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Digital Entrepreneurship: Research and Practice


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Digital entrepreneurship is broadly defined as creating new ventures and transforming existing businesses by developing novel digital technologies and/or novel usage of such technologies, (European Commission, 2015). Digital entrepreneurship has been viewed as a critical pillar for economic growth, job creation and innovation by many countries including the Member States of the European Union. We argue that a nation's digital entrepreneurial capacity depends largely on digital entrepreneurial behaviour, culture, and strategies as well as a supportive innovation ecosystem in which governments, industry, business, educational institutions and NGOs (non-government organizations) work together. Therefore, a holistic and integrative approach is needed. This study aims to explore the emerging concept of digital entrepreneurship from multiple disciplinary perspectives, namely, information technology and systems, entrepreneurship and management, as well as contextual political/legal and socioeconomic factors and their impacts in a systemic and integrative way. For that purpose, the paper develops a conceptual model to study digital entrepreneurship drawing on current literature and three well-established theories – social network theory, social capital theory and institutional theory. The model addresses five fundamental research questions of digital entrepreneurship, thus leading to a better understanding of the concept and practice of digital entrepreneurship.
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9th Annual Conference of the EuroMed Academy of Business 2173
Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Digital Ecosystems ISBN: 978-9963-711-43-7
Zhao, Fang; Collier, Alan
School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia
Digital entrepreneurship is broadly defined as creating new ventures and transforming existing
businesses by developing novel digital technologies and/or novel usage of such technologies,
(European Commission, 2015). Digital entrepreneurship has been viewed as a critical pillar for
economic growth, job creation and innovation by many countries including the Member States of the
European Union. We argue that a nation’s digital entrepreneurial capacity depends largely on digital
entrepreneurial behaviour, culture, and strategies as well as a supportive innovation ecosystem in
which governments, industry, business, educational institutions and NGOs (non-government
organizations) work together. Therefore, a holistic and integrative approach is needed. This study aims
to explore the emerging concept of digital entrepreneurship from multiple disciplinary perspectives,
namely, information technology and systems, entrepreneurship and management, as well as contextual
political/legal and socio-economic factors and their impacts in a systemic and integrative way. For that
purpose, the paper develops a conceptual model to study digital entrepreneurship drawing on current
literature and three well-established theories social network theory, social capital theory and
institutional theory. The model addresses five fundamental research questions of digital
entrepreneurship, thus leading to a better understanding of the concept and practice of digital
The rapid proliferation of digital technologies with new functionalities has profoundly changed
competitive environments, reshaping traditional business strategies, structures and processes
(Bharadwaj et al. 2013). For example, in the networked economy powered by digital technologies,
many organizations are getting smaller, with one-person companies and partnerships proliferating.
New digital technologies such as social media, big data, and mobile and cloud solutions technologies
give rise to new ways of collaborating, leveraging resources, product/service design, development and
deployment over open standards and shared technologies (Markus and Loebecke, 2013). These
technologies power the digital economy by bringing in a new range of opportunities with substantial
potential business value and can dramatically reduce the cost for new ventures (Zhao et al., 2015). A
good example is which has helped millions of Chinese become entrepreneurs and, in the
process, created many jobs.
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Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Digital Ecosystems ISBN: 978-9963-711-43-7
Although the opportunities created by digital technologies are enormous, they also bring serious
challenges. Digital technologies are reshaping fundamentally the labour market. Take Australia for
example. Around 40 per cent of Australian jobs that exist today will be lost in about 20 years’ time
according to a recent research report by the Committee for Economic Development of Australia
(CEDA, 2015). To harness the opportunity and address the challenges that are brought forward by
digital technologies, we argue that Australia needs to position itself to better take advantage of digital
entrepreneurship. Although the Australian Government has developed a series of national strategies to
enhance Australia’s digital transformation, Australia does not have a national strategy to grow the
digital entrepreneurship capability that drives the digital economy and realizes the business value of
digital technologies. According to a recent survey conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC, 2014),
Australia’s digital IQ (i.e. how well organisations capture the value they expect from technology
investments) is 61 per cent, which is below the average (63 per cent) of the 36 countries surveyed. In the
same survey, it was also found that only 43 per cent of company executives in Australia say that they
have a digital enterprise roadmap that includes digital business capabilities and processes, whereas the
average of the 36 major economies surveyed is 53 per cent. The findings indicate that a significant gap
exists between Australia and other major economies in terms of digital IQ and digital strategy
development. Australia will lose its competitiveness if its businesses fail to embrace the rapid and
fundamental changes as a result of digital technologies and embrace digital transformation. This paper
argues that its capacity to do so depends largely on digital entrepreneurial behaviour, culture, and
strategies as well as a supportive innovation ecosystem in which governments, industry, business,
educational institutions and NGOs (non-government organizations) work together.
Digital entrepreneurship, as an emerging phenomenon, fuses and involves stakeholders from different
social and economic sectors. This paper posits that a holistic and integrative approach is needed. For
example, growth in the number of digital entrepreneurs relies on the digital business skills of
individuals as well as systemic support through transformative policies and programs from
governments, industry/business, education and training institutions and the society as a whole. In this
regard, this paper aims to explore the emerging concept of digital entrepreneurship from multiple
disciplinary perspectives, namely, information technology and systems, entrepreneurship and
management, as well as contextual political/legal and socio-economic factors and their impacts in a
holistic and integrative way.
While the term ‘digital entrepreneurship’ has been used by some researchers and policy makers, its
conceptualization remains quite elusive. There is very little scholarship evident in the study field of
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Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Digital Ecosystems ISBN: 978-9963-711-43-7
digital entrepreneurship. Is digital entrepreneurship a sub-set of entrepreneurship associated with
digital technologies? Or is it a sub-set of digital economics associated with entrepreneurship? Or is it
sufficiently important or distinctive to be recognized as a separate field of scholarship? Only recently
have some studies in the entrepreneurship field started to examine the impact of digital technologies on
entrepreneurs’ decision making (Fischer and Reuber 2014; Sigfusson and Chetty 2013) and
entrepreneurial activities for venture development (Allison et al. 2014). There is a lack of conceptual
discussion and development of the concept of digital entrepreneurship as most prior research on using
digital technologies in entrepreneurship examined only sporadic phenomena related to it. Some
important fundamental questions remain largely unanswered in the current literature. For example,
how do digital technologies transform entrepreneurship? How is digital entrepreneurship different
from traditional entrepreneurship? How would digital entrepreneurship predict performance
outcomes? Several review articles on entrepreneurship identify other gaps in understanding the use of
digital technologies by entrepreneurs (Kiss et al. 2012; Mainela et al. 2014).
Recent developments in entrepreneurship research have given increased attention to the novel usage of
digital technologies for entrepreneurship. For instance, Sigfusson & Chetty (2013) report how
international entrepreneurs involved in software in Iceland use social networking sites to develop their
social capital and to identify opportunities. Digital platforms, such as open source communities (Yetis-
larsson et al. 2014), or innovation competition websites (Lampel et al. 2011), can serve as marketplaces
of knowledge and innovations (Dushnitsky and Klueter 2011), or as brokers between solutions seekers
and problems solvers (Fischer and Reuber 2014). Recently crowdfunding has received growing interest
from the IS field (Burtch 2014; Zheng et al. 2014) and such studies provide interesting insights into
funders’ lending behaviors and contribution patterns on crowd-funding websites.
The potential for digital technologies to be a distinct economic influence was recognized some time ago,
such as in the comments by Rosenbaum and Cronin (1993) when they remarked (p. 461) that:
Of much greater importance, however, is the growing awareness among many companies and
entrepreneurs that there is strategic and economic advantage to be gained by becoming involved in the
growth and development of electronic networking …
With improving communication and increasing specialization, opportunities for individual actors to
participate in the digital economy increased. This is identified and, to some extent explained by Yetis-
Larsson, Teigland and Dovbysh (2015). They introduced this concept by saying (p. 475):
In the contemporary economy, work is increasingly becoming freelance-based while moving online. Open
source software communities are rapidly becoming arenas in which individuals identify, co-create, and
realize opportunities through shared resources and expertise. Operating in a communal setting, these
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individuals, who we label open entrepreneurs, work and collaborate with members of their own open source
Yetis-Larsson et al. identify their open entrepreneurs as becoming economically more important and their
work model self-sustaining. In order to realize the potential of digital entrepreneurship government
settings have to be, if not encouraging, at least benign. This was recognized by the OECD as early as
2001 (OECD 2001, p. 8) when it noted that:
Policies that engage ICT, human capital, innovation and entrepreneurship in the growth process, alongside
policies to mobilize labor and increase investment, are likely to bear the most fruit over the longer term.
But to have any chance of succeeding in these areas, governments must ensure that the fundamentals
macroeconomic stability, openness and competition, as well as economic and social institutions are
It is clear that political, economic and social environments all have a role to play in the development of
digital entrepreneurship.
Digital entrepreneurship is a term that appears to have only a vaguely-settled meaning. While it is a
rather complex definition, that used by the European Commission (2015, p.1) appears to be the only
attempt to define digital entrepreneurship up to now:
Digital entrepreneurship embraces all new ventures and the transformation of existing businesses that
drive economic and/or social value by creating and using novel digital technologies. Digital enterprises
are characterized by a high intensity of utilization of novel digital technologies (particularly social, big
data, mobile and cloud solutions) to improve business operations, invent new business models, sharpen
business intelligence, and engage with customers and stakeholders. They create the jobs and growth
opportunities of the future.
Arguably, digital entrepreneurship is probably the most significant single manifestation of
entrepreneurship and has flow-on effects into the structure of business itself. In this regard, digital
entrepreneurship appears likely to have a profound effect on all advanced economies. For example, the
Australian Innovation System Report (2015, p. 46) noted:
The values of entrepreneurial organizations have mostly been heralded for employment generation and
commercialization of new inventions. This is all changing with the rise of the knowledge and digital
economy, where entrepreneurs and the organizations they create are uniquely positioned to exploit new
opportunities, adopt new production methods and technologies, and reshape competition by penetrating
new markets.
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It is reasonable to conclude that digital entrepreneurs will have a profound influence on the further
development of the internet and the digital economy.
According to Murphy et al. (2005) it is primarily entrepreneurship that has been responsible for the
amazing increase in Western per capita income over the past 200-300 years. The continuing importance
of entrepreneurship in Australia is demonstrated by Hendrickson et al. (2015) that the increase in
employment that occurred during the Global Financial Crisis, the greatest economic downturn since
the Great Depression of the 1930s, was attributable to entrepreneurship. As noted by Zahra (1999),
entrepreneurship should be considered as a significant socio-economic development factor in solving
unemployment problems, by providing a wider range of consumer products, and increasing
competitiveness and overall prosperity.
In the context of Australia, with the rapid growth of ICT and digital technologies, the contribution of
the ICT sector to the Australian economy was profound because the direct contribution of the internet
to the Australian economy is around $50 billion, or 3.6% of GDP (AIIA 2015). As recently as 2015, Seek,
the largest job advertising agency in Australia, has reported that 10% of job vacancies are currently in
the ICT sector. Australian research shows that small and medium sized enterprises actively using new
technologies to improve communications and business processes create more new jobs and generate
more revenue than SMEs that use little technology in fact, between 2010 and 2012 SMEs regarded as
leaders in the adoption of technology increased revenues 15 percentage points faster and created jobs at
twice the speed of less progressive companies. A recent PWC analysis estimates that Australian small
businesses can generate additional $49.2 billion revenues in the next ten years by making better use of
digital technologies, of which 53 per cent could be realized in rural and regional Australia (PWC
Australia, 2015). All this evidence demonstrates the importance to the Australian economy of
promoting digital entrepreneurship. To achieve its vision of becoming a global leading digital economy
by 2020 (Australia Government, 2011), we argue that Australia needs a national strategy and a
concerted national effort to grow the digital entrepreneurship that drives the digital economy and
realizes the business value of digital technologies.
Digital entrepreneurship as an emerging concept differs from the traditional and general
entrepreneurship that has been studied for years. The European Commission (2013) identified five
‘pillars’ in its conceptual model of digital entrepreneurship, each of which is relevant in the analysis of
digital entrepreneurship:
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1. Digital knowledge base and ICT market.
2. Digital business environment.
3. Access to finance.
4. Digital skills and e-leadership.
5. Entrepreneurial Culture.
We argue that to study this new phenomenon in an integrative and holistic way, a new conceptual
framework is needed. Figure 1 illustrates our proposed approach to the study of the relationships
amongst variables in a hypothetical process (which is yet to be empirically tested) of digital
entrepreneurship. Given the social and networked nature of digital entrepreneurship, three theories:
social network theory (e.g. Borgatti et al., 2009); social capital theory (e.g. Nahapiet and Ghoshal,
1998); and institutional theory (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983), are selected as the theoretical
foundations for our model. Social networks and social capital commonly appear to interact with each
other in digital entrepreneurship development. For example, open source software (OSS) communities
are increasingly attracting entrepreneurs to create and obtain economic benefits through sharing
knowledge and innovation in the communities (Yetis-Larsson, et al., 2015). The key argument in social
capital theory is that relationships among members in a social network can become or lead to an
important source of social capital (e.g. information, knowledge and resources). The position of
individuals or firms in the network also affects their innovation performance. Studies suggest that the
higher the centrality, the higher the performance (Tan et al., 2014).
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Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Digital Ecosystems ISBN: 978-9963-711-43-7
Social Networks Environmental Influences
Hypothetical Digital
Figure 1. Conceptual Framework for Study of Digital Entrepreneurship
By using these theories, this model helps explore how social networks at individual, institutional and
societal levels, and social capital, online and offline, affect digital opportunity identification and
exploration as well as entrepreneurial outcomes. In particular, this model allows us to investigate the
role and intensity of social networks and social capital in, and the effects of their interaction on, the
development and outcomes of digital entrepreneurship. This line of inquiry will help answer the
following two research questions:
1. What role do social networks play in digital opportunity identification and
exploration at individual, institutional and societal levels?
2. How, and to what extent, do social networks become or lead to an important source of social
capital in digital entrepreneurial development and performance?
The answers to the questions can help examine and test whether and how digital entrepreneurs follow
the same entrepreneurial process as traditional ones, namely, opportunity recognition and
exploration, and entrepreneurial outcomes.
To investigate the environmental influences, in particular, the role of enduring systems or institutions
in the development of digital entrepreneurship, the model draws on institutional theory (DiMaggio
and Powell, 1983). According to institutional theory, institutional forces have many facets, which Scott
(1995) summarized and categorized into three regulatory, social and cultural influences that
promote survival, and legitimacy of an organization. Institutional forces can be formal and informal
Digital opportunity
Social Network
Social Capital
Business &
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(North, 1990). Formal institutions refer to laws, regulations, and their supporting apparatuses and
informal ones could be social norms, values and beliefs. Although institutional theory has been
adopted in entrepreneurship research and proved to be highly useful (Bruton et al., 2010), its
application in digital entrepreneurship research is novel. We argue that the theoretical lens of
institutional theory allows researchers to explore in-depth what and how a society’s regulations and
rules, social norms and culture can do to influence the ecosystem in which digital entrepreneurship
can thrive. Given the important role that the economy and ICT can play, the model also uses them as
environmental forces for the study. This line of inquiry addresses the third and fourth research
questions below. The results of this inquiry will complement the findings from social networks and
social capital perspectives and can help develop sound business and national digital entrepreneurship
strategies to answer the fifth research question below.
3. What and how do digital technologies transform entrepreneurship in the developmental
process and in terms of outcomes?
4. What and how do environment forces (e.g. ICT, economic, regulatory/legal and
social/cultural) influence the process and outcomes of digital entrepreneurship?
5. What support mechanisms, structures, strategies, and performance variables are needed for
Australian digital entrepreneurs and firms to enhance their performance?
There is an arguable case to recognise digital entrepreneurship as a distinct field of academic
scholarship in its own right based on its social and economic importance. The European Commission
has, through its 2013 study into digital entrepreneurship, identified this topic as worthy of specific
analysis. There is a body of scholarship, albeit an apparently quite thin body, related to digital
entrepreneurship that presently exists, and this body of scholarship has found several homes,
principally in the existing areas of digital economy and entrepreneurship. Taking each of these factors
into account there is a case for recognition of digital entrepreneurship as a new and growing area of
scholarship and research. In this regard, the present study paves the way for future research into this
important and yet underexplored study field.
Keywords: Digital entrepreneurship, digital economy, social network theory, social capital theory, institutional
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... Digital entrepreneurship is the critical driver behind the system of innovation. The reason behind this is because digital entrepreneurship affects several levels and the aspects of the system of innovation by making changes in the business system's overall structure comprising of the design, goals and network systems [26,73]. ...
... Entrepreneurial intents and subsequent decision-making processes during establishing a company's goals, identifying new ventures, measuring risks, and formulating appropriate business strategies are all influenced by the entrepreneurs' characteristics [77]. Previous attitudes around enterprise, facilitating conditions, perceived behavioural control, external influences, and the company's current digital maturity influence digital entrepreneurial perspectives [73]. ...
... Access to inexpensive, dependable, high-speed internet connectivity remains a concern in many parts, including affluent countries. Creating a changing and volatile digital corporate culture and addressing fears about digital entrepreneurship is also necessary to facilitate the establishment of online systems and applications [73]. ...
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Entrepreneurial activity is considered the driving force for modern economies and societal development through economic growth, employment generation and the promotion of innovation. This paper seeks to study the growth of the available literature in the academic world and to highlight the trends regarded as 'key' in the realm of digital entrepreneurship by means of the conduct of bibliometric analysis concerning the conceptual background, the assumptions that lie under, the designs of the research along with an analysis of what was contributed to the field and the direction road map pointing out topic areas for further research. An in-depth bibliometric and systematic literature analysis is conducted in accordance with the objectives of the study. As we know the bibliometric analysis of literature can identify research clusters based on the quantity and the quality of the research conducted. Through the use of Vosviewer 1.6.10 software, the authors analyzed 122 articles from the Scopus database. The progress of research on digital entrepreneurship has been studied from 1970 to 2022. It is found that digital entrepreneurship research has gained encouragement after the year 2018. By means of cluster analysis, the authors identified three clusters which revealed a number of closely associated key words. The findings further revealed that the synthesis of topics of recent date which were of interest to scholars have led about the evolution of a large number of topical clusters along with the identification of a change in interest over the days gone past. From a study whose aim was the various economic issues, in the direction of an analysis that has deepened the factors which have led to a number of factors that have contributing for the development of digital entrepreneurial platforms.
... Digital entrepreneurship is a new form of entrepreneurship that emerges from opportunities arising from digitisation and digitalisation causing various disruptive changes for businesses and industries. These changes occur at the intersection of digital technologies and entrepreneurship (Kraus et al., 2019;Zhao and Collier, 2016). ...
... Regarding its definition, digital entrepreneurship is discussed in previous research as being the creation of new ventures and the transformation of existing businesses through digital technologies (von Briel et al., 2018) or the development of novel digital technologies and/or novel usage of such technologies (Zhao and Collier, 2016); or a reconciliation of traditional entrepreneurship with the new way of creating and doing business in the digital era (Le Dinh et al., 2018;Vinogradov et al., 2021). Correspondingly, digital entrepreneurship is defined in this study as a process of embracing new ventures and transforming established ones in the pursuit of opportunities and the creation of new added values through the use of a variety of digital technologies, innovative applications or the development of novel digital ones. ...
Purpose – The aim of this paper, based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and digital entrepreneurship literature, is to unveil the role of digital entrepreneurial knowledge and entrepreneurial role models in shaping digital entrepreneurial intentions (DEI) among Saudi Youth through a moderated mediation perspective. This study proposes that the relationship between digital entrepreneurial knowledge and intention is mediated by main TPB antecedents under the moderating role of entrepreneurial role models. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from a sample of 487 Saudi students from three main Saudi public universities located in Riyadh using an online survey questionnaire. By applying SEM, this study builds and tests the measurement and structural models to examine the hypothesised relationships among main variables. Findings – Results revealed that the main antecedents of TPB (namely, attitudes towards digital entrepreneurship and perceived control behaviour) are significantly related to DEI. In addition, digital entrepreneurial knowledge indicates indirect effects on intentions via these two antecedents. However, entrepreneurial role models exert only a negative and significant moderating effect on the relationship between perceived behaviour control and DEI. Research limitations/implications – This study contributes to the literature by showing how most of the TPB antecedents can play a mediating role between the digital entrepreneurial knowledge and the intentions of Saud Youth. The main limitation of this study is that it was not possible to generalise the findings. Future research directions are proposed to add new insights. Practical implications – The results of this study have clear implications for both theory (entrepreneurship scholars) by investigating DEI and its determinants and for practice (entrepreneurship educators and policymakers) by promoting digital entrepreneurship among youth through university-based awareness and building capability programs and curricula. Originality/value - The study helps to understand the role of digital entrepreneurial knowledge in shaping DEI through the development of an extended TPB intention-based model. The findings also indicate that digital entrepreneurial knowledge has indirect effects on Youth’s intentions. The findings show insights related to the influence of entrepreneurial role models on TPB antecedents in the transitional context of Saudi Arabia.
... The advancement of digitalization brings significant changes in the business ecosystem across the globe [1], and helps businesses to develop beyond their internal market [2]. Digital entrepreneurship is regarded as a basis for generating jobs, innovation and economic growth by many countries [3]. Hence digital entrepreneurship is fundamental part of any economy which is more of a national asset because of the enormous contribution they make. ...
... The world is witnessing a continuous and radical innovations by entrepreneurs leveraging on the power of technology to provide newly developed goods and services via a variety of channels with ease. The use of technology influences businesses by introducing new range of options with considerable business values, the digital economy can therefore, lower the cost for new businesses [3]. Digital technologies are redesigning and restructuring business as well as the economy by creating more jobs and accessibility of more products across the globe. ...
... The proliferation of digital technologies has sparked fresh debate about how new forms of entrepreneurial activity are facilitated (Chalmers et al., 2021). This increase in technological innovation has made entrepreneurs more aware of digital development (Zhao & Collier, 2016). ...
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Digital entrepreneurship is a recent phenomenon that has emerged owing to various factors, including technological innovation. This kind of entrepreneurship is currently implemented in many countries and has the potential to boost the economy and reduce poverty by creating employment and self-employment. This paper primarily looks to analyse the influence of technological innovation on the growth of digital entrepreneurship, and its effects on the economy through growth in employment. In the absence of any systematic review on this subject, this study aims to map the relevant research and study the relationship between technological innovation and digital entrepreneurship. A Systematic Literature Review methodology based on a sample of 76 papers from the Scopus and Web of Science databases, published between 1990 and 2022, has been used to identify, select, and evaluate published research. The results confirm that technological innovation is an important driver of digital entrepreneurship, but it needs to be combined with other key factors, such as digital knowledge and skills. This study contributes to existing literature by providing a more realistic view of what digital entrepreneurship means for individuals’ prosperity and generates valuable knowledge to create necessary conditions to promote sustainable and successful digital entrepreneurship. It also identifies several future lines of research that should offer meaningful value to academics and practitioners.
... Virtual entrepreneurship, which has revolutionized businesses in the new world order, is a distinctive type of entrepreneurship as it develops new tools to facilitate the business processes of entrepreneurs [42]. Virtual entrepreneurship includes developing new digital technologies and creating new areas where these technologies can be used, starting new ventures, or digital transformation of existing businesses [43]. Some entrepreneurship can be realized with digital methods instead of traditional applications [44]. ...
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In this study, an in-depth literature review method was applied. Period; It examines academic studies and current information on the internet and its interpretation of entrepreneurship in the metaverse world. For those who want to be entrepreneurs in the world of Metaverse, business opportunities, conveniences and difficulties of Metaverse are evaluated. The concepts of virtual reality and virtual world, which are the leading steps of the rapidly developing digital age, are gaining importance. The metaverse world, which leads them and breaks new ground in the virtual world, is a universe in which it is predicted that investors will make large investments in terms of technology and economy. For this purpose, the researcher examined studies in the metaverse literature, and as a result of these studies, the subject of entrepreneurship in the metaverse world was discussed. In the metaverse world, the study results on entrepreneurship are seen as an opportunity to be seized economically. Those who will participate in the upcoming metaverse shift will seize this great opportunity. Another finding is that taking place in the metaverse world is not suitable for the time being in terms of costs. To avoid being affected by increasing costs, it is recommended that entrepreneurial individuals first determine a good idea and make a good feasibility study on how to realise this idea in the virtual world. This article is an original study that addresses the benefits, conveniences and challenges of being an entrepreneur in the Metaverse world. The literature review found no investigation on entrepreneurship in the Metaverse world. The fact that the Metaverse has the potential to have great effects on the business world and social life standards in the future makes this research more interesting. In addition, by specifying the impact of Metaverse on the business world, it has been tried to shed light on the problems and opportunities that large or small-scale enterprises and entrepreneurs will face in the future.
... According to Zhao and Collier (2016) , "digital entrepreneurship" may be defined as "the emergence of new enterprises and the transformation of incumbent firms through the invention of innovative digital technologies and/or the creative application of such emerging technologies." A growing number of nations recognise that entrepreneurial activity in the digital sphere is an important driver of increased productivity and economic growth, as well as job creation and technological advancement. ...
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The goal of this study is to test the most famous theory in the field of intention, namely TPB model. A total of 248 students in four programs (MIS, Management, Accounting and Finance) at University of Hail, participated in this survey. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The study model was tested using Amos. The findings of this study supported all the hypotheses, which means that the TPB model is applicable in Saudi Arabia. As a result, in this study, the model was applied in the field of Entrepreneurship Intention to help develop the field of entrepreneurship amongst Saudi youth in general and support the digital Entrepreneurship Intention of young people at the university level. In turn, this study is expected to have an effect on the contribution of young entrepreneurs to the economic and social development of the country.
The purpose of this chapter is to provide a methodological framework for assessing digital entrepreneurial competencies (DEC) of university students and to point out the importance of different socio-demographic, institutional, and contextual factors as drivers of DEC levels. The chapter provides a roadmap for measuring DEC levels of university students along with the detailed corresponding methodology. The preliminary results of the pilot study targeting the first competence area of the corresponding DEC framework (EmDigital) and conducted simultaneously in Kuwait and Serbia are also presented in this chapter, demonstrating the perceived DEC levels and exact DEC levels of university students in two countries. Those results indicate that different factors drive the DEC levels of university students. This is the first research of this kind in academic literature.
Online learning during the pandemic has an impact on the development of the use of learning media. This study aims to describe the Indonesian language learning media in elementary schools. This research is classified as a systematic literature review with the following procedure: (1) setting the background and objectives, (2) making research questions, (3) searching for literature, (4) selecting criteria, (5) quality check-lists and procedures, and (6) data analysis and synthesis. The database used to search for literature is Google Scholar. Searching the data using the keywords "Indonesian language learning and learning media in elementary schools". After that, screening was carried out to get scientific articles for 2017-2022 that discussed Indonesian language learning media in elementary schools. The search results totaled 54 articles were analyzed and synthesized. The analytical technique used is the narrative method by grouping the extracted data. The results showed that the most research articles were reviewed in terms of the year of publication, the design, the research subject, the object of research, the type of media in a row is 2020 by 39%, research development is 39%, the subject of 5th grade elementary school students is 22%, the object of learning Indonesian language in general amounted to 43%, the types of media used were story books and audio-visuals as much as 22% and 13%, respectively. The results of this study are very useful for teachers to make or choose the right learning media in learning Indonesian.
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This research paper is the first in a series to explore the dynamics of employment and productivity growth in Australian firms using the newly created Expanded Analytical Business Longitudinal Database. This paper examines the contribution of young firms, particularly start-ups, to net job creation in the Australian economy between 2001-2011. The results show that young SMEs contribute disproportionately to job creation. Young SMEs (firms aged 0-5 years) made the highest contribution to net job creation in Australia (40 per cent) and start-up activity (firms aged 0-2 years) is responsible for most of this growth. Australia's start-up activity is high but they tend to reach smaller sizes relative to other OECD countries examined to date. A very small fraction (3 per cent) of start-ups drive the majority (77 per cent) of their post-entry job creation. These high growth start-ups also show superior sales and profit performance but lower labour productivity performance compared to other surviving start-ups. JEL Codes: J21, L26, M13, O31, O57
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Our paper presents a conceptual history of the development of the entreprenership field. The dynamism of conceptual movements in the entrepreneurship field has created theory development marked by volatile concepts and transient scholars. Nonetheless, it is the fastest growing field in the domain of business studies and the fastest growing division in the Academy of Management. We undertake to chronicle key concepts driving this recent activity by beginning with prehistoric conceptual foundations of entrepreneurship and tracing them into the present day. Our analysis employs a logical mechanism of conjecture and refutation to illustrate the emergence, rise, re-emergence, and/or decline of key theories and concepts within the context of (a) prehistoric, (b) classical, (c) neoclassical, (d) Austrian market process, and (e) multidisciplinary conceptual movements. The contributions of our paper include a clearer perspective on the conceptual roots of the entrepreneurship field as a scholarly area and the relevance of influential conceptual notions and their impact on entrepreneurial thought (e.g., arbitraging market, equilibrium models). Contributions also include a contextualizing of contemporary entrepreneurship theory, such as recent work focusing on the role of opportunities in the entrepreneurial discovery process. Finally, we detail implications for the way ahead in the entrepreneurship field as a scholarship-based discipline.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to capture and understand the nature of the relationship between e-government development and the digital economy. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on the Technology Acceptance Model and Fountain’s technology enactment theory, a multidimensional research model was developed. The model was tested empirically through an international study of 67 countries using reputable archival data, primarily including the UN’s e-government survey and the Economist Intelligence Unit’s digital economy rankings. Findings – The empirical findings indicate a strong positive reciprocal (two-way) relationship between e-government development and the digital economy. This finding provides empirical evidence to support the general notion of “co-evolution” between technology and organisations. The study also finds that along with social, economic, political, technological and demographic factors, certain national cultural characteristics have significant effects on the digital economy and e-government development. Research limitations/implications – Relying on archival global data sets, this study is constrained by the coverage and formulation of the data set indices, the sample size (67 countries), and the impossibility of detecting errors that may occur in the process of data collection. Therefore, caution should be taken when making generalisations about the findings of this study. Originality/value – The paper addresses a deficit of empirical research that is supported by sound and established theories to explain short-term dynamics and the long-term impact of the digital economy on public administration. The study contributes to a more accurate and comprehensive understanding of the dynamic relationship between e-government development and the digital economy.
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Over the last three decades, the prevailing view of information technology strategy has been that it is a functional-level strategy that must be aligned with the firm's chosen business strategy. Even within this socalled alignment view, business strategy directed IT strategy. During the last decade, the business infrastructure has become digital with increased interconnections among products, processes, and services. Across many firms spanning different industries and sectors, digital technologies (viewed as combinations of information, computing, communication, and connectivity technologies) are fundamentally transforming business strategies, business processes, firm capabilities, products and services, and key interfirm relationships in extended business networks. Accordingly, we argue that the time is right to rethink the role of IT strategy, from that of a functional-level strategy-aligned but essentially always subordinate to business strategy-to one that reflects a fusion between IT strategy and business strategy. This fusion is herein termed digital business strategy. We identify four key themes to guide our thinking on digital business strategy and help provide a framework to define the next generation of insights. The four themes are (1) the scope of digital business strategy, (2) the scale of digital business strategy, (3) the speed of digital business strategy, and (4) the sources of business value creation and capture in digital business strategy. After elaborating on each of these four themes, we discuss the success metrics and potential performance implications from pursuing a digital business strategy. We also show how the papers in the special issue shed light on digital strategies and offer directions to advance insights and shape future research.
Scholars of the theory of the firm have begun to emphasize the sources and conditions of what has been described as “the organizational advantage,” rather than focus on the causes and consequences of market failure. Typically, researchers see such organizational advantage as accruing from the particular capabilities organizations have for creating and sharing knowledge. In this article we seek to contribute to this body of work by developing the following arguments: (1) social capital facilitates the creation of new intellectual capital; (2) organizations, as institutional settings, are conducive to the development of high levels of social capital; and (3) it is because of their more dense social capital that firms, within certain limits, have an advantage over markets in creating and sharing intellectual capital. We present a model that incorporates this overall argument in the form of a series of hypothesized relationships between different dimensions of social capital and the main mechanisms and processes necessary for the creation of intellectual capital.
Tomorrow's global marketplace will reward companies that value entrepreneurial risk-taking, invest heavily in developing their intellectual capital, promote individual growth, and adopt policies that are environmentally friendly. Successful competitiveness in the 21st century will demand the use of visionary and dedicated leadership, a balanced scorecard that enhances corporate accountability, and sustained investment in creating dynamic capabilities. It will also require the effective management of intangible resources and assets to achieve growth. A number of important conclusions are evident from the articles appearing in this special issue.
In the contemporary economy, work is increasingly becoming freelance-based while moving online. Open source software communities are rapidly becoming arenas in which individuals identify, cocreate, and realize opportunities through shared resources and expertise. Operating in a communal setting, these individuals, who we label open entrepreneurs, work and collaborate with members of their own open source community. In this article, we investigate how networked work benefits open entrepreneurs, and in particular, we focus on how open entrepreneurs are connected to other community members and how these networks affect entrepreneurial processes. Our results suggest that through different aspects of networked work, open entrepreneurs fulfill their profit motives not only in the short term but also in the long term as their networking activities facilitate the overall functioning and sustainability of the community.