobile anxiety), the endogenous variable of perceived innovativeness, and service quality as a moderator. The empirical data was collected using a survey questionnaire administered to higher education students in Jordan. The proposed research model was tested with the use of WarpPLS using 202 usable questionnaires. The results demonstrate that all hypotheses were found statistically significant, indicating that all variables included in this study play an important role in affecting the adoption process of mobile learning. The findings reveal that the research model explains 53% of the variance in the intention to adopt mobile learning. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed.
... The collected data were statistically processed subsequently to get the useful information. The reliability statistics show that the internal consistency of the questionnaire is under the acceptable limit (Nunnally, 1978). The reliability statistics are at the acceptable level (Table 7). ...
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The creation of small entrepreneurship in a developing country like Bangladesh has paramount importance in socioeconomic development of the country. The reasons can be attributed by the balanced growth and the inclusion of general masses in the development process of the country. However, this development process is hindered by a number of unfavorable factors which are primarily concerned with personal, economic, social, environmental, political, and legal in nature. Access to the resources of the small entrepreneurs of the country should be ensured to initiate and run the small business in Bangladesh. Hence, this paper aims at exploring the factors that hinder the development of small business entrepreneurs in Bangladesh. This study follows both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Two hundred ten small entrepreneurs in different business sectors of Bangladesh such as, food processing, rice farming, freight forwarding, tea production, barbing salon, water refill station, grocery business, fish selling, cattle farming, etc. were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Factor analysis was conducted to identify the factors impede the small entrepreneurial businesses in Bangladesh. Regression analysis was carried out to examine the relationships between the hindering factors and the overall development of small business entrepreneurship in Bangladesh. The results show that the lack of local support for starting and running business, lack of knowledge on information technology, lack of business experience, and lack of entrepreneurship training are important factors or barriers for the development of small entrepreneurial businesses in Bangladesh. This study suggests that the policy makers should focus more on stimulatory, supporting and sustaining activities to develop small business entrepreneurship in Bangladesh.
... Table 1 shows the results for the 12 statements of the questionnaire and how closely they are related to the three constructs. Table 1 shows a reliability coefficient of 0.83 for all variables considered "acceptable" in social science research (Nunnally, 1978). ...
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Intralingual subtitling has become a functional accessibility didactic tool for EFL learning. Nevertheless, audiovisual translation (AVT)-as a manifestation of educational technology-has not been duly utilized as an EFL teaching approach in shaping the didactic and pedagogical platform and their immediate effects on foreign language learners. Hence, this study explores aspects of the EFL teaching/learning paradigm boosted by intralingual subtitling. The study sampled a population of 100 English and Translation Program students at a Jordanian university, representing an experimental group and a control group, of 50 students each. The experimental group received a four-month academic training in intralingual subtitling, while the control group had no exposure to the same experience. A TOEFL-based standardized test targeting listening comprehension, vocabulary building & recognition, and writing & spelling was administered to the two groups after the end of the term. A questionnaire was distributed to elicit the students' responses in the control group on the effectiveness of the intralingual subtitling technique in improving their proficiency in English. To compare the students' performance in the control group with their counterparts in the experimental group, the researchers calculated the scores in the three tested language skills for each group and ran a One-Way ANOVA test. The results showed that students with the intralingual subtitling experience demonstrated better performance in all three tested language skills. In the quantitative analysis of the questionnaire, the researchers calculated the percentage for each item's responses, provided the mean and standard error of it, and conducted a One-Sample T-Test for each subscale. The results showed statistically significant evidence that captioned videos helped students improve their listening comprehension, build and recognize new words, and improve their spelling. The current study recommends that intralingual subtitled YouTube videos be used more in EFL classrooms to improve students' language skills.
... The Cronbach's alpha (α) and composite reliability (CR) measures were over the acceptable value of .60, which depicts that items are representative of the latent constructs and internal consistency was adequate (Cortina, 1993;Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994;Hair et al., 2010). Convergent validity was satisfied as factor loadings were higher than the threshold value of 0.50 (Hair et al., 1998), except VM 20 which was omitted for the further analysis. ...
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This research study aims to examine the association between cognitive destination image (CDI) attributes and tourist satisfaction. Data for the present research work was attained from a sample of tourists at Sisaket Fruit Festival/ Thailand. Participants self-managed the questionnaires. A total number of 110 usable questionnaires were collected in the survey context. Bootstrapping technique by Partial Least Square-PLS in conjunction with SPSS 23 was used to analyze the data. The path analyses show that the CDI attributes were found positively related to tourist satisfaction at different levels. Additionally, based on the analyses of demographic comparisons, foreign tourists were found to be more satisfied with the festival through their participation in the study was much less than the Thai tourists. Public jobholders were more satisfied compared to the private jobholders and the student participants. This study contributes to tourism literature and has helpful implications for the industry in terms of developing fruit festivals and fairs.
... After that, questionnaire reliability was assessed using a pre-test group of 35 Thai Select diners in the US, with reliability assessment made using Cronbach's alpha (α) (Nunnally, 1978), with α ≥ 0.80 being used as a strong indicator of the questionnaire's reliability (Lance et al., 2006). Table 1 details the TSR diner data collection process in the US from the four major metropolitan areas of Los Angeles, New York, Miami, and Chicago. ...
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With over 15,000 Thai restaurants worldwide and 5,342 in the USA alone, Thai cuisine has been repeatedly internationally acclaimed for its taste, flavors, smell, and nutritional values. The Thai Ministry of Commerce has also established a global objective to find and award the best Thai food restaurants using Thai Select Premium (TSP), Thai Select Unique (TSU), and Thai Select brand labels. Therefore, using systematic random sampling, 620 diners were selected from certified Thai Select restaurants (TSR) in either Los Angeles, New York, Miami, or Chicago to ask for their opinions concerning factors important to each restaurant's service loyalty (SL). The four constructs, 18 observed variables, and six hypotheses were analyzed using LISREL 9.1. Results revealed a significant positive effect (88% R 2) on the causal factor interrelationships on TSRs' SL. Additionally, the three factors affecting SL the most were service tangibility, taste perceptions, and brand image, with total effect values of 0.94, 0.43, and 0.31, respectively. Finally, when each US diner was asked why they chose to eat Thai food, respondents overwhelmingly indicated that taste (49.50%) and healthiness (32.90%) were most important. The study also adds to the literature by highlighting the importance of Thai cuisine contributing to healthier lifestyles.
... Composite reliability is a more modern criterion than Cronbach's alpha. In this model, the reliability of the dimensions is calculated according to the factor load of the questions, and values above 0.7 are desirable for this index (Nunnally, 1978). According to the results in Table 2, the composite reliability of the latent variables introduced in the model indicates the strong reliability of the extracted factors. ...
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Recent studies in multicultural societies have begun to integrate sociological ideas into the modeling of personal behavior. In particular, this new approach emphasizes how social interdependence influences the way a person behaves and communicates. By developing communication skills, international students can reduce individual stress, improve their academic achievements, and also become successful in the job market by integrating and cooperating better with people who have different cultural backgrounds. In addition, digitalization has become a widespread global phenomenon and the main driving force in this era of mankind. Introducing new technologies to any organization doesn't mean it's easy and involves many challenges, like the acceptance and adoption of new technologies by employees and customers. In this field, Davis (1985) introduced the technology acceptance model to determine the individual usage of technology. Therefore, the objective of our research is to analyze the factors that affect international students' communication skills via the usage of email at the University of Miskolc, Hungary, based on applying the technology acceptance model and transformational leadership. Unfortunately, we could not access all the international students because of COVID-19 and restrictions. Therefore, our sample size is not big enough.
... The alpha coefficients are in the range between 0.789 and 0.830. This result points to the intrinsic consistency of structures (Nunnally, 1978). ...
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This study examines the effects of over tourism by investigating how exceeding social carrying capacity (SCC) in destinations influences support for tourism. Furthermore, this study examines the mediating role of the quality of life (QL) and community participation in this effect. First, a measurement scale for excessing SCC construct is developed. Afterwards, proposed relationships are tested utilizing a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach using data collected from local residents living in a destination. Findings suggest that exceeding perceived SCC reduces support for tourism. Furthermore, QoL and community participation mediate the impact of SCC on residents' support. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature by revealing the negative impact of exceeding SCC on support for tourism and the mediating roles played by the quality of life (QoL) and community participation in this relationship. Bu araştırma, destinasyonlarda sosyal taşıma kapasitesinin aşılmasının turizme verilen desteği nasıl etkilediğini araştırarak aşırı turizmin etkilerini incelemektedir. Ayrıca mevcut etkide yaşam kalitesi ve toplumsal katılımın aracılık rolü de ele alınmıştır. İlk olarak sosyal taşıma kapasitesinin aşımı için bir ölçek tasarlanmıştır. Daha sonra önerilen ilişkiler bağlamında destinasyonda yaşayan yerel halktan toplanan veriler yapısal eşitlik modellemesi kullanılarak test edilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları algılanan sosyal taşıma kapsitesinin aşılmasının turizme olan destiği azalttığını göstermektedir. Ek olarak yaşam kalitesi ve toplumsal katılım, sosyal taşıma kapasitesinin yerel halkın turizme desteğine aracılık etmektedir. Bu araştırma, sosyal taşıma kapasitesinin aşılmasının turizme verilen destek üzerindeki olumsuz etkisini ve bu ilişkide yaşam kalitesi ve toplum katılımın oynadığı aracı rolleri ortaya koyarak literatürü özgün bir katkı sağlamıştır.
... Internal consistency reliability was also good and similar among the three versions. Although there may be a slightly worsening internal consistency due to a decrease in items, the Cronbach's αs of all the versions were appropriate values (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). Temporal stability over a 4-week period was very high for each version, as expected. ...
... Nunnally, J. C. & Bernstein 1994 Populasi dalam kajian ini adalah semua siswa guru yang terdapat di IPG Kampus Imu Khas. Seramai 400 orang telah menjawab instrumen yang diedarkan. ...
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ABSTRAK Kajian ini dijalankan untuk meninjau tahap integriti akademik dalam lima aspek iaitu penipuan akademik, plagiat, pemalsuan, subahat dan lain-lain dalam kalangan siswa guru di IPG Kampus Ilmu Khas (IPGKIK), Kuala Lumpur. Sampel kajian ini terdiri daripada 400 orang siswa guru yang berada di pelbagai peringkat pengajian di IPGKIK. Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif melalui instrumen soal selidik yang diedarkan kepada semua siswa yang terlibat. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa secara keseluruhannya integriti akademik dari lima aspek yang dikaji berada pada tahap rendah dengan cacatan min 1.39-1.76. Tahap integriti akademik yang terendah adalah dalam aspek pemalsuan dengan catatan min 1.39 (sp=.55) manakala yang tertinggi adalah dalam aspek lain-lain dengan catatan min 1.76 (sp=.57). Dapatan kajian seterusnya juga menunjukkan bahawa setiap aspek integriti akademik yang dikaji memerlukan sekurang-kurangnya dua (2) tindakan penambahbaikan perlu dilaksanakan dengan segera agar integriti akademik dalam kalangan siswa IPGKIK dapat dipertingkatkan. Seterusnya pengkaji mencadangkan supaya para pensyarah mesti mengadakan perbincangan dan melakukan semak silang selepas menyemak tugasan siswa guru agar mereka dapat mengesan penipuan dan plagiat yang dilakukan, memperketatkan kawalan semasa peperiksaan dijalankan, memantau penggunaan media sosial semasa pengajaran dan pastikan hanya digunakan untuk tujuan pembelajaran, serta mewujudkan kawalan kehadiran ke kuliah dengan lebih sistematik kerana ramai siswa guru yang lewat menghadiri kuliah. Kata Kunci: integriti akademik, penipuan akademik, plagiat, pemalsuan, siswa guru
... The psychometric properties of the Bangla version of the BSMAS were assessed through classical test theory (CTT), item response theory (IRT), and network analysis. Under CTT, item analysis (corrected item-total correlation (.30;Field, 2017), internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha, McDonald's omega, and Split-half reliability [ .7;Nunnally, 1978]), etc.), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), parallel analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) were run. The data were split into two halves randomly, and EFA was run on one and CFA was run on another data set. Before running EFA, determinant value (>.0001; Yong and Pearce, 2013), ...
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Recently, researchers have raised their concern about problematic engagement in social media use that significantly impacted users’ mental health and daily lives. Therefore, it is important to have a psychometrically sound assessment tool to assess social media addiction. The present study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Bangla version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) for assessing social media addiction among young Bangladeshi adults. In this study, we utilized secondary data that contained information from 577 Bangladeshi university students. Exploratory factor analysis explored a single latent factor, and confirmatory factor analyses supported this structure. Discrimination indices of items in both classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) approach suggested that items could discriminate between low scorers and high scorers in this scale. This scale has good internal consistency, composite, and IRT reliability. Multigroup CFA and differential item functioning bias results suggested this scale would be assessed the same construct across gender and usage duration groups (5 hours vs less than 5 hours). Network analysis results suggested relapse following salience as the core symptoms of social media addiction among young Bangladeshi adults. Overall, results suggested the Bangla BSMAS as a psychometrically sound tool to assess symptoms of social media addiction among young Bangladeshi adults. This scale has practical utility to mental health practitioners as this scale provides information about the core symptoms of social media addiction.
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Urban green spaces provide multiple benefits but incur some negative impacts. We employed the contingent valuation method to investigate Hong Kong residents’ willingness‐to‐pay to improve urban green space provision. A questionnaire collected 316 responses from urban‐park visitors. It assessed perceptions of positive benefits and negative impacts and influences on willingness‐to‐pay. Health benefits attracted top scores, followed by environment and ecology. For negative impacts, road safety ranked first, followed by risks and hazards, and health and sanitation concerns. More educated and younger respondents were more willing to pay. One third of respondents, mainly the less educated and older people, registered protest votes for diverse reasons. Logistic regression was used to analyse the probability of positive bids with a socio‐demographic model and an extended model incorporating explanatory perception variables. Ordinal regression identified willingness‐to‐pay determinants. Both statistical tests found perceived environmental and ecological benefits as key willingness‐to‐pay predictors. The perceived negative impacts of health and sanitation concerns were correlated with willingness‐to‐pay, indicating a desire to improve and contradicting past studies and expectations. The results highlighted the importance of exploring willingness‐to‐pay from a rarely studied perspective of valuating the potential improved utility of urban green space through suppressing negative impacts. The findings can inform park and urban management to meet user expectations. We investigated willingness to pay (WTP) to improve urban green space in Hong Kong. We incorporated perceived benefits and negative impacts as predictors of WTP. Perceived environmental and ecological benefits were crucial determinants of WTP. Health and sanitation concerns indicate a significant association with WTP.
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Objective: Self-objectification is linked to disordered eating (DE) behaviors in women. However, the awareness of objectification by the self and others, not just the objectifying experiences themselves, may be differentially related to DE. The proposed study examines the development and validity of the Conscious Objectification Questionnaire (COQ), which seeks to evaluate awareness of objectification by others and intentional self-objectification. Method: In Study 1, 24 participants who identify as women (≥18 years) will provide qualitative feedback on COQ items, and survey items will be updated based on participant feedback. In Study 2, separate participants will complete the COQ and questionnaires assessing DE, self-objectification, and mental health correlates. Exploratory factor analyses will be conducted on the COQ, and reliability and convergent and divergent validity will be assessed. Results: Results will clarify whether the COQ is a reliable and valid instrument that measures the distinct construct of awareness of objectification. Discussion: If proven psychometrically sound, the COQ may be useful for future research on the link between awareness of objectification and disordered eating. Public significance: The novel Conscious Objectification Questionnaire (COQ) assesses the degree to which women recognize and act upon being objectified. The COQ will be reviewed by self-objectification experts and pilot participants before being psychometrically evaluated with data from a larger sample. The COQ is expected to differentially relate to disordered eating above and beyond existing self-objectification measures and accurately represent the distinct construct of conscious awareness of societal and self-objectification.
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The powerful and disruptive changes associated with digital transformation make leadership more complex than before, which results in new and demanding challenges for companies and leaders alike. Thus, building on the competing values framework (CVF), which postulates that leaders must adopt multiple roles and behaviors, the current research aims to identify leadership roles appropriate in digital transformation and subsequently investigate whether the existing CVF roles are still relevant. A qualitative study was conducted to identify appropriate leadership behaviors in digital transformation. Additionally, a measurement scale for the identified leadership roles was developed and tested. Furthermore, multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used to test the degree‐of‐fit between the identified leadership roles in digital transformation and the four CVF quadrants. The results reveal that new leadership roles emerge in the context of digital transformation. Some original CVF roles are still relevant, but others should be modified. Overall, the findings indicate that leaders need a broad behavioral complexity to master the emerging leadership challenges in digital transformation.
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We theoretically develop and empirically validate a measure of mindset of obligation, building on the concept of the form of commitment that receives the least attention from scholars – normative commitment. We define a mindset of obligation as the pervasive tendency to initiate new endeavors and persevere through existing roles and responsibilities out of a sense of obligation. We suggest that this mindset acts as a binding agent that affects strain and withdrawal in and outside the workplace. We find that Initiation is more maladaptive, and Perseverance is more adaptive for favorable work and nonwork outcomes. Individuals with high levels of Initiation tend to commit to tasks out of a sense of obligation, with the potential to overcommit and not deliver on these commitments. Those with high levels of Perseverance may experience a sense of accomplishment from fulfilling their commitments, and may be seen as responsible or reliable by others. We describe theoretical and practical implications of the mindset of obligation construct and measure, which sheds valuable insight on normative commitment, on personality traits, and other mindset constructs. These insights add understanding about the implications of the motives one has for committing to roles and responsibilities across various domains of life.
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Understanding how event-related potentials (ERPs) change following repeated assessments is critical to advance our understanding of neural mechanisms implicated in psychopathology. Specifically, it is unclear if associations between ERPs and individual differences can be reproduced when repeatedly measured within the same participants, or if clinical characteristics impact ERP trajectories over repeated assessments. The present study assessed P300 amplitude and latency from a flanker task at four time points over one month (M = 7.24 days between assessments [SD = 1.02]) in 79 female undergraduates to examine how P300 amplitude/latency changes across repeated assessments, the presence of associations between within- and between-subjects measures of current depressive symptoms and the P300, and if between-subjects depressive symptoms moderated change in P300 over repeated assessment. Results using multilevel modeling indicated a significant reduction in P300 amplitude and latency across assessments. Individuals with increased trait anhedonia (i.e., between-subjects) exhibited reduced P300 amplitudes across assessments; there were no associations of within-subjects fluctuations in anhedonia symptoms and P300 amplitude across assessments. There was also no interaction between number of assessments and between-subjects anhedonia in relation to P300 amplitude. Unlike anhedonia, between-subjects dysphoria was unrelated to P300. These results demonstrate a relatively specific and consistent association between an attenuated P300 amplitude and trait anhedonia across repeated assessments - data that may further suggest that flanker P300 amplitude reflects hedonic and motivational processes.
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Background: Globally, women’s empowerment is captured through different combinations of indicators related to their collective and individual empowerment. In this paper, the association of diverse domains related to women’s collective and individual empowerment on their reproductive and maternal health practices were assessed. Collective empowerment referred to a cluster of indicators measuring mutual support, rights, and access to services women received, as a result of membership in self-help groups (SHGs) focused on micro-finance activities. Women’s individual empowerment was measured through their perception to make decisions on their own, be mobile, financially self-reliant, self-confident in expressing themselves, having self-esteem and being free from spousal violence. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected in 2017 from 2,197 SHG members across 57 administrative blocks of Uttar Pradesh, India. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the sub-domains of individual and collective empowerment were developed. The reproductive and maternal health indicators included antenatal care, delivery preparedness, postnatal care and current contraceptive use. Bivariate and multivariate analyses, using logistic regression, were carried out to measure the association of sub-domains of women’s empowerment with health practices. Results: Collective and individual empowerment were independently and jointly associated with correct health practices. Women with greater empowerment through independent mobility, high self-esteem, access to financial resources, and confidence in interacting with a frontline worker, were more likely to access antenatal care. Similarly, delivery preparedness—which entailed deciding on the place of delivery, arranging for transportation during labor, and managing expenses for the delivery—was positively influenced by collective support from fellow SHG members. Receiving postnatal care was positively associated with self-confidence and financial autonomy, and current family planning method use was positively associated with self-confidence, lower spousal violence and confidence in support from the group. Conclusions: Women’s collective and individual empowerment were independently and jointly positively associated with health outcomes among SHG members.
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Purpose: This study aimed to clinically validate the NANDA-I nursing diagnosis of "Spiritual distress (00066)" in people under assisted reproductive technologies, and to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the defining characteristics. Methods: Cross-sectional study that was conducted between September 2019 and June 2020. Recruitment happened by invitation posted in fertility-related websites. Those who accepted to participate were asked to fill the consent form and the online questionnaire. Statistical analysis was based on Rasch's model. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee. Findings: The sample comprised 104 Portuguese individuals undergoing assisted reproductive techniques. The "Spiritual distress (00066)" was validated and 22 defining characteristics were confirmed as representative. No item showed differential item functioning. "Perceived suffering" was the most sensitive defining characteristic and had the highest negative predictive value. "Insufficient courage" had the highest positive predictive value, and "Anger toward power greater than self" was the most specific. Conclusions: Results validated the presence of the NANDA-I nursing diagnosis of "Spiritual distress (00066)" in a sample going through assisted reproductive technologies, improving accuracy of this nursing diagnosis in such population. Implications for nursing practice: This is a crucial step to raise the level of evidence of such nursing diagnosis and to increase the level of evidence on NANDA-I terminology. Furthermore, this study has contributed to raising the quality of nurse's critical judgement and clinical reasoning and allow an early spiritual and a more holistic and personalized patient-centered intervention in the reproductive field.
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The deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) contributes significantly to the sustainability of world economic growth. However, despite the intensive promotion of EVs by car manufacturers and governments, majority of the drivers remains in the wait‐and‐see stage. Therefore, to understand how characteristics and adoption mechanisms of potential customers might shed light on the increasing of EV adoption. In this study, we investigate how lead userness is associated with EV adoption. Build on the diffusion of innovation theory, we examine the mechanisms through which lead userness affects EV adoption. By empirically analysing a sample collected from 307 members of China's EV online community, we show that lead userness plays a significant role in predicting EV adoption. In addition, we find that social capital and domain‐specific innovativeness jointly mediate this positive relationship while ecological attitudes positively moderate the effect of lead userness on EV adoption. Our findings contribute to research of EV adoption behaviour and provide recommendations to policymakers and manufacturers for promoting EVs.
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We built a livestreaming impulsive buying model based on stimulus-organism-response (SOR) theory, and we explored the impact of atmospheric cues (ACELS) and sales promotion (SPELS) on impulsive buying (IBI) based on emotions (EOC) and Zhong Yong tendency (ZYT) of online consumers. Combined with holistic orientation, perspective integration, and harmony maintenance, ZYT is a cognitive process involving individual events. We gathered 478 samples using a questionnaire to test the proposed research model. The empirical findings show that as the stimuli in the livestreaming environment, ACELS and SPELS during livestreaming greatly boost EOC while significantly constraining consumers’ ZYT. Among online consumers, positive EOC promotes IBI, whereas ZYT dampens it. In addition, EOC and ZYT mediate the relationship between stimulus factors and response factors in parallel, resulting in four model mediation paths. By incorporating the SOR model, this study provides theoretical underpinnings for the role of cognitive processing in impulsive purchases, as well as useful guidance for e-commerce platforms and streamers to effectively understand Chinese consumers’ purchase behavior, which benefits the development of effective promotion strategies and the creation of powerful marketing tools.
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Background: Daily skin-to-skin contact (SSC) during early infancy fosters the long-term development of children born preterm. This is the first randomized controlled trial assessing the potential beneficial effects of daily SSC on executive functioning and socio-emotional behavior of children born full-term. Whether children of mothers who experienced prenatal stress and anxiety benefitted more from SSC was also explored. Methods: Pregnant women (N = 116) were randomly assigned to a SSC or care-as-usual (CAU) condition. Women in the SSC condition were instructed to perform one hour of SSC daily from birth until postnatal week five. Prenatal stress was measured with questionnaires on general and pregnancy-specific stress and anxiety completed by the mothers in gestational week 37. At child age three, mothers filled in questionnaires on children's executive functioning, and externalizing and internalizing behavior. Analyses were performed in an intention-to-treat (ITT), per-protocol, and dose-response approach. Netherlands Trial Register: NL5591. Results: In the ITT approach, fewer internalizing (95% CI = 0.11-1.00, U = 2148.50, r = .24, p = .001) and externalizing (95% CI = 0.04-2.62, t = 2.04, d = 0.38, p = .04) problems were reported in the SSC condition compared to the CAU condition. Multivariate analyses of variance did not show group differences on executive functioning. Additional analyses of covariance showed no moderations by maternal prenatal stress. Conclusions: Current findings indicate that early daily SSC in full-term infants may foster children's behavioral development. Future replications, including behavioral observations of child behavior to complement maternal reports, are warranted.
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In Contingent Valuation studies, users generally declare willingness to pay (WTP) higher than non-users. This study attempts to investigate if viewing the good during CV survey has different impact on users and non-users WTPs. A framed field experiment was conducted in which users and non-users were surveyed in two locations - one with a view of the forest and the other without it. Our study showed that the WTPs of users were significantly higher than those of non-users only when respondensts did not see forest during the survey. However, when the experiment was conducted in a location where the respondents could see the forest - the difference disappeared. Our results also show that the relationship between declared WTP and both the respondents’ socio-demographic status and their environmental attitudes were weaker among respondents surveyed in a location with a forest view. We believe that the increase in WTP of non-users is temporary and represents a kind of bias. This in turn may be relevant in the design of CVM studies.
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Prior confronting findings on the association between corporate social responsibility and profitability show that some aspects remain to be clarified about this binomial. Contributing to this body of research is particularly interesting in the case of the exporters to understand the role that corporate social responsibility may play in improving export performance. This study aims to determine the impact of firms' corporate social responsibility efforts on their export performance by examining innovation and the legal form of the organization as factors that could affect this relationship. Using data from 107 agri‐food companies, we found that corporate social responsibility has no direct effect on export performance. However, our results show that innovation serves as a mediator in this relationship. It was also found that companies that adopt associative legal forms (i.e., cooperatives) benefit more from their social responsibility practices than companies that adopt non‐associative legal forms.
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This study is an attempt to explain the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR), corporate reputation, and brand equity in India's banking sector. The study uses Carroll's Pyramid of CSR and the ‘triple bottom line concept’ as the theoretical bases for proposing a conceptual model. The data pertaining to 482 saving bank customers were analysed using structural equation modelling for this study. The integrated effect of CSR and corporate reputation on brand equity has been examined using the analyses of both the direct and indirect model paths. The findings show that corporate reputation partially mediates the relationship between CSR and brand equity, and that there exists a direct relationship between CSR and brand equity. This research has significant implications for CSR managers seeking to gain a competitive advantage in the industry by focusing upon the CSR activities that help an organisation build a positive corporate reputation, leading to a high level of brand equity.
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Forward head posture measurement can be conducted using various methods and instruments. The selection of the appropriate method requires the factors of validity and reliability to be considered. This systematic review reports on the reliability and validity of the non-radiographic methods examined for measuring forward head posture. The review identified relevant studies following a systematic search of electronic databases. The studies were assessed for quality by two independent reviewers using a critical appraisal tool. The studies' data were extracted and assessed, and the results were synthesized qualitatively using a level of evidence approach. Twenty-one studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Both reliability and validity were investigated for five studies, whereas reliability only was investigated for 17 studies. In total, 11 methods of forward head posture measurement were evaluated in the retrieved studies. The validity of the methods ranged from low to very high. The reliability of the methods ranged from moderate to excellent. The strongest levels of evidence for reliability support the use of classic photogrammetry. For validity, the evidence is not conclusive. Further studies are required to strengthen the level of evidence on the reliability and validity of the remaining methods. It is recommended that this point be addressed in future research.
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The special features displayed by family firms characterize and shape their family social capital and make them unique. The participation of both the family and the firm creates distinctive resources and capabilities in the family firm. As new generations arrive, opposing forces begin to shake the firm, and while some embrace change others expect the continuity of the family influence. Likewise, the influence of the family in the firm conditions its performance. In this study, we empirically address how family influence promotes the development of family social capital that, in turn, impacts on the organizational effectiveness of family firms. Furthermore, we observe the moderating role of generational involvement by considering generations an important source of heterogeneity in family firms. We test the hypotheses on a sample of Spanish family firms, analyzing the data using partial least squares (PLS). Results indicate that the family influence positively affects the development of family social capital and, therefore, the organizational effectiveness of the family firm. However, generational involvement can moderate both relationships in a negative way, by reducing the development and exploitation of the family social capital.
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One of the best-known and most frequently used measures of creative idea generation is the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). The TTCT Verbal, assessing verbal ideation, contains two forms created to be used interchangeably by researchers and practitioners. However, the parallel forms reliability of the two versions of the TTCT Verbal has not been examined for over 50 years. This study provides a long-needed evaluation of the parallel forms reliability of the TTCT Verbal by correlating publisher generated and text-mining-based scores across the forms. The relatively weak relationship between the two forms, ranging between .21 and .40 for the overall TTCT Verbal and ranging between .03 and .33 for the individual TTCT Verbal tasks, suggests that caution should be exercised when researchers and practitioners use the two forms as equivalent measures of verbal creative idea generation.
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This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Coparenting Relationship Scale (CRS) in Chinese samples. The coparenting relationship serves an important role in raising children. The CRS was originally developed to measure the multidimensionality of the coparenting relationship. However, its latent structure and psychometric properties have not been extensively addressed, particularly in non‐Western cultures. Data were collected from a sample of 991 Chinese families (991 mothers, 967 fathers, 31–57 years of age). Confirmatory factor analyses were utilized to provide evidence of the theoretical factorial structure. Internal consistency was examined by Cronbach's α and omega coefficients. Correlations with the Dyadic Adjustment Scale were to verify criterion validity. Configural, metric, scalar, and residual variance invariance were examined across the gender of parents in dyadic perspective. In contrast to a poor fit for the seven‐factor structure of the original 35‐item CRS, the Chinese version of the CRS (CRS‐C) showed a good fit in a six‐factor structure with 27 items. The CRS‐C showed strict measurement invariance across gender of the parent, satisfactory internal consistency, and criterion‐related validity as indicated by marital quality. These findings provided preliminary evidence that the CRS‐C is reliable and valid for measuring the coparenting relationship among Chinese parents. Coparenting relationship and its measurement will benefit from attention in non‐Western contexts and cross‐cultural studies.
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This study aimed to explore the effect of training on organizational commitment, the mediating effect of employability and the moderating role of person–organization fit. A correctional cross‐sectional research design was adopted for this study. A questionnaire‐based survey of 859 nurses in a public hospital in Western China was conducted to identify their perceptions of training, employability, organizational commitment and person–organization fit. Hierarchical linear regression and conditional process analysis on moderated mediation were performed. Training had a positive effect on organizational commitment (p < .01). Internal and external employability mediated the relationship between training and organizational commitment (p < .01). Person–organization fit enhanced the indirect effect of training on organizational commitment through external employability (p < .05).
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Aim Retaining nurses on the job is vital, and their successful retention is related to the organizational climates (OC) of healthcare settings. The purpose was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Perceived Organizational Climate Scale (POCS). Design The methodologic research design was used by following the scale development strategies by DeVellis (2017). The conceptual framework for this study was based on the broader theoretical framework of the Competing Value Framework (CVF) of Quinn et al. (2015), the concept analysis and extensive literature review (1939–2018), and combined with the inductive qualitative data. Methods A two‐phase study of scale construction and psychometric testing was conducted for content validation, construct validation and internal consistency reliabilities of the instrument. An expert panel validated the 4‐point scale, followed by exploratory factor analysis, the known‐group approach and split groups. Data were collected from (1161) registered nurses in eight general hospitals across Myanmar from August 2019 to September 2020. Results The 35 items with four essential dimensions: transformational climate, bureaucratic climate, team climate and strategic climate, explained almost 50% of the variation with all factor loading greater than .40. The internal consistency reliabilities of the instrument showed the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .93, and the dimensions were from .82 to .85. As hypothesized, the known‐group approach demonstrated that experienced nurses had higher mean scores than novices. The internal consistency reliabilities of the scale and dimensions across the splitting groups illustrated the stability. Conclusion This evidence supports this instrument as having satisfactory initial psychometric properties with a comprehensive picture of OC by its essential components contributing to an inclusive understanding of this climate globally. Impact This instrument can be used as an objective tool for evaluating OC as perceived by nurses in healthcare settings to inform improvements in working environments.
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Bu çalışmada farklı oranlarda kayıp veri içeren veri setleri için hesaplanan Cronbach α değerindeki değişim örneklem büyüklüğü (100, 250, 500, 1000), test uzunluğu (5,10, 25, 50), dağılım biçimi (normal, sağa çarpık, sola çarpık) ve puanlama türü (Likert, ikili) değişkenleri açısından incelenmiştir. Çalışmada kullanılan tam veri setleri Wingen 3 programında belirlenen koşullar altında 20’li tekrarlar hâlinde üretilmiş tam veri setlerinin her biri R programında yazılan kodlarla rassal olarak kayıp veri mekanizmasına uygun olarak %5, %10 ve %20 oranında değer silinerek Cronbach α güvenirlik değerinin hesaplanacağı eksik veri setleri elde edilmiştir. Bulgulara göre farklı puanlama türleri için örneklem büyüklüğü arttıkça Cronbach α değerindeki değişimin azaldığı görülmüştür. Benzer şekilde madde sayısı arttıkça Cronbach α değerindeki değişim azalmaktadır. Farklı oranlarda kayıp veri içeren veri setleri için hesaplanan Cronbach α değerindeki değişimin dağılım biçimine (normal dağılım, sağa çarpık dağılım, sola çarpık dağılım) bağlı olmadığı ortaya konmuştur.
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Introduction: When handover is conducted at the patient's bedside, active patient participation can be encouraged, which may improve the safety and quality of care. There is a need for valid and reliable tools to measure patient perceptions of participation in bedside handover, to ensure the rising number of implementation and improvement efforts are consistently and effectively evaluated. The aim of this study is to systematically develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a self-report survey to measure patients' perceptions of participation in bedside handover. Methods: In Phase 1, our team developed a conceptual framework and item pool (n = 130). In Phase 2, content validity was assessed with four health consumers, four nurses and four researchers. Next, 10 current hospital inpatients tested the survey for end-user satisfaction. In Phase 3, 326 inpatients completed the survey, allowing exploratory factor analysis, reliability analyses and convergent/divergent validity analyses to occur. Results: Phase 1 and 2 resulted in a 42-item survey. In Phase 3, 321 surveys were available for analysis. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor solution, with 24 items, which matched our conceptual framework. The three factors were: 'Conditions for patient participation in bedside handover', 'Level of patient participation in bedside handover' and 'Evaluation of patient participation in bedside handover'. There was strong evidence for factor reliability and validity. Additionally, the correlation between factors was strong. Conclusion: This study furthers our conceptual understanding by showing that nurse facilitating behaviours are a strong precursor for patient participation and perceived handover outcomes, justifying the need for nursing training. A robust survey has been developed to measure patient perceptions of participation in bedside handover, which can effectively evaluate this approach to care. Engaging consumers and nurses as research team members was invaluable in ensuring that the survey is acceptable for end-users. Patient or public contribution: A health consumer and nurse partnered as members of the research team from study inception to dissemination.
Conference Paper
The purpose of the research was to establish the influence of the factors in knowledge management in the acceptance of M-learning in university students in times of covid-19. The study consisted of two stages; the first was an exploratory factor analysis, which allowed the instrument to be validated and homologated. The second stage consisted of carrying out a confirmatory analysis by validating a structural model based on variances called modelling of structural equations of partial minimum squares PLS-SEM, whose results determined that the most influential factors in the application of knowledge are perceived ease of use, knowledge sharing, and perceived utility of the model (TAM); not like this, the intention of behavioural use, that does not influence the application of knowledge. This hypothesis would not be tested regarding the level of influence that the application of knowledge would have on the actual use of the system. The research was carried out with 150 students from a private university in Peru.
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This study explores the sustainable development of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) tourism from a rational behavioral process perspective based on the theory of planned behavior. A multi‐level conceptual model of ICH tourism and its intentions for sustainable development, including formal rationality and substantive rationality, is constructed. We discovered that it is not only altruistic intention that contributes to decision‐making in the sustainable development of ICH tourism, but egoistic benefit also has an impact on such decisions. This is an explorative study that provides a hierarchical linear conceptual framework for the sustainable development of ICH tourism by discussing practitioners' decision‐making behavior.
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This research was conducted to investigating the customer relationship marketing perceived determinants impact on customer loyalty in Ethiopian banking sector. The researcher used an explanatory research type to conduct research in Nekemte town, Ethiopia. This research considered different CRM perceived dimensions such as trust, commitment, empathy, conflict handling and communication. Data were collected through the five point's likert scales of questionnaires and used mixed research approach. Out of 400 customers 384 (96%) customers were completed and responded and 16 questionnaire left by default. inferential statistical methods, correlation and regression analysis methods were used to analyze the collected data by using SPSS software version20. Research findings indicates that there was a significant relation between customer relationship marketing components including trust, commitment, empathy, conflict handling and communication on customer loyalty Thus, from customers perspective, CRM has a significant influence on customer loyalty in the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia, Nekemte town. Based on the result, researchers recommended that the commercial bank of Ethiopia, Nekemte town better to give high emphasis on remaining variables of relationship marketing to enhance the overall loyalty on the bank.
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Bu çalışmada, üniversite gençliğinin sosyal medya kullanım motivasyonlarının incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Nicel yaklaşıma dayalı betimleyici araştırma tasarımının uygulandığı araştırma, Aksaray Üniversitesi örneğinde 2021-2022 Akademik Yılı Güz Döneminde yürütülmüştür. Gupta ve Bashir (2018) tarafından geliştirilen sosyal ağ kullanım ölçeğinin kullanıldığı anket, basit tesadüfi örneklem yoluyla seçilen 400 öğrenciye uygulanmış, geçerli 382 anket incelemeye alınmıştır. Ölçekte, sosyal medya kullanımına dayalı 19 ifade yer almaktadır. Ayrıca ankette demografik sorular ve sosyal medya kullanım alışkanlıklarını belirlemeyi amaçlayan 8 soru ve toplamda 27 madde bulunmaktadır. Üniversite öğrencilerinin sosyal medya kullanımında eğlence, eğitim-öğretim, bilgi edinme ve sosyalleşme-kimlik edinme alt boyutlarından oluşan Cronbach’s Alpha İç Tutarlılık Katsayısına (α= .887) sahip 4 faktör alt boyutu elde edilmiştir. Öğrencilerin en çok tercih ettiği sosyal medya platformu Instagram’dır. İkinci sırada WhatsApp ve 3. sırada YouTube gelmektedir. Platform tercihi bakımından kadın öğrenciler ve erkek öğrenciler arasında farklılık bulunmamaktadır. Üniversite gençliğinin sosyal medya kullanım süreleri oldukça yüksektir. Günde en az 1 saat olmak üzere genç kuşağın sosyal medyada kalma oranı yüzde 90’ları bulmaktadır. Günde en az 3 saat olmak üzere sosyal medyada zaman geçirenlerin oranı ise yüzde 72 seviyesine ulaşmaktadır. Öğrencilerin sosyal medya kullanım motivasyonları ile kullanım sıklığı ve gelir düzeyi arasında anlamlı bir farklılaşma söz konusudur. Sosyal medyada daha uzun süre vakit geçirenler ve yüksek gelir düzeyine sahip öğrenciler eğlence, bilgi edinme ve sosyalleşme-kimlik edinme faktörlerine daha fazla önem vermektedir. Sosyal medyanın gençlik üzerindeki etkilerini ölçmek amacıyla sorunlu internet kullanımı ve bağımlılık ölçekleri kullanılarak yeni ve özgün çalışmalar yürütülmelidir. Böylece sosyal medya kullanım alışkanlıklarının yanında, patolojik sosyal medya kullanımının fiziksel ve psikolojik etkileri belirlenebilecektir.
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Background: The Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (FOCI) and its pediatric version, the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI), are instruments for evaluating obsessive-compulsive symptomatology. Method: A reliability generalization meta-analysis was conducted to estimate an average reliability of the scores and to identify study characteristics that explained the heterogeneity among scores. Using Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR-20) and Cronbach's α, a total of 23 and 20 independent samples were included in the meta-analysis for the FOCI and C-FOCI. Results: We found an average KR-20 of 0.826 for the FOCI's Symptom Checklist and an α of 0.882 FOCI's Symptom Severity. An average KR-20 of 0.740 was found for the C-FOCI's Symptom Checklist, while an average α of 0.794 was found for the C-FOCI's Symptom Severity. Moderator analyses showed that the source of the coefficients (i.e., whether they were reported by the authors of the primary study or estimated by the meta-analysts) was an important variable for the FOCI Symptom Severity, and that the focus of the study (i.e., whether it was psychometric or applied) and the sample size were relevant for the C-FOCI Symptom Checklist. Conclusions: Considering that the FOCI and C-FOCI are scales characterized by their brevity and ease of use, and the reliabilities obtained here, both scales are well suited for screening purposes.
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On the one hand, fast social media and internet evolution has brought opportunities to the development of the organic food industry. On the other hand, the excessive utilization of social media and internet has also exerted some negative effects on consumers in terms of information disorder and hindered the industrial progression of organic foods. This study aimed to probe into the relationships between organic food information uncertainty, information search anxiety, information overload and purchase behavior under the mediating role of attitude and the moderating role of involvement, introducing the concept of information disorder in the context of this issue. The data (cross-sectional) of 620 organic food consumers in Jiangxi Province, China were subjected to SEM (structural equation modeling). The results showed that organic food information uncertainty and information search anxiety significantly affected attitude, and attitude had a positive impact on purchase behavior. In addition, attitude significantly mediated the effects of organic food information uncertainty and information search anxiety on purchase behavior. Moreover, the indirect relationship between organic food information uncertainty and purchase behavior was moderated by involvement.
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Companies are recently facing increasing supply chain disruptions that may influence their supply base design choices. However, studies investigating how these choices affect the effectiveness of other supplier management practices, such as supplier integration, are scarce. The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of various types of supplier integration on the buyer's efficiency and innovation, as well as the contingency effects of supply base concentration, an important supply base design choice. Drawing upon Social Exchange Theory, we argue that the expected benefits of supplier integration activities to efficiency and innovation are strengthened by supply base concentration. We test our hypotheses using data collected from 324 manufacturing plants. Hierarchical regression results reveal that some supplier integration types improve performance only under higher levels of supply base concentration, while the effects of other supplier integration types vary according to the type of performance considered or are not significant at all. In addition, the results suggest that developing technologies to share information with suppliers may be counterproductive in driving efficiency. Besides enriching the supplier integration literature, this research offers guidance for managers who wish to improve efficiency and innovation, while also considering the pros and cons of supply base concentration.
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Background: According to Munsat (1965, The concept of memory. University of Michigan), a person who makes frequent prospective memory (PM) errors is considered as having a flawed character rather than a bad memory. Given that PM completes its development only in young adulthood, this bias might occur not only within social relationships but also in school. However, little is known about the impact of this bias on academic performance. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of children's PM on teacher's evaluations of their academic performance (i.e., grades) and social skills. Sample: A total of 158 eight- and twelve-year-old children (48% females) participated in this study. Methods: A working memory (WM) updating task was used as ongoing task (OT), in which the PM task was embedded and required participants to respond whenever certain pictures appeared. Children's social skills were measured through teacher ratings, whereas grades were collected as indicators of teachers' assessment of academic performance. Children's WM span and inhibitory control were also assessed. Results: Results showed that 8- and 12-year-old children's academic performance was predicted by both PM performance and teachers' evaluations of social skills. However, social skills evaluations were not predicted by PM performance. WM span was related to grades in 8 year olds, while inhibitory control was related to PM performance in 12 year olds. Conclusions: These outcomes highlight that children's grades are not explained only by academic performance itself but also by other personal skills. Awareness of the biases which can occur when evaluating children's academic performance can help teachers to be more objective in their assessment.
Article
Information about the level of distrust in healthcare systems is very limited in Chinese populations, and no validated instrument has been developed to measure this distrust. Therefore, to begin addressing this research gap, this study evaluated the psychometric properties of a traditional Chinese version of the Revised Health Care System Distrust Scale and used it to assess the level of distrust in a healthcare system. The study involved a community‐based personal interview survey of individuals in Hong Kong. A total of 340 men were randomly recruited. In addition to the distrust instrument, the two‐item Trust in Physician Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire‐9 were used. The two‐factor structure of the distrust scale was confirmed. The item‐total correlations corrected for overlap were >0.4 for both the Competence and Values Distrust subscales, confirming the internal construct validity of the scale. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.77 for both subscales. The scores of both the Competence and Values subscales were moderately negatively correlated with the total score of the Trust in Physician Scale, providing support for convergent validity. Regarding known‐group validity, the scale could differentiate people according to marital status, monthly personal income and severity of depressive symptoms. Moreover, we found that men who had previously undergone prostate cancer screening had higher Values Distrust scores than those who had not. The descriptive analysis showed that only about half of the participants reported that they received high‐quality medical care and that the healthcare system provided excellent medical care, suggesting that more effort is needed to improve the quality of care and people's satisfaction with healthcare in Hong Kong. In summary, the translated traditional Chinese version of the Revised Health Care System Distrust Scale used in this study is a valid and reliable scale for assessing the level of distrust in a healthcare system.
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