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Immunization plays a vital role in the lives of children by protecting them against infectious diseases such as Measles, Polio, Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B, Diphtheria, whopping cough, Tetanus etc. There are different programmes and facilities for newborn and child health under National Health Mission (NHM). However, despite these schemes and programmes, India fares poorly when compared to other countries. In this research paper, we present a critical review of the various programmes, schemes and research currently being undergoing in child immunization.
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IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)
e-ISSN: 2278-0661,p-ISSN: 2278-8727, Volume 18, Issue 5, Ver. IV (Sep. - Oct. 2016), PP 48-53
DOI: 10.9790/0661-1805044853 48 | Page
Child Immunization Coverage A Critical Review
1Sourabh Shastri* 2Anand Sharma 3Prof. Vibhakar Mansotra
1Department of Computer Science & IT, Bhaderwah Campus, University of Jammu, J&K, India
2,3Department of Computer Science & IT, University of Jammu, J&K, India
Abstract: Immunization plays a vital role in the lives of children by protecting them against infectious diseases
such as Measles, Polio, Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B, Diphtheria, whopping cough, Tetanus etc. There are different
programmes and facilities for newborn and child health under National Health Mission (NHM). However,
despite these schemes and programmes, India fares poorly when compared to other countries. In this research
paper, we present a critical review of the various programmes, schemes and research currently being
undergoing in child immunization.
Keywords: Immunization, Measles, Polio, Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B, Diphtheria, Tetanus etc.
I. Introduction
Children are the future of any country so their development is as significant as the development of
other assets. Immunization is a vital part for the proper development of the children. Immunization is an easy,
secure and efficient process of protecting individuals against the world’s most infectious diseases by
administering vaccines. Immunization reduces the spreading of diseases thus protects the society from harmful
diseases. Immunization plays an essential role in the children’s lives as a preventive health action because it
protects them from most dangerous childhood diseases [1]. Immunization process will become more successful
if the child receives full course of recommended immunization doses [2]. According to World Health
Organization (WHO), Immunization currently averts an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths every year but an
estimated 18.7 million infants worldwide are still missing out on basic vaccines [3]. Around the world, UNICEF
and its partners like WHO, GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance, the US centres for Disease Control, the Bill & Melinda
Gates Foundation and others including numerous non-governmental organizations jointly act to ensure that
vaccines protect all children, especially those hardest to reach and most in need [4].
Attention was given to immunization programme in India after the successful eradication of smallpox
in mid 1970s. India has launched Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) for immunizing children against
diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and typhoid in 1978 mainly for the urban areas. Oral Polio Vaccine against polio,
BCG against tuberculosis and vaccination against measles were included in 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1985-86
respectively [5].
The programme was revised in 1985 and renamed as Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) to
protect all infants (0-12 months) against six diseases namely tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus,
poliomyelitis, and measles. In 1986, UIP was given the status of National Technology Mission. UIP became a
part of Child Survival and Safe Motherhood (CSSM) programme in 1992. CSSM includes both UIP and Safe
motherhood program. The UIP was integrated with Reproductive Child Health (RCH) programme in 1997 and
became a key area under NRHM in 2005 [6]. Hepatitis B was added to the UIP in 2007. The details of
vaccination under UIP are shown in table 1.
TABLE 1: Details of vaccination under UIP [6]
Vaccine and Presentation
No. of
Vaccination Schedule
BCG (Lyophilized vaccine)
At birth (upto 1 year if not given
(Liquid vaccine)
Birth dose for institutional deliveries,
Primary three doses at 6, 10 & 14 week
and one booster dose at 16-24 month of
age. Given orally.
Hepatitis B (Liquid vaccine)
Hepatitis B
Birth dose (within 24 hours) for
institutional deliveries, Primary three
doses at 6, 10 & 14 week.
(Liquid vaccine)
Pertussis and
Three doses at 6, 10 & 14 week and two
booster doses at 16-24 month and 5-6
years of age.
Measles (Lyophilized
9-12 months of age and 2nd dose at 16-
24 months.
(Liquid vaccine)
10 years and 16 years of age.
For pregnant women, two doses given
Child Immunization Coverage A Critical Review
DOI: 10.9790/0661-1805044853 49 | Page
(one dose if previously vaccinated
within three year).
JE (Lyophilized vaccine)
(Brain Fever)
9-12 months of age and 2nd dose at 16-
24 months (6 months after vaccination
(Liquid vaccine)
Hib Pneumonia
and Hib
6, 10 & 14 week of age.
Immunization division at Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) provides all the technical
assistance required to undertake the activities under UIP. The primary responsibility of this unit comprise
actions connected to Routine Immunization, Campaigns (SIAs) such as Polio, Measles, and Japanese
Encephalitis, Monitoring Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI), Vaccine and Cold Chain Logistics,
Strategic communication related to immunization program and trainings related to Immunization Program [6].
Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) surveillance system was initiated in 1988 in India. It
monitors immunization safety, detects and responds to any adverse events and improves the quality of
immunization in India. The national AEFI guidelines were published in 2005 which have then been revised in
2010 and then these guidelines have been disseminated all over the country to medical officers.
According to National Health Mission, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India, the
total financial expenditure for routine immunization for 2014-15 was Rs 1068.10 crore as budget estimate and
Rs. 740 crore as revised estimate. The budget estimate for the year 2015-16 is Rs. 700 cr. This includes the cost
for the vaccine, syringes, cold chain and operational cost provided to the states/UTs under Program
Implementation Plans (PIP) [7]. The full immunization coverage as assessed by various surveys is shown in
table 2.
TABLE 2: Different Surveys [7]
Coverage Evaluation Survey (CES 2009)
Rapid Survey on Children (RSOC 2013-14)
Full Immunization
No Immunization
Mission Indradhanush was launched by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) on
December 25, 2014 as a programme all over the country to vaccinate all unimmunized and partially immunized
children and pregnant women by 2020 under the UIP that are missing during the schedule immunization
programmes. The main objective of the mission is to fully immunized all children under the age of two years
against seven life-threatening but vaccine-preventable diseases namely: Diphtheria, Pertussis (Whooping
Cough), Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Polio, Hepatitis B and Measles which increased by only 1% a year from 2009 to
2013, from 61% to 65%. Besides, vaccines for Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Haemophilus influenzae type B
(HIB) are also being provided in selected states. The motive of mission Indradhanush is to increase full
immunization coverage from 65% in 2013 to 90% children of the country in next five years. Initially, 201 High
Focus Districts were selected for the first phase that has utmost number of unimmunized and partially
immunized children. There were total four rounds and 9.4 lakh sessions in the first phase where about 2 crore
vaccines were given to the children and pregnant women. 352 districts have been selected for the second phase
of mission Indradhanush including 279 mid-priority districts, 33 from North-East states and 40 districts from the
phase one, where large number of missed-out children was selected [8].
A nation with healthy children is more capable of achieving goals because today’s children are nation
builders of tomorrow for making the country vibrant and flourishing. So the health of the children should be
given priority in the policies of the government. In this way, Immunization is one of the powerful tool and basic
need in the lives of children.
II. Review Analysis
India is the country that accommodates the maximum number of children in the world. India itself
contributes to more than 20 percent of the world’s child deaths, with approximately 1.73 million children dying
annually before completing their fifth birthday [9]. The main purpose of this research paper is to present a
survey on the research performed in the field of child immunization. The research papers were thoroughly
reviewed and we extracted the goals achieved, schemes implemented and various techniques applied in child
immunization databases.
Child Immunization Coverage A Critical Review
DOI: 10.9790/0661-1805044853 50 | Page
Farha Azmi and Dr. Ratna Prakash [10] in their study assessed the knowledge of immunization among
mothers of under-5 children of Uttar Pradesh state. They have concluded according to their research approach
that most of the mothers of under-5 children have poor knowledge of immunization.
PCTS (Pregnancy, Child Tracking & Health Services Management System) [11] is an online web
based service provided by the Government of Rajasthan for facilitating the citizens. The system tracks pregnant
women, infants and children online for providing the proper services and monitoring the immunization
programme to reduce maternal and infant mortality. Swasthya Sandesh Seva is used to send sms alerts to the
citizens and health workers.
Government of India [6] has launched mission Indradhanush on 25th December 2014 as a particular
drive to immunize all children and pregnant women who have either not received any vaccination or partially
vaccinated under Universal Immunization Programme by 2020.
Puneet Kumar and Dharminder Kumar [12] proposed a conceptual model using ICT to improve the
process of child immunization in India. Aadhar is used to register the infants and every health centre should be
equipped with a child registration unit to register the children for immunization. They have also compared their
framework with PCTS service provided by the Government of Rajasthan.
Debjani Barman and Arijita Dutta [13] examined the month-specific immunization coverage in West
Bengal by using DLHS-3 2007-08 data and concluded that only 20% month-specific coverage stands but the
non-month specific coverage is 75%. Thus more determined preparation is required for the enhancement of
month-specific coverage in West Bengal.
Dr. M. Hemalatha and S. Megala [14] examined immunization data of children by applying decision
tree and Artificial Neural Network. In their study, for the doses of OPV2, OPV3, DPT3 and MCV, uptake in
male’s children is approximately 1% higher than in females children and in DPT1, females children have higher
uptake of 41.4 % than males children of 39.2%.
Mohitulameen Ahmed Mustafi and Dr. Mir Mohammad Azad [2] examined the factors like socio-
economic, demographic, cultural, community and behavioural affecting the status of immunization of children
under five in Bangladesh. They have developed a conceptual framework having three sets of factors i.e. factors
associated with clients, health care providers and demographic, socio-cultural and community variables having
relationship with acceptance of immunization. Their analysis resulted that the children who have chances of
getting full immunization are the children whose parents are educated, service holders, children of respondents
who had no work, current age of respondents whose age is 21-30 years , highest education level of respondent,
the respondents who had used tube well water and children who come from better economic status households.
Abhishek Kumar and Sanjay K. Mohanty [15] examined the socio-economic differentials in coverage
of basic childhood immunization in India. They have used bivariate, multivariate and progression rate to
understand the differentials and changes in child immunization. Data for the survey has been taken from three
rounds of NFHS conducted during 1992-2006. All three rounds have covered 99% of India’s population. Full
immunization increased from 35% in 1992-93 to 44% in 2005-06, partial immunization increased from 35% to
51 % and a decline in no immunization from 30% in 1992-93 to 14% in 1998-99 and 5% in 2005-06. Special
effort is needed for the coverage of DPT and measles vaccines as coverage of these vaccines is lower as
compared to polio.
A M Kadri et. al. [16] studied the immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 months in urban
slums of Ahmedabad city. Cross-sectional study was conducted that included 138 children from 1800
households. Children who have received 1 dose of BCG, 3 doses of DPT and OPV and 1 dose of measles were
considered full immunized. The children who have missed 1 or more doses from these is considered as partially
immunized and the children who did not receive even a single dose of vaccine are considered as no immunized.
They have found that the coverage of vaccines was high for BCG, DPT-1 and OPV-1 i.e. 83.3 % and low for
measles i.e. 71.7 %. The coverage rate was slightly high among male children than female children for all the
vaccines. Full immunization coverage is low due to not immunize with measles vaccination.
Adebayo Peter Idowu et. al. [17] presented a mathematical model for predicting immunizable diseases
in Nigeria that affect children between age 0-5 years. They have applied three data mining techniques namely
ANN, Decision tree and Naïve Bayes Classifier to uncover hidden information. Their study collected data from
six immunizable diseases namely: Measles, Tuberculosis, Polio, Yellow Fever, Pertussis and Hepatitis B. They
also argued that if a predictive model is introduced, the programme of immunization will be strengthened.
M. Mamatha and V. Nageswara Rao [18] explored the vaccination coverage among children aged 0-9
months using NFHS- III data and analyzed by chi-square test to find out the results using SPSS. Out of total
population, 12.4 % are still not been vaccinated. Non-utilization of vaccines is found to be 9.1 % among the
total urban and 14.2 % among the total rural population. The non-coverage rate of vaccines is observed to be
slightly high in female children i.e. 12.9 % than their male counterparts i.e. 12 %.
Dr. Lokesh Kumar Sonkaria et. al. [19] examined the immunization status of 1 to 5 years children of a
rural area of Rajasthan. They have carried out a community based cross-sectional descriptive study of 330
Child Immunization Coverage A Critical Review
DOI: 10.9790/0661-1805044853 51 | Page
sample size. They have founded that out of 330 children, 248 (75.15 %) children were fully immunized i.e.
those children who receive one dose of BCG, one dose of Measles, three doses of OPV and three doses of DPT
vaccines up to 1 year of age, 60 (18.18 %) were partially immunized i.e. those who have missed any one of the
doses and 22 (6.67 %) were unimmunized i.e. those who have not received any type of vaccination.
Bhuwan Sharma et. al. [20] examined the role of socio demographic variables on immunization
coverage. They have used WHO’s 30 cluster sampling method for the evaluation of immunization coverage and
selected seven subjects between age group of 12-23 months from each of 30 clusters so therefore final sample
size consists of 210 children. In their study area, 170 (81 %) children received complete immunization, 37 (17.6
%) children received partially immunization and 3 (1.4 %) children did not receive any type of immunization.
The coverage of BCG dose was found highest (97.1 %) while Hepatitis was lower than that of OPV and DPT.
Measles coverage is also less than 90 %. The major reasons of low vaccination coverage were children illness,
lack of knowledge, low education of mother, high birth order and place of delivery.
Danish and Ayaz Muhammad [21] examined the relationship between child immunization of children
aged 12-23 months and household socio-demographic characteristics in Pakistan. They have applied chi-square
test and logistic regression on the household level data from Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement
Survey. In their conceptual framework, child immunization is considered as dependent variable while the
gender, parents education, area and province or region are taken as independent variables. The sample size for
all provinces has been fixed at 76546 households selected from 5413 sample villages or enumerated blocks.
Their results showed that the male children are more immunized as compare to female children, people in urban
area more likely to immunize their children as compare to people in rural area. In case of child immunization,
not only child’s age but also child’s gender, resident of the child, parents education, household income, family
size plays a vital role.
Rachna Kapoor and Sheetal Vyas [22] examined the awareness and knowledge of mothers of under
five children regarding immunization in Ahmedabad. The primary sources of knowledge of mothers about
vaccine preventable diseases were anganwadi workers and television. In their cross sectional descriptive study,
85% of the women were aware of poliomyelitis, 15% women were aware of Hepatitis B and 10% women were
aware of pertusis as a vaccine preventable disease. Even 80% women had no knowledge of vitamin A.
Jisy Jose et. al. [23] observed the awareness on immunization among mothers of under five children
with non-experimental exploratory survey. They have collected the data by using base line performa and
structured knowledge questionnaire. In their survey they have found that 30% of mothers have poor knowledge
of immunization while 43.4 % had average knowledge, 23.4 % had good knowledge and 3.33 % mothers had
excellent knowledge of immunization. They have concluded on the basis of their result that there was a
significant association between knowledge and exposure to mass media in relation to immunization among
mothers of under five children.
Tufeel Ahad Baba et. al. [24] examined the utilization of maternal and child health services at sub
centre level by target population in a sub centre area. They have found in their survey of 671 cases that 40.5 %
mothers had taken their children at sub centre for immunization. 67.66 % children received complete
immunization at sub centre and 32.33 % children received incomplete immunization at sub centre.
Rahul Sharma and Sanjiv K Bhasin [25] assessed the knowledge about routine immunization among
caretakers of young children. In their cross-sectional study, 682 caretakers accompanying children under 5 years
were considered and proportions and chi-square test have been applied for the results. Out of 682 caretakers,
only 268 caretakers were aware of three diseases covered under routine immunization. They concluded that
there is an urgent need to aware caretakers about routine immunization.
Payyappat Sabin Shivan et. al. [26] worked on a project named as Pre-Baby vaccination to provide
vaccination notifications and reminders as SMS to the families of newborn and pregnant women at regular
intervals by using their registered id. In the proposed system K-means clustering algorithm has been used and
the families can access the static information send by the system as a notification periodically.
III. Tables
Table 3, Table 4, Table 5 and Table 6 depicts the techniques used, areas covered, data used, and socio-
demographic variables/factors used in papers respectively.
TABLE 3: Techniques Used in Papers
Non Experimental Survey Method
Convenient Sampling Method
Decision Tree
Artificial Neural Network
Chi-Square Test
Bivariate, Multivariate and Progression Rate
Cluster Survey
Child Immunization Coverage A Critical Review
DOI: 10.9790/0661-1805044853 52 | Page
Naïve Bayes Classifier
Thirty Cluster Sampling Technique
Multistage Sampling
TABLE 4: Coverage Area in India and Other Countries
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal
15, 18
16, 22
East Delhi
TABLE 5: Data used in Papers
BDHS 2004
NFHS 1992-2006
Survey Data
10, 16
Household level data (PSLM 2010-11)
DLHS- 3 (2007-08)
TABLE 6: Socio-Demographic Variables/Factors used in Papers
Socio-Demographic Variables/Factors
2, 10, 13, 15, 21, 23
Area/Place of Residence
10, 13, 15, 21
Educational Status
10, 13, 21, 22, 23
Monthly Family Income
10, 13, 21, 23
2, 13, 15, 21
2, 21
13, 22, 23
Age of Mother
15, 22, 23
Family Size
Source of Information
Exposure to Mass Media
IV. Conclusion
Immunization is the most economic and most efficient solution to prevent children from infectious
diseases. This paper aimed to explore the goals achieved, schemes implemented, techniques used, data used,
areas covered, and socio-demographic factors used in the domain of child immunization. The paper explored the
reasons why new born babies missed immunization schedules. In the result, we have reviewed that the reasons
for missing immunization are bad health of children, parent’s knowledge of immunization, family size,
household income, place of delivery, high birth rate, low education status of mother etc. The factors for full
immunization discovered in the papers are children whose parents are educated, children of parents who has a
service holder, current age of respondents whose age is 21-30 years, highest education level, drinking water
from tube well and who comes from better economic status households. Some researchers proposed conceptual
frameworks using ICT to improve the process of child immunization while others examined by applying
statistical and data mining techniques on immunization data to understand the differentials and changes in child
immunization. The Government of India has launched the mission Indradhanush to immunize all children and
pregnant women by 2020 under universal immunization programme. The Government of Rajasthan facilitated
PCTS web based application for tracking pregnant women and children for providing services.
V. Future Scope
There has been enormous progress achieved till now but still there is a need to extract knowledge from
the child immunization data for the improvement of quality. In the future, we shall apply different ICT and data
mining techniques on child immunization data to discover the interesting patterns and knowledge for the welfare
of the society.
Child Immunization Coverage A Critical Review
DOI: 10.9790/0661-1805044853 53 | Page
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[13]. Debjani Barman and Arijita Dutta, “Access and Barriers to Immunization in West Bengal, India: Quality Matters,” Journal of
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and Issues, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 50-54, 2010.
[17]. Adebayo Peter Idowu et. al., “Data Mining Techniques for Predicting Immunize-able Diseases: Nigeria as a Case Study,”
International Journal of Applied Information Systems, vol. 5, no. 7, pp.-5-15, May 2013.
[18]. M. Mamatha and V. Nageswaro Rao, Immunization Coverage in India: A Study by using NFHS- III Data,” Indian Journal of
Applied Research, vol. 5, no. 12, pp.-531-533, December 2015.
[19]. Dr. Lokesh Kumar Sonkaria et. al., “Immunization Status of 1 to 5 Year Children of A Rural Population in Rajasthan, India,Indian
Journal of Applied Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp.-599-600, January 2016.
[20]. Bhuwan Sharma et. al., “Immunization Coverage: Role of Sociodemographic Variables,” Advances in Preventive Medicine, vol.
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[21]. Danish and Ayaz Muhammad, “Relationship between Child Immunization and Household Socio-Demographic Characteristic in
Pakistan,” Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 82-89, 2014.
[22]. Rachna Kapoor and Sheetal Vyas, “Awareness and Knowledge of mothers of under five children regarding immunization in
Ahmedabad,” Healthline, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 12-15, July-Dec 2010.
[23]. Jisy Jose et. al., “Awareness on Immunization among Mothers of Under five children,” International Journal of Innovative
Research and Development, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 620-627, June 2013.
[24]. Tufeel Ahad Baba et. al., “An Epidemiological Study to Assess the Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Care Services at Sub-
Center Level by the Target Population in Northern India, Kashmir Valley,” International Journal of Medical Science and Public
Health, vol. 2, no. 3, pp.679-687, 2013.
[25]. Rahul Sharma and Sanjiv K Bhasin, “Routine Immunization Do People Know About It? A Study Among Caretakers of Children
Attending Pulse Polio Immunization in East Delhi,” International Journal of Community Medicine, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 31-34, Jan.
[26]. Payyappat Sabin Shivan et. al., “Pre-Baby Vaccination,” International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 49-
51, 2016.
... There are significant regional and national differences in the rates of childhood immunization. While being vaccinated remains difficult, acceptance of vaccination is also a problem that affects uptake and is influenced by a person's attitudes, sentiments, and beliefs [4]. ...
Full-text available
Aims: To assess the clients` satisfaction towards childhood immunization service ‎among parents having children aged less than 2 year in primary health ‎care settings, and to highlight barriers affecting client satisfaction with immunization ‎services in primary health care facilities‎. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Three primary health care facilities in Tanta Egypt; Said Health Care Center, Elragdia Health Care Unit, and Mahalet Rouh Health Care Unit, between March 2021 and April 2022. Methodology: We included 400 clients coming to the primary health care facilities during the vaccination sessions of their children less than 2 years of age. Participants’ data were collected using a pre-designed interviewing validated questionnaire sheet through interview that assessed the sociodemographic data, knowledge, satisfaction, and barriers toward the childhood vaccination. Results: In this study, the majority (87.8%) were recruited from Said Health Care Center. The clients, ages ranged from 19 to 70 years, with the highest percentage in the age group of 20 – <40 (78.3%). The clients’ knowledge score ranged from 1 to 9, with a median of 7 denoting an overall good knowledge. The highest percentage of clients in Said Health Care Center dissatisfied (78.9%) while the highest portion of clients in Elragdia Health Care Unit and Mahalet Rouh Health Care Unit satisfied (75% and 60%, respectively). The relation to child, level of education, health care facility, followed by marital status, income, residence, child sex, total knowledge score, and child age were found to be statistically significant predictors for the satisfaction, with P values of 0.002, 0.004, <0.001, 0.006, <0.001, <0.001, 0.01, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively. Conclusion: An overall good knowledge as shown among caregivers attending for children vaccination. The least satisfaction rates were noted in the Urban Health Care Center. Clients’ knowledge beside some sociodemographic data significantly affected clients’ satisfaction.
... In 1986 Immunisation was made part of the five 1 parameters of National Technology Mission in India (Lahariya 2014). In 1992 UIP was included in the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood (CSSM) programme, which included both safe motherhood and UIP as the two are complementary to each other (Shastri, Sharma and Mansotra 2016). ...
To lowering down the infant's mortality Indian Government started the immunisation programme in the whole country later it was known by the name Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP). Despite being knowing the fact that vaccine in India is available free of cost under UIP for Six vaccine preventable disease, there is a long way to go for achieving 100 percent immunisation coverage in the country. This research paper analysis the religion wise child immunisation coverage throughout the country along with the socio economic and individual factor (age, gender, education, birth order, economic condition, place of residence, etc.) responsible directly or indirectly for the lowering rate of child immunisation coverage. The study also shows that all these factors have a negative impact on child immunisation coverage.
... The six childhood diseases account for the biggest proportion of deaths and constant sickness among children less than 12 months, and the latter diseases are also highly transmitted [28]. However, most studies reviewed in the literature examining child inequalities do not decompose the health inequalities in these three crucial indicators of child health to understand what could be driving the inequalities [1,4,6,8,15,17,20,[22][23][24][25][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39]. ...
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Background: The United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development argues for the combating of health inequalities within and among countries, advocating for "leaving no one behind". However, child mortality in developing countries is still high and mainly driven by lack of immunization, food insecurity and nutritional deficiency. The confounding problem is the existence of socioeconomic inequalities among the richest and poorest. Thus, comparing South Africa's and India's Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 2015/16, this study examines socioeconomic inequalities in under-five children's health and its associated factors using three child health indications: full immunization coverage, food insecurity and malnutrition. Methods: Erreygers Normalized concentration indices were computed to show how immunization coverage, food insecurity and malnutrition in children varied across socioeconomic groups (household wealth). Concentration curves were plotted to show the cumulative share of immunization coverage, food insecurity and malnutrition against the cumulative share of children ranked from poorest to richest. Subsequent decomposition analysis identified vital factors underpinning the observed socioeconomic inequalities. Results: The results confirm a strong socioeconomic gradient in food security and malnutrition in India and South Africa. However, while full childhood immunization in South Africa was pro-poor (-0.0236), in India, it was pro-rich (0.1640). Decomposed results reported socioeconomic status, residence, mother's education, and mother's age as primary drivers of health inequalities in full immunization, food security and nutrition among children in both countries. Conclusions: The main drivers of the socioeconomic inequalities in both countries across the child health outcomes (full immunization, food insecurity and malnutrition) are socioeconomic status, residence, mother's education, and mother's age. In conclusion, if socioeconomic inequalities in children's health especially food insecurity and malnutrition in South Africa; food insecurity, malnutrition and immunization in India are not addressed then definitely "some under-five children will be left behind".
... are also being provided in selected states. The purpose of mission Indradhanush is to enhance full immunization coverage from 65% in 2013 to 90% children of the country in next five years [6,7]. Various reasons of partially vaccinated or unvaccinated children are lack of awareness of immunization to parents, low education status of mothers, paper based vaccination records misplaced by the parents, unnoticed vaccination schedule due to hectic lifestyle of parents etc. ...
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Data mining is one of the most essential steps of Knowledge Discovery process that is required to extract interesting patterns from enormous size of data. In this paper, we have used the BCG coverage data i.e. Percentage of live births who received Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) a vaccine against tuberculosis and forecast the BCG coverage percentage for the next five years based on historical yearly data of BCG coverage in India by using the exponential smoothing technique of forecasting. Exponential Smoothing is a well-liked forecast technique that uses weighted values of previous series observations to predict the immediate future for time series data. The aim of this paper is to study the exponential smoothing method of time series for forecasting purpose.
We are all aware that children should have their vaccines at the right times, however many parents are unaware of this vaccination because of their hectic lifestyles and some parents' knowledge. Therefore, the goal of our website is to raise awareness among all parents about the need to make sure that all infants receive their vaccines on schedule. An overall strategy for collecting and keeping each child's medical data has been suggested based on their date of birth and in compliance with the approved vaccination schedule. It is suggested that doctors and parents have access to a web application that has the appropriate permissions. Due to the a significant rise in mobile usage, the same is provided in an android-based mobile application. Additionally, parents are often urged to vaccinate their kids on schedule until they are fully protected. Keeping medical records in a standard database can help deliver kids who require excellent and efficient treatment in addition to reducing the need to carry documents.
As rightly said, prevention is better than cure. Vaccines have been instrumental in preventing pathogenic infectious diseases for humans, and among seventy infectious diseases, we have only thirty vaccines that help us unreliable. Some basic vaccines have to be taken by every single individual. It will prevent us from getting prone to diseases. The main motive of this project is to provide a virtual platform that gives all the detailed information regarding the vaccines along with the age limit provided through reminder short messages service (SMS) and an email message. It recommends hospitals that provide the required vaccines in their locality. It also shows the availability of COVID-19 vaccines. It also helps the user access the web application in their preferred language to be helpful to understand. It checks the user’s age and matches with the eligibility for the vaccine.KeywordsVaccinationReminder systemGPSTranslatorREST APISMTP libraryDjango
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Abstract: Background of Study: Immunization is one of the most effective, safest and efficient Public Health Interventions for the prevention from several diseases among under five children. While the impact of Immunization on childhood morbidity and mortality has been great, its full potential has yet to be reached. India has the highest number of morbidity and mortality rate among under five. This article presents the systematic collection of data and analysis presents the actual picture of status of knowledge of immunization among mothers of fewer than five. Objectives of study are as followed, to assess knowledge regarding immunization among mothers of under-five and prepare health education programme regarding immunization. Methodology: For this study Research approach is quantitative , Research Design non experimental survey method, target population is mothers of under-five, settings is town Kunderki, district Moradabad, Data Source sample size fits for the study was 30 mothers, sampling technique was convenient sampling methods. Results: Knowledge Score categorized in 3 categories (good, average and poor).Good knowledge score is 10%. Average knowledge score is 23.34%.Poor knowledge score is 66.66%. Conclusions: Most of the mothers of under-five having poor knowledge score, that’s why researcher felt to take the problem for survey
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Immunization plays an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. Children of the urban poor suffer accentuated vulnerability to illnesses, as outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases are more common in urban slums. To assess the immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 months in the urban slums of Ahmedabad, a cluster survey based on probability proportion to size advocated under multi-indicator cluster survey by World Health Organization was used. With regard to vaccinations; it was found that coverage was the highest for BCG , DPT-1 and OPV-1 (83.3%) and the lowest for measles vaccine (71.7%). Only 66 (47.8%) children had received Vitamin A at the time of measles vaccination. The coverage rate for all the vaccines was slightly higher among males as compared to females. 70.3 per cent of the children were fully immunized and immunization coverage was found to be more among the males as compared to females though the difference was found to be statistically insignificant. The study reflects low immunization coverage and non-utilization of measles vaccination and Vitamin A supplementation.
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While many studies attempted to evaluate performance of immunization programmes in developing countries by full coverage, there is a growing awareness about the limitations of such evaluation, irrespective of the overall quality of performance. Availability of human resources, equipment, supporting drugs, and training of personnel are considered to be crucial indicators of the quality of immunization programme. Also, maintenance of time schedule has been considered crucial in the context of the quality of immunization. In addition to overall coverage of vaccination, the coverage of immunization given at right time (month-specific) is to be considered with utmost importance. In this paper, District Level Household and Facility Survey-3 (DLHS-3) 2007-2008 data have been used in exploring the quality of immunization in terms of month-specific vaccine coverage and barriers to access in West Bengal, India. In West Bengal, the month-specific coverage stands badly below 20% but the simple non-month-specific coverage is as high as 75%. Among the demand-side factors, birthplace of the child and religion of the household heads came out as significant predictors while, from the supply-side, availability of male health workers and equipment at the subcentres, were the important determinants for month-specific vaccine coverage. Hence, there should be a vigorous attempt to make more focused planning, keeping in mind the nature of the barriers, for improvement of the month-specific coverage in West Bengal.
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Children are considered fully immunized if they receive one dose of BCG, three doses of DPT and polio vaccine each, and one measles vaccine. In India, only 44% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated and about 5% have not received any vaccination at all. Even if national immunization coverage levels are sufficiently high to block disease transmission, pockets of susceptibility may act as potential reservoirs of infection. This study was done to assess the immunization coverage in an urban slum area and determine various sociodemographic variables affecting the same. A total of 210 children were selected from study population using WHO's 30 cluster sampling method. Coverage of BCG was found to be the highest (97.1%) while that of measles was the lowest. The main reason for noncompliance was given as child's illness at the time of scheduled vaccination followed by lack of knowledge regarding importance of immunization. Low education status of mother, high birth order, and place of delivery were found to be positively associated with low vaccination coverage. Regular IEC activities (group talks, role plays, posters, pamphlets, and competitions) should be conducted in the community to ensure that immunization will become a "felt need" of the mothers in the community.
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India is country having high population and great variations in the educational level, economic conditions, population densities, cultures and awareness levels. Due to these variations the immunization process is not so much successful as per expectations of the state and central governments. In some zones the significant amount of vaccines are wasted whereas some are running out of vaccines. One of the reasons for such an imbalance is improper quantity estimation of vaccines in a particular zone. Further a huge amount of liquidity will be wasted in the form of vaccines. If we inculcate ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in the process of immunization then the problem can be rectified to some extent and hence we are proposing a conceptual model using ICT to improve the process of vaccination.
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This paper examines the socio-economic differentials in coverage of basic childhood immunization in India and the states of Bihar and Gujarat using three rounds of National Family Health Survey data. States are selected on the basis of changes in full immunization coverage during 1992–2006. Bivariate, multivariate, and progression rate is used to understand the differentials and changes in immunization coverage. Results indicate that there has been a substantial increase in partial immunization in most of the states, but the increase in full immunization coverage is relatively slow in many of the states. Along with mother’s education, standard of living, mass media exposure, and availability of health card is a significant predictor in explaining the full immunization coverage irrespective of time. KeywordsImmunization–Progression rate–DPT3–Measles–India
Data mining has been used intensively and broadly by several organizations. The applications can greatly benefit all parties involved in the healthcare industry. The healthcare background is generally supposed as being information more yet knowledge less. There is a affluence of information obtainable within the healthcare systems. However, there is a lack of useful analysis tools to realize hidden relationships and trends in data. Knowledge discovery and data mining have established frequent applications in commerce and scientific domain. Valuable facts can be exposed from application of data mining techniques in healthcare system. Likewise Immunization and vaccination have been used as an upstream, for protecting children, against such infections and infectious diseases as Polio, DPG, BCG and Measles. This critique explores data mining applications in healthcare. In this study, we briefly examine the potential use of classification based data mining techniques such as decision tree, Artificial Neural Network to massive volume of Immunization data.