ArticlePDF Available

Design and Implementation of Smart Office Automation System

International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887)
Volume 151 No.3, October 2016
Design and Implementation of Smart Office
Automation System
Renuka Bhuyar
PG student
Department ECE,
Dr. D.Y Patil School of
Saniya Ansari
Assistant Professor
Department ECE,
Dr. D.Y Patil School of
Automation plays very important role in our lives. It makes
the work easier and simpler so for simplified and easy
living, Smart office automation system is designed in this
system. This system is based on subsystems like lighting,
heating. Security and alarming systems are also present.
The sensors are used to extract the real time data from
environment. Sensors are connected to the ARM 11
Controller. It processes the data and gives the output. Fan,
bulb, buzzer are output devices connected to the controller
which will work when the system crosses the threshold
value. The sensor’s data is continuously recorded.
Fingerprint Identification module is used for security
purpose. Fire alarm and emergency call is given to the
service room. This data is stored in PC. This data can be
viewed on other PC’s through Network switch. The data
can be seen on the webpage and on GUI.
Office automation system, Security and alarming systems,
emergency call.
Nowadays most of the people spend lot of time in offices.
Office environment should be leisurely so that the
employees can give their best as office environment
directly affects the working efficiency of
employees/workers. So comfort is must and it is needed in
office. In earlier decades technology at its best meant a fax
machine and an electronic typewriter; today it's an iPad
connected to the cloud solution. A smart office is a place
that makes life easy for employees and customers, which
empowers it and increases their ability to stay connected.
This is achieved by making use of various advanced
technology and different tools and solutions to improve the
efficiency of users. As the physical boundaries are being
bridged, a competitive and complex world focuses on
innovation and creativity is being developed. The world is
greatly experiencing the emergence of intelligent growth
zones so smart office- has fast become the need of the
A smart office is something that ensures the effective and
optimal utilisation of IT resources and physical
infrastructure. In other words, in today's generation of
information technology offices are automated. There is
need for transparent technological advanced environment.
Thus the office automation allows the systems to become
more transparent, it enables sharing of information more
openly, which creates an opportunity for making an great
impact across the functioning of the industrial sector and
business. The use of various communication tools in the
system and effective advanced automation, shows the
positive impact on the growth of company or any
organization and business over a period of time. The
elimination of internal reporting processes, i.e. in/out
timings of the workers by an open office arrangement is
the advantage of smart office. The productivity can be
increased through enhanced communication among team
members which affects in the result. A smart office is to be
designed to release full potential of employees and the
workforce. It’s not a miracle just innovative thinking and
new technology that best fits people’s needs. Office
automation among other things facilitates real time
communication and easy documentation.
Building sector is one of the main cause of the global
energy consumption. It consumes nearly one third of total
energy consumption. Smart building is like a smart home
that optimizes efficiency, comfort and safety by collecting
and analyzing sensor data intelligently. Modern buildings
contain complex mechanical devices, sophisticated control
systems and various features to improve the safety,
productivity of occupants.
A smart building can be considered a super system of
subsystems interconnected with building. The smart
building requires connectivity between all the systems and
equipments in a building. It helps building managers to
visualize information and make fast and precise decisions.
The smart building can be made by using various
strategies. Through a building automation or building
management system, the automatic centralized control of a
building's different sub-systems i.e. lighting ,heating,
ventilation and air conditioning, and other systems are
achieved. Objectives of building automation system are
improved efficient operation of building systems, occupant
comfort, and decrease in energy consumption and
operating costs, and improve life cycle of utilities.
Building architectures consumes lot of energy. Significant
amount of energy can be saved by managing the electric
consumption in commercial buildings. Because of these
issues, the concept of Smart office emerges. This design
concept of smart office can be applied to whole building,
i.e. smart office building which reduces the energy
consumption. Security plays a vital role in day to day’s
life. The advent of fast growing technologies makes users
to have high security systems. The systems should be
highly secured. These identification technologies include
ATM and other intelligent cards, user password based
systems, and many other. But unfortunately these systems
are unsecure due to hacker attacks, thefts, and forgotten
passwords. RFID is also been used in security purpose. But
the disadvantage of RFID is that it can be stolen or some
other person can also used that ID and enter. This is not at
all safe. In spite of all these shortcomings and malfunctions
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887)
Volume 151 No.3, October 2016
the most efficient and reliable solution for security is the
biometric or fingerprint authentication based identification.
In this system, a comprehensive smart office system
concentrated lighting, heating, security; alarm system is
designed in order to save energy and to promote the
satisfactions of the employees. With a multifaceted
approach, Smart Energy Solutions achieves energy savings
that capitalizes on human behaviour. By recognizing the
fundamental role humans play in energy consumption, this
implemented system shows the way to reduce it.
Various research papers related to office automation and
smart automation systems are referred. Researchers have
put focus on different controlling systems, subsystems and
have controlled different parameters of smart office.
Various processing parameters and results of various
papers are discussed in this section.
Hang Li,In this system a comprehensive smart office
system concentrated on door-access, lighting, illuminating,
ventilating, heating, and reconfiguration is designed in
order to save energy and promote the satisfactions of the
employees[1].Catalian B. Et al, this system presents the
study on how it is possible to ensure the indoor office
comfort, indoor comfort is the important types of comfort
(visual, acoustic, thermal, air quality, etc.) and how each of
them could be analyzed. This system have discussed
thermal comfort[2].Pellegrino, A. et al, This system have
focused on some results that are aimed at being
developing an eventdriven user-centric middleware. This
system have monitored and managed the energy
consumption in already existing public building. The
system was adopted and used in different building
construction.[3]. Gupta, S.K et al, In this system a
distributed solution which ensures that a consensus is
attained among all occupants, irrespective of their ideal
temperature preferences being in coherence or conflicting.
Gaspare Boscarino et al, This system presents a simulation
environment and day lighting control strategy to achieve
energy-efficient lighting while it also provides desired
lighting levels at the target points. The lighting strategy is
based on a self-tuning multivariable controller, which
maintains the illuminance levels at user-defined set-points
which improves the energy consumption due to artificial
lighting.[5] Kemal Akkaya et al, In this system the major
challenges are to achieve occupancy monitoring in a
minimally intrusive way, e.g., using the existing
infrastructure in the buildings. Also it does not require the
installation of any app in the users’ smart devices. To
develop effective data fusion techniques for improving
occupancy monitoring accuracy using different sources is
other challenge. This system surveys the existing works
multi-modal data fusion techniques for smart commercial
buildings and occupancy monitoring [6].
Shiquin Shen et al, This system proposes a novel mobility
simulation framework based on behaviour patterns for
office environments. Simulation time controller is the base
part, on which we model the structure of offices and define
behaviour patterns [7].Nati, M et al, This system presents
the outcomes of a study that examines human interactions
and mobility patterns in indoor spaces such as office
environments. An initial analysis of these traces provides
deeper insights into the encounter characteristics between
static infrastructure devices and human-held devices. The
presented findings also confirm that opportunities between
mobile devices derived from observations of infrastructure
devices can introduce significant errors into the modelling
of such encounters [8].
Tangjian Deng et al, A smart meeting room usually refers
to a working environment, which provides meeting
attendees with a highly effective information acquisition
and exchange space, with an aim to improve the working
and decision-making efficiency. System abstracts devices
spontaneous interoperations into three categories and
present design and implementation of a context-aware
spontaneous interoperation of information devices in
building a smart meeting room [9]. Giovanni Bettinazzi et
al has proposed a general method and algorithms to
interconnect residential smart buildings with smart grids.
Such integration system has the ability to deal with the
smart building to forecast its energy consumption; the
proposed method is able to learn to use of such information
to forecast the energy consumption and the building
occupants habits. For selecting the most appropriate
appliance usage scheduling it presents a method giving a
energy reduction request coming from the smart grid [10].
In the above mentioned systems parameters like
Temperature (Heating, ventilating systems), light are used.
Also in other papers the authors have focussed on single
parameter greatly. While in this system Smoke sensor is
used for fire alert and fingerprint identification module is
used for security purpose which is added.
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887)
Volume 151 No.3, October 2016
Fig.1: Block diagram of smart office system
The smart office is designed for users comfort and leisure.
It works on automatic and manual mode. In automatic
mode the working of system will depend On/off conditions
of various sub-systems i.e. lightning and ventilating. The
block diagram of smart office system is showed in
Figure.1.It consists of various sensors attached to the
Motion sensor will detect the presence of any person. It
also counts the number of people entered in office. The
system will get activate only in presence of person.PIR
Motion sensor is used. Light sensor will detect the
presence of light. If light intensity increases or decreases
below or above some value, the bulb will glow. The
system will then automatically adjust the light intensity
according to the atmosphere.LDR is the sensor used. The
temperature sensor will sense the surrounding temperature.
If the temperature increase/decrease the fan will be ON.
LM 35 is the sensor used. Smoke sensor will detect for the
presence of smoke/fire. Alarm/buzzer will get activate in
presence of smoke/fire.MQ-3 is the sensor used. If there is
presence of smoke/fire call will be given to the Fire
extinguisher and to the service rooms that immediate
service can be provided. All the sensed data is send to the
ARM 11Controller.The data is displayed on LCD display.
This data sensed through different sensors is then send to
computer and is stored in Office’s database. This data is
then send to other computers in service room from where
the data is being monitored. The data can be controlled and
monitor from service rooms. Other computers are
connected to the main computer via Network switch. The
smart office data can be remotely monitored through
Android or any internet enabled device. Call will be given
to the office admin if there are any changes in the
parameters of office. If there is any accidental emergency,
the system calls the ambulance and message is send to the
service room.
3.1 Fingerprint Identification Module:
It is used for the security purpose. It can be placed at the
entry gate in office. It will contain the enrolled fingerprints
of all the employees. So only the enrolled persons (whose
fingerprints are enrolled) will be allowed to enter the
office. If any other person tries to enter, it will show no
match on LCD.
Fig.2: Fingerprint identification module used as
security system
ARM 11
Motion Sensor
Light Sensor
Temperature Sensor
Smoke Sensor
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887)
Volume 151 No.3, October 2016
3.2 Alarm Security System
In this system, if there is presence of smoke above the
threshold value, the buzzer will be ON.As the buzzer will
be ON, with the help of GSM Module, call will be given to
the authorized user. So we will be come to know if there is
an emergency. The snapshot of incoming call on
authorized user is as shown in Fig.3.
Fig.3:Showing call on authorized user.
The step by step procedure for Office automation system is
showed in the Algorithm.
1) Start
2) Microcontroller Initialization
3) LCD Initialization
4) ADC Initialization
5) UART Initialization
6) IO Initialization
7) Check for Entry PIR sensor
8) If detected, display Person Detected on LCD.
Make PIR flag high
9) Else display No Person on LCD. Make PIR flag
10) Select ADC channel 0 for temp sensor
11) Wait for ADC conversion complete
12) Calibrate temperature
13) Check for temp threshold
14) If threshold cross, and PIR flag is high Fan ON
else OFF
15) ADC channel1 select for LDR sensor
16) Wait for ADC conversion complete
17) Check for light threshold
18) If threshold cross, and PIR flag is high Bulb ON
else OFF
19) ADC channel2 select for humidity sensor
20) Wait for ADC conversion complete
21) Check for light threshold
22) If threshold cross, Buzzer ON else Off
23) Send all sensors data to serial port 0
24) Display it on GUI
25) Send all these values to WAMP server
26) Access this info on another Wi-Fi enabled
27) Repeat steps 8 to 27
Fig.4:Flowchart of system.
Check for sensor’s input
Send data to Wamp
Controlling device
will be ON
Controlling device will
be OFF
Display on GUI
Access this
information on
enabled device
& IO
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887)
Volume 151 No.3, October 2016
Fig.5: Hardware structure
Fig.5:shows the complete structure of hardware of
proposed system. Which have used ARM lpc1769𝜇c,
Buzzer, relays, transformer, LCD display , Fans , LED
bulbs and sensors (Temperature, , Smoke, PIR and LDR
sensors).And for seeing the results of this system we need
one PC and personal mobile. By combined all these
elements made a new application for Smart automation for
office Environment successfully. We can see the results of
sensors on the LCD display and at the same time we can
continuously observed the same results on Wamp server of
the PC .Firstly, when give the power supply of the system,
we can observe the output on the LCD screen is the name
of project. Before start the micro controller, we should ON
the GSM modem and wait for its connectivity. As GSM
modem is connected, so we need to do ON the power
supply of ARM microcontroller. After connectivity of
GSM, we can see the results of all sensors on the LCD
display. This shows the system result on PC as
GUI(Graphical user interface).COM port have to be
selected. The GUI system settings can be changed. This
window has to be close before ending Eclipse software.
Fig.6:Snapshot of webpage.
This shows the sensors data on Webpage .It can be
attached to other PC’s in the service room. This data can
be viewed as it is on mobile screen also. For this we have
to enter the url of webpage on server.
The illuminating, lighting, heating, ventilating ,door
access, smoke detection systems are being designed.
Fingerprint biometric is used for security purpose. Other
person cannot enter the office area. Fire alarm system is
used. Whenever the threshold is crossed, Alarm will be
ON and call will be given on mobile in service room. The
smart office system in the system is based on an
independent smart office and then expanded to the whole
smart building. In this smart office system, two working
modes automatic mode and manual mode are use. The
manual mode is viewed as a supplement of the automatic
This study is useful for the smart automation systems for
office environment and in understanding the different
subsystems for office use by using ARM controller and it
is used to reduce the power consumption. It is also useful
in studying fully automated systems in office and industrial
This system of smart office can be extended to whole
building. Energy consumption can be reduced to great
extent if this system is applied to whole building. As the
smart office is not only a product of modern technology,
but also a product that can save energy. This system can
be helpful to energy saving and employee´s satisfactions.
Comparisons between the real office environment power
consumption and smart office environment power
consumption should be made. And then comparisons
should be made under different methods.
[1] Hang Li;Inst of Autom.& Inf.Sys., Tech. Univ.
Munchen, Garching, Germany“A novel design for a
comprehensive smart automation system for the office
environment” Emerging Technology and Factory
Automation (ETFA), 2014 IEEE
[2] Catalin Bujdei and Sorin Aurel ,Moraru Brasov,
Romania Ensuring Comfort in Office Buildings:
Designing a KNX Monitoring and Control System”
Intelligent Environments (IE), 2011 7th International
Conference IEEE,2011
[3] Anna Pellegrino, Valerio R.M. Lo Verso, Laura
Blaso “Lighting control and monitoring for energy
efficiency: a case study focused on the
interoperability of building management systems”
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions
on (Volume:PP , Issue: 99 )
[4] Gupta, S.K. , Mishra, S. ,Wen, J.T. “Collaborative
Energy and Thermal Comfort Management Through
Distributed Consensus Algorithms”Automation
Science and Engineering, IEEE Transactions
on (Volume:12 , Issue: 4 ) 2015
[5] Gaspare Boscarino , Mehrdad Moallem “Daylighting
Control and Simulation for LED-Based Energy-
Efficient Lighting Systems” IEEE Transactions on
Industrial Informatics (Volume:12 , Issue: 1 )2015
[6] Kemal Akkaya et al “IoT-based Occupancy
Monitoring Techniques for Energy-Efficient Smart
Buildings” IEEE 2015
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887)
Volume 151 No.3, October 2016
[7] Shiquin Shen,Nanjing,Ningning Cheng,Guihai Chen
“A Behvior Pettern Based Mobility Simulation
Framwork for Office Environments”Wireless
Communications and Networking
Conference,2009WCNC 2009,IEEE
[8] Gluhak, A. ; Martelli, F. ; Verdone, R. “Measuring
and Understanding Opportunistic Co-presence
Patterns in Smart Office Spaces” Green Computing
and Communications (GreenCom), 2013 IEEE and
Internet of Things (iThings/CPSCom), IEEE
International Conference on and IEEE Cyber,
Physical and Social Computing
[9] Tangjian Deng , Feng, L. ; Yue Suo ; Yu Chen
Spontaneous Interoperation of Information
Appliances in a Smart Meeting Room” Intelligent
Systems and Applications (ISA), 2010 2nd
International Workshop
[10] Donatella, Sciuto;Politec di
Milano,Milan,Italy;Alessandro Antonio Nacci “On
how to design smart energy-efficient buildings”
Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing(EUC),2014
12th IEEE International Conference.
... However, humans spend much of their day in offices (almost 8 hours in Office at Work). Hence, offices should also be made much more comfortable to protect human health, reduce risk, and improve employee efficiency [3] [4]. An office can be made more comfortable like a home with automated lighting, remotely controlled and monitored using a smartphone. ...
... On the aspect of smart work and living in an office, [4] presents a smart office with subsystems; lighting, heating, security, and alarm system, on which sensors extract real-time data from the environment that is controlled and processed by the ARM controller giving the output to the fan, bulb, buzzer that makes a reaction when the systems exceed the magnitude and intensity value. They also analyze weak and insecure security systems and recommend using the fingerprint identification biometric module for a highly secured system due to the fast and growing technologies that need a highly secured system instead of using the RFID that can be stolen and used that specific Identification to enter. ...
... Monitoring berbasis web yang bisa diakses oleh HRGA dari lokal maupun dari jaringan internet yang memuat antarmuka monitoring absensi karyawan, kontrol perangkat elektronik serta manajemen jaringan internet. Penelitian serupa pada tahun 2016, dilakukan oleh R. Bhuyar [9] dan timnya mengenai desain dan implementasi sistem otomatis kantor pintar untuk mengontrol lampu, pemanas, ventilasi, kunci pintu dan deteksi asap. Penelitian dilakukan pada tahap prototype. ...
... Sistem dan perangkat pintar menjadi topik yang banyak diteliti pada dekade terakhir [8], [9], [12]. Sistem pada kantor pintar dapat dikatakan "pintar" apabila setiap perangkat dan layanan yang berada di kantor dapat mendukung secara penuh setiap kegiatan karyawan yang bekerja di kantor tersebut. ...
Full-text available
A smart office system is a complex system. The system consists of software and hardware that are interconnected with existing equipment in the office. With the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, it can facilitate the smart office system in the process of data communication through the internet network. The research was conducted at PT. Media Facilities Data Area NTB. The company is an internet service company headquartered in the Denpasar, Bali regional office. The company has a complaint about the lack of facilities to monitor and control facilities located in area offices throughout the province of West Nusa Tenggara (NTB). The complaint occurs because the service area is growing, there will be more branch offices in the area to accommodate the teams and services in each branch so that it will be increasingly difficult to monitor and control each of these offices. The method used in designing the smart office system is the research and development (R&D) method. Smart office system aims to make it easier to monitor and control equipment and assets in the office. The result of this research is that the design and implementation of the smart office system have been successfully built. The system can facilitate the HRGA (Human Resource and General Affairs) department in managing and monitoring employees, internet networks and office facilities. The system design that has been built has been successfully tested with a success rate of 100% RFID card reading, 90% control over office facilities, and 80% attendance data.
... Smart office diyakini efektif dalam pemanfaatan teknologi informasi dengan sistem otomasi. [2] Sebagaimana diketahui, kantor mempunyai banyak alatalat operasional seperti lampu sebagai penerangan, air conditioner (AC) sebagai pendingin ruangan, dan lain sebagainya. Saat ini untuk menyalakan peralatan tersebut masih menggunakan sistem manual sehingga tidak tercapai efisiensi waktu yang baik. ...
Perkembangan teknologi digital berdampak besar terhadap aktivitas perkantoran, salah satunya yaitu konsep smart office. Konsep ini menggabungkan automation, monitoring, dan controlling yang dapat memudahkan karyawan untuk mengakses perangkat kantor secara langsung melalui web server. Hal tersebut dapat menghemat waktu dan energi dalam bekerja. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan rancangan prototipe smart office untuk ruang kerja dosen yang dapat memantau dan mengontrol penggunaan peralatan melalui web server. Prototipe smart office dibangun dengan menggunakan Wemos D1-R2 yang berbasis ESP-8266, sensor DHT11, PZEM-004t, relay 8 channel, solenoid door lock, dan Lithium ion battery (Li-ion) 12V. Hasil pengujian prototipe didapatkan sistem smart office ini dapat menghemat waktu dengan selisih 52,19 detik saat memasuki ruangan dan 57,25 detik saat keluar ruangan, serta dapat menghemat penggunaan energi listrik sebesar 45,89% atau sebesar 4.121,08 Wh.
In this contemporary society, the Internet of things (IoT) is a cutting-edge technology that is making our lives more convenient. IoT refers to the “things” that connect over the Internet, each with a unique identifier so that they can send or receive information. This advanced technology is extended to make a better automated workplace that is more user-friendly and energy-efficient. Our main objective is to provide an environment that will make independent decisions to ensure an optimal and secure workplace. These decisions will be based on manual user preferences and sensor readings. Thus, it provides a workplace where people need not worry about external factors. This system ensures theft protection via trip sensors which allows only authenticated users to unlock the door using RFID cards and also provides some entertainment factors in office canteens and relaxing areas only on human movement detection. A fire alarm alerts the users about the outbreak of fire, and the solar power battery charging makes the electrical devices work automatically. The smoke sensor enables the detection of car motion and opens the garage for parking. All these IoT devices are connected to end devices, and thus, they can also be operated manually. The proposed work is a user-friendly smart window that automatically opens and closes based on the detection of light and rain using both photosensor and rain sensors. Thus, the workplace has lesser human work proving to be automated in all aspects, and also, the advent of this system can overcome the squandered energy usage in the existing system.KeywordsInternet of things (IoT)SensorsRadio frequency identification (RFID)Node MCUWorkplace-office
The Internet of Things (IoT) has been widely emerging in various sectors with a very wide range of sensors and wireless networks. It is used in many fields like the educational sector, health sector, agricultural sector, even in the construction industry. The study focuses on the implementation of IoT in commercial complexes of India as well as the barriers faced by different stakeholders throughout the lifecycle of the project, which were further categorized into three types. The objective was achieved by quantifying the responses collected from the respondents using correlation method. The variables considered for the correlation analysis were age, awareness, usage, and agreement. Also, benefits of using IoT were observed for this study. KeywordsInternet of ThingsLighting and temperature adjustmentSmart parkingCommercial complexes
The technology of automation is playing a very vital role in human’s life. It makes the work trouble-free and effortless. This paper deals with the conception and practice of an automated office system using node MCU along with a mobile application. This system is based on different but crucial functionalities such as raising alarms if noise levels pass the required thresholds, checking the quality of air, watching the heat and wetness of the atmosphere at work, and detection of really bright sources of light like fire which may hinder the progress. To observe the workplace remotely, an android mobile application is developed with the help of sensors that provide real-time information over wireless networks. This application helps in preventing the hazardous event to happen, thereby creating a safer environment for the workforce.
The arrival of autonomous systems powered by artificial intelligence (AI) offers new possibilities for life, yet the focus tends to be more on the technology than the people it serves. Planners should consider the likely reception awaiting emerging intelligent systems. Using an online survey of 3,249 faculty, staff, and students at a major research university, we tested perceptions of autonomy, including domotics and autonomous vehicles. Embracing the new technology with variations in attitude associated with age, gender, and familiarity with new technology, people’s openness to AI-enabled devices applies if they remain a tool to support work and not replace human-centered interactions.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the proliferation of Internet of Things (IoT) devices such as smartphones, sensors, cameras, and RFIDs, it is possible to collect massive amount of data for localization and tracking of people within commercial buildings. Enabled by such occupancy monitoring capabilities, there are extensive opportunities for improving the energy consumption of buildings via smart HVAC control. In this respect, the major challenges we envision are 1) to achieve occupancy monitoring in a minimally intrusive way, e.g., using the existing infrastructure in the buildings and not requiring installation of any apps in the users' smart devices, and 2) to develop effective data fusion techniques for improving occupancy monitoring accuracy using a multitude of sources. This paper surveys the existing works on occupancy monitoring and multi-modal data fusion techniques for smart commercial buildings. The goal is to lay down a framework for future research to exploit the spatio-temporal data obtained from one or more of various IoT devices such as temperature sensors, surveillance cameras, and RFID tags that may be already in use in the buildings. A comparative analysis of existing approaches and future predictions for research challenges are also provided.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper presents some results of a project carried out within the 7th European Research Framework Program, aimed at developing an event–driven user-centric middleware for monitoring and managing energy consumption in public buildings. One of the strengths of the designed system is to allow an easy integration of heterogeneous technologies and their hardware independent interoperability. This is a feature of great importance to existing buildings, where standing controls could be integrated with new technologies to enhance a greater building energy efficiency. The functionality of the system has been tested in some representative spaces of existing public buildings. Control strategies and hardware infrastructures have been defined to manage the operation of HVAC and lighting plants. The paper focuses on the results obtained by applying the designed system and control strategies to the electric lighting plants of different office spaces.
This paper presents a simulation environment and daylighting control strategy to achieve energy-efficient lighting while providing desired lighting levels at the target points. The lighting strategy is based on a self-tuning multivariable controller, which maintains the illuminance levels at user-defined set-points while improving the energy consumption due to artificial lighting. The simulation environment utilizes the so-called layered lighting design, which allows one to evaluate the performance of different control strategies. Furthermore, the environment can be used to validate the performance of a lighting control strategy, in quasi-real-time, and assess its potential energy savings. The above approach has not been investigated in prior literature and may thus be of interest in energy-aware automated lighting systems. A case study is presented for an open-plan office space exposed to variable natural light through windows and a set of individually addressable light emitting diode luminaries.
Buildings with shared spaces such as corporate office buildings, university dorms, etc., are occupied by multiple occupants who typically have different temperature preferences. Attaining a common temperature set-point that is agreeable to all users (occupants) in such a multi-occupant space is a challenging problem. Furthermore, the ideal temperature set-point should optimally trade off the building energy cost with the aggregate discomfort of all the occupants. However, the information on the comfort range (function) is held privately by each occupant. Using occupant-differentiated dynamically-adjusted penalty factor as feedback signals, we propose a distributed solution which ensures that a consensus is attained among all occupants upon convergence, irrespective of their ideal temperature preferences being in coherence or conflicting. Occupants are only assumed to be rational, in that they choose their own temperature set-points so as to minimize their individual energy cost plus discomfort. We establish the convergence of the proposed algorithm to the optimal temperature set-point vector that minimizes the sum of the energy cost and the aggregate discomfort of all occupants in a multizone building. Simulations with realistic parameter settings illustrate validation of our theoretical claims and provide insights on the dynamics of the system with a mobile user population.
A comprehensive smart office system is designed in this paper. Based on analyses of different kinds of scenarios, the corresponding sub-systems for ventilating, heating, lighting etc are realized respectively. On the basis of the investigation of an independent office, the smart system is expanded to the whole building, ie. smart office building. Then the corresponding subsystems are achieved for controlling the supporting facilities of the smart building. As an organic entirety, it is user-centric and sensitive to the context. In order to promote the usability of the smart office system, two alternative modes are designed, ie. automatic mode and manual mode. Although manual mode is viewed as a supplement of the automatic mode, it is given by higher priority.
Conference Paper
This paper presents the outcomes of a study that examines human interactions and mobility patterns in indoor spaces such as office environments. To this purpose, Bluetooth and IEEE 802.15.4-based fine grained traces have been collected through an extensive experimental measurement campaign in a heterogeneous Internet of Things (IoT) test bed, deployed in a real-life office environment. An initial analysis of these traces provides deeper insights into the encounter characteristics between human-held devices and human-held and static infrastructure devices. The study shows that due to lack of granularity, existing traces and the derived works, often neglect a significant portion of shorter-lived contacts that can be exploited for opportunistic communication. The presented findings also confirm that contact opportunities between mobile devices derived from observations of infrastructure devices can introduce significant errors into the modeling of such encounters. We believe that our traces and the derived models, together with our initial findings, are useful for the research community in supporting the design of future IoT solutions in such environments.
Conference Paper
As a first stage task, this paper presents the study on what represents and how it is possible to ensure the indoor office comfort, which are the most important types of comfort (thermal, visual, acoustic, air quality, etc.) and how each of them could be analyzed (characterized). Few of them have a mathematical interpretation, more or less precise, which permits to make estimations. All types of comfort could be described using their characteristic parameters. When it is necessary specific building installations react to correct the parameters values, using different predefined methods, for establishing in this way a higher comfort level. Usually it is not possible to ensure the same comfort level for all occupants, due to the differences which exist between them (metabolism, activities, clothing, etc.). After the study presentation, it is described the design of a KNX automation system, dedicated for ensuring the comfort into an office/classroom space, which is able to control the lighting, heating and air conditioning.
Conference Paper
Modeling movements in office is useful for smart indoor ad hoc networks. People carrying PDA or cell phones can encounter others and in some cases are able to establish connections and transfer data between them. Currently, commonly used mobility models, such as Random Walk and Random Waypoint Model, do not capture the real movements in real life scenarios, especially in office environments where three typical patterns of heterogeneous behavior, i.e., entity movements, group movements and regular movements, often occur. In this paper we propose a novel mobility simulation framework based on behavior patterns for office environ- ments. The base part is Simulation Time Controller, on which we model the structure of offices and define behavior patterns. In this paper we define three typical patterns of be- havior to simulate the heterogeneous movements mentioned above.To simulate more real movements, people can add more patterns of behavior to this framework, which is the main motivation of our framework. We also derive theoretic results of hitting time, which determines the packet delivery delay in Delay Tolerant Networks. Simulation studies show our expressions have error always under 10%. And the staying ratio of our simulation, i.e., the ratio between the time people spend in main place and the total time, is close to the MIT real traces.
A novel design for a comprehensive smart automation system for the office environment " Emerging Technology and Factory Automation (ETFA)
  • Munchen
  • Germany Garching
Munchen, Garching, Germany " A novel design for a comprehensive smart automation system for the office environment " Emerging Technology and Factory Automation (ETFA), 2014 IEEE
Lighting control and monitoring for energy efficiency: a case study focused on the interoperability of building management systems
  • Anna Pellegrino
  • R M Valerio
  • Laura Lo Verso
  • Blaso
Anna Pellegrino, Valerio R.M. Lo Verso, Laura Blaso "Lighting control and monitoring for energy efficiency: a case study focused on the interoperability of building management systems" Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:PP, Issue: 99 )