Strategic Information System Planning: A Case Study of a Service Delivery Company

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DOI: 10.17148/IARJSET.2016.3518
Abstract
Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) is a critical task that enables organizations to establish crucial IT tools and align a company’s strategic plan with reliable IT solutions with the aim of attaining the objectives and goals of the company. At present, improved strategic information planning is one of the vital issues that face current information systems. Thus, the planning of strategic information technology solutions plays a critical role that contributes to the business and success of an organization. This paper offers an overview of Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) in an IT service company of KSA. The paper reviews a case study of the Saudi Telecommunications Company (STC). STC applies SISP strategies to increase its international operations, increase customer satisfaction and help the company to offer its convergence solutions to all centres across the globe. The paper briefly describes the role and importance of SISP, the primary phases and success factors, a service company, the service delivery process in the company, the role of SISP in enhancing a service delivery model in the IT services company and a conclusion.
IARJSET
ISSN (Online) 2393-8021
ISSN (Print) 2394-1588
International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology
Vol. 3, Issue 5, May 2016
Copyright to IARJSET DOI 10.17148/IARJSET.2016.3518 78
Strategic Information System Planning: A Case
Study of a Service Delivery Company
Samar Alamri1, Noura Almutiri2, Hanaa Ballahmar3, Aasim Zafar4
Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Computing and Information Technology,
King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia1,2,3,4
Abstract: Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) is a critical task that enables organizations to establish
crucial IT tools and align a company’s strategic plan with reliable IT solutions with the aim of attaining the objectives
and goals of the company. At present, improved strategic information planning is one of the vital issues that face
current information systems. Thus, the planning of strategic information technology solutions plays a critical role that
contributes to the business and success of an organization. This paper offers an overview of Strategic Information
Systems Planning (SISP) in an IT service company of KSA. The paper reviews a case study of the Saudi
Telecommunications Company (STC). STC applies SISP strategies to increase its international operations, increase
customer satisfaction and help the company to offer its convergence solutions to all centres across the globe. The paper
briefly describes the role and importance of SISP, the primary phases and success factors, a service company, the
service delivery process in the company, the role of SISP in enhancing a service delivery model in the IT services
company and a conclusion.
Keywords: IT Service Delivery Model, Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP), Strategic Planning, and
Information Systems Planning.
I. INTRODUCTION
Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) is a
concept that can be dated back to the early 80s [1]. Since
then, SISP has been recognized for the contribution it has
made to companies. Additionally, the concept has become
a challenging subject for practitioners and scientists in the
past two decades. SISP enables organizations to succeed in
the world’s current highly competitive environment. In
effect, many researchers have performed studies aimed at
assisting in making the deployment of SISP more
profitable and effective.
Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) refers to
the identification and categorization of various computer-
based applications with the main intent of assisting an
organization to execute its business strategies and
accomplish set objectives. SISP has gained popularity over
the years due to the importance of aligning the process of
developing an information system with a company’s
system development plan. Such an ideal scenario assists
corporations in different subsectors to maximize the
benefits of the recently introduced technologies [3].
Organizations benefit from SISP by increasing their
competitive advantage over other firms, developing new
businesses, identifying effective management procedures
and improving the productivity of human resources. SISP
acts as a link between different professionals.
Subsequently, a firm’s management can identify the
priorities in information system development.
Therefore, for a company to be successful, it should
develop a reliable strategic plan aimed at driving strategic
information systems planning. Planning of information
systems that is strategically aligned with business planning
is vital to an organization in terms of reaching a
competitive advantage. This paper covers the strategic
information system and focuses on the critical success
factors of SISP implementation with regard to an IT
service delivery company.
II. SISP
SISP development occurs in five major phases. Firstly, the
strategic business planning phase acts as a stable
foundation for further development proceedings. The
duties executed at this stage include the identification of
the firm’s objectives and the suitable approaches to
accomplishing them, SWOT analysis and the corporation’s
mission. Subsequently, the developers conduct a detailed
information systems assessment to evaluate its current
status.
Other crucial phases are the information systems vision
and guidelines and strategic initiatives [5]. A third phase
is information system assessment where the system is
evaluated by evaluating the current system resources in
order to find out how they are serving the organization.
Another phase is information system guidelines. This is a
set of statements that guide the use of information system
resources. Finally, the strategic initiatives phase is a long-
term proposal (taking up to five years) that specifies new
initiatives [3]. The success of SISP depends on the
developers’ ability to ensure a proper alignment among the
relevant components.
The figure below graphically summarizes the SISP
process.
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Fig 1: SISP Process Phases [3].
A. SISP’s Role and Important
SISP would be beneficial in accomplishing the short and
long-term goals of an IT service firm, such as increasing
the customer base, addressing and solving problems and
controlling cost. The corporation, which is one of the well-
established IT services companies in the Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia (KSA), offers various professional services
linked to human resource management. Based on the
essence of a stable information system in increasing a
firm’s competitiveness and its employees’ performance,
SISP will be useful in fulfilling the mission of this IT
services firm. The service delivery model integrated into
SISP is a complex yet critical element in information
system development. It encompasses such aspects as the
presentation of the client’s requests, service proposal
development, execution of the formulated strategy and
project management [4]. The model aims at encompassing
the parties involved in the development process from the
attainment of the customer’s requests to the delivery of the
required services based on his or her specifications. SISP
is useful in connecting the relevant stakeholders in the IT
services corporation, an aspect that results in customer
satisfaction and an increase in the corporation’s
competitive advantage over other participants in the target
market [10]. For instance, in the case of the Saudi Services
Company, SISP will be helpful in linking human resources
to the managers looking for employees with specific skills.
Accordingly, the alignment process will offer lasting
solutions to the clients while facilitating the
accomplishment of the short and long-term goals set by
the IT services firm in question. For instance, through the
multifaceted information system established in this
company, the management will be in a position to source
professionals with certain qualifications online. The
approach will be efficient in ensuring customer
satisfaction, an aspect that will result in its operational
growth. SISP is a suitable development tool in the
organizational setting of the IT services company under
review.
B. SISP Success Factors
Implementing a successful SISP is critical for an
enterprise. This accomplishment is directly connected to
the overall success of an organization, which is based on
whether an organization is meeting its objectives or not.
Therefore, different strategic directions are used to
determine the success of an organization, which can
further be applied to determine the success of the SISP.
[3] view SISP success as the degree of attaining the
predetermined goals and objectives. Their study offered
four dimensions of SISP objectives, including alignment,
analysis, improvement in capabilities and cooperation. The
alignment success dimension promotes a company’s
understanding of the information system. Thus, as a
success factor, greater alignment leads to an improved
effectiveness of the SISP. Secondly, analysis involves the
understanding of an organization’s internal operations.
Analysis helps planners to develop a clear understanding
of a company’s important procedures and processes.
Cooperation helps stakeholders to ensure that the
management and other users collaborate to make the SISP
process and content a success, a process that reduces the
possible risks that may lead to SISP implementation
process failure. The last success, capability enhancement,
involves the improvement of the potential of the SISP.
A successful SISP enables a firm to tap into future
opportunities and to exploit the skills available in the
organization. This process is vital for profit maximization
and cost effectiveness. For an SISP to be successful,
planning before the development and deployment of the
SISP is vital. The cost involved is high, and practitioners
recommend that there is a critical need for clarity of the
plan associated with the implementation of a successful
SISP [8].
The development and configuration processes of SISP
influence the success of SISP. In other words, the authors’
explorative multi-case study found that the
comprehensiveness, specificity, decisions and goals of an
organization have a positive effect or are critical success
factors of SISP. Additionally, a dominant role of an IS/IT
company in the SISP process influences the quality of
SISP delivery in a positive way. However, the dominant
role can have a negative impact on the partnership
between IT and business functions in an organization.
Researchers also conclude that following a formal SISP
methodology does not determine the success of
implementing SISP in an organization [8].
III. THE SAUDI SERVICE COMPANY
IT services firms in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia offer
different professional services that are linked to human
resource management. The firms offer the services
following internationally accepted policies and procedures
while utilizing modern solutions and IS/IT tools with a
focus on diversifying their services to reach other regions
in the continent and globally and on vertically covering
specialists and new markets. The service firms’ focus is on
positioning to be the preferred providers to their clients in
an environment faced by stiff competition and evolving
solutions.
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A. The Service Delivery Process in an IT Company
Running a successful IT service company should be
synonymous with the delivery of excellent service. The
key differentiator for service companies lies in the service
management model and the ability to execute that model.
Designing a service delivery system should put more focus
on the factors that create value for the organization and
engage frontline employees to deliver the best customer
experience. The process should be affected by the client’s
request, the service proposal development, the service
execution and the project management.
[7] Highlights a successful service delivery process in an
IT company. The first element is the service culture. It
should be built on elements of norms, leadership
principles, visions, work habits, values and missions. The
set of these overriding principles gives value to the
customer. Thus, the service culture should aim at
developing a superior service delivery system and a
realistic service concept to ensure that the organization has
established long-term success. Secondly, employee
engagement should include purpose driven leadership and
reliable HR processes. Service quality is the third element,
including processes, strategies and performance
management systems. The design of the service quality
element should help the customer fulfil their mission and
support them in the pursuit of his/her purpose. The fourth
element is customer experience, including elements such
as customer intelligence, continuous improvement and
account management. The service delivery process is
highly dependent on the role of SISP.
B. The Role of SISP in Enhancing the Service Delivery
Model
In the past, traditional product-based companies struggled
to demonstrate cost savings. However, service companies
are focusing on ways to add value to a business. Thus, the
IT/IS should put more emphasis on the alignment with a
business. SISP’s core argument holds that a firm’s
information systems investment should be aligned with the
overall objectives and business strategy and may become a
vital source of competitive advantage [9]. Thus, a firm
should study and understand how the alignment takes
place and establish measurable benefits.
Through SISP, companies can achieve an IS-based
competitive advantage and alignment. The process
requires an organization to follow a formal,
comprehensive and proactive process that involves the
development of broad organizational information
requirements. Unlike an IT service company, a traditional
product-based organization sits back and responds to areas
of the business after a need arises. Therefore, SISP
introduces a proactive strategy relevant to IT service
companies, given their long-term impact and the costs of
investment.
Six dimensions that define a successful SISP process in
enhancing the service delivery process.
Comprehensiveness is the first dimension. It refers to the
extent to which a service company attempts to be inclusive
and exhaustive in integrating and making strategic issues.
Formalization is the second dimension and represents the
existence of techniques, structures, policies and
procedures that guide the planning process. Focus involves
a balance between control orientations and the creativity
inherent in the strategic planning system. A reliable and
innovative orientation focuses on innovative solutions to
deal with threats and opportunities. The top-down flow
dimension recommends that top managers should
implement SISP while other staff should offer support.
Even though SISP planning is top-down, a broad
participation dimension is needed where all functional
areas are required to participate. It also includes the key
stakeholders at other levels of a company. SISP should
maintain high consistency. This can be achieved through
frequent meetings as well as a regular reassessment of the
overall SISP strategy [6].
IV. SISP PLAN: A CASE STUDY OF STC
This section intends to offer some insight into how KSA
organizations handle their SISP. Notably, research shows
that less than a quarter of SISP approaches adopted by
organizations are effective [2]. Organizations with
formally effective cases of an SISP strategy enjoy a higher
rate of IS/IT success regarding adding value and suitability
to the business in terms of user acceptance. Additionally,
organizations with such SISP strategies can cope with the
dynamics and changes associated with rapidity in the IT
environment and are able to achieve their organizational
goals and a better competitive advantage.
The application of SISP in Arab country companies shows
large investments that require managers to determine if the
investments are creating value for investors. SISP in KSA
companies is a critical stage that decides how IT should be
spent to increase value and competitive advantage. The
Saudi Telecommunications Company (STC) is a large
telecommunications provider in KSA. STC applies SISP
strategies to increase its international operations and
customer satisfaction and to help the company offer its
convergence solutions to all centres across the globe.
A. Methodology
A qualitative approach for this study is utilized for primary
exploration research. The qualitative approach helps gain
profound understanding of SISP in STC. We connected
with Mr Ahmed Moushiqeh, GM of Consumer Planning
and Performance at STC. Mr Moushiqeh operates at the
STC head branch in Riyadh. Mr Moushiqeh answered the
questionnaire, which helped in the investigation of the
perspective of the company in the practice of SISP.
In addition, we used an online survey to collect data to
examine the critical success factors for the practice of
SISP in STC. It is suitable for this study because they can
reach a greater number of STC staff across the country
anytime and anywhere. The survey was announced
through emails and social media for employees and was
run from March 20, 2016 until April 1, 2016.
Notably, this study uses survey questions to clearly state
which stakeholders in an organization are responsible for
the successful management of SISP success predictors.
The data collected using the survey questions are related to
the SISP of STC since the data help establish the success
indicators and the stakeholders responsible for the
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successful deployment of SISP at the company. For
instance, the survey questions helped assess the
management’s involvement in the support and planning
effort at STC. The findings analysed from the survey
question results will be compared critically with the
overwhelming consensus in the related literature.
The main objective of conducting a survey in this study
was to uncover specific answers to the research questions.
The questionnaire was critically prepared to ensure that it
met the main objective of carrying out the survey. The
survey involved administering strategically structured and
planned questions in an appropriate way to collect the
most accurate data regarding the application of SISP at
STC.
B. Finding
The company implements emerging technologies, has
succeeded in serving millions of calls every day and has
created favourable revenue trends for the company. The
company reviews its SISP strategy through emphasizing
customer satisfaction as a critical objective. SISP offers
the company improved business processes, increased
customer satisfaction and an enhanced effectiveness of the
business processes. The Saudi Telecommunications
Company (STC) applies SISP strategies to increase its
international operations and customer satisfaction and to
help the company to offer its convergence solutions to all
centres across the globe. In effect, the technical team and
sales personnel can share problems and solutions. Mr
Moushiqeh indicated that STC is currently focusing on
internal processes. The aim is to be recognized as a
leading information and communications technology
provider of comprehensive and innovative services and
solutions, to earn the trust of customers and to enrich the
community. Thus, it has highlighted some aspects, such as
being customer first and innovative, leading with agility,
building trust and being one STC team. Furthermore, Mr
Moushiqeh mentioned that STC currently focuses on KSA
only rather than focusing internationally through the
development of a Lead Strategy. This strategy makes the
company focus on collective energies and efforts to
exploit emerging opportunities while also enabling it to
manage future challenges. It depends on six major aspects
that are important to the company:
Leadership in providing a new generation of broadband
services by making the company the first choice for
broadband services by providing content, innovative
applications and integrated services and access to these
services in multiple ways,
Excellence in customer service by meeting customer
expectations to provide integrated experiences offering
featured and innovative services designed specifically
for customers,
Promoting international leadership to increase the
international investment portfolio and to expand in the
Middle East and North Africa and achieving synergies
and integration among the products and services,
technology and the supply chain with the construction
of distinct capabilities to manage international
operations,
Investment of human capital in leadership development
and promising talent, raising the level of professional
association of the staff and building an institutional and
successful work culture with an attractive environment,
Enhancing the flexibility of financial performance to
optimize shareholder value and the continued
enhancement of financial performance and the efficient
use of resources and investment to ensure profitable
growth over the long term,
Consolidate the leading position attribute and the
leading feature of the company through effective
communication with key beneficiaries highlighting the
high value of the company and its leading role in
economic and social development and status,
An online survey was distributed to STC employees in
order to examine the knowledge of the employees in the
organization regarding the strategic information system
planning of the company. The survey was taken by 75
employees from different levels, including MIS managers,
top managers, call centre employees, system analysts,
programmers, consultants and computer operations
personnel. The result of each question of the survey is
discussed below:
MIS managers
□ Top managers
□ Non-MIS managers
□ System analysts
□ Programmers
□ Consultants
□ Computer operations personnel
MIS managers
□ Top managers
□ Non-MIS managers
□ System analysts
□ Programmers
□ Consultants
□ Computer operations personnel
The employees were asked if they believe that the top
management are supporting the planning effort, and the
result shows that most of the employees agree while
only 4% disagree,
Fig 2: The presence of support from top management of
the planning efforts in STC
The participants were asked if they felt that the
company is hiring qualified people who are able to do the
required job, and the results are as shown below,
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Fig 3: The ability of STC to recruit qualified staff
According to the above results, more than 90% of the
participants agree that the company is hiring the right staff
for the job. However, as shown in the result above, there
may be a misuse of human resources in some areas of the
company. In effect, some of the people responsible for
implementation of SISP at STC might be failing to play
their part.
The participants were asked if they believed that the
information system strategy in STC is clear enough to
guide the planning effort. The results are as shown,
Fig 4: The information system strategy in STC is clear
enough to guide the planning effort
According to the employees' response, around 7% of the
employees did not have any knowledge about the strategic
plan of the company.
The survey also sought to establish what the
participants thought about STC expecting possible
changes in the field of information technology and
environmental changes, which may affect the strategic IS
planning process,
Fig 5: The ability of STC to expect possible changes in the
field of information technology and environmental
changes
According to the data above, more than 90% of the
employees believed that the organization expected
possible changes in IT, which may affect the IS planning
process.
The employees were asked if they believe that STC
is having free communication and a commitment to
change the thought of the organization. The employees’
response to this question shows a good level of flexibility
regarding the company’s ability to adapt change, with
more 89.33% agreeing.
Fig 6: STC has a free connection and its commitment to
change the thought of the organization
When asked if the company STC invests enough
"front end" time to ensure that all planning tasks and
responsibilities of the individual were understood, the
participant responded as shown in the graph below.
Fig 7: the ability of STC to invest enough "front end" time
to ensure that all planning tasks and responsibilities of the
individual are understood
The employee were asked if the company STC has
clear, concise, and formal planning procedures. The
responses are shown below.
Fig 8: STC has clear, concise and formal planning
procedures
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The employees were asked if the company STC
decides on the appropriate planning horizon.
Fig 9: The ability of STC to decide on the appropriate
planning horizon
The company STC is taking into account the people
and politics side of strategic information system planning.
Fig 10: The ability of STC to take into account the people
and politics side of strategic information system planning
C. Discussion/Analysis
As shown above, the preparation and administration of the
questionnaire was followed by a process of selecting an
adequate statistical test for examining the usefulness of
SISP. The selected test is simple and robust enough to
meet the objectives of the survey.
As a result, the study indicates that the ability of STC to
recruit qualified staff represented the main factor for the
success of SISP. As for the ability of STC to expect
possible changes in the field of information technology
and environmental changes that may impact the SISP
process, STC has a free connection and its commitment to
change the thought of the organization and the ability of
STC to invest enough "front end" time to ensure that all
planning tasks and responsibilities of the individual are
understood rank second for the success factor of SISP. The
presence of support from top management of the planning
efforts ranks third for the success factor of SISP. The
information system strategy in STC is clear enough to
guide the planning effort and STC has clear, concise and
formal planning procedures rank forth for the success
factor of SISP. The ability of STC to decide on the
appropriate planning horizon and to take into account the
people and politics side of strategic information system
planning ranks last.
The responses of the questionnaire and survey that were
conducted regarding the practice of the SISP in STC
confirmed that the practice of the SISP process in STC
leads to its success. Though senior management plays a
very important role in strategic planning, we expect the
participation of information system management to add a
significant value to SISP.
As discussed earlier, SISP phases can be deployed to an
STC IT Service Company. There is a link between
business strategic planning and development and the
implementation of strategic initiatives. The company’s
strategy is developed to focus on collective energy and
efforts in capturing emerging opportunities while
managing overall challenges.
STC Information System Assessment involves evaluating
the system to assess the status or current information
systems resources in terms of current or original
expectations and how they are serving the organization.
The process involves assessing the current applications,
current data collections, current information technology
and short-term IS improvement plan. Furthermore, the
process of measuring the benefits and costs of information
systems is often the cause of uncertainties about the
expected impact of the system. Thus, decision makers face
this challenge without the use of SISP.
STC has developed the ideal role that should be pursued
for the use of information systems resources. This is the
information systems vision. STC wants to be recognized
as the ICT leader in providing comprehensive innovative
services and solutions while enriching society and earning
customer trust. The company has developed information
system guidelines that clarify the use of STC’s technical
and information systems resources.
The importance of SISP in STC is helping the company
achieve its bottom line. The solution helps STC track
competition and latest global trends and brings the best
ideas to the market for mobile communications, landlines,
the Internet and other services offered by the company.
In the long term, STC’s SISP has evolved in style and
method on the basis that it emphasizes the need to bring IT
to align and influence the company’s strategic direction.
STC has gained a recognized relevance in terms of
competitiveness because of SISP. The degree to which the
strategic direction of telecommunication services and
products aligns with IT influences the competitiveness of
STC. After analysing the data, we found out that the
employees' awareness of the company’s strategic plan is at
a good level. This gives the company an advantage of
employee loyalty and employees become part of the
company’s improvement and growth; this was the
objective of conducting the survey.
V. CONCLUSION
Improving SISP is a critical issue for organizations today.
Successful planning is vital to the success and realization
of the potential strategic impact of an IT/IS system. SISP
planning should be done in alignment with the business
planning in an organization. Firms should institutionalize a
formal top-down planning process in the SISP strategy.
The process links the information systems strategy with a
business’s planning and needs. Finally, a survey was
conducted for STC employees; the result of the survey
shows that most of the employees have a clear
understanding of the company’s SISP and that they are, to
some extent, adapted to it. Even though the company
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reached a good level of employee knowledge about SISP,
still they need to enhance this knowledge to reach all
employees.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to thank King Abdulaziz
University, which offered all the required support and
resources through the Saudi Digital Library (SDL).
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    Kementerian Perhubungan (Kemenhub) merupakan institusi dibawah pengawasan Menteri Perhubungan Berdasarkan hasil observas, Kepala Pusat Data dan Informasi (Kapusdatin) menyampaikan bahwa berbagai infrastruktur dasar berupa jaringan komputer dan pembangunan aplikasi untuk penunjang kegiatan telah dikembangkan namun dalam pengembangannya dilaksanakan secara sendiri-sendiri oleh setiap unit kerja di lingkungan Kemenhub sesuai dengan keperluan mereka sendiri, sehingga permasalahan yang terjadi adalah sistem informasi berdiri sendiri-sendiri dan sulit untuk diitegrasikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyelesaikan salah satu domain akar permasalahan yaitu belum adanya kajian atau acuan yang memuat tentang perencanaan strategis sistem informasi khususnya untuk tahapan pendahuluan yaitu analisis As-Is yang membahas kondisi saat ini baik itu bisnis maupun SI/TI. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu ward-peppard dimana metode ini sudah umum untuk digunakan dan memuat banyak tools yang bisa dimanfaatkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa masih banyak permasalahan baik untuk lingkungan bisnis dan SI/TI. Berbagai permasalahan tersebut dapat menjadi input bagi proses selanjutnya yaitu perumusan strategi dan rekomendasi hingga menjadi roadmap.
    • A H Segars
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    Segars, A.H., Grover, V., & Teng, J.T.C. (1998). Strategic Information Systems Planning: Planning System Dimensions, Internal Coalignment, and Implications for Planning Effectiveness. Decision Sciences, 29(2,), 303-345.
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    Servicefutures (2015). Four key elements of a service delivery system. http://servicefutures.com/service-management/four-keyelements-service-delivery-system, accessed 23 February 2016.
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    Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) is an important activity for helping organization to identify strategic applications and to align an organization's strategy with effective information systems to achieve organization's objectives. Today, improved strategic information systems planning is the most critical issue facing information systems. Strategic information systems planning plays a major role that makes huge contributions to businesses and other organizations. In this paper, an overview of Strategic Information Systems Planning including its importance, stages, and success are presented.
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    This paper reports a study into the relationship between the configuration of the process of Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) and the success of SISP. SISP is an important activity in the alignment of information technology systems and services to business requirements. However, despite the obvious importance of a proper planning of information technology and information systems in organizations, success of SISP is not evident. And as the success of SISP is also influenced by the process followed in developing the SISP, the research question for this study was, " How does the configuration of the SISP process influence the success of the SISP? " Based on an explorative multi case study, we concluded that the specificity and comprehensiveness of strategies, goals and decisions in an organization has a positive effect on the success of SISP. Another conclusion was that a more dominant role of the IS/IT organization in the SISP process influences the quality of the SISP deliverable positively, but has a negative effect on the building of partnership between business and IT in the organization. A final conclusion was that following a formal SISP methodology does not seem to have an effect on the success of SISP. These findings provide guidance for practitioners that plan to develop an SISP as part of their efforts to align business and IT.
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